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Sample records for kanosei chi kansuru

  1. Tai Chi Chuan.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1981-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan, a mind-body relaxation exercise, was devised by Chang San Feng for meditation and self-defense in the thirteenth century A.D. The 108 forms are performed in a slow relaxed manner, taking 30 minutes altogether. Practitioners of Tai Chi claim that it promotes health and cures certain illnesses but this has not been substantiated and therefore further research into its health benefits is warranted.

  2. Tai Chi for Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Teng, Fei; Li, Shengjie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Tai Chi for essential hypertension (EH). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until 20 April, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized trials testing Tai Chi versus routine care or antihypertensive drugs. Trials testing Tai Chi combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were also included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 18 trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was low. 14 trials compared Tai Chi with routine care. 1 trial compared Tai Chi with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis all showed significant effect of TaiChi in lowering blood pressure (BP). 3 trials compared Tai Chi plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Positive results in BP were found in the other 2 combination groups. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of Tai Chi is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is some encouraging evidence of Tai Chi for EH. However, due to poor methodological quality of included studies, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm the evidence. PMID:23986780

  3. chi Cygnids observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    The chi Cygnids (IAU MDC code: 00757 CCY) are a new meteor shower reported by Green (2015) green15 in 2015 September. I find members of the chi Cygnids in the 2015 data of the Japanese TV meteor observing network the `SonotaCo network'. Additionally a few meteors from this shower were observed in 2010.

  4. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1993-11-01

    A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

  5. Tai Chi and Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Many patients with chronic rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and negative emotions and have limited therapeutic options. Tai Chi is a complex multi-component mind-body exercise that increasing numbers of Americans are practicing, particularly those with musculoskeletal conditions. Clinical trials and observational studies have provided encouraging evidence that Tai Chi, both short and long-term, has benefits for patients with a variety of chronic disorders. As a form of physical exercise, Tai Chi enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress, anxiety and depression as well as improved quality of life. Thus, despite the noted limitations in the evidence, and the need for further methodologically rigorous studies, Tai Chi can be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about this ancient Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients. PMID:21220083

  6. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  7. Tai-Chi Chuan; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    The exercises and basic movements of Tai-chi Chuan, one form of the Chinese martial arts, are described and illustrated (through photographs) in this teaching guide. Chinese terms used in the text are defined, the benefits of Tai-chi Chuan are discussed, and background information concerning the history of Chinese martial arts and Tai-chi Chuan is…

  8. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  9. Chi Enhances Heteroduplex DNA Levels during Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Holbeck, S. L.; Smith, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    The major pathway of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, the RecBCD pathway, is stimulated by Chi sites. To determine whether Chi enhances an early or late step in recombination, we measured formation of heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) in extracts of lambda-infected E. coli. Chi elevated hDNA levels in these extracts, supporting a role for Chi early (before hDNA formation) in recombination. RecA protein and RecBCD enzyme were both necessary for detection of hDNA, indicating that they, too, act early. Analysis of a panel of recBCD mutants indicated that Chi-nicking activity was needed for Chi's stimulation of hDNA formation. These results support a previously proposed model of recombination. Further results suggested that RecBCD enzyme has an additional role late in recombination. PMID:1459441

  10. RecBCD Enzyme "Chi Recognition" Mutants Recognize Chi Recombination Hotspots in the Right DNA Context.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Susan K; Sharp, Jake W; Smith, Gerald R

    2016-09-01

    RecBCD enzyme is a complex, three-subunit protein machine essential for the major pathway of DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination in Escherichia coli Upon encountering a Chi recombination-hotspot during DNA unwinding, RecBCD nicks DNA to produce a single-stranded DNA end onto which it loads RecA protein. Conformational changes that regulate RecBCD's helicase and nuclease activities are induced upon its interaction with Chi, defined historically as 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Chi is thought to be recognized as single-stranded DNA passing through a tunnel in RecC. To define the Chi recognition-domain in RecC and thus the mechanism of the RecBCD-Chi interaction, we altered by random mutagenesis eight RecC amino acids lining the tunnel. We screened for loss of Chi activity with Chi at one site in bacteriophage λ. The 25 recC mutants analyzed thoroughly had undetectable or strongly reduced Chi-hotspot activity with previously reported Chi sites. Remarkably, most of these mutants had readily detectable, and some nearly wild-type, activity with Chi at newly generated Chi sites. Like wild-type RecBCD, these mutants had Chi activity that responded dramatically (up to fivefold, equivalent to Chi's hotspot activity) to nucleotide changes flanking 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Thus, these and previously published RecC mutants thought to be Chi-recognition mutants are actually Chi context-dependence mutants. Our results fundamentally alter the view that Chi is a simple 8-bp sequence recognized by the RecC tunnel. We propose that Chi hotspots have dual nucleotide sequence interactions, with both the RecC tunnel and the RecB nuclease domain.

  11. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  12. Tai Chi Practice in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Lois J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined psychological effects of Tai Chi class for fourth to sixth graders. After pretesting, randomly assigned students to experimental group of 12-week Tai Chi program or comparison group following usual school routines. Found that experimental group did not demonstrate improved perceived self-competence, visual-motor integration, or reduced…

  13. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  14. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert Cameron; Lee, Hye Young; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr.; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matthew James; Ullmann, John Leonard; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Jandel, Marian; Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael Evan; White, Morgan Curtis; Wu, Ching-Yen; Bucher, Brian Michael; Buckner, Matthew Quinn; Henderson, Roger Alan

    2015-09-18

    This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

  15. Why the CHI Community Should be Involved in Standards: Stories from Three CHI Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Arnie; Scholtz, Jean; Bevan, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the three authors tell their stories about involvement in standards that are relevant to the computer human interaction community(CHI). Their reasoning for being involved is given and readers are also given information about different organizations that develop standards relevant to CHI.

  16. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Chi Yuan graduated from the National Taiwan University in1959, and received his Masters of Science degree from the University of Florida in 1962, and his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Michigan in 1966. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Professor C.C. Lin at MIT for three years, before taking his faculty post at the City College of New York in 1969. He attained full professorship at CCNY in 1981. From 1994-1996, Chi returned to Taiwan as Director of the newly found Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). From 1997-2002, he was the recipient of an Outstanding Scholar Award, reserved for the most distinguished scientists employed in Taiwan. Chi retired from ASIAA in 2007, but continued to be active in his research during his two-year fight with brain cancer. Chi Yuan made his greatest impact with his work on the density-wave theory for spiral arm structures in galaxies, with C.C. Lin and Frank Shu. His early work elucidated the observational tests of density-wave theory, and the effects of magnetic fields in galactic shocks. In the 1980s, Chi Yuan worked on spiral density waves in Saturn's rings. In the past two decades, Chi Yuan concentrated on the problem of barred and spiral structures in the nuclei of galaxies, with their implications for fueling the central supermassive black holes. He also worked on the problem of the migration of giant extrasolar planets in their solar disks. These studies were made possible by his establishment of a program on computational fluid dynamics, which became one of the key initiatives in theory at the ASIAA. Among his academic records, two contributions are particularly notable. First, with Typhoon Lee, Fred Lo, and Frank Shu, Chi Yuan founded the ASIAA in order to stimulate the growth of astronomy in Taiwan. Second, and perhaps his greatest influence, has been his training and mentoring of a great number of students in astrophysics, especially for the last 20 years in Taiwan. Today, astronomy

  17. The coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1994-03-01

    A wiggler design has been developed which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. FEL configurations using this wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are discussed.

  18. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52-65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2-L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2-L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2-L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi.

  19. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  20. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52-65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2-L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2-L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2-L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  1. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  2. Chi Mutation in a Transposon and the Orientation-Dependence of Chi Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yagil, Ezra; Dower, Nancy A.; Chattoraj, Dhruba; Stahl, Mary; Pierson, Carey; Stahl, Franklin W.

    1980-01-01

    Chi, an element that stimulates recombination via the E. coli RecBC pathway, can arise by spontaneous mutation in the transposon Tn5. When in phage λ in one orientation, the mutant transposon confers Chi+ phenotype (large plaque and a high rate of exchange near the transposon). In the other orientation, however, the transposon does not confer Chi+ phenotype. The mobility of the transposon allows us to show that the Chi+ orientation of the mutant Tn5 is the same at different locations in λ. These include a site near gene J, one in gam at 69, one to the right of gam at 73 and several to the right of R between 95.7 and 99.5. To the right of R, the mutant transposon could be found in only one orientation, that which confers Chi+ phenotype. We speculate that the other orientation of Tn5 in that locale is lethal to λ. The orientation-dependence of Chi+ phenotype also revealed that Tn5 flip-flops in λ. PMID:6259016

  3. CHI/HCHI. CLOS-HTML Interface and HTML-CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1997-05-01

    Fully automated compositional objectification of HTML constructs. CHI-HCHI is an engineering toolbox that enables application developers to build and operate applications that use the WEB as a user interface by means of a transparent, dynamic, and automatic process. CHI stands for CLOS to HTML Interface. Its primary function is to convert Common Lisp Objects into HTML. HCHI automatically translated HTML documents into part-whole hierarchies of objects and thus provides a compositional model of the page. Upon converting a page with HCHI, the software developer has an object factory that builds objects in the developer`s language.

  4. [Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and mental health].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ohira, Masako; Toda, Masahiro; Den, Rei; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Tai Chi, which is one of the Chinese traditional martial arts, has been receiving attention. The main feature of Tai Chi is its flowing movements including loosening up, relaxing, and practicing meditation with slow abdominal respiration. Tai Chi is widely taken as part of health-promotion activities or rehabilitation training, and significant mental and physical effects have been reported so far. In this review report, Tai Chi was confirmed to be beneficial not only as a rehabilitation training for old people or patients with various diseases but also as an exercise for healthy people. These findings suggest the potential of Tai Chi as a complementary and alternative therapy.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Coseismic and Postseismic Hydrologic Processes of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Wang, C.; Kao, H.; Wolf, L. W.

    2001-12-01

    We use integrated crustal deformation and transient fluid flow modeling techniques to investigate the theoretical response of crustal fluids to the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.5). Comparison of background groundwater level and chemistry data with new data collected from the Chi-Chi sequence reveals the pattern and magnitude of seismically-induced hydrologic changes. For the first time direct field evidence from stable isotope data shows that seismic faulting causes significant mixing of either surface water with groundwater, or groundwater with groundwater in alluvial aquifers. Our modeling results suggest that thrust faulting could create a near-surface dilatational stress on the footwall side of the thrust fault. This coseismic strain could explain more than 10 meters groundwater level drops and downward migration of isotopic-light surface water into the unconfined aquifers observed near the rupture front. The coseismic strain model, however, contradicts positive coseismic water-level changes observed in the confined alluvial aquifers, located also in a dilatational environment away from the fault. The seismic shaking model that considers compaction of unconsolidated sediments may better account for the rising pore pressure in the distal aquifers. In addition, we quantify the volumetric strain and transient pore pressure changes produced by slip along the main thrust fault and a deeper subparallel seismic zone. Our findings indicate a striking spatial correlation between the predicted dilatational zones and occurrence of two largest aftershock groups that lie to the east of main thrust. In contrast, very few aftershocks are observed within the predicted compressional zones. After the mainshock, pore pressures increase in dilatational zones in response to the diffusion process. Such postseismic pore pressure adjustment may increase fault instability within the dilatational parts of hanging walls associated with the main fault (9-12 km) and a deeper

  6. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 × 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged Swave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  8. Pollen- and anther-specific chi promoters from petunia: tandem promoter regulation of the chiA gene.

    PubMed

    van Tunen, A J; Mur, L A; Brouns, G S; Rienstra, J D; Koes, R E; Mol, J N

    1990-05-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal activities of chalcone flavanone isomerase (chi) A and B gene promoters from petunia. To study the tandem promoter regulation of chiA, various chiA promoter fragments were fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of transgenic plants containing these chimeric genes provided definitive proof that the chiA coding region is regulated by two distinct promoters (designated PA1 and PA2). We also showed that both promoters can function independently and that the chiA PA1 promoter is expressed in limb (epidermal and parenchyma cells), tube (inner epidermal and parenchyma cells), seed (seed coat, endosperm, and embryo), sepal, leaf, and stem. The use of chiA and chiB promoters in the regulation of anther- and pollen-specific gene expression has been studied. By analyzing transgenic plants containing chimeric genes consisting of chiA and B promoter fragments and the GUS reporter gene, we were able to identify a 0.44-kilobase chiA PA2 promoter fragment that drives pollen-specific gene expression and a 1.75-kilobase chiB PB promoter fragment that confers anther-specific (pollen and tapetum cells) expression to the GUS gene.

  9. The Chi-Chi Earthquake and the Seismic Cycle Associated with Mountain Building in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    avouac, j; avouac, j; dominguez, s; Michel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Co-seismic deformation due to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Mw=7.6, was measured from SPOT satellite images in combination to available co-seismic GPS data. Surface ruptures clearly show off in the measured horizontal displacement field allowing for a detailed cartography and measurement of co-seismic slip along the fault trace. The strike-perpendicular component varies smoothly and indicates 4-5 m thrust on average. The strike-parallel component of about 3-4 m to the south, near the epicenter, gradually increases northward to reach about 7-8 m. This pattern is associated with a general clockwise deviation of surface displacements to the north. Displacements and strain are much larger in the hanging wall than in the footwall. The zone of large co-seismic surface displacement fall within the Sun Moon Lake seismic gap and is bounded to the east by the range front where intense micro-seismic activity was taking place before the earthquake. Co-seismic deformation was modelled using elastic dislocations. The fault geometry was constrained from structural geology. Its geometry and the slip distribution were adjusted to fit both horizontal surface displacements measured from SPOT and vertical displacements measured from GPS. The fault plane makes shallow 20-35o east dipping ramp and roots into a décollement at a depth of 6 to 8 km. The data are satisfactorily adjusted, assuming a nearly constant slip azimuth on the main fault plane close to the azimuth of plate convergence (N305oE +/-5o) and with most of the co-seismic slip being confined (near the surface) on the shallow ramp. The northward rotation of displacements are well reproduced from the model and thus appear to be an edge effect due to oblique direction of thrusting and to the eastward bend of the fault trace at its northern end. Based on these data, we suggest that the model proposed for the Himalaya of Nepal also apply to some extent to the central range of Taiwan. In the inter-seismic period, aseismic shear

  10. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards.

  11. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  12. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  13. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications.

  14. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  15. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wong, May-Kuen; Lai, Jin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD. PMID:24348732

  16. Tai chi and meditation: A conceptual (re)synthesis?

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Jacques, Samantha

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on Tai Chi and meditation. A coherent construct is developed that includes a comparative analysis and conceptual synthesis of existing theories. The authors discuss a set of assumptions that justify this synthesis; they also argue that this construct would facilitate greater understanding of Tai Chi from the perspective of meditation. Such synthesis may bring "additional" benefits to Tai Chi practitioners as they could recognize that this mind-body technique holds the essence of meditation. Within the scope of this article, the evidence shows a majority of common features when concerning Tai Chi and meditation. These mutual similarities should be taken into account when performing this type of mind-body medicine by patients and/or therapists. Finally, the authors suggest that this inspiring compilation of movements and mindfulness can be used for practical purposes.

  17. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 3 — The contemporary tai-chi diagram, the yuan-chi diagram and the Fu Xi's eight trigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes in a rotating device presented in parts 1 and 2 is further developed for the contemporary tai-chi diagram and in the yuan-chi diagram. The contemporary tai-chi diagram shown in Fig.1 is a simplification form of the ancient tai-chi diagram presented in Reference [2]. There are two semi-circles forming the interface curve between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram. By knowing the location of the interface between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram, the requirement for the simulation model is to find the condition to match the interface location. The simplification changes not only the structure but also the physical insight of the ancient tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the present study. The yuan-chi diagram shown in Fig.2 is the combination of the Master Chen’s tai-chi diagram presented in References [1,2] and the contemporary tai-chi diagram. The formulation of the yuan-chi diagram is similar to that of contemporary tai-chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s eight trigrams present three levels of yin-yang relation that are a natural result from the contemporary tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the last part of this study.

  18. Propagation dynamics of controlled cross-talk via interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Paul S.; Welch, George R.; Gord, James R.; Patnaik, Anil K.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the propagation dynamics of a nonlinear cross-talk effect between two probe channels in a double-ladder system and show that an interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes leads to the control of cross-talk. We derive analytical solutions to describe the propagation dynamics of the probe fields with the cross-talk effect built in. From the analytical results we identify and examine the regimes of interest where contributions of either {chi}{sup (1)} or {chi}{sup (3)} or both are significant. The control of cross-talk is demonstrated experimentally, and good quantitative agreement is found between the analytical solutions and the experiment.

  19. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2–7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  20. Evolution of fault scarp knickpoints following 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in West-Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, L. S.; Stock, J. D.; Roering, J. J.; Kirchner, J. W.; Dietrich, W. E.; Chi, W.; Hsu, L.; Hsieh, M.; Tsao, S.; Chen, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in West-Central Taiwan caused vertical offset of 2-8 meters along the Chelungpu fault, creating numerous knickpoints on rivers draining the Western Foothills Range. This event offers an excellent opportunity to study the erosional mechanisms which control the style and rate of knickpoint migration and the role of sediment in mediating landscape response to tectonic forcing along fault boundaries. Here we report results from three field surveying campaigns four, 17 and 41 months after the coseismic surface rupture. We focus on seven channels spanning a range of offset magnitude, drainage area and degree of alluviation. Erosional response was rapid due to the weak underlying mudstone and several typhoons. Plunge pool scour and block toppling, the principal fluvial erosional processes which tend to preserve and translate the scarp morphology upstream, are enhanced by large vertical offset, low sediment load and wide joint spacing. In contrast, bedrock wear by bedload abrasion, hydraulic plucking and hydration fracturing result in scarp destruction by notching and upstream diffusion of the tectonic signal, and are favored by high sediment load, low vertical offset and weaker rock. The most rapid upstream propagation of the earthquake-induced pulse of accelerated bedrock erosion occurred on channels where a thin pre-rupture alluvial mantle was rapidly stripped for several hundred meters upstream exposing the bedrock to extensive wear. Alluvial stripping upstream of the knickpoints may be due to flow acceleration approaching the free fall over the scarp, and to a reduction in the effective friction angle as the wave of sediment removal sweeps upstream. In some cases, incision upstream of the scarps created narrow inner channels leaving behind remnants of the pre-rupture bedrock bed as nascent strath surfaces. Where alluvial cover thickness was equal or greater than scarp offset, knickpoints diffused symmetrically by progradation of a

  1. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  2. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world.

  3. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  4. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease. PMID:1399544

  5. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Cole, Aimee R; Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-05-01

    Tai Chi is a callisthenic exercise form that incorporates aerobic exercise with diaphragmatic breathing. These two aspects alone have been shown to enhance the heart rate variability, warranting research into the effects of Tai Chi on autonomic nervous system modulation and heart rate variability. A low heart rate variability has been shown to be indicative of compromised health. Any methods to enhance the heart rate variability, in particular, non-pharmacological methods, are therefore seen as beneficial to health and are sought after. The aim of this review was to comprehensively summarize the currently published studies regarding the effects of Tai Chi on heart rate variability. Both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented and discussed, and an overall conclusion attained which could benefit future clinical studies.

  6. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease.

  7. Confirmation of the chi Cygnids (CCY, IAU#757)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Tóth, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present independent confirmation of the existence of the chi Cygnid (CCY, IAU#757) meteor shower. The chi Cygnids were discovered by Peter Jenniskens within the frame of CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance). Thanks to the cooperation between European viDeo MeteOr Network (EDMONd), International Meteor Organization Video Meteor Network (IMO VMN) and the BRAzilian Meteor Observation Network (BRAMON) the current version of the EDMOND database (v5.02) contains 189 323 multi-station meteor orbits. This large data sample allowed confirmation of the increased activity from the chi Cygnid swarm during the night of 2015 September 14/15, and also made it possible to map the activity of this newly discovered swarm during the years 2001-2014.

  8. Potentiation of the synergistic activities of chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC from Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2 by chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Dunn, Michael F; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela; Guillén-Navarro, Karina

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the chitinolytic mechanism of the potential biological control strain Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2, genes encoding chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC, chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP) were cloned, the protein products overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 6His-Sumo fusion proteins and purified by affinity chromatography. Following affinity tag removal, the chitinolytic activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated individually and in combination using colloidal chitin as substrate. ChiB and ChiC were highly active while ChiA was inactive. Reactions containing both ChiB and ChiC showed significantly increased N-acetylglucosamine trimer and dimer formation, but decreased monomer formation, compared to reactions with either enzyme alone. This suggests that while both ChiB and ChiC have a general affinity for the same substrate, they attack different sites and together degrade chitin more efficiently than either enzyme separately. Chb and CBP in combination with ChiB and ChiC (individually or together) increased their chitinase activity. We report for the first time the potentiating effect of Chb on the activity of the chitinases and the synergistic activity of a mixture of all five proteins (the three chitinases, Chb and CBP). These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of the chitinases produced by strain CFFSUR-B2 and provide a molecular basis for its high potential as a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens.

  9. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  10. Earthquake mechanism studies by active-fault drilling: Chi-Chi Taiwan to Wenchuan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, T.; Shimamoto, T.; Ma, S.; Noda, H.; Hirose, T.; Tanikawa, W.

    2010-12-01

    Why drill into active faults? How can such big projects be justified to society? We believe that a very important task for such projects is to understand earthquake mechanisms, i.e., to reproduce big earthquakes just occurred based on measured fault-zone properties. Post-earthquake fault-zone drilling provides rare opportunities for seeing and analyzing fault zones with minimum changes as “RAPID” group summarized its merits. Shallow and deep drilling into Chelungpu fault, that caused the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake, has demonstrated that reproducing an earthquake based on measured properties is becoming possible (Tanikawa and Shimamoto, 2009, JGR; Noda and Lapusta, 2009, JpGU). Another important outcome from Chelungpu drilling is finding of numerous changes in a fault zone during seismic fault motion (e.g., decomposition due to frictional heating), as highlighted by “black gouge” (many papers). Those changes can be reproduced now by high-velocity friction experiments. No so long ago, a renown geologist expressed his feeling that faults will not preserve a record of seismic slip, except for pseudotachylite (Cowan, 1999, JSG). In other words, seismic slip is of such a short duration that important changes, other than shearing deformation, will not occur in fault zones. Nojima and Chelungpu drilling has shown that this is not the case. On the other hand, seismic fault motion has been reproduced in laboratory for the last twenty years, demonstrating dramatic weakening of many natural fault gouges. We report here a set of data using fault gouge from Hongkou outcrop of Longmenshan fault system, very close to the first drilling site, under a constant slip rate and variable slip histories. Slip and velocity weakening behavior depends on slip history and can be described by an empirical equation. Importance of such experiments can be justified only by confirmation that the same processes indeed occur in natural fault zones. Integrated field and laboratory studies

  11. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  12. The Fast Chi-Squared Period Search For Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    I present the Fast Chi-Squared method for detecting periodicity in variable sources. This algorithm uses the full statistical power available in the data set to find the optimal fit to a periodic function with an arbitrary number of Fourier components. It automatically compensates for non-uniform errors, sampling periodicity, sampling aperiodicity, and windowing. The result is a statistically meaningful (chi-squared) periodicity detection strength as an arbitrarily dense function of frequency. The algorithm is FFT based, running in order O(N log N) time, and allows large data sets over long time intervals to be trawled with high frequency resolution in a practical amount of CPU time.

  13. Functional benefits of Tai Chi training within senior housing facilities

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brad; Lough, Matt; Gagnon, Margaret M; Cupples, Adrienne; Wayne, Peter M; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects of Tai Chi training on functional performance and walking with and without performance of a cognitive task, in adults of advanced age living within supportive housing facilities. Design Secondary data analysis of a single-blind, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi training versus an attention-matched educational control intervention with cross-over to Tai Chi. Setting Two supportive housing facilities. Participants Sixty-six men and women living in supportive housing facilities entered the study. Fifty-seven participants aged 87±7 years completed all study procedures. Intervention Interventions consisted of two, one-hour, instructor-led group sessions/week for 12 weeks. Tai Chi training consisted of movements based upon the Yang-style short form. Educational sessions consisted of lectures and discussions of age-related health topics. Measurements Subjects were tested for physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB), balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), mobility (timed up-and-go, TUG), and walking speed under normal and cognitive dual task conditions. Results The Tai Chi group exhibited greater (p=0.005) improvement in SPPB scores (baseline=8.1±2.9, follow-up=9.0±2.6) compared to controls (baseline=8.2±2.6, follow-up=8.2±2.6). Tai Chi also increased normal and dual task walking speeds (p<0.001), yet did not affect BBS (p=0.02) or TUG (p=0.02) after accounting for multiple comparisons. The dual task cost (i.e., percent change) to walking speed was unaffected. Following the cross-over Tai Chi intervention, the control group improved performance in the SPPB, BBS, and TUG, and increased walking speed under normal and dual task conditions (p<0.008). Conclusion Tai Chi training may be a safe and effective therapy to help improve physical function and dual task walking in very old adults living within supportive housing facilities. PMID:25116984

  14. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  15. Dynamic Triggering of Microearthquakes by P- and S-waves from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. D.; Sammis, C. G.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    High-frequency band-pass filtering of acceleration records from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw = 7.5) resolves the continuous signal into a series of relatively short duration discrete energy bursts. We hypothesize that these bursts originate at small shallow events near the individual stations that have been dynamically triggered by the P- and S-waves emanating from the Chi-Chi mainshock. Bursts are observed only during the seismic signal and not in the noise before or after. We show that the bursts are not due to band- pass filtering of instrumentally generated step functions. Our local event hypothesis is supported by the observations of bursts up to 170km from the epicenter. If the bursts originated on the Chi-Chi fault plane, as originally hypothesized by Chen et al. [2006], then they should not be observable at this distance for any reasonable value of crustal attenuation. Moment magnititude calculations for three of the largest amplitude bursts without any distance correction gives Mw = 1.5 1.9, providing a reasonable estimate of event sizes. By observing which of the 200 stations on Taiwan recorded bursts and which did not, we determined that the stresses threshold for triggering is in the range of 10-20 gals for P-wave and 40-100 gals for S-waves. Comparison of these thresholds with those determined for surface waves [Hill et al. (1993), Brodsky et al. (2000), Miyazawa & Mori (2006)] and earth tides [Wilcock (2001), Cochran et al. (2004)] finds that the threshold stress scales as the inverse square root of the wavelength of the dynamic trigger. This scaling is reminiscent of the scaling of the strength of a laboratory sample with the square root of its size, and suggests a similar relation between the wavelength of the dynamic stress and the size of the local events that can be triggered.

  16. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  17. Principles and Practice of Scaled Difference Chi-Square Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; Satorra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We highlight critical conceptual and statistical issues and how to resolve them in conducting Satorra-Bentler (SB) scaled difference chi-square tests. Concerning the original (Satorra & Bentler, 2001) and new (Satorra & Bentler, 2010) scaled difference tests, a fundamental difference exists in how to compute properly a model's scaling correction…

  18. Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Pei; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Li, Zongheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and imposes a huge burden and significant workload for patients, their families and society. As a special form of physical activity, Tai Chi is may be useful for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of the following electronic databases from their inception to 31 October 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang and the Chinese Dissertation Database. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English and Chinese will be included. The main outcomes will be changes in the neurological function of patients and in independence in activities of daily living. Adverse events, adherence, costs and the cost effectiveness of Tai Chi will also be assessed. Two independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess quality. Review Manager 5.3 will be used for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require formal ethical approval because all data will be analysed anonymously. Results will provide a general overview and evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42015026999. PMID:27311906

  19. The Tai-chi: A Model for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; Cheng, Yeong-Jing

    1987-01-01

    Examines the utility of the ancient Chinese concept of Tai-chi as a model for interpreting complex contemporary issues in science education. Describes the model and suggests how it can be useful in understanding scientific phenomena and in guiding instruction. (ML)

  20. Normal versus Noncentral Chi-Square Asymptotics of Misspecified Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, So Yeon; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The noncentral chi-square approximation of the distribution of the likelihood ratio (LR) test statistic is a critical part of the methodology in structural equation modeling. Recently, it was argued by some authors that in certain situations normal distributions may give a better approximation of the distribution of the LR test statistic. The main…

  1. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I. PMID:26044931

  2. Cloning of the Aegiceras corniculatum class I chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and the response of AcCHI I mRNA expression to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yeok, Foong Swee

    2015-10-01

    Chitinases in terrestrial plants have been reported these are involved in heavy metal tolerance/detoxification. This is the first attempt to reveal chitinase gene (AcCHI I) and its function on metal detoxification in mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum. RT-PCR and RACE techniques were used to clone AcCHI I, while real-time quantitative PCR was employed to assess AcCHI I mRNA expressions in response to Cadmium (Cd). The deduced AcCHI I protein consists of 316 amino acids, including a signal peptide region, a chitin-binding domain (CBD) and a catalytic domain. Protein homology modeling was performed to identify potential features in AcCHI I. The CBD structure of AcCHI I might be critical for metal tolerance/homeostasis of the plant. Clear tissue-specific differences in AcCHI I expression were detected, with higher transcript levels detected in leaves. Results demonstrated that a short duration of Cd exposure (e.g., 3 days) promoted AcCHI I expression in roots. Upregulated expression was also detected in leaves under 10 mg/kg Cd concentration stress. The present study demonstrates that AcCHI I may play an important role in Cd tolerance/homeostasis in the plant. Further studies of the AcCHI I protein, gene overexpression, the promoter and upstream regulation will be necessary for clarifying the functions of AcCHI I.

  3. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  4. Two-color holography concept (T-CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Caulfield, H. J.; Workman, G. L.; Trolinger, J. D.; Wood, C. P.; Clark, R. L.; Kathman, A. D.; Ruggiero, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Material Processing in the Space Program of NASA-MSFC was active in developing numerous optical techniques for the characterization of fluids in the vicinity of various materials during crystallization and/or solidification. Two-color holographic interferometry demonstrates that temperature and concentration separation in transparent (T-CHI) model systems is possible. The experiments were performed for particular (succinonitrile) systems. Several solutions are possible in Microgravity Sciences and Applications (MSA) experiments on future Shuttle missions. The theory of the T-CHI concept is evaluated. Although particular cases are used for explanations, the concepts developed will be universal. A breadboard system design is also presented for ultimate fabrication and testing of theoretical findings. New developments in holography involving optical fibers and diode lasers are also incorporated.

  5. Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  6. Anomalous Magnetic Field Pulses, Ground Currents, and the Build-up of Stress prior to the Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. G.; Yen, H. Y.; Chen, H. C.; Takeuchi, A.; Lau, B. W.; Freund, F.

    2004-12-01

    Before the Sept. 21, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan and during the period of aftershocks local magnetic field anomalies (up to 200 nT) were recorded at two stations of the Taiwan magnetometer network. The magnetic pulses each lasted for several hours. They arrived in week-long bunches and extend over more than three months. Powerful ground currents are required to generate such strong local magnetic fields, in the order of 106 Amp at peak intensity. The seismic energy released by small earthquakes (earthmurmur) during the weeks before the main shock shows a similar time-dependent evolution, which correlates with the magnetic field anomalies. This suggests that the ground currents are generated when the regional stresses increase as signaled by an increase in the frequency of small earthquakes. We have measured in the laboratory the stress-induced electrical currents generated in igneous rocks (granite and anorthosite). Our experiments show that these rocks exhibit a battery-like behavior, i.e. they produce currents, which flow out of the stressed rock volume into the surrounding unstressed rock. The charge carriers are electronic and positively charged. They are believed to be positive holes (p-holes), i.e. defect electrons in the valence band of the otherwise insulating rocks. The number of outflowing charge carriers is in the order of 106 cm-3 of stressed rock. Scaling up to the dimensions of the Chi-Chi event and assuming that the compressed rock volume was 100 x 10 x 50 km3 (length of the surface rupture in the N-S direction x thickness x width in the E-W direction) we find that the number of charge carriers activated in such a large "source volume" would suffice to produce outflow currents in the order of 106 Amps over an extended period of time.

  7. Stress evolution following the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: Consequences for afterslip, relaxation, aftershocks and departures from Omori decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore how Coulomb stress transfer and viscoelastic relaxation control afterslip and aftershocks in a continental thrust fault system. The 1999 September 21 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi shock is typical of continental ramp-d??collement systems throughout the world, and so inferences drawn from this uniquely well-recorded event may be widely applicable. First, we find that the spatial and depth distribution of aftershocks and their focal mechanisms are consistent with the calculated Coulomb stress changes imparted by the coseismic rupture. Some 61 per cent of the M ??? 2 aftershocks and 83 per cent of the M ??? 4 aftershocks lie in regions for which the Coulomb stress increased by ???0.1 bars, and there is a 11-12 per cent gain in the percentage of aftershocks nodal planes on which the shear stress increased over the pre-Chi Chi control period. Second, we find that afterslip occurred where the calculated coseismic stress increased on the fault ramp and d??collement, subject to the condition that friction is high on the ramp and low on the d??collement. Third, viscoelastic relaxation is evident from the fit of the post-seismic GPS data on the footwall. Fourth, we find that the rate of seismicity began to increase during the post-seismic period in an annulus extending east of the main rupture. The spatial extent of the seismicity annulus resembles the calculated ???0.05-bar Coulomb stress increase caused by viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, and we find a 9-12 per cent gain in the percentage of focal mechanisms with >0.01-bar shear stress increases imparted by the post-seismic afterslip and relaxation in comparison to the control period. Thus, we argue that post-seismic stress changes can for the first time be shown to alter the production of aftershocks, as judged by their rate, spatial distribution, and focal mechanisms. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  8. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  9. Comparisons of ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article has the modest goal of comparing the ground motions recorded during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, mainshock with predictions from four empirical-based equations commonly used for western North America; these empirical predictions are largely based on data from California. Comparisons are made for peak acceleration and 5%-damped response spectra at periods between 0.1 and 4 sec. The general finding is that the Chi-Chi ground motions are smaller than those predicted from the empirically based equations for periods less than about 1 sec by factors averaging about 0.4 but as small as 0.26 (depending on period, on which equation is used, and on whether the sites are assumed to be rock or soil). There is a trend for the observed motions to approach or even exceed the predicted motions for longer periods. Motions at similar distances (30-60 km) to the east and to the west of the fault differ dramatically at periods between about 2 and 20 sec: Long-duration wave trains are present on the motions to the west, and when normalized to similar amplitudes at short periods, the response spectra of the motions at the western stations are as much as five times larger than those of motions from eastern stations. The explanation for the difference is probably related to site and propagation effects; the western stations are on the Coastal Plain, whereas the eastern stations are at the foot of young and steep mountains, either in the relatively narrow Longitudinal Valley or along the eastern coast-the sediments underlying the eastern stations are probably shallower and have higher velocity than those under the western stations.

  10. Search for factorization-suppressed B-->chi(c)K(*) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-01

    We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B-->chi(c0)K(*) and B-->chi(c2)K(*), with chi(c0) and chi(c2) decaying into J/psi gamma, using a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find no significant signal and set upper bounds for the branching fractions.

  11. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Tai Chi in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Garber, Carol Ewing; Jun, Tae-Won; Jin, Young-Soo; Chung, Sun-Ju; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week program of therapeutic Tai Chi on the motor function and physical function of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (PDs). Methods. The participants were 22 clinically stable PDs in Hoehn-Yahr stages 1-2 randomly assigned to a therapeutic Tai Chi group (TTC, N = 11) or a control group (CON, N = 9). Two subjects in control group did not complete the study for personal reasons. TTC was performed three days a week (60 min/session). Motor symptoms by the UPDRS were assessed, and tests of physical function were administered before and after the 12-week trial. Results. The TTC group, as compared to the CON group, showed changes in the mentation, behavior, mood, and motor scales of the UPDRS (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, resp.), with no significant main effects on the activities of daily living scale (ADL). However, there was a significant interaction between the time and intervention group on ADL (P < 0.05). There were no significant main effects for any of the physical function variables. There were significant interaction effects in balance and agility (P < 0.05, resp.). Conclusions. This study showed that TTC training had modest positive effects on the functional status of Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:24294526

  13. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  14. The stability of the scalar {chi}{sup 2}{phi} interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Franz Gross; Cetin Savkli; John Tjon

    2001-02-16

    A scalar field theory with a {chi}{dagger}{chi}{phi} interaction is known to be unstable. Yet it has been used frequently without any sign of instability in standard text book examples and research articles. In order to reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we show that the theory is stable if the Fock space of all intermediate states is limited to a finite number of {chi}{bar {chi}} loops associated with field {chi} that appears quadradically in the interaction, and that instability arises only when intermediate states include these loops to all orders.

  15. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with osteoarthritis pain and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jason Y; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Woods, Sheery; Beck, Cornelia; Roberson, Paula K; Rosengren, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the authors' experience and strategies in teaching Tai Chi, a gentle exercise derived from an ancient Chinese martial art, to mildly cognitively impaired elders to relieve osteoarthritic knee pain. The 12-form Sun-style Tai Chi, a set of Tai Chi forms endorsed by the American Arthritis Foundation, was used in the program. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with mild cognitive impairment requires particular strategies tailored to their physical and cognitive frailty. When effectively taught, Tai Chi can be a unique and cost-effective intervention for elders with knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.

  16. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  17. Unexpected DNA context-dependence identifies a new determinant of Chi recombination hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew F.; Amundsen, Susan K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination occurs especially frequently near special chromosomal sites called hotspots. In Escherichia coli, Chi hotspots control RecBCD enzyme, a protein machine essential for the major pathway of DNA break-repair and recombination. RecBCD generates recombinogenic single-stranded DNA ends by unwinding DNA and cutting it a few nucleotides to the 3′ side of 5′ GCTGGTGG 3′, the sequence historically equated with Chi. To test if sequence context affects Chi activity, we deep-sequenced the products of a DNA library containing 10 random base-pairs on each side of the Chi sequence and cut by purified RecBCD. We found strongly enhanced cutting at Chi with certain preferred sequences, such as A or G at nucleotides 4–7, on the 3′ flank of the Chi octamer. These sequences also strongly increased Chi hotspot activity in E. coli cells. Our combined enzymatic and genetic results redefine the Chi hotspot sequence, implicate the nuclease domain in Chi recognition, indicate that nicking of one strand at Chi is RecBCD's biologically important reaction in living cells, and enable more precise analysis of Chi's role in recombination and genome evolution. PMID:27330137

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of tai chi for treating type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Jun, Ji Hee; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to update and critically evaluate the evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of tai chi for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve databases were searched by August 2014. Fifteen RCTs met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT compared the effects of tai chi with sham exercise and failed to show the effectiveness of tai chi on fasting blood glucose (FBG), or HbA1c. The other four RCTs tested the effects of tai chi compared with various types of exercise and the meta-analysis failed to show an FBG-lowering effect. Five RCTs compared the effects of tai chi with an anti-diabetic medication and the meta-analysis showed favourable effects of tai chi on FBG. One RCT showed the positive effects of tai chi plus standard care on HbA1c and FBG compared with standard care alone. Four RCTs compared the effects of tai chi to no treatment and the meta-analysis failed to show the positive effects of tai chi on HbA1c. Three RCTs reported superior effects of tai chi on quality of life. In conclusion, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that tai chi is effective for managing patients with T2DM. PMID:25449822

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of tai chi for treating type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Jun, Ji Hee; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to update and critically evaluate the evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of tai chi for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve databases were searched by August 2014. Fifteen RCTs met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT compared the effects of tai chi with sham exercise and failed to show the effectiveness of tai chi on fasting blood glucose (FBG), or HbA1c. The other four RCTs tested the effects of tai chi compared with various types of exercise and the meta-analysis failed to show an FBG-lowering effect. Five RCTs compared the effects of tai chi with an anti-diabetic medication and the meta-analysis showed favourable effects of tai chi on FBG. One RCT showed the positive effects of tai chi plus standard care on HbA1c and FBG compared with standard care alone. Four RCTs compared the effects of tai chi to no treatment and the meta-analysis failed to show the positive effects of tai chi on HbA1c. Three RCTs reported superior effects of tai chi on quality of life. In conclusion, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that tai chi is effective for managing patients with T2DM.

  20. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD. PMID:24224506

  1. Tai Chi as a form of exercise training in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Leung, Regina W M; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese martial art which incorporates elements of strengthening, balance, postural alignment and concentration. The benefits of Tai Chi in the healthy population have been widely examined. In comparison, only three studies have evaluated the effects of Tai Chi in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing evidence suggests that the exercise intensity of Tai Chi reaches a moderate level in people with COPD. Furthermore, a short-term program of Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, balance and quadriceps strength in people with mild to moderate COPD. More studies are warranted to examine the effects of different styles of Tai Chi and the long-term benefits of Tai Chi as an exercise regimen for people with COPD.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of α-ZrP@CHI Drug Deliver System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Xuechuan; Zhang, Renfei; Li, Zhao; Tan, Zhibing; Su, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the controlled synthesis and release properties of a new kind of multifunctional drug-release system which was prepared by encapsulation of zirconium bis-(monohydrogen orthophosphate) monohydrate (α-ZrP) with chitosan (CHI). As obtained the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were found to possess the structural features of both α-ZrP and CHI. The release properties of the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were evaluated using Gentamicin sulfate as the model drug. And α-ZrP@CHI composites showed a prolonged drug release time compared with α-ZrP, which can be attributed to the unique lamellar structure and the encapsulation with CHI. The controlled synthesis of α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposite thus provided a new opportunity for future development of delivery vehicles. PMID:27451678

  3. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  4. Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

    2002-09-01

    We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size. PMID:12175020

  5. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  6. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in Tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 2 ---the similarity and characteristic of Tai-chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Huo, Yuhua

    2002-05-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the Tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device presented in reference [1] is further developed. The system of equations formulating the melting and freezing processes is transformed to a dimensionless form. The advantage of dimensionless equations not only reduces a significant number of parameters involved in the problem but also provides physical insight of the Tai-chi diagram. The solution of dimensionless equations offers the similarity and characteristic of the Tai-chi diagram[1].

  7. CHiCAGO: robust detection of DNA looping interactions in Capture Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Jonathan; Freire-Pritchett, Paula; Wingett, Steven W; Várnai, Csilla; Dimond, Andrew; Plagnol, Vincent; Zerbino, Daniel; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Osborne, Cameron; Fraser, Peter; Spivakov, Mikhail

    2016-06-15

    Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a method for profiling chromosomal interactions involving targeted regions of interest, such as gene promoters, globally and at high resolution. Signal detection in CHi-C data involves a number of statistical challenges that are not observed when using other Hi-C-like techniques. We present a background model and algorithms for normalisation and multiple testing that are specifically adapted to CHi-C experiments. We implement these procedures in CHiCAGO ( http://regulatorygenomicsgroup.org/chicago ), an open-source package for robust interaction detection in CHi-C. We validate CHiCAGO by showing that promoter-interacting regions detected with this method are enriched for regulatory features and disease-associated SNPs.

  8. Effects of tai chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiajia; Cai, Shufang; Zhong, Weihong; Cai, Shuhe; Zheng, Qikai

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to seek evidence for the effectiveness of Tai Chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Systematic searches were conducted of the China Journals Full-text Database, Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct-Online Journals and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and 2012. Studies were evaluated based on following inclusion criteria: 1) design: randomized control, clinical trial; 2) subjects: patients with a knee osteoarthritis diagnosis; 3) intervention: exercise involving Tai Chi; 4) studies published in English or Chinese. [Results] Six randomized control studies involving Tai Chi and knee osteoarthritis were found. [Conclusion] Tai Chi was an effective way of relieving pain and improving physical function. Further randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes and long training period are needed to compare groups who perform Tai Chi training with other groups who undergo other forms of physical exercise in order to confirm the efficacy of Tai Chi.

  9. Effects of Tai Chi for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jiajia; Cai, Shufang; Zhong, Weihong; Cai, Shuhe; Zheng, Qikai

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to seek evidence for the effectiveness of Tai Chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Systematic searches were conducted of the China Journals Full-text Database, Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct-Online Journals and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and 2012. Studies were evaluated based on following inclusion criteria: 1) design: randomized control, clinical trial; 2) subjects: patients with a knee osteoarthritis diagnosis; 3) intervention: exercise involving Tai Chi; 4) studies published in English or Chinese. [Results] Six randomized control studies involving Tai Chi and knee osteoarthritis were found. [Conclusion] Tai Chi was an effective way of relieving pain and improving physical function. Further randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes and long training period are needed to compare groups who perform Tai Chi training with other groups who undergo other forms of physical exercise in order to confirm the efficacy of Tai Chi. PMID:25140112

  10. Characterization of a novel chitinase, DkChi, from Dendrolimus kikuchii nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghua; Qu, Liangjian; Zhang, Zhilin; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhang, Yongan

    2013-12-01

    Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura nucleopolyhedrovirus (DkNPV) is a novel nucleopolyhedrovirus strain that has exhibited high potential as biological control agent against D. kikuchii. In this work, a 1755-bp DkChi gene with sequence homology to a chitinase gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of DkNPV using a DNA fragment library. The DkChi gene, encoding 558 residues protein with a predicted mass of 61.6 kDa, was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. We confirmed that the prepared protein was the DkChi protein by mass spectrometry analysis. Enzyme activity analysis showed that DkChi had both endo- and exo-chitinase activities. Interestingly, the DkChi protein displayed a strong insecticidal activity against Spodoptera exigua, Hyphantria cunea, Helicoverpa armigera and Lymantria dispar. The results suggest that DkChi is a good candidate protein for significantly contributing to pest control.

  11. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  12. Regulation of the chitin degradation and utilization system by the ChiX small RNA in Serratia marcescens 2170.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazushi; Shimizu, Mari; Sasaki, Naomi; Ogawa, Chisana; Minami, Haruka; Sugimoto, Hayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Serratia marcescens 2170 produces three different types of chitinases and chitin-binding protein CBP21. We found that transposon insertion into the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of chiPQ-ctb led to defective chitinase and CBP21 production. ChiX small RNA possessed the complementary sequence of the 5' UTRs of the chiPQ-ctb and chiR and repressed the expression of chiP and chiR. ChiX was detected in a medium containing glucose, glycerol, GlcNAc, and (GlcNAc)2, but the expression of both chiP and chiR was only observed in a medium containing (GlcNAc)2. ∆chiX mutant produced chitinases, CBP21, and chitobiase without induction. chiP transcripts were more abundant than those of chiR or chiX in a medium containing (GlcNAc)2. These results suggest that the constitutively expressed ChiX binds to the highly abundant chiP 5' UTR, thereby leading to the induction of chiR mRNA translation and the subsequent expression of chitinases and CBP21.

  13. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de Los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-06-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone.

  14. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  15. Chi sequence protects against RecBCD degradation of DNA in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dabert, P; Ehrlich, S D; Gruss, A

    1992-01-01

    RecBCD is a multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA degradation and homologous recombination. It also produces an endonucleolytic cleavage near properly oriented chi sites (5'-GCTGGTGG-3'). Plasmids are not known to be affected by either RecBCD enzyme or the presence of a chi site. We report here that plasmids that replicate by a rolling circle mechanism accumulate large amounts of high molecular weight linear multimers (HMW), either if they contain a chi site or if RecBCD is absent. An in vivo inducible system for rolling circle replication was constructed to study RecBCD and its interactions with chi. Results show that (i) HMW accumulation is chi orientation dependent, and (ii) a succession of chi sites prevents degradation of HMW by RecBCD enzyme. These results demonstrate chi activity in plasmids. The rolling circle mechanism produces a sigma structure during plasmid replication; we propose that the double-stranded DNA tail of this sigma form allows RecBCD entry; the tail is degraded unless it is protected by a chi site. By analogy, a principal role of chi in the survival of lambda red-gam- mutants in wild-type strains may be to protect rolling circle concatemers (in late replication) from degradation by RecBCD. Images PMID:1465442

  16. Response of seismicity to Coulomb stress triggers and shadows of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, K.-F.; Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between static Coulomb stress increases and aftershocks has thus far provided the strongest evidence that stress changes promote seismicity, a correlation that the Chi-Chi earthquake well exhibits. Several studies have deepened the argument by resolving stress changes on aftershock focal mechanisms, which removes the assumption that the aftershocks are optimally oriented for failure. Here one compares the percentage of planes on which failure is promoted after the main shock relative to the percentage beforehand. For Chi-Chi we find a 28% increase for thrust and an 18% increase for strike-slip mechanisms, commensurate with increases reported for other large main shocks. However, perhaps the chief criticism of static stress triggering is the difficulty in observing predicted seismicity rate decreases in the stress shadows, or sites of Coulomb stress decrease. Detection of sustained drops in seismicity rate demands a long catalog with a low magnitude of completeness and a high seismicity rate, conditions that are met at Chi-Chi. We find four lobes with statistically significant seismicity rate declines of 40-90% for 50 months, and they coincide with the stress shadows calculated for strike-slip faults, the dominant faulting mechanism. The rate drops are evident in uniform cell calculations, 100-month time series, and by visual inspection of the M ??? 3 seismicity. An additional reason why detection of such declines has proven so rare emerges from this study: there is a widespread increase in seismicity rate during the first 3 months after Chi-Chi, and perhaps many other main shocks, that might be associated with a different mechanism. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Mass Function in h+(chi) Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Ann; Kenyon, Scott

    2000-08-01

    Knowledge of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is critical to understanding star formation and galaxy evolution. Past studies of the IMF in open clusters have primarily used luminosity functions to determine mass functions, frequently in relatively sparse clusters. Our goal with this project is to derive a reliable, well- sampled IMF for a pair of very dense young clusters (h+(chi) Persei) with ages, 1-2 × 10^7 yr (e.g., Vogt A& A 11:359), where stellar evolution theory is robust. We will construct the HR diagram using both photometry and spectral types to derive more accurate stellar masses and ages than are possible using photometry alone. Results from the two clusters will be compared to examine the universality of the IMF. We currently have a spectroscopic sample covering an area within 9 arc-minutes of the center of each cluster taken with the FAST Spectrograph. The sample is complete to V=15.4 and contains ~ 1000 stars. We request 2 nights at WIYN/HYDRA to extend this sample to deeper magnitudes, allowing us to determine the IMF of the clusters to a lower limiting mass and to search for a pre-main sequence, theoretically predicted to be present for clusters of this age. Note that both clusters are contained within a single HYDRA field.

  18. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. PMID:26009880

  19. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region.

  20. [Permeability to phi chi 174 bacteriophages in polyolephin membrane condoms].

    PubMed

    Sierra, Oscar Eugenio; Gaona de Hernández, María Antonia; Rey, Gloria Janneth

    2005-12-01

    Membranes used for the manufacture of condoms eventually can develop tiny pores, thereby decreasing dramatically their effectiveness as a physical barrier against the transmission of infectious agents. A technique was designed that was based on the ability of bacteriophage viruses to trespass membranes and to infect certain bacteria species, and then developing lysis plaques in the colonies of the host bacteria. The effectiveness of 60 polyolefin condoms in preventing the diffusion of the bacteriophage phi chi 174(ATCC13706-B1), 27 nm diameter, was compared to 20 latex condoms. Physiological conditions such as pressure, pH, superficial tension, length, time of exposure and viral titre were simulated. A pressurization system was designed, in which compressed air was injected simultaneously to ten condoms. Four of the 60 polyolefin condoms and one of the 20 latex condoms were permeable to the virus. Therefore, at least 93% of the condoms evaluated were able to contain the virus. The difference in permeability between the two types of membranes was not statistically significant (P = 0.79).

  1. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  2. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then

  3. Effect of Tai Chi versus walking on oxidative stress in Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ortiz, Rocío; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (n = 23), (ii) walking group (n = 43), and (iii) Tai Chi group (n = 31). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; P = 0.05). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking. PMID:23936607

  4. Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Jin, P

    1992-05-01

    Tai Chi, a moving meditation, is examined for its efficacy in post-stressor recovery. Forty-eight male and 48 female Tai Chi practitioners were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: Tai Chi, brisk walking, mediation and neutral reading. Mental arithmetic and other difficult tests were chosen as mental challenges, and a stressful film was used to produce emotional disturbance. Tai Chi and the other treatments were applied after these stressors. After all treatments, the salivary cortisol level dropped significantly, and the mood states were also improved. In general the stress-reduction effect of Tai Chi characterized moderate physical exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, and urinary catecholamine changes for Tai Chi were found to be similar to those for walking at a speed of 6 km/hr. Although Tai Chi appeared to be superior to neutral reading in the reduction of state anxiety and the enhancement of vigour, this effect could be partially accounted for by the subjects' high expectations about gains from Tai Chi. Approaches controlling for expectancy level are recommended for further assessment.

  5. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly.

  6. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking.

    PubMed

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (-0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (-0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking.

  7. Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ortiz, Rocío; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (n = 23), (ii) walking group (n = 43), and (iii) Tai Chi group (n = 31). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; P = 0.05). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking. PMID:23936607

  8. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (−0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (−0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking. PMID:26504334

  9. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  10. Evidence Base of Clinical Studies on Tai Chi: A Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Meng-Ling; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Luo, Jing; Cheng, Yan-Jun; Li, Wen-Yuan; Wayne, Peter M.; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety and health benefits of Tai Chi mind-body exercise has been documented in a large number of clinical studies focused on specific diseases and health conditions. The objective of this systematic review is to more comprehensively summarize the evidence base of clinical studies of Tai Chi for healthcare. Methods and Findings We searched for all types of clinical studies on Tai chi in PubMed, the Cochrane Library and four major Chinese electronic databases from their inception to July 2013. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0 software. A total of 507 studies published between 1958 and 2013 were identified, including 43 (8.3%) systematic reviews of clinical studies, 255 (50.3%) randomized clinical trials, 90 (17.8%) non-randomized controlled clinical studies, 115 (22.7%) case series and 4 (0.8%) case reports. The top 10 diseases/conditions was hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or osteopenia, breast cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Many healthy participants practiced Tai Chi for the purpose of health promotion or preservation. Yang style Tai Chi was the most popular, and Tai Chi was frequently practiced two to three 1-hour sessions per week for 12 weeks. Tai Chi was used alone in more than half of the studies (58.6%), while in other studies Tai Chi was applied in combination with other therapies including medications, health education and other physical therapies. The majority of studies (94.1%) reported positive effects of Tai Chi, 5.1% studies reported uncertain effects and 0.8% studies reported negative effects. No serious adverse events related to Tai Chi were reported. Conclusions The quantity and evidence base of clinical studies on Tai Chi is substantial. However, there is a wide variation in Tai Chi intervention studied and the reporting of Tai Chi intervention needs to be improved. Further well-designed and reported studies are recommended to

  11. Measurement of sigma(chi(c2)B(chi(c2) ---> J / psi gamma) / sigma(chi(c1)B(chi(c1) ---> J / psi gamma) in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Comenius U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, {sigma}{sub {chi}c2}{beta}({chi}{sub c2} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma})/{sigma}{sub {chi}c1}{beta}({chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}), in 1.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range p{sub T} (J/{psi}) > 4.0 GeV/c, |{eta}(J/{psi})| < 1.0, and p{sub T}({gamma}) > 1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, they find R{sub p} = 0.395 {+-} 0.016(stat.) {+-} 0.015(sys.). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt {chi}{sub c1,2} hadroproduction.

  12. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women. PMID:26223978

  13. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.

  14. Tai chi as an alternative and complimentary therapy for anxiety: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Haider, Taj

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety has become a global public health problem. Tai chi offers one possible way of reducing anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine studies from 1989 to March 2014 to assess whether tai chi can be an efficacious approach for managing anxiety. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for quantitative articles involving applications of tai chi for anxiety. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were from the United States, 2 from Australia, 2 from Japan, 2 from Taiwan, and 1 each from Canada, Spain, and China. Statistically significant results of anxiety reduction were reported in 12 of the studies reviewed. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled designs, having smaller sample sizes, having different outcomes, having nonstandardized tai chi interventions, and having varying lengths, tai chi appears to be a promising modality for anxiety management.

  15. Observation of {chi}{sub bJ}(1P,2P) decays to light hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.

    2008-11-01

    Analyzing {upsilon}(nS) decays acquired with the CLEO detector operating at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we measure for the first time the product branching fractions B[{upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}((n-1)P)]B[{chi}{sub bJ}(n-1)P){yields}X{sub i}] for n=2 and 3, where X{sub i} denotes, for each i, one of the 14 exclusive light-hadron final states for which we observe significant signals in both {chi}{sub bJ}(1P) and {chi}{sub bJ}(2P) decays. We also determine upper limits for the electric dipole (E1) transitions {upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}(1P)

  16. Effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, HoYoung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients. Twenty-two inpatients diagnosed with stroke were divided randomly into two groups: one treated with both general physical therapy and Tai Chi exercise (11 patients) and one treated with only general physical therapy (11 patients). Therapeutic Tai Chi included 10 different movements and was performed for 60 min, twice per week, for 6 weeks. Pretest and post-test measurements were recorded for sway length and sway velocity using Gaitview, the functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and SF-36 survey. Both the Tai Chi group and the control group showed a significant improvement in sway length and sway velocity, and the Tai Chi group showed greater improvement than the control group in degree of variation. In addition, only the Tai Chi group showed a significant result for functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and the Tai Chi group improved. In the quality of life, the therapeutic Tai Chi group showed a significant improvement in five items (physical function, pain, vitality, general health, mental health) among eight items in SF-36. This study confirmed that therapeutic Tai Chi influences the balance, gait, and life quality of stroke patients. Therefore, therapeutic Tai Chi can be used as an effective exercise in combination with general physical therapy to improve the balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients. PMID:25591053

  17. Effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, HoYoung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients. Twenty-two inpatients diagnosed with stroke were divided randomly into two groups: one treated with both general physical therapy and Tai Chi exercise (11 patients) and one treated with only general physical therapy (11 patients). Therapeutic Tai Chi included 10 different movements and was performed for 60 min, twice per week, for 6 weeks. Pretest and post-test measurements were recorded for sway length and sway velocity using Gaitview, the functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and SF-36 survey. Both the Tai Chi group and the control group showed a significant improvement in sway length and sway velocity, and the Tai Chi group showed greater improvement than the control group in degree of variation. In addition, only the Tai Chi group showed a significant result for functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and the Tai Chi group improved. In the quality of life, the therapeutic Tai Chi group showed a significant improvement in five items (physical function, pain, vitality, general health, mental health) among eight items in SF-36. This study confirmed that therapeutic Tai Chi influences the balance, gait, and life quality of stroke patients. Therefore, therapeutic Tai Chi can be used as an effective exercise in combination with general physical therapy to improve the balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

  18. Decadal changes in fault-scarp knickpoints by bedrock erosion following 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Maekado, Akira; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2010-05-01

    Surface ruptures along the Chelungpu thrust fault in west-central Taiwan caused formation of knickpoints (waterfalls) according with bedrock exposure in riverbeds when the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake occurred on September 21, 1999. Since then the fault-scarp knickpoints have receded upstream at extremely rapid rates, causing bedrock incision for tens to hundreds of meters in length within a decade. The rapid erosion of the knickpoints provides us an opportunity to investigate actual changes of bedrock morphology of the rivers, and here we examine the changes in the knickpoint recession rates during the last decade from 1999 to 2009. Field measurements of the topography revealed that the mean rate of a knickpoint recession in the largest river (Ta-chia) was 3.3 m/y in the earlier 6 years (1999-2005) and 220 m/y in the last 4 years (2005-2009). This acceleration of the recession can be due to the increase in flood frequency and intensity, narrowing of the channel width, and/or anisotropy of rock strength (sandstones and mudstones) along the stream. The other knickpoints showed relatively similar recession rates throughout the decade on the order of 20-60 m/y. These rates are then compared to an empirical model of knickpoint recession, in which relevant physical parameters of erosive force of stream and bedrock resistance are involved as a dimensionless index. The actual recession rates of the knickpoints are considerably higher than those expected by the model, suggesting that abundant sediment particles supplied from upstream catchment enhance the knickpoint erosion. In fact, all the abundant gravels on the riverbed around the knickpoints that are supplied from further upstream areas with different lithology (mostly older sandstones) are quite harder than the bedrock therein. The model analysis for the two time periods for each knickpoint suggests that the changes in their recession rates can be commonly affected by severe flood occurrence in the study area. Also, some

  19. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  20. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  1. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Travers, Brittany G.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students’ self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity–impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  2. The Listeria monocytogenes ChiA Chitinase Enhances Virulence through Suppression of Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swarnava; Gantner, Benjamin N.; Ye, Richard D.; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental pathogens survive and replicate within the outside environment while maintaining the capacity to infect mammalian hosts. For some microorganisms, mammalian infection may be a relatively rare event. Understanding how environmental pathogens retain their ability to cause disease may provide insight into environmental reservoirs of disease and emerging infections. Listeria monocytogenes survives as a saprophyte in soil but is capable of causing serious invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The bacterium secretes virulence factors that promote cell invasion, bacterial replication, and cell-to-cell spread. Recently, an L. monocytogenes chitinase (ChiA) was shown to enhance bacterial infection in mice. Given that mammals do not synthesize chitin, the function of ChiA within infected animals was not clear. Here we have demonstrated that ChiA enhances L. monocytogenes survival in vivo through the suppression of host innate immunity. L. monocytogenes ΔchiA mutants were fully capable of establishing bacterial replication within target organs during the first 48 h of infection. By 72 to 96 h postinfection, however, numbers of ΔchiA bacteria diminished, indicative of an effective immune response to contain infection. The ΔchiA-associated virulence defect could be complemented in trans by wild-type L. monocytogenes, suggesting that secreted ChiA altered a target that resulted in a more permissive host environment for bacterial replication. ChiA secretion resulted in a dramatic decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and ΔchiA mutant virulence was restored in NOS2−/− mice lacking iNOS. This work is the first to demonstrate modulation of a specific host innate immune response by a bacterial chitinase. PMID:23512964

  3. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  4. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  5. 08. The Practice and Evidence Basis for Tai Chi as a Complementary Modality: An Experiential Presentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Experiential Workshop Studies are showing that practicing Tai Chi can facilitate an individual's ability to increase physical stamina, reduce stress, enhance feelings of wellbeing, and improve resistance to illness. In this workshop, the principles and practice of a short form of Yang-style Tai Chi is presented for participants to experience and discuss the use of this evidence-based modality in a variety of healthcare settings. Evidence will be presented that suggests how Tai Chi would be an applicable intervention for the following: Physical therapyOccupational therapyCardiac rehabilitationOncologyBariatricRheumatologyPsychological disorders (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder)

  6. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-02-01

    Ninety-two prenatally depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to a tai chi/yoga or a waitlist control group at an average of 22 weeks gestation. The tai chi/yoga group participated in a 20-min group session per week for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period the tai chi/yoga group had lower summary depression (CES-D) scores, as well as lower negative affect and somatic/vegetative symptoms subscale scores on the CES-D, lower anxiety (STAI) scores and lower sleep disturbances scores.

  7. Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S L; Coogler, C; Xu, T

    1997-08-01

    For many centuries Tai Chi has been a martial art form, practiced primarily in Oriental cultures. For the past 300 years this movement approach has been used as an exercise form, practiced by millions of Chinese elderly people. To date, virtually no information exists about the therapeutic elements of this intriguing movement sequence. This article provides a historical review of existing documentation of reputed Tai Chi benefits. The 108 "forms" of Tai Chi Chuan are reduced to 10 composite forms for ease of application of these forms to older individuals within a reasonable time frame. An effort is set forth to identify the potential therapeutic elements within these forms.

  8. {chi}{sup 2} versus median statistics in supernova type Ia data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, A.; Avelino, P. P.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we compare the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median likelihood analysis in the determination of cosmological constraints using type Ia supernovae data. We perform a statistical analysis using the 307 supernovae of the Union 2 compilation of the Supernova Cosmology Project and find that the {chi}{sup 2} statistical analysis yields tighter cosmological constraints than the median statistic if only supernovae data is taken into account. We also show that when additional measurements from the cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillations are considered, the combined cosmological constraints are not strongly dependent on whether one applies the {chi}{sup 2} statistic or the median statistic to the supernovae data. This indicates that, when complementary information from other cosmological probes is taken into account, the performances of the {chi}{sup 2} and median statistics are very similar, demonstrating the robustness of the statistical analysis.

  9. Distinguishing between chi and sigma phases in duplex stainless steels using potentiostatic etching

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.M.L.E.M.; Visser, P.E. de . Physical Metallurgy Div.); Cornish, L.A. )

    1993-12-01

    A color interference film etching technique based on the principle of potentiostatic etching has been developed to distinguish, by optical metallography, between Cr-rich sigma and Mo-rich chi phases as well as with simultaneous identification of the ferrite and austenite phases in duplex stainless steels. The optical metallography results are confirmed by semiquantitative energy dispersive spectrometry analysis and back-scattered electron imaging. The technique is relatively simple and rapid, and makes use of low voltages and a hot etchant. Results have shown distinctively the sigma, chi, ferrite, and austenite phases, and enable observation of the microstructural development, morphology, and kinetics of formation of the phases in duplex alloys. The method, by giving excellent color contrast between sigma and chi, also facilitates quantitative image analysis of the sigma and chi volume fractions.

  10. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xueming; Jin, Kaimin

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has documented the beneficial effect of Tai Chi, but most of the studies focused on elders and patients with specific health conditions. The aim of the study was to test whether Tai Chi can help to improve self-concept in adolescents with a longitudinal study. The sample comprised 160 students from a Chinese middle school; half of students formed the experimental group and the rest formed the control group. A 1-year Tai Chi intervention was delivered in 60-minute sessions, five times a week. Both groups were instructed to complete the measure of self-concept at the beginning and end of the intervention. Statistical analysis shows the significant reduction of good behaviour, intellectual and school status, popularity and anxiety in the experimental group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Tai Chi intervention could improve self-concept in adolescents. PMID:25721879

  11. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  12. The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson's Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Sang-Myung; Chae, Bo-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Geon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Exercise is recommended for every patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effectiveness of two different forms of exercise for PD, Tai Chi and combined stretching-strengthening exercise, was compared. Methods Patients with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited to join either the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group (n=7), the Tai Chi group (n=9), or the control (nonintervention) group (n=7). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. The Tai Chi exercise was led by certified instructors based on a Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined stretching-strengthening exercise comprised folk dancing, stepping, and elastic-band exercises. The subjects' functional fitness, parkinsonian symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and depression were evaluated. Results Both exercise groups yielded better results in their overall functional fitness after the intervention. However, no improvement with exercise was found for parkinsonian symptoms, as evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. With respect to the domains of QoL, the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group fared better in the social domain of QoL, and the Tai Chi group fared better in the emotional domain, while QoL and depression worsened in the control group. The postintervention QoL was improved relative to the control condition only for the Tai Chi group. Although the exercise interventions did not have any effect on depression, the control group was associated with a significant deterioration. Conclusions Exercise improved the functional fitness and QoL of PD patients, with Tai Chi yielding better results in QoL and favorable results in functional fitness. These findings suggest that Tai Chi could be a good exercise strategy for patients with PD. PMID:24285965

  13. Quality of Reporting of Randomized Clinical Trials in Tai Chi Interventions—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yuan-Fen; Smith, Gordon S.; Xue, Chuan-Jiang; Luo, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Heng; Skinner, Craig J.; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the reporting quality of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in the Tai Chi literature following the publication of the CONSORT guidelines in 2001. Data Sources. The OVID MEDLINE and PUBMED databases. Review Methods. To survey the general characteristics of Tai Chi RCTs in the literature, we included any report if (i) it was an original report of the trial; (ii) its design was RCT; (iii) one of the treatments being tested was Tai Chi; and (iv) it was in English. In addition, we assessed the reporting quality of RCTs that were published between 2002 and 2007, using a modified CONSORT checklist of 40 items. The adequate description of Tai Chi interventions in these trials was examined against a 10-item checklist adapted from previous reviews. Results. The search yielded 31 Tai Chi RCTs published from 2002 to 2007 and only 11 for 1992–2001. Among trials published during 2002–2007, the most adequately reported criteria were related to background, participant eligibility and interpretation of the study results. Nonetheless, the most poorly reported items were associated with randomization allocation concealment, implementation of randomization and the definitions of period of recruitment and follow-up. In addition, only 23% of RCTs provided adequate details of Tai Chi intervention used in the trials. Conclusion. The findings in this review indicated that the reporting quality of Tai Chi intervention trials is sub-optimal. Substantial improvement is required to meet the CONSORT guidelines and allow assessment of the quality of evidence. We believe that not only investigators, but also journal editors, reviewers and funding agencies need to follow the CONSORT guidelines to improve the standards of research and strengthen the evidence base for Tai Chi and for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:19351709

  14. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes.

  15. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes. PMID:23602812

  16. Ly6Chi monocytes regulate T cell responses in viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiangao; Chen, Huiyao; Huang, Xiaopei; Jiang, Songfu

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis remains a global health challenge despite recent progress in the development of more effective therapies. Although virus-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses are essential for viral clearance, it remains largely unknown what regulates T cell–mediated viral clearance. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation of anti-viral T cell immunity would be critical for the design of more effective therapies for viral hepatitis. Using a model of adenovirus-induced hepatitis, here we showed that adenoviral infection induced recruitment of Ly6Chi monocytes to the liver in a CCR2-dependent manner. These recruited Ly6Chi monocytes suppressed CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses to adenoviral infection, leading to a delay in viral clearance. In vivo depletion of Ly6Chi monocytes markedly enhanced anti-viral T cell responses and promoted viral clearance. Mechanistically, we showed that induction of iNOS and the production of NO by Ly6Chi monocytes are critical for the suppression of T cell responses. In addition, a contact-dependent mechanism mediated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction is also required for T cell suppression by Ly6Chi monocytes. These findings suggest a critical role for Ly6Chi monocytes in the regulation of T cell immunity in viral hepatitis and may provide new insights into development of more effective therapies for treating viral hepatitis based on targeting the immunosuppressing monocytes. PMID:27777980

  17. Effects of Tai Chi on the protracted abstinence syndrome: a time trial analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Xiang; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Guo, Hao; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Qing; Feng, Yue-Mei; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    While exercise has been shown to reduce the negative effects of substance withdrawal symptoms, no research has investigated if Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, has similar effects. Here, we observed the physiological effects of Tai Chi on protracted abstinence syndrome (PAS) in female heroin addicts by comprehensively inspecting their immune system function, complete blood count, hepatic function and renal function. To determine the psychological effects, we used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the rating scale of heroin withdrawal symptoms. We recruited 70 heroin-addicted young women beginning to undergo withdrawal and randomly assigned them into two groups: one group received one-hour Tai Chi exercise every two days (Tai Chi group, n = 36) and the other group did not (control group, n = 34). Thirty-three patients finished this six-month trial. Numerous significant physiological differences were observed between all heroin-addicted subjects (n = 70) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 18), suggesting a deleterious effect of drug addiction. There were improvements for certain physical parameters between the Tai Chi group (n = 17) and the control group (n = 16), although the differences were not statistically significant. We observed a small significant difference in psychological effects near the 60-day mark between the two groups. Taken together, our results suggest that Tai Chi might have a positive effect on PAS, which future studies can confirm by using an expanded sample size, longer trial time, and more sensitive and specific indicators of psychological and physiological health.

  18. Tai chi intervention improves dynamic postural control during gait initiation in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Roberts, Beverly L; Hass, Chris J

    2014-12-01

    Tai Chi intervention has been shown to be beneficial for balance improvement. The current study examined the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve the dynamic postural control among older adults with mobility disability. Six sedentary older adults with mobility disability participated in a 16-week Tai Chi intervention consisting of one hour sessions three times a week. Dynamic postural control was assessed pre- and post intervention as participants initiated gait in four stepping conditions: forward; 45° medially, with the stepping leg crossing over the other leg; 45° and 90° laterally. The center of pressure (CoP) displacement, velocity, and its maximum separation distance from the center of mass in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant directions were analyzed. Results showed that in the postural phase, Tai Chi increased the CoP mediolateral excursions in the medial (13%) and forward (28%) conditions, and resultant CoP center of mass distance in the medial (9%) and forward (19%) conditions. In the locomotion phase, the CoP mediolateral displacement and velocity significantly increased after the Tai Chi intervention (both by > 100% in the two lateral conditions). These results suggest that through alteration in CoP movement characteristics, Tai Chi intervention might improve the dynamic postural control during gait initiation among older adults.

  19. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  20. Cross-ratio identities and higher-order poles of CHY-integrand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Feng, Bo; Gomez, Humberto; Huang, Rijun

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of generic Cachazo-He-Yuan(CHY)-integrands is a big challenge and efficient computational methods are in demand for practical evaluation. In this paper, we propose a systematic decomposition algorithm by using cross-ratio identities, which provides an analytic and easy to implement method for the evaluation of any CHY-integrand. This algorithm aims to decompose a given CHY-integrand containing higher-order poles as a linear combination of CHY-integrands with only simple poles in a finite number of steps, which ultimately can be trivially evaluated by integration rules of simple poles. To make the method even more efficient for CHY-integrands with large number of particles and complicated higher-order pole structures, we combine the Λ-algorithm and the cross-ratio identities, and as a by-product it provides us a way to deal with CHY-integrands where the Λ-algorithm was not applicable in its original formulation.

  1. Measurement of the resonance parameters of the chi(1)(1**3P(1)) and chi(2)(1**3P(2)) states of charmonium formed in antiproton-proton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Graham, M.; Hu, M.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; Lasio, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Mandelkern, M.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /UC, Irvine /Northwestern U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Minnesota U.

    2005-03-01

    The authors have studied the {sup 3}P{sub J} ({chi}{sub e}) states of charmonium in formation by antiproton-proton annihilations in experiment E835 at the Fermilab Antiproton Source. The authors report new measurements of the mass, width, and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub eJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything) for the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} by means of the inclusive reaction {bar p}p {yields} {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything {yields} (e{sup +}e{sup -}) + anything. Using the subsample of events where {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {gamma} + J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} + (e{sup +}e{sup -}) is fully reconstructed, we derive B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}). They summarize the results of the E760 (updated) and E835 measurements of mass, width and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p){Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}) (J = 0,1,2) and discuss the significance of these measurements.

  2. Tai Chi Exercise to Improve Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Joe R; Amano, Shinichi; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hass, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial number of individuals with Parkinson’s disease exhibit debilitating non-motor symptoms that decrease quality of life. To date, few treatment options exist for the non-motor symptomatology related to Parkinson’s disease. The goal of this pilot investigation was to determine the effects of Tai Chi exercise on the non-motor symptomology in Parkinson’s disease. Methods Twenty-one individuals with Parkinson’s disease were enrolled in a Tai Chi intervention (n=15) or a noncontact control group (n=6). Participants assigned to Tai Chi participated in 60-minute Tai Chi sessions three times per week, for 16 weeks. Pre and post measures included indices of cognitive-executive function including visuomotor tracking and attention, selective attention, working memory, inhibition, processing speed and task switching. Additionally, all participants were evaluated on the Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire-39 and Tinetti’s Falls Efficacy Scale. Results Results indicated that the Tai Chi training group had significantly better scores following the intervention than the control group on the Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire-39 total score as well as the emotional well-being sub score. Trends for improvement were noted for the Tai Chi group on Digits Backwards, Tinetti’s Falls Efficacy Scale, and the activities of daily living and communication sub scores of the Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire-39. Conclusions This research provides initial data that supports future studies to definitively establish efficacy of Tai Chi to improve non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24278789

  3. Parameter Estimation in Astronomy with Poisson-Distributed Data. 1; The (CHI)2(gamma) Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [Sigma (sub i)n(sub i)ssigma(sub i, sup -2)], to determine the weighted mean of data, n(sub i), drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by approx. 1 for all true mean values larger than approx.3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the i th observation is sigma(sub i) = max square root of n(sub i), 1).This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman'chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub N) equivalent Sigma(sub i)((n(sub i) - y(sub i)(exp 2)) / max(n(sub i), 1), to compare Poisson - distributed data with model values, y(sub i), will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [Sigma(sub i)[n(sub i) + min(n(sub i), 1)](n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1)] / [Sigma(sub i)(n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1))], I propose that a new chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub gamma) equivalent, should always be used to analyze Poisson- distributed data in preference to the modified Neyman's chi(exp 2) statistic. I demonstrated the power and usefulness of,chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization by using two statistical fitting techniques and five chi(exp 2) statistics to analyze simulated X-ray power - low 15 - channel spectra with large and small counts per bin. I show that chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization with the Levenberg - Marquardt or Powell's method can produce excellent results (mean slope errors approx. less than 3%) with spectra having as few as 25 total counts.

  4. Influence of surface-normal ground acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Keefer, D.K.; Jibson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake triggered numerous landslides throughout a large area in the Central Range, to the east, southeast, and south of the fault rupture. Among them are two large rock avalanches, at Tsaoling and at Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan. At Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan, the entire thickness (30-50 m) of the Miocene Changhukeng Shale over an area of 1 km2 slid down its bedding plane for a distance of about 1 km. Initial movement of the landslide was nearly purely translational. We investigate the effect of surface-normal acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide using a block slide model. We show that this acceleration, currently not considered by dynamic slope-stability analysis methods, significantly influences the initiation of the landslide.

  5. Mineral assemblage anomalies in the slip zone of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake: Ultrafine particles preserved only in the latest slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Kameda, Jun; Kanda, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We determined mineral assemblages of samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault and from milling and heating experiments by using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fault system contains three dominant fault zones, the shallowest of which slipped during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The quartz and clay mineral contents of the primary slip zone were low, and it contained partly amorphous ultrafine particles (several tens of nanometers). Up to 30 weight percent of materials in that zone could not be fit to standard diffraction patterns, whereas nearly 100 weight percent of those in surrounding samples could be. The unfitted component could be attributed to the observed ultrafine particles produced by comminution during the earthquake, because weak diffraction intensities are caused from mineral lattice distortion, granulation, and amorphous coatings. Such particles are a potential proxy for identifying the slip zone of the most recent earthquake along a fault.

  6. Using posturography to assess expertise among tai chi practitioners - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Geib, Roy W; Roberts, Beveryly L; Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi; Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi, performed either seating or standing, is frequently recommended to improve various aspects of health, including balance, metabolic control, heart rate variability, sleep, or immune response. Many studies exploring mind-body interventions, both with self-reported or biologically-measured outcomes, report significant differences in outcomes among participants. However, neither the physiological or psychological mechanisms behind the variations are understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether posturography is a useful method to assess physical skill level differences between experts and non-expert Tai Chi practitioners. While standing, participants performed a series of movements from the Tai Chi for Arthritis form based on Sun style (commencement, open/close, single whip and wave hands in cloud). Master trainers and senior trainers were considered experts; all others were considered non-experts. Body sway was assessed by the CAPS™ Professional portable computerized force platform (Vestibular Technologies, LLC.). Center of Pressure motion measures were normalized by the subject's height. While standing, the experts displayed statistically greater displacement excursion and velocity when preforming commencement and wave hands in clouds forms. The results of this pilot study indicated that posturography may be a useful method to assess the quality of Tai Chi movements and potentially link the expertise of Tai Chi practitioners to changes in health related outcomes.

  7. Effectiveness of Tai-Chi for decreasing acute pain in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, V; Romero-Zurita, A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Aparicio, V A; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M

    2014-05-01

    Tai-Chi has shown benefits in physical and psychological outcomes in diverse populations. We aimed to determine the changes elicited by a Tai-Chi program (12 and 24 weeks) in acute pain (before vs. after session) in fibromyalgia patients. We also assessed the cumulative changes in pain brought about by a Tai-Chi program. Thirty-six patients (29 women) with fibromyalgia participated in a low-moderate intensity Tai-Chi program for 12 weeks (3 sessions/week). Twenty-eight patients (27 women) continued the program for an additional 12 weeks (i. e., 24 weeks). We assessed pain by means of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before and after each single session (i. e., 72 sessions). We observed significant immediate changes (P-values from 0.037 to 0.0001) with an approximately 12% mean decrease of acute pain in the comparison of VAS-values before and after each session (72 sessions in total), with the exception of 4 sessions. We observed significant changes in cumulative pain pre-session (95% CI=-0.019; -0.014; P<0.001) and cumulative pain post-session (95% CI=-0.021; -0.015; P<0.001) along the 24-week intervention only. In conclusion, a low-moderate intensity Tai-Chi program for 12 weeks (3 times/week) decreased levels of acute pain in fibromyalgia patients. A longer period is necessary (e. g. 24 weeks) for observing cumulative changes in pain.

  8. The Effects of Tai Chi in Centrally Obese Adults with Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J.; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C.; Oei, Tian P.; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H.; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = −5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (−2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (−3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  9. The effects of tai chi in centrally obese adults with depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Vitetta, Luis; Kostner, Karam; Crompton, David; Williams, Gail; Brown, Wendy J; Lopez, Alan; Xue, Charlie C; Oei, Tian P; Byrne, Gerard; Martin, Jennifer H; Whiteford, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tai Chi, a low-impact mind-body movement therapy, on severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in centrally obese people with elevated depression symptoms. In total, 213 participants were randomized to a 24-week Tai Chi intervention program or a wait-list control group. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks. Outcomes were severity of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, leg strength, central obesity, and other measures of metabolic symptom. There were statistically significant between-group differences in favor of the Tai Chi group in depression (mean difference = -5.6 units, P < 0.001), anxiety (-2.3 units, P < 0.01), and stress (-3.6 units, P < 0.001) symptom scores and leg strength (1.1 units, P < 0.001) at 12 weeks. These changes were further improved or maintained in the Tai Chi group relative to the control group during the second 12 weeks of follow-up. Tai Chi appears to be beneficial for reducing severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and leg strength in centrally obese people with depression symptoms. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the findings. This trial is registered with ACTRN12613000010796. PMID:25688280

  10. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  11. ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Z Lewis; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-05-19

    Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its high accuracy in distinguishing rewired artificial subnetworks, in silico yeast transcription-metabolic subnetworks, and rewired transcription subnetworks for Candida albicans versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against two differential-correlation based subnetwork rewiring approaches. Then, using transcriptome data from tolerant S. cerevisiae strain NRRL Y-50049 and a wild-type intolerant strain, ChiNet identified 44 metabolic pathways affected by rewired transcription subnetworks anchored to major adaptively activated transcription factor genes YAP1, RPN4, SFP1 and ROX1, in response to toxic chemical challenges involved in lignocellulose-to-biofuels conversion. These findings support the use of ChiNet in rewiring analysis of subnetworks where differential interaction patterns resulting from divergent nonlinear dynamics abound.

  12. ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Z. Lewis; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its high accuracy in distinguishing rewired artificial subnetworks, in silico yeast transcription-metabolic subnetworks, and rewired transcription subnetworks for Candida albicans versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against two differential-correlation based subnetwork rewiring approaches. Then, using transcriptome data from tolerant S. cerevisiae strain NRRL Y-50049 and a wild-type intolerant strain, ChiNet identified 44 metabolic pathways affected by rewired transcription subnetworks anchored to major adaptively activated transcription factor genes YAP1, RPN4, SFP1 and ROX1, in response to toxic chemical challenges involved in lignocellulose-to-biofuels conversion. These findings support the use of ChiNet in rewiring analysis of subnetworks where differential interaction patterns resulting from divergent nonlinear dynamics abound. PMID:25897127

  13. Production of the charmonium states {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} in proton nucleus interactions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, I.; Kisel, I.; Adams, M.; Cruse, C.; Ehret, K.; Funcke, M.; Schwenninger, B.; Wegener, D.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Braeuer, M.; Hofmann, W.; Jagla, T.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Pleier, M. A.; Reeves, K.; Sanchez, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the ratio R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=({chi}{sub c}{yields}J/{psi}+{gamma})/J/{psi} in pC, pTi, and pW interactions at 920 GeV/c ({radical}(s)=41.6 GeV) in the Feynman-x range -0.35chi}{sub c} events, which is by far the largest available sample in pA collisions. The result is R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=0.188{+-}0.013{sub st}(+0.024/-0.022){sub sys} averaged over the different materials, when no J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} polarizations are considered. The {chi}{sub c1} to {chi}{sub c2} production ratio R{sub 12}=R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 1}/R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 2} is measured to be 1.02{+-}0.40, leading to a cross section ratio ({sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}))=0.57{+-}0.23. The dependence of R{sub {chi}{sub c}} on the Feynman-x of the J/{psi}, x{sub F}{sup J/{psi}}, and its transverse momentum, p{sub T}{sup J/{psi}}, is studied, as well as its dependence on the atomic number, A, of the target. For the first time, an extensive study of possible biases on R{sub {chi}{sub c}} and R{sub 12} due to the dependence of acceptance on the polarization states of J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} is performed. By varying the polarization parameter, {lambda}{sub obs}, of all produced J/{psi}'s by two sigma around the value measured by HERA-B, and considering the maximum variation due to the possible {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} polarizations, it is shown that R{sub {chi}{sub c}} could change by a factor between 1.02 and 1.21 and R{sub 12} by a factor between 0.89 and 1.16.

  14. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  15. Predictors of adherence in a community-based tai chi program.

    PubMed

    Shah, Suhayb; Ardern, Chris; Tamim, Hala

    2015-06-01

    This study examined factors affecting adherence in a 16-week tai chi program among multi-ethnic middle-aged and older adults living in a low socioeconomic environment in Toronto. Analysis was based on data collected from three tai chi program cohorts that took place from August 2009 to March 2012. The main outcome variable, adherence, was measured by the total number of sessions attended by each of the participants. Total sample size was 210 participants with a mean age of 68.1 ± 8.6. Based on the regression model, greater adherence was significantly associated with older age, greater perceived stress, higher education, and higher mental and physical scores of Short Form-36 components. Conversely, lower adherence was significantly associated with higher baseline weekly physical activity. Our findings suggest that we target less-educated individuals with poor mental and physical health to optimize adherence for future community-based tai chi programs.

  16. Predictors of adherence in a community-based tai chi program.

    PubMed

    Shah, Suhayb; Ardern, Chris; Tamim, Hala

    2015-06-01

    This study examined factors affecting adherence in a 16-week tai chi program among multi-ethnic middle-aged and older adults living in a low socioeconomic environment in Toronto. Analysis was based on data collected from three tai chi program cohorts that took place from August 2009 to March 2012. The main outcome variable, adherence, was measured by the total number of sessions attended by each of the participants. Total sample size was 210 participants with a mean age of 68.1 ± 8.6. Based on the regression model, greater adherence was significantly associated with older age, greater perceived stress, higher education, and higher mental and physical scores of Short Form-36 components. Conversely, lower adherence was significantly associated with higher baseline weekly physical activity. Our findings suggest that we target less-educated individuals with poor mental and physical health to optimize adherence for future community-based tai chi programs. PMID:25917603

  17. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and

  18. Tai Chi and Qigong for the treatment and prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Ryan; Lavretsky, Helen

    2013-03-01

    Tai Chi and Qigong are traditional Chinese exercises that are widely practiced for their health benefits and as martial arts. Evidence suggests that these practices may be effective at treating a range of physical health conditions, and at improving health-related quality of life. There is growing interest in the use of Tai Chi and Qigong to treat mental disorders, because they are noninvasive, exercise-based therapies, and because patients with mental disorders frequently use complementary and alternative medicine. Evidence is promising that these treatments may be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and mood disturbances. PMID:23538081

  19. A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-04-01

    A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (-5.77 points, P = 0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (-9.56 points, P < 0.001) and VPS (2.80 points, P = 0.003) than did stretching participants. For tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Patient-Reported Outcomes With Tai Chi Exercise in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-01-01

    A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale–Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (−5.77 points, P = 0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (−9.56 points, P < 0.001) and VPS (2.80 points, P = 0.003) than did stretching participants. For tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise

  1. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  2. FITEST: A computer program for ``exact chi-square'' goodness-of-fit significance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romesburg, H. Charles; Marshall, Kim; Mauk, Timothy P.

    FITEST, a FORTRAN IV computer program, performs what is termed an exact chi-square test (ECST) to assess the goodness-of-fit between an observed and a theoretical distribution. This test is an alternative to the chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Because it is based on less restrictive assumptions, the ECST may be more appropriate. However, the test imposes a computational burden which, if not handled by an efficiently designed computer algorithm, makes it prohibitively expensive on all but trivial problems. FITEST, through an efficiently designed algorithm, makes an ECST possible for any problem at a reasonable cost.

  3. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  4. Testing Patterned Hypotheses in Multi-Way Contingency Tables Using Weighted Kappa and Weighted Chi Square

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Donald C.

    1977-01-01

    The kappa coefficient and the chi square statistic are used as indices of agreement between two judges' ratings of a set of stimuli on a nominal scale. In this article, the logic of these indices is extended to weighted multi-way cases. (Author/JKS)

  5. Work and Family Roles of Women in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuong, Tran Phi

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to point out the differences between the North and the South of Vietnam, more particularly, Saigon and Hanoi, in terms of family and work roles of women. It helps to explain the ways women in Ho Chi Minh City reconstruct their reproduction role, the attitudes of Southern husbands towards household tasks and the husband-wife…

  6. Facilitators and Barriers to Tai Chi in an Older Adult Community: A Theory-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryffin, Pete A.; Chen, William C.; Chaney, Beth H.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Roberts, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevention has been identified as a primary strategy for reducing health care costs, with potential Medicare savings up to $142.8 billion annually. Falls alone resulted in $28.2 billion in direct care costs. A growing body of research documents significant benefits of tai chi (TC) for balance and prevention and management of chronic…

  7. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Craig S.; Luo, Anna Y.; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additional to randomized controlled trials. Results Sixty eight reports in Chinese and 8 in English were included — a combined study sample of 9263 participants. Eighty one health outcomes were extracted from reports, and assigned evidence scores according to the evidence hierarchy. Four primary and eight secondary outcomes were found. Tai Chi is likely to benefit participants by increasing flexibility, reducing symptoms of depression, decreasing anxiety, and improving interpersonal sensitivity (primary outcomes). Secondary outcomes include improved lung capacity, balance, 800/1000m run time, quality of sleep, symptoms of compulsion, somatization and phobia, and decreased hostility. Conclusions Our results show Tai Chi yields psychological and physical benefits, and should be considered by higher education institutions as a possible means to promote the physical and psychological well-being of their students. PMID:26844196

  8. Calibration of Self-Efficacy for Conducting a Chi-Squared Test of Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…

  9. Dance-Based Exercise and Tai Chi and Their Benefits for People with Arthritis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…

  10. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  11. Effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster on patients with lumbar muscle strain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: observe the effect of Tai Chi exercise on the patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain under the intervention treatment of auricular plaster. Methods: 74 middle-aged and elderly patients, suffering from the chronic lumbar muscle strain, are randomly and equally divided into an observation group and a control group, with 37 patients in each group. The patients in the control group do Tai Chi exercise, while those in the observation group are treated by the auricular plaster therapy in addition to Tai Chi exercise. Evaluate and compare the disease conditions of the patients in the two groups before the treatment and after 12 weeks’ treatment. Results: after 12 weeks’ treatment, the patients in the two groups have been improved differently in comparison with those before the treatment (P < 0.05). However, the cure rate, the excellence rate and total effective rate of the observation group are superior to those of the control group, respectively P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thus their difference shows statistic significance. Conclusion: after 12 weeks’ Tai Chi exercise, it exercises an obvious curative effect on the patients with lumbar muscle strain but the curative effect is more remarkable if it is combined with auricular plaster therapy. PMID:25932261

  12. On Insensitivity of the Chi-Square Model Test to Nonlinear Misspecification in Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooijaart, Ab; Satorra, Albert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for some structural equation models (SEM), the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test is unable to detect the presence of nonlinear terms in the model. As an example, we consider a regression model with latent variables and interactions terms. Not only the model test has zero power against that type of…

  13. Observation of Persistent Edge Current Driven by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI)

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; W.T. Hamp; A.J. Redd; T.R. Jarboe; R.G. O'Neill; R.J. Smith

    2005-04-21

    Coaxial Helicity Injection, CHI, has been used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [B.A. Nelson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 3666] and HIT-II [T.R. Jarboe et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1807] to initiate plasma and to drive up to 400 kA of toroidal current. On HIT-II, CHI initiated discharges have been successfully coupled to ohmic sustainment [R. Raman et al., Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2565]. This paper presents the first results on the use of CHI to demonstrate the persistence of edge current drive in a preestablished single-null diverted inductive discharge. Edge current drive has the potential to improve plasma stability limits [J.E. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 37 (1997) 595]. While most current drive methods drive current in the interior of the plasma, CHI is well suited for driving current in the edge plasma.

  14. [Jean Chièze (1898-1975), medical engraver and illustrator].

    PubMed

    Bouday, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    As an imaginative and sensitive woodcutter Jean Chièze illustrated more than 130 books and realised many draws, paintings and lithographs and about 2000 engravings. He took part in some editions about Rabelais, Hippocrates, Galen and Ambroise Paré.

  15. The Chi-Square Test: Often Used and More Often Misinterpreted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Todd Michael; Ho, Timothy; Christie, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    The examination of cross-classified category data is common in evaluation and research, with Karl Pearson's family of chi-square tests representing one of the most utilized statistical analyses for answering questions about the association or difference between categorical variables. Unfortunately, these tests are also among the more commonly…

  16. More Misbehavior of Organisms: A Psi Chi Lecture by Marian and Robert Bailey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Abbott, Hannah J.; Lammers, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, Dr. Marian Breland Bailey, assisted by her husband Robert E. Bailey, gave the following presentation at the Psi Chi Banquet of the University of Central Arkansas. She and her first husband, Keller Breland, were students of B. F. Skinner and established Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) in 1947 and the IQ Zoo in 1955. Unknown to many…

  17. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2010-01-01

    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  18. Telegram from Ho Chi Minh to Harry S. Truman. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a telegram sent from Hanoi, Vietnam, by Ho Chi Minh through the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) station in Kunming, China, to President Truman in which Ho asked for support of Vietnam's independence from France. Provides background information, a reproduction of the telegram, and ideas for teaching activities. (CMK)

  19. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Joseph H. Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Joseph H. Hammer, recipient of the Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award, is cited for an outstanding research paper whose findings provide important evidence regarding the promise of a male-sensitive approach to mental health marketing and empirically support the inclusion of theory-driven enhancements in group-targeted mental…

  20. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  1. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through…

  2. Inclusive {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) decays to D{sup 0}X

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.

    2008-11-01

    Using {upsilon}(2S) and {upsilon}(3S) data collected with the CLEO III detector we have searched for decays of {chi}{sub bJ} to final states with open charm. We fully reconstruct D{sup 0} mesons with p{sub D{sup 0}}>2.5 GeV/c in three decay modes (K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, and K{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) in coincidence with radiative transition photons that tag the production of one of the {chi}{sub bJ}(nP) states. Significant signals are obtained for the two J=1 states. Recent nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) calculations of {chi}{sub bJ}(nP){yields}ccX depend on one nonperturbative parameter per {chi}{sub bJ} triplet. The extrapolation from the observed D{sup 0}X rate over a limited momentum range to a full ccX rate also depends on these same parameters. Using our data to fit for these parameters, we extract results which agree well with NRQCD predictions, confirming the expectation that charm production is largest for the J=1 states. In particular, for J=1, our results are consistent with ccg accounting for about one-quarter of all hadronic decays.

  3. FEM Modeling of Lithospheric Rheology of Taiwan from GPS and PSInSAR Observations of Postseismic Deformation of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Chang, W. L.; Chang, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Postseismic deformation following large earthquakes can persist from years to decades. Since the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), more than a decade of GPS records reveal postseismic deformation across Taiwan and have been used for afterslip and lithospheric rheology studies. Previous researches show that this earthquake has experienced rapid afterslip on deeper part of Chelungpu fault with slip rates decreased within years [Hsu et al., 2002 and 2007]. Other postseismic deformation signals were modeled by assumed Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation with heterogeneous lower crust and upper mantle [Rousset et al., 2012; Tang et al., 2015], which suggest that the pattern of vertical displacements is more sensitive to the geometry of heterogeneous viscoelastic lithospheric structure. To improve the spatial coverage of observation, this study processed both ERS and Envisat SAR images from 1999-2008 with PSInSAR techniques, and the result provide a better illustration of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) deformation field which is near to vertical. Both GPS and PSInSAR results reveal that the surface displacement rates (horizontal or vertical?) of eastern Taiwan are higher than interseismic rates after a decade, and this feature may reveal the importance of low viscosity zone beneath central range of Taiwan. With the benefits from GPS and PSInSAR data, we intend to test other posssible viscosity and the geometry of viscoelastic structure. We adopt coseismic fault geometry and slip distribution of the Chi-Chi earthquake based on previous studies, and build a set of 2D rheological models with an elastic upper-crust layer overlain a viscoelastic lower-crust layer and a viscoelastic upper mantle. The depths of the two layer boundaries are determined according to subsurface tectonic and velocity structures inferred by previous literatures. We employ the finite element method (FEM), Pylith, to estimate the postseismic surface deformation corresponding to different viscosities. Benefit from the

  4. Two-fluid equilibrium transition during multi-pulsing CHI in spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2015-11-01

    Two-fluid dynamo current drive has been studied to achieve a quasi-steady sustainment and good confinement of spherical torus (ST) plasmas by multi-pulsing CHI (M-CHI) in the HIST device. The density gradient, poloidal flow shear, and radial electric shear enhanced by applying the second CHI pulse is observed around the separatrix in the high field side to cause not only the ExB drift but also the ion diamagnetic drift, leading the two-fluid dynamo. The two-fluid equilibrium transition during the M-CHI in the ST is investigated by modelling the M-CHI in the two-fluid equilibrium calculations. The toroidal magnetic field becomes from a diamagnetic to a paramagnetic profile in the closed flux region due to the increase of the poloidal electron flow velocity in the central open flux column (OFC) region, while the diamagnetic profile is kept in the OFC region. The toroidal ion flow velocity is increased from negative to positive values in the closed flux region due to the increase in the drift velocity and the Hall effect. As the ion diamagnetic drift velocity is changed in the same direction as the ExB drift velocity around the separatrix in the high field side through the negative ion pressure gradient there, the poloidal ion flow velocity is increased in the OFC region, enhancing the flow shear. The radial electric field shear around the separatrix is enhanced due to the strong dependence on the magnetic force through the interaction of toroidal ion flow velocity and axial magnetic field. The density is decreased in the closed flux region according to the generalized Bernoulli law and its negative gradient around the separatrix steepens.

  5. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions. PMID:20492638

  6. Associations of Tai Chi, walking, and jogging with mortality in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Xianglan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Jing; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-09-01

    Moderate-intensity exercise has attracted considerable attention because of its safety and many health benefits. Tai Chi, a form of mind-body exercise that originated in ancient China, has been gaining popularity. Practicing Tai Chi may improve overall health and well-being; however, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated its relationship with mortality. We assessed the associations of regular exercise and specifically participation in Tai Chi, walking, and jogging with total and cause-specific mortality among 61,477 Chinese men in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009). Information on exercise habits was obtained at baseline using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained through biennial home visits and linkage with a vital statistics registry. During a mean follow-up of 5.48 years, 2,421 deaths were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, men who exercised regularly had a hazard ratio for total mortality of 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.87) compared with men who did not exercise. The corresponding hazard ratios were 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.89) for practicing Tai Chi, 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 0.86) for walking, and 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.90) for jogging. Similar inverse associations were also found for cancer and cardiovascular mortality. The present study provides the first evidence that, like walking and jogging, practicing Tai Chi is associated with reduced mortality.

  7. Transport simulations of ohmic TFTR experiments with profile-consistent microinstability-based models for chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/. [BALDUR

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Tang, W.M.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-03-01

    Transport simulations of ohmically heated TFTR experiments with recently developed profile-consistent microinstability models for the anomalous thermal diffusivities, chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, give good agreement with experimental data. The steady-state temperature profiles and the total energy confinement times, tau/sub e/, were found to agree for each of the ohmic TFTR experiments simulated, including three high radiation cases and two plasmas fueled by pellet injection. Both collisional and collisionless models are tested. The trapped-electron drift wave microinstability model results are consistent with the thermal confinement of large plasma ohmic experiments on TFTR. We also find that transport due to the toroidal ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) modes can cause saturation in tau/sub E/ at the highest densities comparable to that observed on TFTR and equivalent to a neoclassical anomaly factor of 3. Predictions based on stabilized eta/sub i/-mode-driven ion transport are found to be in agreement with the enhanced global energy confinement times for pellet-fueled plasmas. 33 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The July 2009 flurry of 3≤M<6 seismicity across Taiwan, and its possible relationship to coseismic and postseismic stresses imparted by the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    An unusually productive sequence of twelve 3≤M<6 earthquakes occurred in central and northeastern Taiwan during 2-28 July 2009. These events have strike-slip and thrust focal mechanisms. We study the progression of these shocks, as well as smaller (M≥2) shocks since the time of the 21 September 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi event, and calculate of the impact of stress transferred by Chi-Chi on their occurrence. We estimate the Coulomb stress imparted by the coseismic slip, afterslip and viscoelastic deformation, all of which are important for this ramp-thrust event. Eleven out of the 12 July 2009 shocks sustained a Coulomb stress increase on at least one of their nodal planes caused by the coseismic and postseismic stress imparted by the Chi-Chi event (assuming a friction coefficient of 0.4). The stress increases range from 0.05 to 2.1 bars. Nevertheless, only 7 out of the 12 shocks can be associated with postseismic stress increases resolved onto their nodal planes, so the influence of postseismic stress remains equivocal. In examining the much more abundant M≥2 shocks, we find a good spatial correlation between the seismicity rate change and the calculated postseismic stress imparted 15 months after Chi-Chi. Here, the seismicity rate 15-75 months after the 1999 quake is divided by the rate during the 60 months before the 1999 quake. A very high rate of seismicity is observed just northeast of the northern end of the Chelungpu fault relative to the period immediately after the Chi-Chi shock. This pattern of seismicity appears to be associated with stress imparted by afterslip and viscoelastic deformation. Thus, the recent flurry of earthquakes seems largely consistent with the calculated evolution of stress and seismicity during the past decade, as does the occurrence of smaller events.

  9. The Noncentral Chi-square Distribution in Misspecified Structural Equation Models: Finite Sample Results from a Monte Carlo Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bollen, Kenneth A.; Paxton, Pamela; Kirby, James; Chen, Feinian

    2002-01-01

    Examined several hypotheses about the suitability of the noncentral chi square in applied research using Monte Carlo simulation experiments with seven sample sizes and three distinct model types, each with five specifications. Results show that, in general, for models with small to moderate misspecification, the noncentral chi-square is well…

  10. Study on community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits and well-being: Using Taoyuan City as an example.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference.

  11. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  12. The effect of Tai Chi exercise on gait initiation and gait performance in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shinichi; Nocera, Joe R; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Juncos, Jorge L; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Wolf, Steven L; Hass, Chris J

    2013-11-01

    Gait dysfunction and postural instability are two debilitating symptoms in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Tai Chi exercise has recently gained attention as an attractive intervention for persons with PD because of its known potential to reduce falls and improve postural control, walking abilities, and safety at a low cost. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on dynamic postural control during gait initiation and gait performance in persons with idiopathic PD, and to determine whether these benefits could be replicated in two different environments, as complementary projects. In these two separate projects, a total of 45 participants with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi groups in both projects completed a 16-week Tai Chi exercise session, while the control groups consisted of either a placebo (i.e., Qi-Gong) or non-exercise group. Tai Chi did not significantly improve Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score, selected gait initiation parameters or gait performance in either project. Combined results from both projects suggest that 16 weeks of class-based Tai Chi were ineffective in improving either gait initiation, gait performance, or reducing parkinsonian disability in this subset of persons with PD. Thus the use of short-term Tai Chi exercise should require further study before being considered a valuable therapeutic intervention for these domains in PD.

  13. The Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Gait Initiation and Gait Performance in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Shinichi; Nocera, Joe R.; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Juncos, Jorge L.; Gregor, Robert J.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Wolf, Steven L.; Hass, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Gait dysfunction and postural instability are two debilitating symptoms in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Tai Chi exercise has recently gained attention as an attractive intervention for persons with PD because of its known potential to reduce falls and improve postural control, walking abilities, and safety at a low cost. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on dynamic postural control during gait initiation and gait performance in persons with idiopathic PD, and to determine whether these benefits could be replicated in two different environments, as complementary projects. In these two separate projects, a total of 45 participants with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi groups in both projects completed a 16-week Tai Chi exercise session, while the control groups consisted of either a placebo (i.e., Qi-Gong) or non-exercise group. Tai Chi did not significantly improve Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III score, selected gait initiation parameters or gait performance in either project. Combined results from both projects suggest that 16 weeks of class-based Tai Chi were ineffective in improving either gait initiation, gait performance, or reducing parkinsonian disability in this subset of persons with PD. Thus the use of short-term Tai Chi exercise should require further study before being considered a valuable therapeutic intervention for these domains in PD. PMID:23835431

  14. Study on community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits and well-being: Using Taoyuan City as an example.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference. PMID:26444812

  15. The effect of tai chi exercise on quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, despite remarkable advances in the care of hemodialysis patients, the quality of life (QOL) for these patients is still unsatisfactory. Although previous reports confirmed the effect of exercise on the well-being of renal patients, less than 50% of end-stage kidney patients participate in a regular sports program. Tai chi is a slow and gentle exercise that is suitable for people with chronic illnesses and those with severe intolerance of exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of tai chi exercise on the QOL of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in a single group and in two steps. Twenty-five hemodialysis patients, admitted to hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, were selected, and their QOL was compared before and after intervention in two domains of satisfaction and importance. Convenience sampling was used. The sampling was convenience. The subjects were trained in the intervention through a single session of tai chi exercise class for one hour weekly, for 12 weeks, with a training compact disc (CD) that helped the patients to exercise at least twice a week at home. Data were collected by the completion of a demographic characteristics form and a researcher-made QOL questionnaire adopted from Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Dialysis Version and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire by the researchers. The data were analyzed by a paired t-test through SPSS software version 18. Results: Data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference in health and functioning (P < 0.001), socioeconomic (P < 0.001), and psychospiritual (P < 0.001) dimensions, and the family dimension had P = 0.002 in the satisfaction domain and P = 0.008 in the importance domain; the total score of quality of life in both domains was P < 0.001. Conclusions: According to the research findings, tai chi exercise improves the QOL score

  16. Functional analyses of the chitin-binding domains and the catalytic domain of Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ce Mun; Chye, Mee-Len; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar; Ouyang, Shi-Wen; Zhao, Kai-Jun; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Mowbray, Sherry L

    2004-09-01

    We previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains. Synthesis of its mRNA is induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate treatment, Aspergillus niger infection and caterpillar (Pieris rapae) feeding, suggesting that the protein has a role in defense. In that it possesses two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of Urtica dioica agglutinin but unlike that protein, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. To explore the properties of multi-domain BjCHI1, we have expressed recombinant BjCHI1 and two derivatives, which lack one (BjCHI2) or both (BjCHI3) chitin-binding domains, as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, showed apparent molecular masses on SDS-PAGE larger than calculated, and could be deglycosylated using alpha-mannosidase. Recombinant BjCHI3, without the proline/threonine-rich linker region containing predicted O-glycosylation sites, did not appear to be processed by alpha-mannosidase. BjCHI1's ability to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes is unique among known chitinases. Both chitin-binding domains are essential for agglutination; this property is absent in recombinant BjCHI2 and BjCHI3. To identify potential catalytic residues, we generated site-directed mutations in recombinant BjCHI3. Mutation E212A showed the largest effect, exhibiting 0% of wild-type specific activity. H211N and R361A resulted in considerable (>91%) activity loss, implying these charged residues are also important in catalysis. E234A showed 36% retention of activity and substitution Y269D, 50%. The least affected mutants were E349A and D360A, with 73% and 68% retention, respectively. Like Y269, E349 and D360 are possibly involved in substrate binding rather than catalysis. PMID:15604744

  17. Particle paths of Lagrangian velocity distribution simulating Yin-Yang balance in ancient Tai-Chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2007-05-01

    The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field simulate very well the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram. There are four forms called the “four states” in the Tai-Chi diagram. Of the four states, under Yang are the Major Yang and the Minor Yin, and under Yin are the Major Yin and the Minor Yang. The present study provides the proper positions of the four states in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s Eight Trigrams Chart located along the ancient Tai-Chi diagram is also developed in the present study. The interface curve of Yin-Yang in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram has never been described mathematically. It can now be formulated by the equations describing the particle paths in the Lagrangian flow field.

  18. Effects of tai chi exercise on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Chen, H; Berger, M R; Zhang, L; Guo, H; Huang, Y

    2016-10-01

    Tai chi exercise may have positive effects on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. This systematic review is the first to summarize evidence to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise in bone health. The benefits of tai chi exercise on bone health remain unclear; further studies are needed. Emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health among older women, but yielded inconclusive results. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review to evaluate evidence from RCTs to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), and bone turnover markers (BTM) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Six electronic databases were searched, and reference lists of systematic reviews and identified studies from the search strategy were also screened. We included all RCTs that investigate tai chi exercise for bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data selection, extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed independently by two reviewers. Ten trials detailed in 11 articles were included. Six of the 11 studies reported positive outcomes on bone health. Results of our meta-analysis showed a significant effect of tai chi exercise on BMD change at the spine compared with no treatment in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. When tai chi exercise combined with a calcium supplement was compared with the calcium supplement alone, the result of BMD change at the spine showed no significant effect. Because the measurable effect observed was minimal, and due to the low quality of methodology of the studies, we conclude that the result is of limited reliability. Tai chi exercise may have benefits on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, but the evidence is sometimes weak, poor, and inconsistent. Consequently, only limited conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health. Further well designed studies with

  19. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  20. Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston Public Middle School.

    PubMed

    Wall, Robert B

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of a clinical project that used combined Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction as an educational program. The 5-week program demonstrated that sustained interest in this material in middle school-aged boys and girls is possible. Statements the boys and girls made in the process suggested that they experienced well-being, calmness, relaxation, improved sleep, less reactivity, increased self-care, self-awareness, and a sense of interconnection or interdependence with nature. The curriculum is described in detail for nurses, teachers, and counselors who want to replicate this type of instruction for adolescent children. This project infers that Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction may be transformational tools that can be used in educational programs appropriate for middle school-aged children. Recommendations are made for further study in schools and other pediatric settings.

  1. Polynomial reduction and evaluation of tree- and loop-level CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnikov, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We develop a polynomial reduction procedure that transforms any gauge fixed CHY amplitude integrand for n scattering particles into a σ-moduli multivariate polynomial of what we call the standard form. We show that a standard form polynomial must have a specific ladder type monomial structure, which has finite size at any n, with highest multivariate degree given by ( n - 3)( n - 4) /2. This set of monomials spans a complete basis for polynomials with rational coefficients in kinematic data on the support of scattering equations. Subsequently, at tree and one-loop level, we employ the global residue theorem to derive a prescription that evaluates any CHY amplitude by means of collecting simple residues at infinity only. The prescription is then applied explicitly to some tree and one-loop amplitude examples.

  2. Michael K. Scullin: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cynthia J. Najdowski: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. The 2012 winner is Cynthia J. Najdowski for an outstanding research paper that examines how jurors' judgments are influenced by a juvenile defendant's confession and status as intellectually disabled. Through the use of a mock trial experiment, the research revealed that jurors discounted a juvenile's coerced confession and sometimes used intellectual disability as a mitigating factor. Attribution theory and the discounting principle were used to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect. The paper, titled 'Understanding Jurors' Judgments in Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants,' was published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in October 2011 and was the basis for Najdowski's selection as the recipient of the 2012 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Bette L. Bottoms, PhD, served as faculty supervisor. Najdowski's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented.

  4. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Bell, M G; Ono, M; Bigelow, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Lee, K C; Maqueda, R; Menard, J; Paul, S

    2007-05-23

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  5. [Effects of a programme of aquatic Ai Chi exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Perez-De la Cruz, Sagrario; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La fibromialgia es un trastorno reumatico que presenta sintomatologia fisica, psicologica y social. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los beneficios de un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico sobre la calidad de vida, depresion y dolor en pacientes con fibromialgia. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio experimental con 20 pacientes diagnosticadas de fibromialgia de dos localidades distintas. Las dimensiones del estudio fueron la capacidad funcional (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), la valoracion del dolor (escala analogica visual) y la salud fisica y mental (Short Form-36). Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en el momento basal y al finalizar las 20 sesiones. Resultados. Finalizadas las diez semanas de tratamiento, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en practicamente todas las variables valoradas. Conclusion. Un programa de Ai Chi en el medio acuatico contribuye a mejorar la salud fisica y mental, el dolor y la calidad de vida de pacientes con fibromialgia.

  6. A kinematic and metabolic analysis of the first Lu of Tai Chi in experts and beginners.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Elena; Nardello, Francesca; Fracasso, Enrico; Franchi, Sara; Clauti, Anna; Cesari, Paola; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare movement kinematics, cocontraction times, and metabolic data in expert and nonexpert Tai Chi practitioners. Significant differences were observed for all kinematic parameters: experts moved smoothly (lower jerk) and with a lower frequency. No differences in metabolic and electromyography data were observed but for the breathing pattern (experts breathed slowly and deeply). Movement frequency and breathing pattern are thus the main features that distinguish expert and nonexpert practitioners.

  7. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia.

  8. Design, Installation and Performance of the New insulator for NSTX CHI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Chrzanowski, J; Gates, D; Menard, J; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Maqueda, R J; Schaffer, M J

    2008-03-05

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), a non-inductive method to initiate plasma and generate toroidal plasma current, is being investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The center stack and outer vacuum vessel are separated by insulating gaps at the top and bottom of the slim central column so that a high voltage (up to 2 kV) can be applied between them from a pulsed power supply or a capacitor bank to initiate an arc discharge. In the presence of a suitable poloidal magnetic field, the discharge is initiated at the lower gap (the injector gap) and because of the strong toroidal field develops a helical structure resulting in substantial toroidal plasma current being driven. In NSTX, up to 390 kA of toroidal current has been generated for an injected current of 25 kA. The early investigations of CHI however frequently developed arcs across the insulator at the top of the machine (the absorber gap), which terminated the desired discharge. This arcing greatly restricted the operational space available for CHI studies. During 2002, the absorber region was modified to suppress these arcs. The new design includes a new ceramic insulator on the high field side of the absorber region with a much longer tracking distance between conducting elements at the different potentials. Furthermore, two new coils were installed near the absorber to provide the ability to minimize the poloidal field connecting the center stack and outer vacuum vessel. During the subsequent experimental campaign, CHI operation was less prone to arcing in the absorber and those arcs that did occur did not terminate the main discharge.)

  9. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia. PMID:9376101

  10. A new immunoglobulin variant: gamma3 heavy chain disease protein CHI.

    PubMed Central

    Frangione, B

    1976-01-01

    Protein CHI is a defective human gamma3 heavy chain immunoglobulin with a deletion encompassing a portion of the variable and constant regions. Joining of the two pieces takes place at the beginning of an extra fragment (Fh) in the constant region where repetitive sequences are found, apparently as the result of gene duplications and/or unequal crossover between gamma genes. It is postulated that a 45 nucleotide fragment is the repetitive unit coding for the extra fragment. PMID:818639

  11. Measurement invariance via multigroup SEM: Issues and solutions with chi-square-difference tests.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Chan, Wai

    2016-09-01

    Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) plays a key role in studying measurement invariance and in group comparison. When population covariance matrices are deemed not equal across groups, the next step to substantiate measurement invariance is to see whether the sample covariance matrices in all the groups can be adequately fitted by the same factor model, called configural invariance. After configural invariance is established, cross-group equalities of factor loadings, error variances, and factor variances-covariances are then examined in sequence. With mean structures, cross-group equalities of intercepts and factor means are also examined. The established rule is that if the statistic at the current model is not significant at the level of .05, one then moves on to testing the next more restricted model using a chi-square-difference statistic. This article argues that such an established rule is unable to control either Type I or Type II errors. Analysis, an example, and Monte Carlo results show why and how chi-square-difference tests are easily misused. The fundamental issue is that chi-square-difference tests are developed under the assumption that the base model is sufficiently close to the population, and a nonsignificant chi-square statistic tells little about how good the model is. To overcome this issue, this article further proposes that null hypothesis testing in multigroup SEM be replaced by equivalence testing, which allows researchers to effectively control the size of misspecification before moving on to testing a more restricted model. R code is also provided to facilitate the applications of equivalence testing for multigroup SEM. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Some numerical reslts on best uniform polynomial approximation of. chi. sup. alpha. on (0,1)

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.J.; Varga, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Let {alpha} be a positive number, and let E{sub n}(chi{sup {alpha}}; (0,1)) denote the error of best uniform approximation to {chi}{sup {alpha}}, by polynomials of degree at most n, on the interval (0,1). The Russian mathematician S.N. Bernstein established the existence of a nonnegative constant {Beta}({alpha}) such that {Beta}({alpha}):= {sub n{yields}{infinity}lim(2n){sup 2{alpha}}E{sub n}({chi}{sup {alpha}};(0.1)). In addition, Bernstein showed that {Beta}{alpha} < {Gamma}(2{alpha}){vert bar}sin(pi}{alpha}){vert bar}/{pi} ({alpha} > 0) and that {Gamma}(2{alpha}){vert bar}sin({pi}{alpha}){vert bar}/{pi} (1{minus}1/2{alpha}{minus}1) < {Beta}({alpha}) ({alpha} > {1/2}), so that the asymptotic behavior of {Beta}({alpha}) is known when {alpha}{yields}{infinity}. Still, the problem of trying to determine {Beta}({alpha}) more precisely, for all {alpha} > 0, is intriguing. To this end, we have rigorously determined the numbers for thirteen values of {alpha}, where these numbers were calculated with a precision of at least 200 significant digits. For each of these thirteen values of {alpha}, Richardson's extrapolation was applied to the products to obtain estimates of {Beta}({alpha}) to approximately 40 decimal places. Included are graphs of the points ({alpha},{Beta}({alpha})) for the thirteen values of {alpha} that we considered.

  13. Optical filtering properties of subwavelength Tai-chi-shaped metal hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlin; Liu, Hui; Luo, Hu; Zhu, Weihua; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to study the optical properties of a novel kind of periodic subwavelength hole arrays composed of Tai-chi-shaped holes in silver film, and the optical transmission properties of femtosecond optical pulse excitation is numerically calculated. We find that this Tai-chi-shaped device has better optical band-pass filtering properties, such as narrower pass band and higher transmissivity in visible wavelengths range, than other devices under consideration. Based on the generation of surface plasmons resonance mode in the dielectric-metal interface, the center wavelength of transmission can be tuned by changing the array periodicities. We observe that the tune ability mainly depends on the space period along the direction parallel to that of the incident pulse polarization. It is also found that both the strength and the wavelength of the transmission peaks of rectangularly distributed metal hole arrays are determined by the polarization of incident light. Additionally, we demonstrate the typical band-pass filtering properties of this Tai-Chi-shaped holes structure. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the narrow pass band is about 20 nm in visible wavelengths range.

  14. Deletion of v-chiA from a Baculovirus Reduces Horizontal Transmission in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Slavicek, James; Podgwaite, John D.; Webb, Ralph; Fuester, Roger; Peiffer, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can initiate devastating disease outbreaks in populations of defoliating Lepidoptera, a fact that has been exploited for the purposes of biological control of some pest insects. A key part of the horizontal transmission process of NPVs is the degradation of the larval integument by virus-coded proteins called chitinases, such as V-CHIA produced by the v-chiA genes. We used recombinant and naturally occurring strains of the Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV) to test horizontal transmission in the field, release of virus from dead larvae under laboratory conditions, and cell lysis and virus release in cell culture. In the field, strains of LdMNPV lacking functional v-chiA genes showed reduced horizontal transmission compared to wild-type or repaired strains. These findings were mirrored by a marked reduction in released virus in laboratory tests and cell culture when the same strains were used to infect larvae or cells. Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings. PMID:23624474

  15. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Rosane Maria; Zanini, Maurice; Ferrari, Juliana Nery; Silva, César Augusto; Farias, Leonardo Fontanive; Comel, João Carlos; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Santos, Antonio Cardoso; Stein, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Tai Chi Chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a search for studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by three independent investigators, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the manuscripts. Results The initial search found 201 studies that, after review of titles and abstracts, resulted in a selection of 12 manuscripts. They were fully analyzed and of these, nine were excluded. As a final result, three randomized controlled trials remained. The studies analyzed in this systematic review included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease, all were clinically stable and able to exercise. The three experiments had a control group that practiced structured exercise training or received counseling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that Tai Chi Chuan can be an unconventional form of cardiac rehabilitation, being an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the methodological quality of the included articles and the small sample sizes clearly indicate that new randomized controlled trials are needed in this regard. PMID:24759952

  16. Genetic differentiation of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Huber, K; Le Loan, L; Hoang, T H; Ravel, S; Rodhain, F; Failloux, A-B

    2002-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever emerged in the 1950s and has become a major public health concern in most Asian countries. In Vietnam, little is known about the intraspecific variation of the vector and its consequences on vectorial capacity. Here we report the use of microsatellite markers to differentiate Aedes aegypti populations in Ho Chi Minh City, a typical, overcrowded Asian city. Six microsatellite loci, with 5-14 alleles per locus, were scored in 20 mosquito samples collected in 1998 in Ho Chi Minh City. We found substantial differentiation among Ae. aegypti populations from the outskirts, whereas populations from the centre of the city showed less differentiation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that populations of Ae. aegypti in central Ho Chi Minh City are panmictic because there are abundant larval breeding sites and an abundance of humans for adults to feed upon. In contrast, populations on the outskirts become differentiated largely through the processes of genetic drift because larval breeding sites are not as abundant. These findings implicate human activities associated with urbanization, as factors shaping the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations.

  17. Kinetic studies on the hydrolysis of N-acetylated and N-deacetylated derivatives of 4-methylumbelliferyl chitobioside by the family 18 chitinases ChiA and ChiB from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuji; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Tokuyasu, Ken; Sasaki, Chiye; Fukamizo, Tamo; Hayashi, Kiyoshi

    2003-02-01

    Kinetic analyses of the hydrolysis reactions of N-acetylated and N-deacetylated derivatives of 4-methylumbelliferyl chitobioside [(GlcNAc)(2)-UMB (1), GlcN-GlcNAc-UMB (2), GlcNAc-GlcN-UMB (3), and (GlcN)(2)-UMB (4)] by ChiA and ChiB from Serratia marcescens were performed. Both enzymes released UMB from all compounds apart from 4. The S-v curves of the hydrolyses of 1 by ChiA and ChiB both exhibited atypical kinetic patterns, and the shapes of the two S-v curves were different from one another. However, both curve shapes were explained by assuming some of the enzyme present formed complexes with multiple molecules of the substrate. Conversely, the S-v curves generated in the cleavage of 2 and 3 by ChiA exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten profiles. Both enzymes hydrolysed 2 with an approximately 14-fold higher K(m) value relative to 1, indicating that the N-acetyl group was recognised at the -2 subsite. The k(cat) value obtained with ChiA was identical to the k(cat) value observed for 1. However, the k(cat) value for ChiB was one-fourth that of 1, suggesting that the removal of the N-acetyl group caused an increase in the formation of a non-productive ES-complex. ChiA and ChiB hydrolysed 3 with 5- and 20-fold greater K(m) values relative to 1, respectively, and 60- and 30-fold smaller k(cat) values relative to 1, respectively. The reaction mechanism of family 18 chitinases is discussed based upon the results obtained from the hydrolysis of these compounds.

  18. Fast developed Da-An Gorge: Rapid fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat across a co-seismic popup zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Chu; Frankel, Kurt; Chan, Yu-Chang; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Tseng, Chia-Han

    2014-05-01

    A 1-km-long segment in the lower Da-An River in fold-thrust belt of western Taiwan was uplifted ~10 m during the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, that was subsequently resulting in a 20- to 30-m-deep bedrock gorge within less than 10 years. The amount of coseismic uplift along the channel bed does not fully explain the resulting bedrock channel incision. Using a series of aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), and real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) surveys, we characterized knickpoint retreat and fluvial incision in the Da-An River gorge. We also analyzed discharge and precipitation data and collected measurements of rock strength and joint plane orientations to better understand the climatic, lithological, and structural influence on the evolution of the actively incising gorge. Two stages of fluvial incision and knickpoint migration are identified in the gorge following the surface uplift during the Chi-Chi earthquake. From 1999 to 2004, 3 to 5 m of alluvium was removed from the channel bed, followed by 3 to 4 m of bedrock channel incision. The knickpoint generated immediately after the earthquake remained where the uplift occurred in 1999. Since 2005, the channel bed has lowered rapidly with local incision rates as high as 15 m/yr. The average upstream knickpoint migration rate over the period 2005 to 2009 was 238 m/yr; total upstream migration from the location of knickpoint formation was about 1190 m. While tectonic uplift formed the knickpoint and set the stage for channel incision, climate played a critical role in accelerating the fluvial response to coseismic displacement. More than 20 m of vertical bedrock channel incision and 1180 m of upstream knickpoint migration occurred primarily during the post-2005 typhoon seasons (May-October). Based on repeat surveys of the Da-An River longitudinal profile and analysis of precipitation and discharge data, we suggest that a discharge threshold of 1200 to 2600 m

  19. Measurements of branching fractions for electromagnetic transitions involving the {chi}{sub bJ}(1P) states

    SciTech Connect

    Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Tarbert, C. M.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Hietala, J.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Brisbane, S.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Spradlin, P.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.

    2011-03-01

    Using (9.32, 5.88) million {Upsilon}(2S,3S) decays taken with the CLEO III detector, we obtain five product branching fractions for the exclusive processes {Upsilon}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub b0,1,2}(1P){yields}{gamma}{gamma}{Upsilon}(1S) and {Upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub b1,2}(1P){yields}{gamma}{gamma}{Upsilon}(1S). We observe the transition {chi}{sub b0}(1P){yields}{gamma}{Upsilon}(1S) for the first time. Using the known branching fractions for B[{Upsilon}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub bJ}(1P)], we extract values for B[{chi}{sub bJ}(1P){yields}{gamma}{Upsilon}(1S)] for J=0, 1, 2. In turn, these values can be used to unfold the {Upsilon}(3S) product branching fractions to obtain values for B[{Upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub b1,2}(1P)] for the first time individually. Comparison of these with each other and with the branching fraction B[{Upsilon}(3S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub b0}] previously measured by CLEO provides tests of relativistic corrections to electric dipole matrix elements.

  20. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  1. The effects of tai chi chuan combined with vibration training on balance control and lower extremity muscle power.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key pointsEight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population.The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism.Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other.

  2. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49) = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01), except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6) and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

  3. The Interaction of cos with Chi Is Separable from DNA Packaging in recA- recBC-Mediated Recombination of Bacteriophage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Stahl, Mary M.; Leach, David; Stahl, Franklin W.

    1983-01-01

    Chi (5'-GCTGGTGG) is a recombinator in RecA- RecBC-mediated recombination in Escherichia coli. In bacteriophage λ vegetative recombination, Chi is fully active only when it is correctly oriented with respect to cos, the site that defines the ends of the packaged chromosome. Here we demonstrate that packaging from cos is not necessary for this cos-Chi interaction. Our evidence suggests that correctly oriented cos is an activator of Chi. cos, as an activator, is (1) dominant over cos-, (2) active opposite an extensive heterology, (3) able to interact with Chi only when on the same (cis) chromosome, and (4) able to interact with Chi at distances as far as ≥ 20 kb. Thus, cos and Chi form a two-component recombinator system for general recombination. cos may serve as an asymmetric entry site for a recombination enzyme that recognizes Chi in an asymmetric way. PMID:6225696

  4. Search for the Z_1(4050)^+ and Z_2(4250)^+ States in bar B^0 to chi_{c1} K^- pi^+ and B^+ to chi_{c1} K^0_S pi^+

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-10

    We search for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} states, reported by the Belle Collaboration, decaying to {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} where {chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}. The data were collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at center-of-mass energy 10.58 GeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 429 fb{sup -1}. In this analysis, we model the background-subtracted, efficiency-corrected {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution using the K{pi} mass distribution and the corresponding normalized K{pi} Legendre polynomial moments, and then test the need for the inclusion of resonant structures in the description of the {chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup +} mass distribution. No evidence is found for the Z{sub 1}(4050){sup +} and Z{sub 2}(4250){sup +} resonances, and 90% confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions are reported for the corresponding B-meson decay modes.

  5. Exact Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Probability Test for 3 by 2 Cross-Classification Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subroutines to calculate exact chi square and Fisher's exact probability tests are presented for 3 by 2 cross-classification tables. A nondirectional probability value for each test is computed recursively. (Author/GDC)

  6. Consumer Health Informatics in the Context of Engaged Citizens and eHealth Services - A New CHI Meta Model.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Martin; Griebel, Lena; Becker, Kurt; Pobiruchin, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a relatively new and interdisciplinary field in Medical Informatics. It focuses on consumer- rather than professional-centered services. However, the definitions and understanding of a) what is a "consumer"? or b) what is health technology in the context of CHI? and c) what factors and actors influence the usage of eHealth services? vary widely. The CHI special interest group (SIG) - associated with the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology - conducted two workshops in 2015 to improve the common understanding on these topics. The workshop outcomes, the derived CHI-specific meta model and examples how to apply this model are presented in this paper. The model supports the definition of multi-actor contexts, as it not solely reflects the conventional patient-physician relationship but also allows for the description of second health market providers. PMID:27332268

  7. Effect of Tai Chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in elderly men with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Osinski, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 18-week Tai Chi training on body balance in a dynamic trial among elderly men with dizziness. The study covered subjects aged 60 to 80 years. We identified 40 men who reported a history of dizziness. The subjects were recruited using direct mailings and a community information campaign. The participants were randomly assigned to either the exercise intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The Tai Chi group participated in an 18-week exercise class held for 45 minutes twice a week. Body balance was studied in two ways: using the "8 foot up and go test" (Rikli and Jones 2001) and using a Computer Posturographic System PE 90 (manufactured by Military Institute of Aviation Medicine in Warsaw and outfitted with Pro-Med modified software). The ability to perform specific tasks (maximal deflections in four directions) was measured on the posturographic platform. The variation in results obtained on the first and second date of tests in the experimental and control groups was confirmed statistically using four parameters, i.e. "8 foot up to and go test (H = 8.21;p = 0.003), forward deflection (H = 3.70;p = 0.050), backward deflection (H = 5.04;p = 0.024) and maximum sway area (H = 8.86;p = 0.002). Consequently, we found that the 18-week period of Tai-Chi exercises, with a frequency of twice a week for 45 minutes, is beneficial for dynamic balance, which is important for the reduction of fall risk factors among elderly men with dizziness.

  8. The Crystal Structure of the Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenase from Sphingomonas CHY-1

    SciTech Connect

    Jakoncic,J.; Jouanneau, Y.; Meyer, C.; Stojanoff, V.

    2007-01-01

    The ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) from Sphingomonas CHY-1 is remarkable due to its ability to initiate the oxidation of a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PAHs containing four- and five-fused rings, known pollutants for their toxic nature. Although the terminal oxygenase from CHY-1 exhibits limited sequence similarity with well characterized RHDs from the naphthalene dioxygenase family, the crystal structure determined to 1.85 {angstrom} by molecular replacement revealed the enzyme to share the same global {alpha}{sub 3}{beta}{sub 3} structural pattern. The catalytic domain distinguishes itself from other bacterial non-heme Rieske iron oxygenases by a substantially larger hydrophobic substrate binding pocket, the largest ever reported for this type of enzyme. While residues in the proximal region close to the mononuclear iron atom are conserved, the central region of the catalytic pocket is shaped mainly by the side chains of three amino acids, Phe350, Phe404 and Leu356, which contribute to the rather uniform trapezoidal shape of the pocket. Two flexible loops, LI and LII, exposed to the solvent seem to control the substrate access to the catalytic pocket and control the pocket length. Compared with other naphthalene dioxygenases residues Leu223 and Leu226, on loop LI, are moved towards the solvent, thus elongating the catalytic pocket by at least 2 {angstrom}. An 11 {angstrom} long water channel extends from the interface between the {alpha} and {beta} subunits to the catalytic site. The comparison of these structures with other known oxygenases suggests that the broad substrate specificity presented by the CHY-1 oxygenase is primarily due to the large size and particular topology of its catalytic pocket and provided the basis for the study of its reaction mechanism.

  9. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  10. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Miguel Antônio; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Andrusaitis, Felix Ricardo; Rodrigues, Thuam Silva; Speciali, Danielli Souza; Greve, Júlia Maria D′Andréa; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master® force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test. PMID:26017644

  11. Chi-squared and C statistic minimization for low count per bin data. [sampling in X ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, John A.; Shue, David R.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a computer simulation comparing two statistical fitting techniques on data samples with large and small counts per bin; the results are then related specifically to X-ray astronomy. The Marquardt and Powell minimization techniques are compared by using both to minimize the chi-squared statistic. In addition, Cash's C statistic is applied, with Powell's method, and it is shown that the C statistic produces better fits in the low-count regime than chi-squared.

  12. Suitability of Gamma, Chi-square, Weibull, and Beta distributions as synthetic unit hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunya, P. K.; Berndtsson, R.; Ojha, C. S. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryMost available methods for synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) derivation involve manual, subjective fitting of a hydrograph through a few data points. Because of this tedious procedure, the generated unit hydrograph is often left unadjusted for unit runoff volume. During recent decades, use of probability distribution functions (pdfs) in developing SUH has received much attention because of its similarity with unit hydrograph properties. In this study, the potential of four popular pdfs, i.e., two-parameter Gamma, three-parameter Beta, two-parameter Weibull, and one-parameter Chi-square distribution to derive SUH have been explored. Simple formulae are derived using analytical and numerical schemes to compute the distribution parameters, and their validity is checked with simulation of field data. The Gamma and Chi-square distributions behave analogously, and the Beta distribution approximates a Gamma distribution in a limiting case. Application to field data shows that the Beta and Weibull distributions are more flexible in hydrograph prediction than the Gamma, Chi-square, Gray [Gray, D.M., 1961. Synthetic hydrographs for small drainage areas. In: Proceedings of the ASCE, 87, HY4, pp. 33-54], SCS [SCS, 1957. Use of Storm and Watershed Characteristics in Synthetic Hydrograph Analysis and Application: V. Mockus. US Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC], and Snyder [Synder, F.F., 1938. Synthetic unit hydrographs. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 19, 447-454] methods. A sensitivity analysis of pdf parameters on peak flow estimates of an UH indicated that Gamma and Chi-square distributions overestimate the peak flow value, for any overestimation in its parameter estimates. However, for the Beta and Weibull distributions a reverse trend was observed. Both were found to behave similarly at higher α (ratio of time to base and time to peak of UH) values. Further, an analogous triangular hydrograph approach was used to express the mean and variance

  13. CHY-construction of planar loop integrands of cubic scalar theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, by treating massive loop momenta as massless momenta in higher dimensions, we are able to treat all-loop scattering equations as tree ones. As an application of the new perspective, we consider the CHY-construction of bi-adjoint ϕ 3 theory. We present the explicit formula for two-loop planar integrands. We discuss in details how to subtract various forward singularities in the construction. We count the number of terms obtained by our formula and by direct Feynman diagram calculation and find the perfect match, thus provide a strong support for our results.

  14. FREQFIT: Computer program which performs numerical regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofland, G.S.; Barton, C.C.

    1990-10-01

    The computer program FREQFIT is designed to perform regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis on one-dimensional or two-dimensional data. The program features an interactive user dialogue, numerous help messages, an option for screen or line printer output, and the flexibility to use practically any commercially available graphics package to create plots of the program`s results. FREQFIT is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, for IBM-PC compatible computers. A listing of the QuickBASIC source code for the FREQFIT program, a user manual, and sample input data, output, and plots are included. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Translation of an Effective Tai Chi Intervention Into a Community-Based Falls-Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Glasgow, Russell; Mack, Karin A.; Sleet, David; Fisher, K. John; Kohn, Melvin A.; Millet, Lisa M.; Mead, Jennifer; Xu, Junheng; Lin, Mei-Li; Yang, Tingzhong; Sutton, Beth; Tompkins, Yvaughn

    2008-01-01

    Tai Chi—Moving for Better Balance, a falls-prevention program developed from a randomized controlled trial for community-based use, was evaluated with the RE-AIM framework in 6 community centers. The program had a 100% adoption rate and 87% reach into the target older adult population. All centers implemented the intervention with good fidelity, and participants showed significant improvements in health-related outcome measures. This evidence-based tai chi program is practical to disseminate and can be effectively implemented and maintained in community settings. PMID:18511723

  16. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-04-29

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.77 to -0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions.

  17. A Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy of Tai Chi in Patients with Parkinson's Disease between 2008 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji; Yin, Tao; Gao, Qian; Yang, Xiao Cun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence on the effect of Tai Chi for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Six electronic databases up to June 2014 were searched. The methodological quality was assessed with PEDro scale. Standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals of random-effects model were calculated. Results. Nine studies were included in our review. The aggregated results are in favor of Tai Chi on improving motor function (P = 0.002) and balance (P < 0.00001) in patients with PD. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support or refute the value of Tai Chi on improving gait velocity (P = 0.11), stride length (P = 0.21), or quality of life (P = 0.40). And there is no valid evidence in follow-up effects of Tai Chi for PD. Conclusion. The current results suggest that Tai Chi can significantly improve the motor function and balance in patients with PD, but there is indeed not enough evidence to conclude that Tai Chi is effective for PD because of the small treatment effect, methodological flaws of eligible studies, and insufficient follow-up. Consequently, high-quality studies with long follow-up are warranted to confirm current beneficial findings. PMID:25649281

  18. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.77 to −0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, −0.81; 95% CI, −1.11 to −0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  19. [Cloning and functional analysis of chitinase gene GbCHI from sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense)].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Ping; Wang, Fu-Xin; Yang, Chun-Lin; Shen, Fa-Fu; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2012-02-01

    Chitinase is one of the important pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in plants. By comparative proteomics study, a novel pathogen-responsive chitinase (known as GbCHI) has been identified from sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense). The GbCHI cDNA was cloned from wilt-resistant sea-island cotton and the anti-fungal activity of the gene product was investigated. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that GbCHI was expressed constitutively in root, stem, leaf, flower, and ovule of cotton plant, and the expression could be induced by Verticillium dahliae and plant hormone SA, ACC, and JA. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged proteins showed that GbCHI-GFP fusion proteins were targeted mainly to the plasma membrane. Anti-fungal assay demonstrated that GbCHI could inhibit spore germination and hyphae growth of V. dahliae significantly. These results provide important information for understanding the cellular function of GbCHI and for exploring the application potential of this gene in molecular breeding of wilt-tolerant cotton plants.

  20. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness. PMID:24760476

  1. The Effect of Tai Chi Chuan on Obstacle Crossing Strategy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Huang, Chen-Fu; Chang, Jia-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi Chuan on the strategies of obstacle-crossing behavior in older adults aged over 65 years. Fifteen Tai Chi group (TCG) participants were compared with 15 general group (GG) participants. Kinematic parameters (by Vicon motion analysis system) and ground reaction forces (by Kistler force plates) were synchronously recorded. A two-way mixed-design ANOVA (α = 0.05) was used to test the effects of the group and the obstacle height. The TCG performed significantly faster stride velocities, longer stride lengths, and shorter stride times than GG while crossing the obstacles. TCG could also produce significantly larger forward ground reaction forces to propel the body and were able to make a significantly greater flexion angle of the hip of the leading leg compared with the GG. It was concluded that the TCG adopted a different strategy with GG to cross the obstacles and completed the crossing behavior more effectively. PMID:26114218

  2. Tai Chi Improves Oxidative Stress Response and DNA Damage/Repair in Young Sedentary Females

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Yu; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Silsirivanit, Atit; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Wu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on antioxidant capacity, and DNA damage/repair in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female students from a Chinese university voluntarily participated in this program. All of them practiced the 24-form simplified Tai Chi, 5 times weekly, for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), hydroxyl radical inhibiting capacity (OH·-IC), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) were measured at 0, 8, and 12 weeks. Heart rate (HR) was monitored during the last set of the training session at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. [Results] Plasma SOD and OH·-IC levels were increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline (0 weeks). Gpx and GSH levels did not change significantly throughout the study period. The plasma MDA level was decreased significantly at 8 weeks but not at 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. While the plasma 8-OHdG level did not change throughout the study period, the plasma OGG1 level was significantly increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. [Conclusion] TC practice for 12 weeks efficiently improved the oxidative stress response in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. The TC exercise also increased the DNA repairing capacity. PMID:25013276

  3. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in δ-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Eun Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2013-12-15

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of δ-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at δ-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within δ-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of σ and χ phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  4. Performance test of RM CLEAN and its evaluation with chi-square value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2016-06-01

    RM CLEAN is a standard method to reconstruct the distribution of cosmic magnetic fields and polarized sources along the line of sight (LOS) from the observed polarization spectrum. This method is similar to the CLEAN algorithm for aperture synthesis of radio telescope images but it is rather unclear in what cases RM CLEAN works well. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RM CLEAN by simulating spectro-polarimetric observations of two compact sources located in the same LOS, varying the relative initial polarization angle and Faraday depth systematically. In particular, we focus on whether the two polarized sources can be resolved in the Faraday depth space and how well the source parameters can be estimated. We confirm the previous studies that two sources cannot be resolved when they are closely located in the Faraday depth space for specific values of the relative initial polarization angle. Further, we calculate the chi-square value for the fit between the mock polarization spectrum data and the one from RM CLEAN. We find that the chi-square value is not always significantly large even when RM CLEAN gives wrong results.

  5. Sümeyra Tosun: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2014 recipient is Sümeyra Tosun. Tosun was chosen for "an outstanding research paper that examines the cognitive repercussions of obligatory versus optional marking of evidentiality, the linguistic coding of the source of information. In English, evidentiality is conveyed in the lexicon through the use of adverbs. In Turkish, evidentiality is coded in the grammar. In two experiments, it was found that English speakers were equally good at remembering and monitoring the source of firsthand information and the source of non-firsthand information. Turkish speakers were worse at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information than firsthand information and were worse than English speakers at remembering and monitoring non-firsthand information." Tosun's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  6. Ho Chi Minh City adaptation to increasing risk of coastal and fluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Coastal megacities in southeast Asia are a hotspot of vulnerability to floods. In such contexts, the combination of fast socio-economic development and of climate change impacts on precipitation and sea level generates concerns about the flood damage to people and assets. This work focuses on Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for which we estimate the present and future direct risk from river and coastal floods. A model cascade is used that comprises the Saigon river basin and the urban network, plus the land-use-dependent damaging process. Changes in discharge for five return periods are simulated, enabling the probabilistic calculation of the expected annual economic damage to assets, for differnt scenarios of global emissions, local socio-economic growth, and land subsidence, up to year 2100. The implementation of a range of adaptation strategies is simulated, including building dykes, elevating, creating reservoirs, managing water and sediment upstream, flood-proofing, halting groundwater abstraction. Results are presented on 1) the relative weight of each future driver in determining the flood risk of Ho Chi Minh, and 2) the efficiency and feasibility of each adaptation strategy.

  7. One milliarcsecond precision studies in the regions of Delta Equulei and Chi(sup 1) Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George

    1994-01-01

    Trigonometric parallaxes for stars in the regions of the binary stars Delta Equulei (HR 8123) and Chi(sup l) Orionis (HR 2047) are derived from data collected with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) and the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of all trigonometric studies of delta Equ is now +5.42 +/- 0.93 mas, corresponding to absolute magnitudes of 3.87 +/- 0.04 and 3.95 +/- 0.04 mag, respectively, for the primary and secondary. Using the Popper and Dworetsky orbit we find a photocentric semimajor axis of 2.9 +/- 0.8 mas and individual masses of 1.21 +/- 0.090 and 1.19 +/- 0.088 solar masses, respectively, for the primary and secondary components. The weighted mean trigonometric parallax of all studies of the binary star Chi(sup l) Ori is +111.0 +/- 0.92 mas, implying an absolute visual magnitude for the dominant GO V primary of 4.63 +/- 0.018 mag. The photocentric semimajor axis, derived from a fraction of the orbit, is 96.9 +/- 5.4 mas.

  8. Force field parameters for rotation around chi torsion axis in nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Ode, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Yuri; Neya, Saburo; Hoshino, Tyuji

    2008-11-30

    To raise the accuracy of the force field for nucleic acids, several parameters were elaborated, focusing on the rotation around chi torsion axis. The reliability of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was significantly increased by improving the torsion parameters at C8--N9--C1'--X (X = H1', C2', O4') in A, G and those at C6--N1--C1'--X in C, T, and U. In this work, we constructed small models representing the chemical structure of A, G, C, T, and U, and estimated energy profile for chi-axis rotation by executing numerous quantum mechanical (QM) calculations. The parameters were derived by discrete Fourier transformation of the calculated QM data. A comparison in energy profile between molecular mechanical (MM) calculation and QM one shows that our presently derived parameters well reproduce the energy surface of QM calculation for all the above torsion terms. Furthermore, our parameters show a good performance in MD simulations of some nucleic acids. Hence, the present refinement of parameters will enable us to perform more accurate simulations for various types of nucleic acids.

  9. TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R; Michael, Emily S; Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Steer, Michael L

    2011-04-15

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(+/+) donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(-/-) donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6C(hi) monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  10. A randomized controlled trial on the psychophysiological effects of physical exercise and Tai-chi in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Fong, Ted C T; Wan, Adrian H Y; Au-Yeung, Friendly S W; Wong, Cathy P K; Ng, Winnie Y H; Cheung, Irene K M; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Ng, S M; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chen, Eric Y H

    2016-03-01

    The chronic and prevalent natures of schizophrenia result in long-term institutionalization for the patients. Conventional treatment of anti-psychotic medication on management of psychotic symptoms often brings on severe side effects and reduces patients' well-being. Tai-chi is a mind-body exercise that underscores motor coordination and relaxation. This 3-arm randomized controlled trial investigated the psychophysiological benefits of Tai-chi on 153 chronic schizophrenia patients, who were recruited from a mental health rehab complex and randomized into Tai-chi, exercise, or waitlist control groups. Both intervention groups received 12weeks of specific intervention plus standard medication received by the controls. All participants completed psychiatric interviews, self-report questionnaires, performance tasks, and salivary cortisol measures at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up on psychotic symptoms, motor coordination, memory, daily living function, and stress. Multigroup latent growth modeling was used to evaluate the intervention effects on the outcomes. Compared to controls, the Tai-chi group showed significant decreases in motor deficits and increases in backward digit span and mean cortisol, while the exercise group displayed significant decreases in motor deficits, negative and depression symptoms and increases in forward digit span, daily living function, and mean cortisol. The two interventions did not show significantly different therapeutic effects, except for fewer symptom manifestations in the exercise group. These results suggest psychophysiological benefits for Tai-chi on chronic schizophrenia patients in terms of motor coordination and memory. Though both Tai-chi and exercise groups tended to manifest fewer symptoms than the control group, the exercise group showed better symptoms management than the Tai-chi group. PMID:26822592

  11. A randomized controlled trial on the psychophysiological effects of physical exercise and Tai-chi in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Fong, Ted C T; Wan, Adrian H Y; Au-Yeung, Friendly S W; Wong, Cathy P K; Ng, Winnie Y H; Cheung, Irene K M; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Ng, S M; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chen, Eric Y H

    2016-03-01

    The chronic and prevalent natures of schizophrenia result in long-term institutionalization for the patients. Conventional treatment of anti-psychotic medication on management of psychotic symptoms often brings on severe side effects and reduces patients' well-being. Tai-chi is a mind-body exercise that underscores motor coordination and relaxation. This 3-arm randomized controlled trial investigated the psychophysiological benefits of Tai-chi on 153 chronic schizophrenia patients, who were recruited from a mental health rehab complex and randomized into Tai-chi, exercise, or waitlist control groups. Both intervention groups received 12weeks of specific intervention plus standard medication received by the controls. All participants completed psychiatric interviews, self-report questionnaires, performance tasks, and salivary cortisol measures at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up on psychotic symptoms, motor coordination, memory, daily living function, and stress. Multigroup latent growth modeling was used to evaluate the intervention effects on the outcomes. Compared to controls, the Tai-chi group showed significant decreases in motor deficits and increases in backward digit span and mean cortisol, while the exercise group displayed significant decreases in motor deficits, negative and depression symptoms and increases in forward digit span, daily living function, and mean cortisol. The two interventions did not show significantly different therapeutic effects, except for fewer symptom manifestations in the exercise group. These results suggest psychophysiological benefits for Tai-chi on chronic schizophrenia patients in terms of motor coordination and memory. Though both Tai-chi and exercise groups tended to manifest fewer symptoms than the control group, the exercise group showed better symptoms management than the Tai-chi group.

  12. Curative effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy on improving obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qinghua; Yuan, Yandong; Jiao, Chun; Zhu, Ximei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Observe the effect of Tai Chi in combination with auricular plaster therapy on treating obesity patient with secondary hyperlipidemia. Method: Select 45 patients who suffer from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia and then adopt random digital table to divide them into a Tai Chi group, an auricular plaster therapy group and a combination group. Each group consists of 15 patients. The patients in Tai Chi group are trained with Tai Chi twice a day, while those in auricular plaster therapy are treated with auricular plaster therapy 3-5 times a day and those in the combination group are trained with Tai Chi and auricular plaster therapy twice a day. BMI, body fat percentage and blood lipid indexes are respectively detected for the selected patients in the three groups before treatment and after 180 days’ treatment. Results: After 180 days’ treatment, BMI index and body fat percentage of Tai Chi group are significantly improved in comparison with those before treatment (P<0.05) and the blood lipid index also presents the improvement trend, but the overall effect is not obvious; body fat percentage and BMI index of the auricular plaster therapy group are not improved obviously in comparison with those before the treatment (P>0.05) but the blood lipid index is improved significantly (P<0.05); each index of the combination group is improved significantly compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). By comparing the improvement effect after treatment with that of the other two groups, P<0.05, the difference shows the statistical significance and the treatment effect is more obvious. Conclusion: As for the patient suffering from simple obesity and secondary hyperlipidemia, Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster therapy can show the obvious synergistic therapeutic effect and thus the combined curative effect is obviously superior to that of the single therapy method. PMID:26885081

  13. Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients. Methods A sample of 32 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS < 5) was examined. A structured Tai Chi course was devised and a Tai Chi group participated in two weekly sessions of 90 minutes duration for six months, while a comparison group received treatment as usual (TAU). Both groups were examined prior to and following the six-months interval with regards to balance and coordination performance as well as measures of fatigue, depression and life satisfaction. Results Following the intervention, the Tai Chi group showed significant, consistent improvements in balance, coordination, and depression, relative to the TAU group (range of effect-sizes: partial η2 = 0.16 – 0.20). Additionally, life satisfaction improved (partial η2 = 0.31). Fatigue deteriorated in the comparison group, whereas it remained relatively stable in the Tai Chi group (partial η2 = 0.24). Conclusions The consistent pattern of results confirms that Tai Chi holds therapeutic potential for MS patients. Further research is needed to determine underlying working mechanisms, and to verify the results in a larger sample and different MS

  14. Reparameterization of RNA chi Torsion Parameters for the AMBER Force Field and Comparison to NMR Spectra for Cytidine and Uridine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ilyas; Stern, Harry A; Kennedy, Scott D; Tubbs, Jason D; Turner, Douglas H

    2010-05-11

    A reparameterization of the torsional parameters for the glycosidic dihedral angle, chi, for the AMBER99 force field in RNA nucleosides is used to provide a modified force field, AMBER99chi. Molecular dynamics simulations of cytidine, uridine, adenosine, and guanosine in aqueous solution using the AMBER99 and AMBER99chi force fields are compared with NMR results. For each nucleoside and force field, 10 individual molecular dynamics simulations of 30 ns each were run. For cytidine with AMBER99chi force field, each molecular dynamics simulation time was extended to 120 ns for convergence purposes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, including one-dimensional (1D) (1)H, steady-state 1D (1)H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), and transient 1D (1)H NOE, was used to determine the sugar puckering and preferred base orientation with respect to the ribose of cytidine and uridine. The AMBER99 force field overestimates the population of syn conformations of the base orientation and of C2'-endo sugar puckering of the pyrimidines, while the AMBER99chi force field's predictions are more consistent with NMR results. Moreover, the AMBER99 force field prefers high anti conformations with glycosidic dihedral angles around 310 degrees for the base orientation of purines. The AMBER99chi force field prefers anti conformations around 185 degrees , which is more consistent with the quantum mechanical calculations and known 3D structures of folded ribonucleic acids (RNAs). Evidently, the AMBER99chi force field predicts the structural characteristics of ribonucleosides better than the AMBER99 force field and should improve structural and thermodynamic predictions of RNA structures.

  15. Influence of Tai Chi exercise cycle on the senile respiratory and cardiovascular circulatory function

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Shen, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Observe the improvement effect of different cycles of Tai Chi exercise on the senile respiratory and cardiovascular circulatory function. Methods: Select 180 elderly men who don’t usually do the fitness exercise and then ask them to do Tai Chi exercise. Test their related indicators respectively prior to exercise and upon exercise for 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. ① The cardiac pump function indicator: “Stroke Volume”, “Ejection Fraction” and “Heart Rate”; ② Rheoencephalogram (REG) indicator: “Inflow time”, “Wave Amplitude”; ③ Pulmonary ventilation indicator: “Vital Capacity” (VC), “Maximum Minute Ventilation” (MMV). Results: ① Compared with the indicators before exercise, each indicator has no significant difference after 3 months of exercise and a part of indicators are improved after 6 months of exercise, but most indicators have no significant differences; ② After 12 months of the exercise, compared with those indicators before exercise, the tested indicators are obviously improved. Specific data indicates that stroke volume (mL) is increased to 71.82 ± 10.93 from 66.21 ± 11.35 and the ejection fraction (%) is improved to 67.89 ± 4.94 from 60.54 ± 5.02, but the heart rate (times/min) is reduced to 67.15 ± 8.39 from 76.62 ± 8.40, mean P<0.05; inflow time (s) is shortened to 0.13 ± 0.04 from 0.17 ± 0.05; the amplitude (Ω) is increased to 1.19 ± 0.23 from 0.97 ± 0.21 before exercise and mean P<0.05; the vital capacity (L) is increased to 3.57 ± 1.39 from 2.84 ± 0.32; maximum minute ventilation (L/min) is improved to 117.25 ± 14.86 from 97.26 ± 14.71, mean P<0.05. Conclusion: The short-term Tai Chi exercise that is less than six months the following 6 months has no significant effect on the senile respiratory and cardiovascular circulatory function, however, with the longer exercise duration, after 12 months’ exercise, it can significantly improve the effect. PMID:24753776

  16. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-19

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals.

  17. Biochemical and genetic characterization of ChiA, the major enzyme component for the solubilization of chitin by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Gemma; Leschine, Susan B

    2003-12-01

    Cellulomonas uda efficiently solubilized chitinous substrates with a simple chitinase system composed of an endochitinase, designated ChiA, which hydrolyzed insoluble substrates into long-chain chitooligosaccharides, and an as yet uncharacterized exochitinase activity. ChiA, isolated from culture supernatant fluids, was found to be a glycosylated endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa and pI of 8.5. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 1,716 bp encoding a 571-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 59.2 kDa. The region upstream of chiA included a conserved -35 hexamer flanked by two direct repeats analogous to those found in many Streptomyces chitinase promoters, and thought to function as binding sequences for regulatory proteins. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed a modular protein consisting of a signal peptide at its N terminus, a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2) that was closely related to the substrate-binding domains of glycosyl hydrolases from distantly related bacteria, and a family 18 glycosyl hydrolase catalytic module related to Streptomyces chitinases. In contrast to the fibronectin type III domains of Streptomyces chitinases, the linker region between modules in ChiA consisted of a long proline- and threonine-rich module, thought to contribute to the glycosylation and flexibility of the mature protein.

  18. Insights into Chi recognition from the structure of an AddAB-type helicase–nuclease complex

    PubMed Central

    Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Yeeles, Joseph T; Gilhooly, Neville S; Krajewski, Wojciech W; Dillingham, Mark S; Wigley, Dale B

    2012-01-01

    In bacterial cells, processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination is dependent upon the recombination hotspot sequence Chi and is catalysed by either an AddAB- or RecBCD-type helicase–nuclease. Here, we report the crystal structure of AddAB bound to DNA. The structure allows identification of a putative Chi-recognition site in an inactivated helicase domain of the AddB subunit. By generating mutant protein complexes that do not respond to Chi, we show that residues responsible for Chi recognition are located in positions equivalent to the signature motifs of a conventional helicase. Comparison with the related RecBCD complex, which recognizes a different Chi sequence, provides further insight into the structural basis for sequence-specific ssDNA recognition. The structure suggests a simple mechanism for DNA break processing, explains how AddAB and RecBCD can accomplish the same overall reaction with different sets of functional modules and reveals details of the role of an Fe–S cluster in protein stability and DNA binding. PMID:22307084

  19. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s.

  20. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2001-10-01

    This paper develops a physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device. First, a physical model is established for a melting and freezing rotating device applied for transferring heat from a heat source to a heat sink. The device consists of two concentric cylinders with a phase change material being filled between them. During the melting process, heat is supplied from the heat source to the device, and the phase change material in the device melts. The melting process is equivalent to yang in the tai-chi diagram. During the freezing process, heat is discharged from the device to the heat sink, and the phase change material in the device freezes. The freezing process is equivalent to yin in the tai-chi diagram. The moving phase boundaries of the melting and freezing processes form two curves, representing the interface curves between the yin and yang in the tai-chi diagram. The variation of the thermal strength in the heat source and heat sink represents the variation of the yin -yang balance in the tai-chi diagram.

  1. The Effect of Tai Chi on Reducing the Risk of Falling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Lomas-Vega, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). According to our findings, practice of Tai Chi significantly prevents the risk of falling (ARR, [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The heterogeneity of results across the trials was low, with a reduced risk of publication bias, and no significant effect differences were observed between studies comparing Tai Chi with other interventions or non-treatment. We therefore conclude that Tai Chi is more effective than other measures, or no intervention, for fall prevention in at-risk populations. Further research is warranted to analyze the consequences of falls and to study the episodes rather than the cases of falls.

  2. Effects of Tai Chi on Pain and Muscle Activity in Young Males with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  3. The Effect of Tai Chi on Reducing the Risk of Falling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Lomas-Vega, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). According to our findings, practice of Tai Chi significantly prevents the risk of falling (ARR, [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The heterogeneity of results across the trials was low, with a reduced risk of publication bias, and no significant effect differences were observed between studies comparing Tai Chi with other interventions or non-treatment. We therefore conclude that Tai Chi is more effective than other measures, or no intervention, for fall prevention in at-risk populations. Further research is warranted to analyze the consequences of falls and to study the episodes rather than the cases of falls. PMID:27430918

  4. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  5. Chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests of two-by-two tables with small sample recommendations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian

    2007-08-30

    Two-by-two tables commonly arise in comparative trials and cross-sectional studies. In medical studies, two-by-two tables may have a small sample size due to the rarity of a condition, or to limited resources. Current recommendations on the appropriate statistical test mostly specify the chi-squared test for tables where the minimum expected number is at least 5 (following Fisher and Cochran), and otherwise the Fisher-Irwin test; but there is disagreement on which versions of the chi-squared and Fisher-Irwin tests should be used. A further uncertainty is that, according to Cochran, the number 5 was chosen arbitrarily. Computer-intensive techniques were used in this study to compare seven two-sided tests of two-by-two tables in terms of their Type I errors. The tests were K. Pearson's and Yates's chi-squared tests and the 'N-1' chi-squared test (first proposed by E. Pearson), together with four versions of the Fisher-Irwin test (including two mid-P versions). The optimum test policy was found to be analysis by the 'N-1' chi-squared test when the minimum expected number is at least 1, and otherwise, by the Fisher-Irwin test by Irwin's rule (taking the total probability of tables in either tail that are as likely as, or less likely than the one observed). This policy was found to have increased power compared to Cochran's recommendations. PMID:17315184

  6. Chemical dampening of Ly6Chi monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6Chi monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6Chi monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6Chi monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6Chi monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6Chi monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals. PMID:26783261

  7. A Majorize-Minimize Framework for Rician and Non-Central Chi MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P.

    2015-01-01

    The statistics of many MR magnitude images are described by the non-central chi (NCC) family of probability distributions, which includes the Rician distribution as a special case. These distributions have complicated negative log-likelihoods that are nontrivial to optimize. This paper describes a novel majorize-minimize framework for NCC data that allows penalized maximum likelihood estimates to be obtained by solving a series of much simpler regularized least-squares surrogate problems. The proposed framework is general and can be useful in a range of applications. We illustrate the potential advantages of the framework with real and simulated data in two contexts: 1) MR image denoising and 2) diffusion profile estimation in high angular resolution diffusion MRI. The proposed approach is shown to yield improved results compared to methods that model the noise statistics inaccurately and faster computation relative to commonly-used nonlinear optimization techniques. PMID:25935028

  8. {chi}{sup 2} DISCRIMINATORS FOR TRANSITING PLANET DETECTION IN KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J. E-mail: peter.tenenbaum@nasa.gov E-mail: christopher.j.burke@nasa.gov

    2013-06-01

    The Kepler spacecraft observes a host of target stars to detect transiting planets. Requiring a 7.1{sigma} detection in three years of data yields over 100,000 detections, many of which are false alarms. After a second cut is made on a robust detection statistic, some 50,000 or more targets still remain. These false alarms waste resources as they propagate through the remainder of the software pipeline and so a method to discriminate against them is crucial in maintaining the desired sensitivity to true events. This paper describes a {chi}{sup 2} test which represents a novel application of an existing formalism developed for false alarm mitigation in searches for gravitational waves. Using this technique, the false alarm rate can be lowered to {approx}5%.

  9. High chi block copolymer DSA to improve pattern quality for FinFET device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, HsinYu; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Vora, Ankit; Magbitang, Teddie; Arellano, Noel; Liu, Chi-Chun; Maher, Michael J.; Durand, William J.; Dawes, Simon J.; Bucchignano, James J.; Gignac, Lynne; Sanders, Daniel P.; Joseph, Eric A.; Colburn, Matthew E.; Willson, C. Grant; Ellison, Christopher J.; Guillorn, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) with block-copolymers (BCP) is a promising lithography extension technique to scale below 30nm pitch with 193i lithography. Continued scaling toward 20nm pitch or below will require material system improvements from PS-b-PMMA. Pattern quality for DSA features, such as line edge roughness (LER), line width roughness (LWR), size uniformity, and placement, is key to DSA manufacturability. In this work, we demonstrate finFET devices fabricated with DSA-patterned fins and compare several BCP systems for continued pitch scaling. Organic-organic high chi BCPs at 24nm and 21nm pitches show improved low to mid-frequency LER/LWR after pattern transfer.

  10. Effects of 24-week Tai Chi exercise on the knee and ankle proprioception of older women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuwan; Zhou, Jihe; Hong, Youlian; Sun, Wei; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi (TC) exercise on the kinaesthesia of the knee and ankle joints of older women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in this study. In a 24-week study period, the TC group (n = 22) underwent an organized TC exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Customized instruments were used to measure the threshold for the detection of the passive motion of the knee and ankle joints. After 24 weeks, the TC group showed a significantly smaller threshold for the detection of passive motion of knee extension (31.4%, p = 0.009), knee flexion (27.0%, p = 0.044), and ankle dorsal flexion (28.9%, p = 0.014) than the control group. Other comparisons showed no significant differences. The 24-week TC exercise benefited the lower-limb kinaesthesia of the knee joint flexion and extension and ankle dorsal flexion.

  11. A Review Focused on the Psychological Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Layne, Charles; Lowder, Thomas; Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC) has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process. PMID:21792371

  12. Tai Chi Chuan exercises in enhancing bone mineral density in active seniors.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai Ming

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent, systemic, chronic disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Its clinical and public health implications are substantial because of the mortality, morbidity, and medical care cost associated with osteoporotic fractures. Although estrogen-replacement therapy or anti-bone resorptive drugs can prevent postmenopausal bone loss, they also show side effects. Physical activity is an nonpharmacological approach for prevention of osteoporosis. Among different types of physical activities, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a low- to moderate-intensity exercise particularly suitable for the elderly, and has been practiced by Chinese for centuries. This article reviews the benefits of TCC for the prevention of osteoporosis and falls by retarding bone loss, improving neuromuscular coordination, and promoting general health. PMID:18206569

  13. Review of Tai Chi as an effective exercise on falls prevention in elderly.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Molly M; Wedam, Lauren; Wu, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The risk of accidental falls and fall-related injuries increases with age. Regular physical exercises can delay the age-related changes affecting postural balance and reduce the risk of falls. Although Tai Chi (TC) has become a popular exercise among the elderly, does regular TC exercise lead to fewer falls and fall-related injuries? Who would receive the most benefit from TC exercise? What style of TC is best for fall risk reductions? What is the minimum amount of TC exercise needed before its positive effect is observed? How does the effect of TC exercise compare to other physical exercises? The goal of this study is to conduct a systematic review of recent literature on TC's effectiveness for reducing fall risks in elders. A summary and analysis is provided for the following variables: targeted subject population, TC curriculum, comparative effect, and outcome measures.

  14. YKL-40 and genetic status of CHI3L1 in a large group of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jakob W.; Thomsen, Simon F.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Rasmussen, Linda M.; Harmsen, Lotte; Johansen, Julia S.; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown a relationship between asthma, serum YKL-40, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (−131 C/G, rs4950928) in the CHI3L1 gene that codes for YKL-40. However, the findings differ. We studied the relationship between clinical asthma phenotypes, serum YKL-40, and SNP (−131 C/G, rs4950928). Methods In this study, 1,137 patients with asthma, 415 with rhinitis only, and 275 non-asthmatic controls were included. Assessment included a clinical interview concerning the diagnosis of asthma, severity of asthma, and asthma treatment as well as clinical tests to assess asthma and rhinitis. Serum YKL-40 was measured, and genotyping for the SNP (−131 C/G) was conducted. Results No significant difference in the serum concentration of YKL-40 was found between patients with asthma, patients with rhinitis, and non-asthmatic controls; however, YKL-40 was increased in patients with severe asthma. No association was found between the SNP (−131 C/G rs4950982) and the risk of having asthma (odds ratio = 0.90, p=0.4). Higher levels of serum YKL-40 were found in all subjects when comparing CC genotype to CG and GG genotypes (45 µg/L vs. 32 µg/L and 19 µg/L, p<0.0001). Conclusion There was no association between polymorphisms of SNP (−131 C/G) and asthma. The highest serum YKL-40 concentrations were seen in severe asthmatics. Individuals with less severe asthma showed a smaller difference against controls, limiting its clinical usefulness. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between different asthma phenotypes, YKL-40, and CHI3L1. PMID:26672955

  15. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  16. Semileptonic B{sub c} to P-Wave Charmonia ({Chi}{sub c0},{Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) Transitions within QCD Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Sundu, Hayriye; Bayar, Melahat; Azizi, Kazem

    2010-12-22

    The form factors of the semileptonic B{sub c{yields}}S(AV)l{nu} (l = {tau},{mu},e) transitions, where S and AV denote the scalar {Chi}{sub c0} and axial vector ({Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) mesons, are calculated within the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules. The results of form factors are used to estimate the total decay widths and branching ratios of these transitions. A comparison of our results on branching ratios with the predictions of other approaches is also presented.

  17. Impact of Tai Chi Chu'an practice on balance and mobility in older adults: an integrative review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Wolf, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults, which often result from decreased balance and mobility, are an important public health issue. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends multidimensional balance and mobility training to prevent falls. In the past 20 years, Tai Chi Chu'an (tai chi) has been found to be effective in improving balance, reducing falls and fear of falling for older adults. Efficient use of time devoted to exercise is critical; therefore, more research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of balance and mobility improvements in older adults as a result of tai chi practice, so that these interventions can be most targeted and efficient. The purpose of this integrative review is twofold. First, evidence is presented to show that balance and mobility have been improved by tai chi in older adults. Second, potential mechanisms of balance improvement from research conducted in longtime tai chi practitioners, and from clinical research conducted in older adults, are offered. A PubMed search with the terms "tai chi" and "balance" entered simultaneously was conducted. Articles were included if they were systematic reviews, pilot or clinical trials, related to both balance and tai chi, and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying tai chi's effects. The systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that aspects of tai chi research findings remain equivocal. In spite of the inconclusiveness of these review findings, many researchers have considered tai chi worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, practitioners in the clinic and those who deliver exercise in the community have evidently embraced tai chi as an appropriate exercise for older adults. This review, spanning 2 decades, suggests that tai chi has impacted the health and health behaviors of many older adults. Going forward, informing novel balance and mobility rehabilitation by uncovering mechanisms of tai chi's effects definitively may be the most important area of

  18. The Vibrio cholerae Extracellular Chitinase ChiA2 Is Important for Survival and Pathogenesis in the Host Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine. PMID:25244128

  19. The Vibrio cholerae extracellular chitinase ChiA2 is important for survival and pathogenesis in the host intestine.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine.

  20. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis.

  1. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

  2. What have we learned from HaChi (HAZE IN CHINA) project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    HaChi (Haze in China) project, a joint research between Chinese NSFC and German DFG, focuses on investigating the aerosol hygroscopic properties in the North China Plain and their relationships to aerosol optics, radiation, cloud physics and ozone photochemistry. As we know, Eastern China has suffered from severe pollution caused by large concentrations of aerosol particles resulting from emissions from fossil fuel and biomass burning, transportation and some other combustion sources. Low visibility events are frequently encountered and mainly accompanied with haze as a result of either high aerosol loading or the strong hygroscopic growth of the aerosol particles. Especially at relative humidities between 90 and 99%, the aerosol particles grow exponentially. The hygroscopic behaviors at relative humidities close to 100% are also strongly linked to the particles ability to grow into cloud droplets at supersaturation. In my talk, I will present an overview of the up to date results from a serial of intensive and comprehensive field campaigns conducted at the sites of Wuqing and Xianghe, China, between 2009 and 2014. The measurements of the ambient aerosol hygroscopic properties at high RH between 90 and 98.5% are reported first. These in situ field measurements of atmospheric aerosol are unique with respect to their high RH range and especially of importance to better understand the widespread anthropogenic haze over the North China Plain. Then I will introduce the methods for calculating of aerosol hygroscopicity and their parameterization schemes derived from size-segregated chemical composition and the light scattering enhancement factor measurements in the North China Plain. A new method was proposed to retrieve the ratio of the externally mixed light absorbing carbon mass to the total mass of light absorbing carbon. A new parameterization scheme of light extinction for low visibilities on hazy days is proposed based on visibility, relative humidity, aerosol

  3. Oxygen Isotope Records in Modern Oyster Shells from Chi Ku, Tainan and Their Implication of Seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Mii, H. S.; Li, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    To exam whether oxygen isotope records of Crassostrea gigasoysters can be used as proxies of environment, 133 cultivated oysters and 21 water samples were collected from Chi Ku area, Tainan City, southern Taiwan in December of 2012, and from March, 2013 to July, 2014. Instrumental air and water temperatures and precipitation records were obtained from a nearest Central Weather Bureau (CWB) station roughly 16 km north of Chi Ku. The oxygen and carbon isotope values of the ligamental area of the modern oyster shells are from -6.92‰ to -0.08‰ (-3.05 ± 1.17‰, N = 2280; 1σ; VPDB) and from -5.57‰ to 0.63‰ (-1.88 ± 0.81‰), respectively. Oxygen isotope values of the water samples are mainly between -0.28‰ and 0.74‰ (0.18 ± 0.29‰, N = 20; 1σ; VSMOW). However, water oxygen isotope value of -2.75‰ was observed for the water sample collected immediately after a typhoon heavy rainfall. Seasonal temperature fluctuation pattern of estimated oxygen isotope temperatures from modern shells is similar to that of CWB instrumental records. However, the oxygen isotope temperatures are respectively about 3 °C and 10°C higher than those of instrumental records for winter and summer. Higher estimated oxygen isotope temperatures are most likely caused by underestimated fraction of freshwater. We analyzed 5 archaeological oyster shells of Siraya culture (500~250B.P.) collected from Wu Chien Tuso North (WCTN) archaeological site of Tainan branch of Southern Taiwan Science Park to infer the harvest season of mollusks. Oxygen isotope values of the ligamental area of the archaeological oyster shells are between -5.98‰ and -1.26‰ (-3.34 ± 1.37‰, N = 60; 1σ), and carbon isotope values are between -3.21‰ and 0.60‰ (-2.04‰ ± 0.55‰). The oxygen isotope records of archaeological oyster shells also showed clear seasonality. Most of the oysters were collected in autumn and winter. Oxygen isotope values of archaeological oyster shells was 1‰ greater than that

  4. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients. PMID:22649476

  5. Feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in junior secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda Y K; Chong, Yeuk Lan; Li, Ngai Yin; Li, Man Chung; Lin, Lai Na; Wong, Lee Yi; Wong, Brian Kit; Yip, Wing Ping; Hon, Cho Hang; Chung, Pui Kuen; Man, Shuk Yee

    2013-04-01

    Stress is common in junior secondary school students (JSSS). This study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a Chen-style Tai Chi programme for stress reduction in JSSS. A non-equivalent pre-test/post-test control group design was adopted, and a convenience sample of 69 JSSS was recruited. The experimental group (n = 32) joined a Chen-style Tai Chi programme, which included 10 sessions of 80-minute Tai Chi training (one session per week). The control group (n = 37) proceeded with self-study. Participants' stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Feasibility was determined as the percentage of participants completing and attending the programme. Effectiveness was measured as the significant difference in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. Results preliminarily supported that the programme was feasible for JSSS. Completion rate was 100%, and attendance rate was 90%. However, no significant difference was noted in changes in stress levels before and after the intervention between the two groups. The potential health benefits of Tai Chi could not be detected owing to the restrictions imposed by the research setting and study limitations. The present study represents initial efforts in this direction and serves as reference for future study. PMID:22674634

  6. An Empirical Comparison of Four Chi-Square and Kolmogorov Models for Testing Goodness of Fit to Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Howard M.; Roscoe, John T.

    This study compares the relative power and robustness of the chi-square and Kolmogorov statistics with both the linear score scale and equal areas models. It is limited to the situation in which the mean and standard deviation are fixed by the hypothesis (a necessary constraint with the Kolmogorov tests). Two tables are presented which report the…

  7. The Effects of Tai Chi on the Renal and Cardiac Functions of Patients with Chronic Kidney and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhi-Min; Wen, Hai-Ping; Liu, Fu-Rong; Yao, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effects of Tai Chi on the renal and cardiac functions of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one patients with CKD and CVD were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. The exercise group performed Tai Chi training for 30 minutes three to five times a week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not. All patients’ renal and cardiac functions and blood lipid parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. [Results] The 12 weeks Tai Chi intervention improved the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) level, and decreased the serum creatintine (Scr) level, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the total cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The change in eGFR correlated negatively with the changes in CH, TG and LDL, and positively with the change in HDL. In addition, the change in SBP correlated positively with the changes in CH, TG and LDL, and negatively with the change in HDL. [Conclusion] Tai Chi training might improve the renal and cardiac functions of CKD and CVD patients via improved regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:25435688

  8. Effects of Tai Chi on a Functional Arm Reaching Task in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the effect of aging and the long-term practice of Tai Chi on upper limb movement control, indicated by performance outcome (temporal) and performance production (amplitude) measures, on a multiplanar stand-reaching (i.e., functional) task. Twelve Tai Chi practitioners (TCPs), 11 age-matched older nonpractitioners (ONPs), and 12 young subjects performed cued, flexion-reaching, and abduction-reaching tasks using a custom set-up. Surface EMG and acceleration data sampled from wireless sensors rendered performance outcome (reaction time, burst duration, time to peak, and movement time) and performance production (normalized EMG amplitude and peak acceleration) measures. Young subjects and TCPs demonstrated better performance outcome and performance production than ONPs. Relative-effect computations (i.e., the effect of Tai Chi expressed as a percentage of the effect of aging) showed that TCPs exhibited approximately 20-60% (flexion) and 20-100% (abduction) improvement in reaching task performance compared with ONPs. Tai Chi practitioners displayed better arm movement control than ONPs on a relatively challenging and functional stand-reaching task.

  9. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: NNLC: non-negative least chi-square minimization and application to HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désesquelles, P.; Ha, T. M. H.; Korichi, A.; LeBlanc, F.; Petrache, C. M.; AGATA Collaboration

    2009-03-01

    A new method is proposed for the problem of solving chi-square minimization with a positive solution. This method is embodied in an evolution of the popular NNLS algorithm. Its efficiency with respect to residue minimization is illustrated by the improvement it permits on the location of gamma-interactions inside an AGATA HPGe detector.

  10. On the appropriateness of applying chi-square distribution based confidence intervals to spectral estimates of helicopter flyover data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Charles K.

    1988-01-01

    The validity of applying chi-square based confidence intervals to far-field acoustic flyover spectral estimates was investigated. Simulated data, using a Kendall series and experimental acoustic data from the NASA/McDonnell Douglas 500E acoustics test, were analyzed. Statistical significance tests to determine the equality of distributions of the simulated and experimental data relative to theoretical chi-square distributions were performed. Bias and uncertainty errors associated with the spectral estimates were easily identified from the data sets. A model relating the uncertainty and bias errors to the estimates resulted, which aided in determining the appropriateness of the chi-square distribution based confidence intervals. Such confidence intervals were appropriate for nontonally associated frequencies of the experimental data but were inappropriate for tonally associated estimate distributions. The appropriateness at the tonally associated frequencies was indicated by the presence of bias error and noncomformity of the distributions to the theoretical chi-square distribution. A technique for determining appropriate confidence intervals at the tonally associated frequencies was suggested.

  11. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests.

  12. Green Eyeshades vs. Chi Squares Revisited: Editors' and JMC Administrators' Perceptions of Major Issues in Journalism Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Thomas V.; Sellmeyer, Ralph L.

    The question of whether there is a chasm between the newspaper profession and journalism education is not a new one. In a 1967 article titled "Green Eyeshades vs. Chi-Squares," Jake Highton indicated that journalists looked at journalism research as obscure and irrelevant. The study described in this paper investigated the extent of the gap…

  13. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests. PMID:17165404

  14. Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and Its Multivariate Implication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2008-01-01

    In the literature of mean and covariance structure analysis, noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under alternative hypothesis. Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, it is widely believed that the…

  15. Transition form factors of P wave bottomonium {chi}{sub b0} (1P) into B{sub c} meson

    SciTech Connect

    Suengue, J. Y.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2012-10-23

    Taking into account the two-gluon condensate contributions, the transition form factors enrolled to the low energy effective Hamiltonian describing the semileptonic {chi}{sub b0}{yields}B{sub c} Script-Small-L {nu},( Script-Small-L = (e,{mu},{tau})) decay channel are calculated within three-point QCD sum rules.

  16. Teachers' and Students' Attitudes towards the Implementation of Content-Based Instruction in Higher Education in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Bui Phu; Hai, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Content-based instruction programs carried out in higher education in Ho Chi Minh City rests against national language-in-education policy and planning. However, in the first phase of implementation, this kind of courses proves problematic. This present study investigated teachers' and students' opinions on the implementation of content-based…

  17. Tai Chi for Improvement of Motor Function, Balance and Gait in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yuan; Gong, Li; Zhu, Yun-Liang; Hao, Yan-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, several studies assessed the effectiveness of Tai Chi for Parkinson's disease (PD), but the role of Tai Chi in the management of PD remained controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of Tai Chi for PD. Methods Six English and Chinese electronic databases, up to April 2014, were searched to identify relevant studies. The risk of bias in eligible studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration's tools. The primary outcomes were motor function, balance and gait in individuals with PD. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of random-effect model were calculated. And heterogeneity was assessed based on the I2statistic. Results 7 randomized controlled trials and 1 non-randomized controlled trial were eligible. The aggregated results suggested that Tai Chi showed beneficial effects in improving motor function (SMD, −0.57; 95% CI −1.11 to −0.04; p = 0.03), balance (SMD, 1.22; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.65; p<0.00001) and functional mobility (SMD, 1.06; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.44; p<0.00001) in patients with PD, but not in improving gait velocity (SMD, −0.02; 95% CI −0.58 to 0.54; p = 0.94), step length (SMD, −0.00; 95% CI −0.57 to 0.56; p = 0.99), or gait endurance (SMD, 0.53; 95% CI −0.07 to 1.12; p = 0.08). Comparing with other active therapies, however, Tai Chi only showed better effects in improving balance (SMD, 0.74; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.10; p<0.0001). Conclusion Tai Chi should be a valid complementary and alternative therapy for PD, especially in improving motor function and balance. However, more studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current finding of Tai Chi for PD. PMID:25047456

  18. Effects of wheelchair Tai Chi on physical and mental health among elderly with disability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Li, Zhanghua; Yang, Yi; Zhong, Yaping; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Shihui; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A 12-week Wheelchair Tai Chi 10 Form (WTC10) intervention was conducted among elderly with disability to examine the effect of this WTC10 intervention on selected physical and mental health variables. Thirteen (age 87.23 ± 6.71) in the WTC10 intervention group and 15 (age 89.73 ± 6.31) in the control group completed the study. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were employed to examine the differences between groups and within groups, respectively, at pretest and post-test. The WTC10 intervention group showed significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, shoulder external rotation, left trunk rotation and total trunk rotation after the intervention. A 12-week WTC10 intervention had positive effects on blood pressure, range of motion at the shoulder and trunk, physical activity, and mental health among the elderly with disability. WTC10 is a feasible and safe exercise for the elderly with disability. PMID:27248716

  19. High Resolution Rapid Response Observations of Compact Radio Sources with the Ceduna Hobart Interferometer (CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Jay M.; Lovell, James E. J.; Ojha, Roopesh; Kadler, Matthias; Dickey, John M.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Frequent, simultaneous observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are essential to the study of a range of astrophysical phenomena including Active Galactic Nuclei. A key tool of such studies is the ability to observe an object when it flares i.e. exhibits a rapid and significant increase in its flux density. Aims. We describe the specific observational procedures and the calibration techniques that have been developed and tested to create a single baseline radio interferometer. that can rapidly observe a flaring object. This is the only facility that is dedicated to rapid high resolution radio observations of an object south of -30 degrees declination. An immediate application is to provide rapid contemporaneous radio coverage of AGN flaring at y-ray frequencies detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. A single baseline interferometer was formed with radio telescopes in Hobart, Tasmania and Ceduna, South Australia. A software correlator was set up at the University of Tasmania to correlate these data. Results. Measurements of the flux densities of flaring objects can be made using our observing strategy within half an hour of a triggering event. These observations can be calibrated with amplitude errors better than 20%. Lower limits to the brightness temperatures of the sources can also be calculated using CHI. Key words. instrumentation:interferometers - galaxies:active - galaxies:jets - galaxies:nuclei quasars:general gamma rays:galaxies- 1.

  20. Factors related with induced abortion among primigravid women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Diem Van; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Huynh, Nguyen Khanh Trang; Tran, Mong Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Nguyen, Duy Phong; Tran, Thi Loi; Goto, Aya

    2002-09-01

    A case-control study was conducted between July and August 2001 in Ho Chi Minh City to investigate factors associated with having induced abortions among primigravid women aged 16 to 38 years. Interviews were conducted with 87 women undergoing abortion (cases) and 81 pregnant women coming for antenatal care (controls). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84) and being married (OR = 0.05) decreased the risk of getting unintended pregnancy leading to abortion. Risk factors of obtaining an abortion were not being exposed to family planning promotion on television (OR = 2.28) and not knowing the adverse effects of abortion (OR = 10.26). Descriptive analysis of contraceptive behavior showed that 41% of cases had never used contraceptives and the reason for non-usage was lack of knowledge of any type of contraceptives in 43% of the cases. Additionally, only 24% of cases had discussed about family planning with their partners. Effective contraceptive methods should be promoted among young population, both females and males, and they need to be informed of the consequences of abortion. Television programs might be an effective mode of providing the information.

  1. Numerical investigation and optimization of multi-pulse CHI spheromak performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bryan, J. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Woodruff, S.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear extended-MHD computation with the NIMROD code is used to explore spheromak formation and sustainment with multi-pulse coaxial helicity injection (CHI). The goal of this research is to optimize spheromak performance in order to find candidate modes of operation for future experimental studies. We are modeling multiple specific shots from the Sustained Spheromak Physics eXperiment (SSPX) to both diagnose the parameters that affect efficiency--in particular, how the injector current and bias flux affect plasma confinement and magnetic helicity content relative to injected power--and to validate the numerical model. Preliminary results show quantitative agreement between several synthetic and experimental diagnostic measurements. The results also find--in addition to changing the magnetic topology and being the mechanism for poloidal flux amplification [E.B. Hooper et al. PPCF 2012]--the non-axisymmetric column mode decreases the decay rate of magnetic helicity relative to the injected current. Operational regimes will eventually be extended beyond those achieved in SSPX. We are also exploring the effect of the flux conserver and injector geometries on spheromak performance. This work is supported by DARPA under grant no. N66001-14-1-4044.

  2. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments.

  3. Monitoring lead in suspended air particulate matter in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, P. D.; Binh, N. T.; Ngo, N. T.; Ha, V. T.; Truong, Y.; An, N. H.

    Airborne lead has been measured in Ho Chi Minh City in the framework of an environmental monitoring programme since late 1992. Air particulate matter was collected atop an eight-storey building in working hours in a near-downtown residential area. The average concentrations of lead and total suspended particulate matter (TSP) for the 1993-1994 period were (179 ± 12) and (90 ± 6) μg m -3, respectively. Autoexhaust is believed to be a major source of lead; however, refuse burning and firecracker discharges may also contribute to some extent. Lead, while decreasing in rainy season, exhibited a rather irregular seasonal pattern resulting in a poor anticorrelation with rainfall in contrast with TSP. Lead values from ˜60 to 240 ng m -3 covering over 60% of measured data fit very well with a lognormal distribution mode which reflects the lognormality of wind speed with almost the same atmospheric stability condition. The deviations from this main distribution mode of lead concentrations outside this range are interpreted as due to the changes in atmospheric stability conditions that occurred during seasonal transition periods as well as under prolonged cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions.

  4. SEX RATIO AT BIRTH AND THE IDEAL FAMILY IN CHI LINH DISTRICT, VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Thuy Duong, Doan Thi

    2016-01-01

    Chi Linh district, which locates in the Red Delta River region, has been recognized as the “hot pot” of high sex ratio at birth in Vietnam. This paper used community-based periodic Demographic-Epidemiologic Surveillance System (CHILILAB) to describe sex ratio at birth (SRB) and identify social - economic factors that related to the SRB. A total 5,940 births born from August 1, 2004 to August 31, 2011 was included in analysis. The SRB of 116.6 boys/100 girls (CI: 110.7 – 122.5) was significantly higher than normal. SRB were found high among second child having only older sister(s), among third child and higher birth order, among mothers who were 35 years and older, running small business or homemakers. Interestingly, a SRB of 91.4 boys/100 girls (CI: 81.8 – 102) was found among second children having an older brother, this is significantly lower than the normal level. Further research should be done to assert if abortion is practiced both to have a son and to have a daughter. PMID:27499813

  5. Shingles Immunity and Health Functioning in the Elderly: Tai Chi Chih as a Behavioral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael; Pike, Jennifer; Oxman, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Both the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles increase markedly with increasing age in association with a decline in varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific immunity. Considerable evidence shows that behavioral stressors, prevalent in older adults, correlate with impairments of cellular immunity. Moreover, the presence of depressive symptoms in older adults is associated with declines in VZV-responder cell frequency (VZV-RCF), an immunological marker of shingles risk. In this review, we discuss recent findings that administration of a relaxation response-based intervention, tai chi chih (TCC), results in improvements in health functioning and immunity to VZV in older adults as compared with a control group. TCC is a slow moving meditation consisting of 20 separate standardized movements which can be readily used in elderly and medically compromised individuals. TCC offers standardized training and practice schedules, lending an important advantage over prior relaxation response-based therapies. Focus on older adults at increased risk for HZ and assay of VZV-specific immunity have implications for understanding the impact of behavioral factors and a behavioral intervention on a clinically relevant end-point and on the response of the immune system to infectious pathogens.

  6. Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn

    2006-09-01

    Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.

  7. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

  8. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  9. Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa; Yue, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Xiao; Chang, Yu-Kai; Yi, Long-Yan; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation.

  10. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Wong, Janet Y.H.; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Joanne W.Y.; Lee, Y.M.; Chow, Lina P.Y.; Luk, W.S.; Ng, Shamay S.M.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was expressed in terms of normalised low frequency (LF) power, normalised high frequency (HF) power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. [Results] Both the LF-power and the HF-power components had significant time effects. However, the time effect of the LF/HF power ratio was not significant. Post hoc contrast analysis revealed a significant decrease in LF power and a concomitant increase in HF power during the 4th minute and 5th minute of the TC Qigong exercise. [Conclusion] Five minutes of TC Qigong exercise was found to improve HRV by increasing HF power and decreasing LF power, but these effects were transient. TC Qigong might be an appropriate exercise for improving the ANS function and psychological and cardiac health of survivors of NPC. PMID:26157266

  11. Effects of wheelchair Tai Chi on physical and mental health among elderly with disability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Li, Zhanghua; Yang, Yi; Zhong, Yaping; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Shihui; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A 12-week Wheelchair Tai Chi 10 Form (WTC10) intervention was conducted among elderly with disability to examine the effect of this WTC10 intervention on selected physical and mental health variables. Thirteen (age 87.23 ± 6.71) in the WTC10 intervention group and 15 (age 89.73 ± 6.31) in the control group completed the study. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were employed to examine the differences between groups and within groups, respectively, at pretest and post-test. The WTC10 intervention group showed significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, shoulder external rotation, left trunk rotation and total trunk rotation after the intervention. A 12-week WTC10 intervention had positive effects on blood pressure, range of motion at the shoulder and trunk, physical activity, and mental health among the elderly with disability. WTC10 is a feasible and safe exercise for the elderly with disability.

  12. A Review of Clinical Trials of Tai Chi and Qigong in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carol; Larkey, Linda K.; Keller, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Initiation and maintenance of physical activity (PA) in older adults is of increasing concern as the benefits of PA have been shown to improve physical functioning, mood, weight and cardiovascular risk factors. Meditative movement forms of PA, such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TC&QG), are holistic in nature and have increased in popularity over the past few decades. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated TC&QG interventions from multiple perspectives, specifically targeting older adults. The purpose of this report was to synthesize intervention studies targeting TC & QG and identify the physical and psychological health outcomes shown to be associated with TC&QG in community dwelling adults over 55. Based on specific inclusion criteria, 36 research reports with a total of 3,799 participants were included in this review. Five, categories of study outcomes were identified, including falls and balance, physical function, cardiovascular disease, psychological and additional disease specific responses. Significant improvement in clusters of similar outcomes indicated interventions utilizing TC&QG may help older adults improve physical function and reduce blood pressure; fall risk; and depression and anxiety. Missing from the reviewed reports is a discussion of how spiritual exploration with meditative forms of PA, an important component of these movement activities, may contribute to successful aging. PMID:19179544

  13. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain's intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population.

  14. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE B AND Be STAR POPULATIONS OF h AND {chi} PERSEI

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh Boyer, Amber N.; Virginia McSwain, M.; Aragona, Christina; Ou-Yang, Benjamin E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.edu E-mail: ouyang@chara.gsu.edu

    2012-12-01

    We present a study of the B and Be star populations of the double cluster h and {chi} Persei. Blue optical spectroscopy is used to first measure projected rotational velocity, V sin i, effective surface temperature, T{sub eff}, and surface gravity, log g, for B-type sample stars, while available Stroemgren photometry is used to calculate T{sub eff} and log g for the Be stars showing emission. In our sample of 104 objects for which we measured these stellar parameters, 28 are known or proposed Be stars. Of these Be stars, 22 show evidence of emission at the times of our observations, and furthermore, we find evidence in our data and the literature for at least 8 transient Be stars in the clusters. We find that the Be stars are not rotating near their critical velocity, contrary to the results of studies of similar open clusters. We compare the results of our analysis with other previous studies and find that the cluster members are more evolved than found by Huang and Gies but still retain much of their initial rotational angular momentum.

  15. Changes in muscle strength, endurance, and reaction of the lower extremities with Tai Chi intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Xian; Xu, Dong Qing; Hong, Youlian

    2009-05-29

    This study examines the effects of a 16-week Tai Chi (TC) training program on the muscle strength, endurance, and reaction time of the lower extremities of elderly people. A total of 40 elderly individuals (aged 60 years) completed the study. They were divided into two groups: the TC group (11 men and 11 women) underwent a supervised TC exercise program for 16 weeks, while the control group (9 men and 9 women) received general education for a comparable time period. Pre- and post-intervention measurements were conducted. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the maximum concentric strength and dynamic endurance of the knee flexors and the extensors, and the maximum concentric strength of the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. The neuromuscular response of the rectus femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, and anterior tibialis muscles was measured by the onset latency to sudden perturbations using an electromyography system. After 16 weeks, the TC group showed a 19.9% increase in muscle strength of the knee flexors (p<.000) that was significantly greater than that in the control group (p=.046). There was also a significant decrease in semitendinosus muscle latency (6.6%, p=.014) that was significantly shorter than that in the control group (p=.042). No significant training effects were found in other measures. These results suggest that improving biomechanical characteristics of lower extremity muscles may need longer TC intervention for elderly people.

  16. THE STELLAR POPULATION OF h AND {chi} PERSEI: CLUSTER PROPERTIES, MEMBERSHIP, AND THE INTRINSIC COLORS AND TEMPERATURES OF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Irwin, Jonathan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Tokarz, Susan; Hernandez, Jesus; Balog, Zoltan; Bragg, Ann; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Mike E-mail: jirwin@cfa.harvard.edu

    2010-02-01

    From photometric observations of {approx} 47,000 stars and spectroscopy of {approx} 11,000 stars, we describe the first extensive study of the stellar population of the famous Double Cluster, h and {chi} Persei, down to subsolar masses. By analyzing optical spectra and optical/infrared photometry, we constrain the distance moduli (dM), reddening (E(B - V)), and ages for h Persei, {chi} Persei, and the low-density halo population surrounding both cluster cores. With the exception of mass and spatial distribution, the clusters are nearly identical in every measurable way. Both clusters have E(B - V) {approx} 0.52-0.55 and dM = 11.8-11.85; the halo population, while more poorly constrained, likely has identical properties. As determined from the main-sequence turnoff, the luminosity of M supergiants, and pre-main-sequence isochrones, ages for h Persei, {chi} Persei, and the halo population all converge on {approx}14 Myr, thus showing a stunning agreement between estimates based on entirely different physics. From these data, we establish the first spectroscopic and photometric membership lists of cluster stars down to early/mid M dwarfs. At minimum, there are {approx} 5000 members within 10' of the cluster centers, while the entire h and {chi} Persei region has at least {approx} 13,000 and as many as 20,000 members. The Double Cluster contains {approx} 8400 M {sub sun} of stars within 10' of the cluster centers. We estimate a total mass of at least 20,000 M {sub sun}. We conclude our study by outlining outstanding questions regarding the past and present properties of h and {chi} Persei. From comparing recent work, we compile a list of intrinsic colors and derive a new effective temperature scale for O-M dwarfs, giants, and supergiants.

  17. The influence of tai chi and yoga on balance and falls in a residential care setting: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; Van Der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David

    2014-07-23

    Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a 3-arm RCT with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14 week modified tai chi or yoga program is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.

  18. Treatment effect of the method of Tai Chi exercise in combination with inhalation of air negative oxygen ions on hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the improvement effect of the treatment method of Tai Chi exercise in combination with inhalation of the air negative oxygen ions on the blood lipid indicator of the patient suffering from the hyperlipidemia. Methods: 56 patients, who are diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, are the study objects and divided into an observation group and a control group by the random number method. Each group consists of 28 patients. The patients in the control group do Tai Chi exercise for about 60 min once a day; the patients in the observation group, in addition to Tai Chi exercise, are treated by inhalation of the air negative oxygen ions. Before the treatment and after 6 months’ treatment, respectively test and compare body fat content, blood lipid, blood rheology and psychological adaptation as well as other indicators for these two groups of patients. Results: In comparison with the ordinary materials of the patients in two groups before the treatment, it shows no significant difference, P>0.05; after they are respectively treated for 6 months, it is found that the testing indicators of the patients in two groups are improved to some extent, but those of the observation group are better. Compared with the improvement effect of the control group, the difference has statistical significance, P<0.05. Conclusion: Tai Chi Exercise can improve the blood lipid indicator of the patient suffering from hyperlipidemia to some extent, however, the treatment method, in combination with inhalation of air negative oxygen ion, can obtain better effect than that of single Tai Chi exercise. Tip: the environment of the exercise plays an important intervention role in the treatment effect. PMID:25232426

  19. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on the physical and mental health of the elder patients suffered from anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Shen, Guo-Qing; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Ma, Ming; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Han, Yu-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Observe the effect of Tai Chi exercise on the rehabilitation of elder patients suffered from the anxiety disorder. Methods: 32 elder patients suffered from the anxiety disorder are randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group and each of them consists of 16 patients. The control group only receives the drug therapy, while the experimental group is treated with Tai Chi exercise in addition to the drug therapy. When they are chosen and 45 days after treatment, they are respectively evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Generic Quality of Life Inventory-74 (GQOLI-74). The cured patients stop the drug therapy, but the cured patients in the experimental group continue to do Tai Chi exercise after stopping the drug therapy. After tracing and investigating each cured patient for 2 months, test and evaluate whether their disease reoccurs within the 2 months. Results: After 45 days’ treatment, it is found that HAMA and GQOLI-74 scores of the patients in the experimental group are improved significantly in comparison with those in the time of their selection and those in the control group (P<0.05); upon tracing and investigation of the cured patients, it is found that the recurrence rate is 42.86% in the control group, while that of the experimental group is only 9.09%. Conclusion: After the elder patients suffered from the anxiety disorder are treated with Tai Chi exercise in addition to the drug therapy, their effect is more significant than those who only are treated by the drug. Meanwhile, if the patients are only treated by the drug, their disease is easy to reoccur after curing. However, if they insist on Tai Chi exercise, the recurrence rate is low and the effect is significant. PMID:24665359

  20. The Impact of Tai Chi on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Wells, Rebecca E.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Summarize and critically evaluate research on the effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in older adults. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. SETTING Community and residential care. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 60 and over (with the exception of one study) with and without cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Cognitive ability using a variety of neuropsychological testing. RESULTS Twenty eligible studies with a total of 2,553 participants were identified that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 11 of the 20 eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 was a prospective non-randomized controlled study, 4 were prospective non-controlled observational studies, and 4 were cross-sectional studies. Overall quality of RCTs was modest, with 3 of 11 trials categorized as high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of outcomes related to executive function in RCTs of cognitively healthy adults indicated a large effect size when Tai Chi was compared to non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.90; p=0.043) and moderate effect size when compared to exercise controls (Hedge’s g=0.51; p=0.003). Meta-analyses of outcomes related to global cognitive function in RCTs of cognitively impaired adults, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, showed smaller but statistically significant effects when Tai Chi was compared to both non-intervention controls (Hedge’s g=0.35; p=0.004) and other active interventions (Hedge’s g=0.30; p=0.002). Findings from non-randomized studies add further evidence that Tai Chi may positively impact these and other domains of cognitive function. CONCLUSION Tai Chi shows potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults, particularly in the realm of executive functioning and in those individuals without significant impairment. Larger and methodologically sound trials with longer follow-up periods are needed before more definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24383523

  1. Induction of proinflammatory mediators by CHI3L1 is reduced by chitin treatment: decreased tumor metastasis in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Shibata, Yoshimi; Carrio, Roberto; Torroella-Kouri, Marta; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2012-07-15

    Disseminated metastasis accounts for over 90% of breast cancer deaths. Recently, elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3 like-protein-1 (CHI3L1) has been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we show that there are increased levels of CHI3L1 in plasma of tumor-bearing mice and that both tumor cells and immune cells express and secrete CHI3L1. However, the biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 are still unclear. We demonstrate that while CHI3L1 has an inhibitory role in the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), CHI3L1 up-regulates pro-inflammatory mediators, C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine CX motif ligand 2 (CXCL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) all of which contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. We found that in vitro inhibition of CHI3L1 by siRNA suppressed the production of CCL2, CXCL2 and MMP-9 by macrophages. In vivo treatment of mammary tumor-bearing mice with chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl D-glucosamine), a TH(1) adjuvant and a ligand for CHI3L1, promoted immune effector functions with increased production of IFN-γ and decreased CCL2, CXCL2 and MMP-9 expression. In vivo administration of chitin to mammary tumor-bearing mice significantly decreased lung metastasis. These studies show that CHI3L1 plays a role in tumor progression and that chitin can inhibit the pleiotropic effects of CHI3L1 giving support to the idea that CHI3L1 is a useful therapeutic target for treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Small-Scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster CHI Persei-Fuse II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Friedman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the physical conditions of gas along sight lines toward 6 stars in the core Chi Persei open cluster. These sight lines traverse gas in both the Orion and Perseus spiral arms of the Galaxy, at distances of 500 and 2000 pc, respectively. The stars have angular separations ranging from 45 to 280 arcsec; 60 arcsec corresponds to linear distances of 0.15 and 0.6 pc in the two arms. Thus, abundance variations in these observations would constitute evidence for small-scale variations in the properties of the interstellar medium. Ground-based Na I observations at high resolution (approx. 15 km/sec) toward 172 stars (including the 6 in this study) in the double open cluster h and Chi Persei have revealed complex spatial variation. These variations are especially evident in the gas at velocities of -40 and -55 km/sec, corresponding to the Perseus spiral arm. 21 cm observations of HI emission using the Low Resolution DRAO Survey, with a 12-arcmin beam, also show variations. Averaging the Na I apparent optical depth profiles of neighboring sight lines in order to mimic such a beam size reduces the variation, as compared to the individual Na I measurements, but still show variations larger than seen in the 21 cm profiles. Na I is not the dominant ionization state of Na in the interstellar medium. Thus, it is possible that the variations seen really trace physical structures in the interstellar medium, or they may simply result from variations in the radiation field seen by the gas, or be due to some other environmental circumstance. To distinguish among these possibilities in the present study we obtained FUSE spectra toward the 6 targets in order to measure the molecular hydrogen absorption profiles along these sight lines. The higher J states of H2 are populated by the ambient W radiation field, and thus can provide insight into the environment affecting the gas. If both the high and low J states reveal absorption line profiles with

  3. Regular tai chi chuan exercise enhances functional mobility and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, S‐H; Chuang, H; Lin, L‐W; Hsiao, C‐Y; Eng, H L

    2006-01-01

    Background The duration and vigour of physical exercise are widely considered to be critical elements that may positively or negatively affect physical health and immune response. Objectives To investigate the effect of a 12 week programme of regular tai chi chuan exercise (TCC) on functional mobility, beliefs about benefits of exercise on physical and psychological health, and immune regulation in middle aged volunteers. Methods This quasi‐experimental research design involving one group with testing before and after the programme was conducted to measure the effect of 12 weeks of TCC exercise in 14 men and 23 women from the normal community. Results Regular TCC exercise had a highly significant positive effect on functional mobility (p  =  0.001) and beliefs about the health benefits of exercise (p  =  0.013) in the 37 participants. Total white blood cell and red blood cell count did not change significantly, but a highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in monocyte count occurred. A significant (p  =  0.05) increase in the ratio of T helper to suppressor cells (CD4:CD8) was found, along with a significant (p  =  0.015) increase in CD4CD25 regulatory T cells. Production of the regulatory T cell mediators transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10 under specific antigen stimulation (varicella zoster virus) was also significantly increased after this exercise programme. Conclusions A 12 week programme of regular TCC exercise enhances functional mobility, personal health expectations, and regulatory T cell function. PMID:16505081

  4. Effects of Tai Chi on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Koo, Malcolm; Ho, Meng-Ying; Lin, Zi-Zi; Yu, Zer-Ran; Lin, Yen-Fen; Wang, Be-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a single bout of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-six individuals (mean age 60.2 years) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor who had been practicing Yang's style TC exercise for at least 3 months were recruited from a regional hospital in Taiwan. A one-group repeated measured quasi-experimental design was used. Participants completed a 60-min Yang's style TC exercise routine including warm up, stretching exercises, and TC followed by a 30-min resting period. After a 1-week washout period, the same group of participants underwent a control condition in which they were instructed to remain seated for 90 min at the study location. Blood samples were collected both before and after the TC intervention or the sitting condition. The difference between pre-post measurements for adiponectin was 0.58 ± 1.42 μg/ml in the TC trial and -0.46 ± 0.99 μg/ml in the sitting trial. The differences between the two trials were statistically significant (P = 0.004). The changes from pretrial to posttrial were significantly greater for glycerol (P < 0.001), cholesterol (P = 0.046), and LDL-C (P = 0.038) in the TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. Conversely, the changes were significantly lesser for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004), log (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.001), and glucose (P = 0.003) in TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. In conclusion, a single bout of TC exercise had a significant positive effect on blood adiponectin concentrations in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20809228

  5. Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations. Results Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations. PMID:24206763

  6. Groundwater screening for 940 organic micro-pollutants in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Kong, Lingxiao

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for more than half of the residents of Hanoi (HN). It also provides about one third of the total water demand for residents of Ho Chi Minh City (HCM). However, due to rapid urbanization and frequent discharges of untreated urban wastewater to surface water, freshwater is widely contaminated by man-made chemicals, which may result in groundwater pollution. As part of an ongoing campaign to collect baseline information on the occurrence of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in the aquatic environment in Vietnam, 43 water samples were collected from 26 groundwater wells in HN (22) and HCM (4) in September 2013 and August 2014. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the resulting chromatograms were screened for 940 OMPs by an automated identification and quantification system (AIQS) within a GC-MS database. A total of 74 compounds were detected, with between 4 and 43 (median 18) compounds found at each site. Overall, contamination levels were low, with over 89 % of the detected concentrations that were less than 0.5 μg L(-1). Results suggest that most of the sampled aquifers have been impacted by non-point source pollution. Most of the contaminants detected are either currently not regulated in drinking water or are present at low levels. A health risk assessment for detected contaminants implied that there were no risks to humans. Since this study was based on a limited number of samples, especially in HCM, further, more detailed studies on the occurrence of OMPs in groundwater in HCM and a full risk assessment of detected contaminants should be prioritized.

  7. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis from immature cotyledons of Camellia nitidissima Chi.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jinfeng; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Muhan; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Ma, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia nitidissima Chi (Theaceae) is a world-famous economic and ornamental plant with golden-yellow flowers. It has been classified as one of the rarest and most endangered plants in China. Our objective was to induce somatic embryogenesis, shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration for C. nitidissima. Three types of callus (whitish, reddish and yellowish) were induced from immature cotyledons on improved woody plant medium (WPM) with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Among the callus, whitish callus was induced by 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and reddish and yellowish callus were induced by strongly active cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), singly or combined with weakly active auxin, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The embryogenic callus could differentiate into somatic embryos, nodular embryogenic structures (large embryo-like structures) or adventitious shoots depending on the PGR used in WPM. BAP was best for adventitious buds and zeatin was best for somatic embryogenesis while kinetin (Kt) was best for the formation of nodular embryogenic structures. The three regeneration pathways often occurred in the same embryogenic callus clumps. Most shoots (80.0%) developed roots in WPM supplemented with 24.6 μM IBA and 0.3 μM NAA while 47.5% of somatic embryos could germinate directly and develop into plantlets on induction medium supplemented with 0.9 μM BAP and 0.1 μM NAA. The nodular embryogenic structures could be sub-cultured and cyclically developed in one of two differentiation pathways: shoot organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis. Plantlets derived from shoot buds rooted and somatic embryos germinated when transplanted into soil in a greenhouse; 66.7% of plantlets from shoot culture and 78.6% of plantlets from somatic embryos survived after 8 weeks' acclimatization. PMID:23790533

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaojia; Liu, Shaonan; Lu, Fuchang; Shi, Xiaogeng; Guo, Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective In Parkinson's disease (PD), wearing off and side effects of long-term medication and complications pose challenges for neurologists. Although Tai Chi is beneficial for many illnesses, its efficacy for PD remains uncertain. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for PD. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi for PD were electronically searched by the end of December 2013 and identified by two independent reviewers. The tool from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to assess the risk of bias. A standard meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Ten trials with PD of mild-to-moderate severity were included in the review, and nine trials (n = 409) were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high in the blinding of participants and personnel. Improvements in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (mean difference (MD) −4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) −6.67–−2.01), Berg Balance Scale (MD: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.83–5.66), functional reach test (MD: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.73–6.04), Timed Up and Go test (MD: −0.75, 95% CI: −1.30–−0.21), stride length (standardized MD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.03–1.09), health-related quality of life (standardized MD: −1.10, 95% CI: −1.81–−0.39) and reduction of falls were greater after interventions with Tai Chi plus medication. Satisfaction and safety were high. Intervention with Tai Chi alone was more effective for only a few balance and mobility outcomes. Conclusions Tai Chi performed with medication resulted in promising gains in mobility and balance, and it was safe and popular among PD patients at an early stage of the disease. This provides a new evidence for PD management. More RCTs with larger sample size that carefully address blinding and prudently select outcomes are needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004989. PMID:24927169

  9. Effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Xu, Rong-Mei; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: To study the effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly female, 105 urban elderly women, who do insufficient exercise in daily life, are selected as the subject and randomly divided into an observation group (Tai Chi Group), a control group I (Dance Group) and a control group II (Walking Group). Each group is consists of 35 women. Among them, the women in the observation group do Tai-chi exercise once a day, while the women in the control group I dance once a day and in the control group II stick to brisk walking once a day. All women in the three groups do the above said exercises for 40 minutes and the exercise intensity is controlled to be medium. At the time of selection and after 4, 8 and 12 months upon their exercises, respectively detect and compare the lower limb skeletal muscle mass, lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of the subject. Results: At the time of selection, the general information of the subjects in the three groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05); however, after 4 months’ exercise, most of the study indexes in the control group I and group II are improved significantly (P < 0.05), while most of the study indexes in the observation group show no significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection and their general improvement effect is slightly lower than that in the control group; after 8 months, relevant study indexes of the subjects in the three groups are significantly improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection, especially, the effect in the observation group is more obvious and is better than that of the control group II (P < 0.05). 12 months later, the effect of the observation group is improved significantly from day to day when comparing to theose in the control group I and group II (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with the senile dance and

  10. Activation of amygdala opioid receptors by electroacupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints exacerbates focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of seizure suppression by acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints has been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot), however, there is a lack of scientific evidence to prove it. This current study was designed to elucidate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on the epileptic activity by employing an animal model of focal epilepsy. Methods Administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced the focal epilepsy in rats. Rats received a 30-min 100 Hz EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints per day, beginning at 30 minutes before the dark period and performing in three consecutive days. The broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone), μ-receptor antagonist (naloxonazine), δ-receptor antagonist (naltrindole) and κ-receptor antagonist (nor-binaltorphimine) were administered directly into the CeA to elucidate the involvement of CeA opioid receptors in the EA effect. Results High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints did not suppress the pilocarpine-induced epileptiform electroencephalograms (EEGs), whereas it further increased the duration of epileptiform EEGs. We also observed that epilepsy occurred while 100 Hz EA stimulation of Feng-Chi acupoints was delivered into naïve rats. EA-induced augmentation of epileptic activity was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors in the CeA mediates EA-exacerbated epilepsy. Conclusions The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints has no effect to protect against pilocarpine-induced focal epilepsy; in contrast, EA further exacerbated focal epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA

  11. ScChi, Encoding an Acidic Class III Chitinase of Sugarcane, Confers Positive Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Fu, Zhiwei; Yang, Yuting; Guo, Jinlong; Wang, Shanshan; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.2.14), expressed during the plant-pathogen interaction, are associated with plant defense against pathogens. In the present study, a positive correlation between chitinase activity and sugarcane smut resistance was found. ScChi (GenBank accession no. KF664180), a Class III chitinase gene, encoded a 31.37 kDa polypeptide, was cloned and identified. Subcellular localization revealed ScChi targeting to the nucleus, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that ScChi was highly expressed in leaf and stem epidermal tissues. The ScChi transcript was both higher and maintained longer in the resistance cultivar during challenge with Sporisorium scitamineum. The ScChi also showed an obvious induction of transcription after treatment with SA (salicylic acid), H2O2, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), ABA (abscisic acid), NaCl, CuCl2, PEG (polyethylene glycol) and low temperature (4 °C). The expression levels of ScChi and six immunity associated marker genes were upregulated by the transient overexpression of ScChi. Besides, histochemical assay of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves overexpressing pCAMBIA 1301-ScChi exhibited deep DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidinesolution) staining color and high conductivity, indicating the high level of H2O2 accumulation. These results suggest a close relationship between the expression of ScChi and plant immunity. In conclusion, the positive responses of ScChi to the biotic and abiotic stimuli reveal that this gene is a stress-related gene of sugarcane. PMID:24552874

  12. In vivo distribution of organophosphate antidotes: autoradiography of (/sup 14/C)HI-6 in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ligtenstein, D.A.; Moes, G.W.; Kossen, S.P.

    1988-02-01

    In order to visualize the distribution of HI-6 in the rat after iv administration, autoradiographic experiments were carried out with (/sup 14/C)HI-6, labeled at the carbon of the carboxamide moiety. Autoradiography clearly confirms penetration of HI-6 into the central nervous system. Considerable radioactivity was found in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the choroid plexus. No significant activity was detected in the pontomedullary region or the spinal cord. Peripherally, (/sup 14/C)HI-6 is observed in large amounts in kidneys, heart, liver, nose, bladder, testes, and marrow-containing bone. The gastrointestinal tract was largely devoid of any radioactivity. The relative absence of HI-6 in the pontomedullary region renders centrally mediated influences of HI-6 on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters less likely.

  13. Personal exposure to benzene of selected population groups and impact of commuting modes in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Liem, Ngo Quang; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2013-04-01

    Personal exposure to benzene of selected population groups, and impacts of traffic on commuters in Ho Chi Minh City were investigated. The study was carried out in June, July and November 2010. The preliminary data showed that on average, personal exposure to benzene for non-occupational people in Ho Chi Minh is ~18 μg/m(3) and most of the exposure is due to commuting. Benzene exposure during travelling by bus, taxi and motorcycle is, respectively, 22-30, 22-39 and 185-240 μg/m(3). Motorcycle-taxi drivers, petrol filling employees and street vendors suffer high daily exposures at 116, 52, 32 μg/m(3), respectively. Further measurements are needed for a better risk assessment and finding effective measures to reduce exposure.

  14. The Impact of New Execution Venues on European Equity Markets' Liquidity - The Case of Chi-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlistalla, Michael; Lutat, Marco

    With the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in effect since November 2007, new trading venues have emerged in European equities trading, among them Chi-X. This paper analyzes the impact of this new market entrant on the home market as well as on consolidated liquidity of French blue chip equities, newly tradable on Chi-X. Our findings suggest that owing to this new competition the home market’s liquidity has enhanced. This is apparently due to the battle for order flow which results in narrower spreads and increased market depth. These results imply that overall liquidity in a virtually consolidated order book is in the French case higher than without the new competitor.

  15. Evidence for B{sup 0}{yields}{chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup 0} at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhardwaj, V.; Adachi, I.; Dalseno, J.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Itoh, R.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakamura, I.; Nishida, S.; Ozaki, H.; Sakai, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Aihara, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction for the Cabibbo- and color-suppressed B{sup 0}{yields}{chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup 0} decay based on a data sample of 657x10{sup 6}BB events collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe a signal of 40{+-}9 events with a significance of 4.7{sigma} including systematic uncertainties. The measured branching fraction is B(B{sup 0}{yields}{chi}{sub c1}{pi}{sup 0})=(1.12{+-}0.25(stat){+-}0.12(syst.))x10{sup -5}.

  16. Coupling with Packaging Explains Apparent Nonreciprocality of Chi-Stimulated Recombination of Bacteriophage Lambda by Reca and Recbc Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Stahl, Mary M.; Fairfield, Frederic R.; Stahl, Franklin W.

    1984-01-01

    Chi (χ, 5'-GCTGGTGG) is a recombinator in RecA- and RecBC-mediated recombination in Escherichia coli. In vegetative recombination between two bacteriophage lambda strains, one with and the other without Chi (a+χ+b- x a-χob+), the χ-containing recombinant (a-χ+b -) is less abundant than the non-χ-containing recombinant (a+χob+). Previously this was taken was evidence for nonreciprocality of χ-stimulated exchange. This inequality, however, is now seen to result from an event at cos (λ's packaging origin) that both activates Chi and initiates DNA packaging. An event at rightward cos leads to activation of leftward χ on the same chromosome for an exchange to its left. From the resulting circulating dimer (—cos-a+-χo-b +-cos-a --χ+-b-—), the cos that activated χ is more likely to be used for rightward packaging initiation than is the cos from the other parent. Consistent with this coupling model is "biased packaging" in λ carrying two cos sites per monomer genome. When their maturation is dependent on dimerization by χ-stimulated exchange, the phage particles result more often from packaging from the cos that activates χ than from packaging from the other cos. Since Chi activation and packaging can be uncoupled, we infer that some early and reversible step in packaging activates χ. A strong candidate for this step is a double-strand break at cos that provides an oriented entry site for a recombinase. PMID:6239809

  17. Markers of hepatitis C and B virus infections among blood donors in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Song, P; Duc, D D; Hien, B; Nakata, S; Chosa, T; Watanabe, J; Tsuda, F; Murata, K; Okamoto, H

    1994-07-01

    Blood donors in two cities in Vietnam were tested for markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus infections. Antibody to HCV was detected by passive hemagglutination with antigens of the second generation in 101 (20.6%) of 491 donors in Ho Chi Minh City; it was detected less frequently (P < 0.001) in donors in hanoi (4 [0.8%] of 499). HCV RNA was tested for in donors with antibody by PCR with nested primers from the 5'-noncoding region and detected in 79 donors in Ho Chi Minh City and 4 donors in Hanoi. HCV RNA was genotyped by PCR with type-specific primers from the core gene. Of 83 HCV carriers from Vietnam, 24 (29%) were infected with HCV of genotype I/1a 19 (23%) were infected with II/1b, 4 (5%) were infected with III/2a, and 2 (2%) were infected with mixed genotypes (I/1a and II/1b); HCV genotypes in the remaining 34 (41%) donors, including all 4 donors in Hanoi, were not classifiable into I/1a, II/2a, IV/2b, or V/3a. Of the 10 isolates with unclassifiable genotypes, 2 showed substantial sequence divergence within the 5'-noncoding region from reported isolates with known genotypes (I/1a to 6a). An analysis of part of the core gene sequence indicated that six of the remaining isolates most likely represented new HCV genotypes. Hepatitis B surface antigen and the corresponding antibody, respectively, were detected in 15 (3.1%) and 234 (47.7%) donors in Ho Chi Minh City as well as 15 (3.0%) and 248 (49.7%) donors in Hanoi. These results indicate an extensive spread of HCV among Ho Chi Minh City donors and HCV of novel genotypes in vietnam.

  18. Observation of a {chi}{sub c2}{sup '} Candidate in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD Production at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Dragic, J.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Stamen, R.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tsukamoto, T.

    2006-03-03

    We report on a search for new resonant states in the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD. A candidate C-even charmonium state is observed in the vicinity of 3.93 GeV/c{sup 2}. The production rate and the angular distribution in the {gamma}{gamma} center-of-mass frame suggest that this state is the previously unobserved {chi}{sub c2}{sup '}, the 2{sup 3}P{sub 2} charmonium state.

  19. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan.

    PubMed

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Salgado-Méndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ramírez, Rodolfo

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the timed up-and-go/timed one-leg standing test scores and center of pressure parameter values. [Results] None of the correlations was statistically significant, but moderate correlations were observed between the pairs timed one-leg standing/sway area of center of pressure, timed one-leg standing/standard deviation of center of pressure in the mediolateral direction, timed one-leg standing/mean velocity of center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, and timed up-and-go test sway area of center of pressure. [Conclusion] Timed one-leg standing is more appropriate than timed up-and-go test for the measurement of functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. PMID:27630430

  20. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  1. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan

    PubMed Central

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Salgado-Méndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ramírez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the timed up-and-go/timed one-leg standing test scores and center of pressure parameter values. [Results] None of the correlations was statistically significant, but moderate correlations were observed between the pairs timed one-leg standing/sway area of center of pressure, timed one-leg standing/standard deviation of center of pressure in the mediolateral direction, timed one-leg standing/mean velocity of center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, and timed up-and-go test sway area of center of pressure. [Conclusion] Timed one-leg standing is more appropriate than timed up-and-go test for the measurement of functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. PMID:27630430

  2. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan.

    PubMed

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Salgado-Méndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ramírez, Rodolfo

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the timed up-and-go/timed one-leg standing test scores and center of pressure parameter values. [Results] None of the correlations was statistically significant, but moderate correlations were observed between the pairs timed one-leg standing/sway area of center of pressure, timed one-leg standing/standard deviation of center of pressure in the mediolateral direction, timed one-leg standing/mean velocity of center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, and timed up-and-go test sway area of center of pressure. [Conclusion] Timed one-leg standing is more appropriate than timed up-and-go test for the measurement of functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi.

  3. Correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan

    PubMed Central

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Salgado-Méndez, Rodrigo; Castro-Ramírez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between center of pressure and functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi. [Subjects and Methods] For the study, nine non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi who were able to maintain a standing posture and walk independently were recruited. Timed one-leg standing and timed up-and-go tests were used as functional balance tests and force platform to measure the center of pressure. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the timed up-and-go/timed one-leg standing test scores and center of pressure parameter values. [Results] None of the correlations was statistically significant, but moderate correlations were observed between the pairs timed one-leg standing/sway area of center of pressure, timed one-leg standing/standard deviation of center of pressure in the mediolateral direction, timed one-leg standing/mean velocity of center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction, and timed up-and-go test sway area of center of pressure. [Conclusion] Timed one-leg standing is more appropriate than timed up-and-go test for the measurement of functional balance in non-faller elderly practitioners of Tai Chi.

  4. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling.

  5. Effects of therapeutic Tai chi on functional fitness and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of therapeutic Tai chi (TTC) on the functional fitness status and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The participants were clinically stable PDs in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1–2. These patients were randomly assigned to either the TTC group (n=11) or the control (CON) group (n=9). The TTC exercised at the clinic 2 times a week and performed home-based activity 1 time per week for 12 weeks. All the PDs were evaluated for functional fitness test and ADL screen before and after the 12-week trial. There was a significant Time × group interaction effect on the arm curl (P<0.01), functional reach (P<0.05), and stand on foot with eyes opened (P<0.05) of the functional fitness as compared to the CON. The results of the functional reach test in the CON worsened significantly during the 12-week intervention in comparison with those of the TTC (P<0.01). Also ADL showed significant changed in TCC (P<0.05). Tai chi training showed good effects on the functional fitness in PDs. This study suggests that further research into the based such as Tai chi intervention must be developed PD’s quality of life in the future. PMID:27807532

  6. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC’s effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15–30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory

  7. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC's effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory activity

  8. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Huang-tz; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18–45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment). The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach’s α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed. Results Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.78–0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73–0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D) and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure). The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL. Conclusion The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to

  9. Ly6C(hi) Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Möhle, Luisa; Mattei, Daniele; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Fischer, André; Alutis, Marie; French, Timothy; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Matzinger, Polly; Dunay, Ildiko R; Wolf, Susanne A

    2016-05-31

    Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF) did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6C(hi) monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6C(hi) monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6C(hi) monocytes.

  10. A revisit to contingency table and tests of independence: bootstrap is preferred to Chi-square approximations as well as Fisher's exact test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyh-Jiuan; Chang, Ching-Hui; Pal, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    To test the mutual independence of two qualitative variables (or attributes), it is a common practice to follow the Chi-square tests (Pearson's as well as likelihood ratio test) based on data in the form of a contingency table. However, it should be noted that these popular Chi-square tests are asymptotic in nature and are useful when the cell frequencies are "not too small." In this article, we explore the accuracy of the Chi-square tests through an extensive simulation study and then propose their bootstrap versions that appear to work better than the asymptotic Chi-square tests. The bootstrap tests are useful even for small-cell frequencies as they maintain the nominal level quite accurately. Also, the proposed bootstrap tests are more convenient than the Fisher's exact test which is often criticized for being too conservative. Finally, all test methods are applied to a few real-life datasets for demonstration purposes.

  11. Ly6C(hi) Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Möhle, Luisa; Mattei, Daniele; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Fischer, André; Alutis, Marie; French, Timothy; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Matzinger, Polly; Dunay, Ildiko R; Wolf, Susanne A

    2016-05-31

    Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF) did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6C(hi) monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6C(hi) monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6C(hi) monocytes. PMID:27210745

  12. Landslide susceptibility mapping using decision-tree based CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) and Logistic regression (LR) integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althuwaynee, Omar F.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Ahmad, Noordin

    2014-06-01

    This article uses methodology based on chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID), as a multivariate method that has an automatic classification capacity to analyse large numbers of landslide conditioning factors. This new algorithm was developed to overcome the subjectivity of the manual categorization of scale data of landslide conditioning factors, and to predict rainfall-induced susceptibility map in Kuala Lumpur city and surrounding areas using geographic information system (GIS). The main objective of this article is to use CHi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) method to perform the best classification fit for each conditioning factor, then, combining it with logistic regression (LR). LR model was used to find the corresponding coefficients of best fitting function that assess the optimal terminal nodes. A cluster pattern of landslide locations was extracted in previous study using nearest neighbor index (NNI), which were then used to identify the clustered landslide locations range. Clustered locations were used as model training data with 14 landslide conditioning factors such as; topographic derived parameters, lithology, NDVI, land use and land cover maps. Pearson chi-squared value was used to find the best classification fit between the dependent variable and conditioning factors. Finally the relationship between conditioning factors were assessed and the landslide susceptibility map (LSM) was produced. An area under the curve (AUC) was used to test the model reliability and prediction capability with the training and validation landslide locations respectively. This study proved the efficiency and reliability of decision tree (DT) model in landslide susceptibility mapping. Also it provided a valuable scientific basis for spatial decision making in planning and urban management studies.

  13. Effects of density gradient caused by multi-pulsing CHI on two-fluid flowing equilibria of spherical torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Nagata, M.

    2014-10-01

    Two-fluid dynamo relaxation is examined to understand sustainment mechanism of spherical torus (ST) plasmas by multi-pulsing CHI (M-CHI) in the HIST device. The steeper density gradient between the central open flux column (OFC) and closed flux regions by applying the second CHI pulse is observed to cause not only the E × B drift but also the ion diamagnetic drift, leading the two-fluid dynamo. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the steep change in the density gradient on the ST equilibria by using the two-fluid equilibrium calculations. The toroidal magnetic field becomes from a diamagnetic to a paramagnetic profile in the closed flux region while it remains a diamagnetic profile in the OFC region. The toroidal ion flow velocity is increased from negative to positive values in the closed flux region. Here, the negative ion flow velocity is the opposite direction to the toroidal current. The poloidal ion flow velocity between the OFC and closed flux regions is increased, because the ion diamagnetic drift velocity is changed in the same direction as the E × B drift velocity through the steeper ion pressure gradient. As a result, the strong shear flow and the paramagnetic toroidal field are generated in the closed flux region. Here, the ion flow velocity is the same direction as the poloidal current. The radial electric field shear between the OFC and closed flux regions is enhanced due to the strong dependence on the magnetic force through the interaction of toroidal ion flow velocity and axial magnetic field. The two-fluid effect is significant there due to the ion diamagnetic effect.

  14. Expression of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in Osteoarthritic Rat Cartilage Model. A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, M.; Szychlinska, M.A.; Tibullo, D.; Malaguarnera, L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which affects millions of people around the world. It occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of bones wears over time, leading to loss of flexibility of the joint, pain and stiffness. The cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but its development is associated with different factors, such as metabolic, genetic, mechanical and inflammatory ones. In recent years the biological role of chitinases has been studied in relation to different inflammatory diseases and more in particular the elevated levels of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (CHI3L1) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) have been reported in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammation and degenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, by immunohistochemistry, the distribution of CHI3L1 and CHIT1 in osteoarthritic and normal rat articular cartilage, to discover their potential role in the development of this disease. The hypothesis was that the expression of chitinases could increase in OA disease. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CHI3L1 and CHIT1 staining was very strong in osteoarthritic cartilage, especially in the superficial areas of the cartilage most exposed to mechanical load, while it was weak or absent in normal cartilage. These findings suggest that these two chitinases could be functionally associated with the development of osteoarthritis and could be used as markers, so in the future they could have a role in the daily clinical practice to stage the severity of the disease. However, the longer-term in vivoand in vitro studies are needed to understand the exact mechanism of these molecules, their receptors and activities on cartilage tissue. PMID:25308850

  15. A randomized trial comparing Tai Chi with and without cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to reduce fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yat Wa Justina; Tsui, Chi Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effects of Tai Chi with and without CBI on a primary outcome of reducing the fear of falling, and on secondary outcomes including encouraging better social engagement, improving self-perceived personal wellbeing, and achieving better mobility among elderly people with fear of falling. One hundred and twenty-two community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi or a Tai Chi plus CBI group. Participants' level of fear of falling, physical mobility, self-perceived personal wellbeing and social participation were compared before and after completing the 8-week intervention and then at a 2-month follow-up. The findings showed that Tai Chi both with and without CBI had a similar effect on reducing elderly people's fear of falling, but only Tai Chi plus CBI had a positive effect on participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing. Tai Chi both with and without CBI had no effect on participants' self-perceived social participation and mobility. Apart from a slight improvement in participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing, other outcome effects were similar for Tai Chi with and without CBI. This finding raises a question about the additive effects of combined intervention over Tai Chi alone in reducing elderly people's fear of falling. In view of the higher demand for resources and manpower to implement a combined intervention, further study is still required to confirm the potential additional benefits of this combined intervention prior to recommending it to community services.

  16. Large enhancement of third-harmonic generation induced by coupled gap solitons in chi(3) nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that, in a chi((3)) nonlinear photonic crystal, the third-harmonic conversion efficiency can be enhanced by about three orders of magnitude via the formation of self-organized localized states inside the gaps as compared with that in a bulk medium of the same length with a perfect phase-matching condition. These localized states contain both the fundamental and third-harmonic frequencies located in different gaps. Their existence is a result of both the Kerr effect and the large energy transfer between fundamental and third-harmonic waves.

  17. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  18. Effects of tai chi program on neuromuscular function for patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability as well as a burden on healthcare resources. Tai chi has been proposed as an alternative and complementary treatment for the management of knee osteoarthritis, but there appears to be no consensus on its usefulness. This study aims to develop an innovative tai chi rehabilitation program (ITCRP) for patients with knee OA, and to investigate the effect of ITCRP intervention on a range of outcomes including pain, function, balance, neuromuscular response, and biomechanics in knee OA. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 140 individuals with symptomatic knee OA. Patients will be randomly assigned into either an ITCRP group or a control group. The ITCRP group will participate in tai chi two or three times a week for 6 months. The control group will receive health education. After the 6-month intervention period, there will be a 6-month follow-up period with no active intervention in either group. The primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Primary outcome measures will be a visual analog scale for pain, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index,and the Lequesne Knee Score. The secondary outcome measures will include the Berg balance scale, knee and ankle proprioception, neuromuscular response, and 3D functional biomechanics. Furthermore, adverse events will be recorded and analyzed. If any participants withdraw from the trial, intention-to-treat analysiswill be performed. Discussion Important features of this trial include the randomization procedures, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for ITCRP for knee OA. This study aims to determine the feasibility of ITCRP for knee OA and provide data on the effects of ITCRP. Hence, our results will be useful for patients with knee OA as well as for medical staff and healthcare decision makers. Trial registration Chinese

  19. The effects of Tai Chi on body balance in elderly people--a review of studies from the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Osiński, W

    2010-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of studies regarding the effects of Tai Chi on the body balance of people older than 60 years. The Medline, SPORTDiscus and Academic Search Complete databases were searched for relevant studies published after the year 2000. Original randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies were included in this review if they evaluated Tai Chi for the treatment of body balance disorder or fall prevention, and if they contained at least one of the following key words: Tai Chi, body balance, stability, elderly, old, training or posturography. These studies suggest that participation in Tai Chi may improve the body balance of elderly people; however, more information is needed to determine the extent to which Tai Chi is more effective than other methods, especially different types of physical exercise. In addition, subgroup analyses should be performed to determine the effects of Tai Chi in people with different physical characteristics. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20387220

  20. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  1. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chen, Shuya; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect.

  2. Increased Hippocampus-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Ranomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen W K; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Lee, Diana T F; Wong, Eliza M L; Fung, Lawrence C W

    2016-07-05

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors.

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen W. K.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lee, Diana T. F.; Wong, Eliza M. L.; Fung, Lawrence C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  5. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect. PMID:27635148

  6. The Modes of Action of ChiIII, a Chitinase from Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, Shift with Changes in the Length of GlcNAc Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xin; Liu, Cui-Cui; Xiong, Yuan-Jing; Yang, Ming-Mei; Ma, Fei; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Sheng

    2016-09-21

    A putative class III endochitinase (ChiIII) was reported previously to be expressed dominantly in fruiting bodies of Coprinopsis cinerea, and its expression levels increased with the maturation of the fruiting bodies. This paper further reports that ChiIII is a novel chitinase with exo- and endoactivities. When the substrate was (GlcNAc)3-5, ChiIII exhibited exoactivity, releasing GlcNAc processively from the reducing end of (GlcNAc)3-5; when the substrate was (GlcNAc)6-7, the activity of ChiIII shifted to an endoacting enzyme, randomly splitting chitin oligosaccharides to various shorter oligosaccharides. This shift in the mode of action of ChiIII may be related to its stronger hydrolytic capacity to degrade chitin in fungal cell walls. The predicted structure of ChiIII shows that it lacks the α+β domain insertion; however, its substrate binding cleft seems to be deeper than that of common endochitinases but shallower and more open than that of common exochitinases, which may be related to its exo- and endohydrolytic activities. PMID:27573573

  7. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect.

  8. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chen, Shuya; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect. PMID:27635148

  9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Ranomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen W K; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Lee, Diana T F; Wong, Eliza M L; Fung, Lawrence C W

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  10. Hepatitis C and B virus infections in populations at low or high risk in Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakata, S; Song, P; Duc, D D; Nguyen, X Q; Murata, K; Tsuda, F; Okamoto, H

    1994-01-01

    Inhabitants and patients of two cities in Vietnam were tested for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). Anti-HCV was detected in 43 (9%) of 491 individuals without liver disease in Ho Chi Minh, more frequently (P < 0.001) than in 18 (4%) of 511 in Hanoi. There was no apparent age-specific distribution of anti-HCV. Among inhabitants of both cities, HBsAg and anti-HBs were frequent, detected in 10-14% and 35-37%, respectively; the prevalence of anti-HBs increased in parallel with age. Among individuals at high risk, the prevalence of anti-HCV was particularly high in drug users (58/67 or 87%) and patients on maintenance haemodialysis (15/28 or 54%) or with haemophilia (7/24 or 29%) in Ho Chi Minh, and in drug users in Hanoi (61/200 or 31%). Prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs in high-risk groups was not different from those in the general population. Screening of anti-HCV in blood donors in Vietnam is of urgent necessity because blood supply is dependent on commercial blood donors, many of whom are drug users at high risk.

  11. Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Arpagaus, Cordin; Belleteix, Fabrice; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2010-10-15

    Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown.

  12. The Combined Effects of Tai Chi, Resistance Training, and Diet on Physical Function and Body Composition in Obese Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maris, S. A.; Quintanilla, D.; Taetzsch, A.; Picard, A.; Letendre, J.; Mahler, L.; Lofgren, I.; Xu, F.; Delmonico, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the USA, especially in minority populations over the age of 60 years, and the aging process can cause adverse effects on physical function. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi, resistance training (RT), and diet result in overall health improvements. However, the combination of these specific interventions has yet to be translated to obese older women in an urban setting. The purpose of this study was to examine a combined intervention on the primary outcomes of physical function and body composition. Using a nonrandomized design, 26 obese women (65.2 ± 8.1 years) completed a 12-week intervention; participants were assigned to an intervention (EXD) group or a control (CON) group. The EXD group (n = 17) participated in Tai Chi, RT, and a dietary session. The CON group (n = 9) was asked to continue their normal lifestyle. Timed up and go (TUG) time was reduced by 0.64 ± 2.1 seconds (P = 0.04) in the EXD group while the CON group saw a borderline significant increase of 0.71 sec (P = 0.051). The combined intervention helped improve performance on TUG time, but there were no significant increases in other body composition or function measures. PMID:25614836

  13. Structural analysis of Chi1 Chitinase from Yen-Tc: the multisubunit insecticidal ABC toxin complex of Yersinia entomophaga.

    PubMed

    Busby, Jason N; Landsberg, Michael J; Simpson, Robert M; Jones, Sandra A; Hankamer, Ben; Hurst, Mark R H; Lott, J Shaun

    2012-01-13

    Yersinia entomophaga MH96 is a native New Zealand soil bacterium that secretes a large ABC-type protein toxin complex, Yen-Tc, similar to those produced by nematode-associated bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens. Y. entomophaga displays an exceptionally virulent pathogenic phenotype in sensitive insect species, causing death within 72 h of infection. Because of this phenotype, there is intrinsic interest in the mechanism of action of Yen-Tc, and it also has the potential to function as a novel class of biopesticide. We have identified genes that encode chitinases as part of the toxin complex loci in Y. entomophaga MH96, P. luminescens, Photorhabdus asymbiotica and Xenorhabdus nematophila. Furthermore, we have shown that the secreted toxin complex from Y. entomophaga MH96 includes two chitinases as an integral part of the complex, a feature not described previously in other ABC toxins and possibly related to the severe disease caused by this bacterium. We present here the structure of the Y. entomophaga MH96 Chi1 chitinase, determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.74 Å resolution, and show that a ring of five symmetrically arranged lobes on the surface of the Yen-Tc toxin complex structure, as determined by single-particle electron microscopy, provides a good fit to the Chi1 monomer. We also confirm that the isolated chitinases display endochitinase activity, as does the complete toxin complex. PMID:22108167

  14. Complete sequence of the genome of the human isolate of Andes virus CHI-7913: comparative sequence and protein structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nicole D; Fernández, Jorge; Müller, Ilse; Martínez, Rodrigo; Galeno, Héctor; Villagra, Eliecer; Mora, Judith; Ramírez, Eugenio; Rosemblatt, Mario; Valenzuela, Pablo D

    2003-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the Chilean human isolate of Andes virus CHI-7913. The S, M, and L genome segment sequences of this isolate are 1,802, 3,641 and 6,466 bases in length, with an overall GC content of 38.7%. These genome segments code for a nucleocapsid protein of 428 amino acids, a glycoprotein precursor protein of 1,138 amino acids and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 2,152 amino acids. In addition, the genome also has other ORFs coding for putative proteins of 34 to 103 amino acids. The encoded proteins have greater than 98% overall similarity with the proteins of Andes virus isolates AH-1 and Chile R123. Among other sequenced Hantavirus, CHI-7913 is more closely related to Sin Nombre virus, with an overall protein similarity of 92%. The characteristics of the encoded proteins of this isolate, such as hydrophobic domains, glycosylation sites, and conserved amino acid motifs shared with other Hantavirus and other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are identified and discussed.

  15. The Effect of Tai Chi Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Shuzhen; Huang, Maomao; Liu, Feiwen; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness. Objective To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT), non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT), self-controlled trial (SCT), and cohort study (CS) testing Tai Chi exercise against non-intervention control conditions in healthy adults that assessed any type cardiorespiratory fitness outcome measures were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies according to predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RevMan 5.2 software was applied for data analysis. Results Twenty studies (2 RCTs, 8 NRCTs, 3 SCTs, and 7 CSs) with 1868 participants were included, but most of them belonged to low methodological quality. The results of systematic review showed that Tai Chi exercise had positive effect on majority outcomes of cardio function (Blood pressure: n = 536, SPB SMD = -0.93, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.56, P < 0.00001; DBP SMD = -0.54, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.18, P < 0.00001; heart rate at quiet condition: n = 986, SMD = -0.72, 95% CI -1.27 to -0.18, P = 0.010; stroke volume: n = 583, SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, P < 0.00001; cardio output: n = 583, MD = 0.32 L/min, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.56, P = 0.009), lung capacity (FVC at quiet condition: n = 1272, MD = 359.16 mL, 95% CI 19.57 to 698.75, P = 0.04 for less than one year intervention, and MD = 442.46 mL, 95% CI 271.24 to 613.68, P<0.0001 for more than one year intervention; V·O2peak: n = 246, SMD = 1.33, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.70, P < 0.00001), and cardiorespiratory endurance (O2 pulse at quiet condition: n = 146, SMD = 1.04; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.39; P < 0.00001; stair test index at quiet condition: n = 679, SMD = 1

  16. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules. PMID:27638116

  17. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules.

  18. A Pilot Study Exploring the Effects of a 12-Week T'ai Chi Intervention on Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tsuang, Ming; Rusiewicz, Anna; Pandzic, Ines; Cammarata, Stephanie; Rutledge, Thomas; Hong, Suzi; Linke, Sarah; Mills, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Somatic symptoms of depression are particularly prevalent in HF and are related to worse disease prognosis. T'ai chi practice is related to increased emotional well-being in various clinical populations; however, relatively little is known about t'ai chi's effects on somatic versus cognitive symptom dimensions of depression in HF. Purpose The objective of the study was to measure whether a t'ai chi intervention effectively reduces somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of depression in patients with HF. Methods Patients with HF were assigned to either t'ai chi training (n=16) or a usual-care group (n=12). At baseline and after the 12-week intervention period, participants were evaluated for changes in depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) total scores (BDI-t) and subcategorized scores of BDI-somatic (BDI-s) and BDI-cognitive (BDI-c), and for symptoms of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form. Results Patients with HF in the t'ai chi group compared to the usual-care group had reduced BDI-s (p≤0.017), but not BDI-c (p=0.50) scores from pre- to postintervention. Although t'ai chi did not significantly reduce fatigue, changes in physical fatigue (p≤0.05) were independently associated with changes in BDI-t scores. Conclusions T'ai chi practice reduced somatic symptoms of depression, which have been linked to worse prognosis in HF. Reductions in fatigue appear to explain some but not all of the reductions in somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:22845485

  19. What Do We Really Know About the Safety of Tai Chi?: A Systematic Review of Adverse Event Reports in Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Berkowitz, Danielle L.; Litrownik, Daniel E.; Buring, Julie E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systematically review frequency and quality of adverse event (AE) reports in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi (TC). Data Sources Electronic searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and additional databases from inception through March 2013 of English-language RCTs. Search terms were tai chi, taiji, tai chi chuan. Data were independently extracted by two investigators. Study Selection We included all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were published in English and used Tai Chi as an intervention. Inclusion and exclusion of studies were reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data Extraction Eligible RCTs were categorized with respect to AE reporting: 1) No mention of protocols for monitoring AEs or reports of AEs; 2) Reports of AEs either with or without explicit protocols for monitoring AEs. Data Synthesis 153 eligible RCTs were identified, most targeting older adults. Only 50 eligible trials (33%) included reporting of AEs, and of these, only 18 trials (12% overall) also reported an explicit AE monitoring protocol. Protocols varied with respect to rigor of systematic monitoring in both Tai Chi and comparison groups. Reported AEs were typically minor and expected, and primarily musculoskeletal related (e.g., knee and back pain); no intervention-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Tai Chi is unlikely to result in serious adverse events, but may be associated with minor musculoskeletal aches and pains. However, poor and inconsistent reporting of AEs greatly limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the safety of Tai Chi. PMID:24878398

  20. CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− Immature Myeloid Cells Recruited in Response to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection Exhibit Protective and Immunosuppressive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Jason W.; Kullas, Amy L.; Mena, Patricio; Bliska, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Immature myeloid cells in bone marrow are a heterogeneous population of cells that, under normal conditions, provide tissues with protective cell types such as granulocytes and macrophages. Under certain pathological conditions, myeloid cell homeostasis is altered and immature forms of these cells appear in tissues. Murine immature myeloid cells that express CD11b and Ly6C or Ly6G (two isoforms of Gr-1) have been associated with immunosuppression in cancer (in the form of myeloid-derived suppressor cells) and, more recently, infection. Here, we found that CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− and CD11b+ Ly6Cint Ly6G+ cells accumulated and persisted in tissues of mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− but not CD11b+ Ly6Cint Ly6G+ cells from bone marrow into infected tissues depended on chemokine receptor CCR2. The CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− cells exhibited a mononuclear morphology, whereas the CD11b+ Ly6Cint Ly6G+ cells exhibited a polymorphonuclear or band-shaped nuclear morphology. The CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells following ex vivo culture and could present antigen to T cells in vitro. However, significant proliferation of T cells was observed only when the ability of the CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− cells to produce nitric oxide was blocked. CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection could also present antigen to T cells in vivo, but increasing their numbers by adoptive transfer did not cause a corresponding increase in T cell response. Thus, CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G− immature myeloid cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection exhibit protective and immunosuppressive properties that may influence the outcome of infection. PMID:24711563

  1. Study design for a randomised controlled trial to explore the modality and mechanism of Tai Chi in the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juan-Juan; Min, Jie; Yu, Peng-Ming; McDonald, Vanessa M; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is associated with significant clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been recommended by guidelines, PR with conventional exercise training has not been widely applied in the clinic because of its inherent limitations. Alternative exercise such as Tai Chi has been investigated and the results are promising. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the exercise modality of Tai Chi, conventional PR and a combination of Tai Chi and conventional PR and the possible mechanisms underlying Tai Chi exercise remain unclear. This study aims to address the above research gaps in a well-designed clinical trial. Methods and analysis This study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants with stable COPD will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving Tai Chi exercise, conventional PR using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS), combined Tai Chi and TBRS, or usual care (control) in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants will perform 30 min of supervised exercise three times a week for 8 weeks; they will receive sequential follow-ups until 12 months after recruitment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include 6 min walking distance, pulmonary function, the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, the COPD Assessment Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, exacerbation frequency during the study period, and systemic inflammatory and immune markers. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No TCM-2015-82). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant before any procedures are performed. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national

  2. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation < 15%). In the increasing period 2009 ± 2012, good correlation was in the morning time before the foF2 peak at about 10 LT, with a deviation about 10% (except 2012). However, after 10 LT, the IRI-foF2 values rose up and the deviations were about 25% to 30%, especially during evening. In the years with low solar activity (SSN < 40), the IRI-foF2 are almost always higher than the observed foF2 data and vice versa for the years with SSN > 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at

  3. Sitting tai chi improves the balance control and muscle strength of community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injuries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, William W N; Gao, Kelly L; Chan, K M; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors.

  4. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Gao, Kelly L.; Chan, K. M.; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Fong, Shirley S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  5. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavegn, Elisabeth I.; Riskowski, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial. PMID:26600865

  6. The Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program: Application of Buddhist Ethics to Teach Student Physicians Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Scott; Boudreaux, Debra; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Konkel, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV infection among men having sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le, Giang Truong; Detels, Roger

    2008-05-01

    To learn more about risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam and their prevalence of HIV, we conducted a study among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) to determine HIV-1 prevalence and behaviors associated with infection. This consisted of formative (35 MSM) and cross-sectional (600 MSM) studies at 72 sites, including 75 transvestites, 55 bisexuals, 10 sex workers, and 460 other MSM. Only 5.3% cohabited with a wife/girlfriend, but 30% reported ever having sex with a female. Prevalence of HIV was 8%, ranging from 33% in sex workers to 7% among transvestites and other MSM. Injecting drugs, selling sex, being 20-40 years old, having less than 6 years of education, and having more than five male anal sex partners in the past month were associated with being HIV-infected. MSM are an HIV bridge group, and should be included in sentinel surveillance. Targeted interventions should be implemented.

  8. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.

  9. A route for industry compatible directed self-assembly of high-chi PS-PDMS block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, S.; Girardot, C.; Garnier, J.; Arias-Zapata, J.; Arnaud, S.; Tiron, R.; Marconot, O.; Buttard, D.; Zelsmann, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present completely industry adapted processes for high-chi PS-PDMS block copolymers. DSA was performed on trenches fabricated within standard photolithography stacks and pattern transfer was made by using etching processes similar to those used for gate etching in industry. We propose the alignment of two different PS-PDMS (45.5kg/mol, 16kg/mol) solely by thermal annealing. By adding plasticizer molecules in the high molecular weight BCP (45.5k), we have not only avoided solvent vapor annealing but also reduced significantly the processing time. The properties of the guiding lines and the quality of the final BCP hard mask (CD uniformity, LWR, LER) were investigated.

  10. Seasonal change in the atmospheric concentration of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Mio, Chihiro; Fujimori, Keiichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Shibutani, Yasuhiko; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 +/- 2.83 and 15.71 +/- 8.21 ng m(-3), respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = -0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation. PMID:19471847

  11. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors.

  12. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  13. The Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program: Application of Buddhist Ethics to Teach Student Physicians Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Scott; Boudreaux, Debra; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Konkel, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program. PMID:26311054

  14. Establishing a Framework for Community Modeling in Hydrologic Science: Recommendations from the CUAHSI CHyMP Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Lakshmi, V.; Hooper, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) continues a major effort towards supporting Community Hydrologic Modeling. From 2009 - 2011, the Community Hydrologic Modeling Platform (CHyMP) initiative held three workshops, the ultimate goal of which was to produce recommendations and an implementation plan to establish a community modeling program that enables comprehensive simulation of water anywhere on the North American continent. Such an effort would include connections to and advances in global climate models, biogeochemistry, and efforts of other disciplines that require an understanding of water patterns and processes in the environment. To achieve such a vision will require substantial investment in human and cyber-infrastructure and significant advances in the science of hydrologic modeling and spatial scaling. CHyMP concluded with a final workshop, held March 2011, and produced several recommendations. CUAHSI and the university community continue to advance community modeling and implement these recommendations through several related and follow on efforts. Key results from the final 2011 workshop included agreement among participants that the community is ready to move forward with implementation. It is recognized that initial implementation of this larger effort can begin with simulation capabilities that currently exist, or that can be easily developed. CHyMP identified four key activities in support of community modeling: benchmarking, dataset evaluation and development, platform evaluation, and developing a national water model framework. Key findings included: 1) The community supported the idea of a National Water Model framework; a community effort is needed to explore what the ultimate implementation of a National Water Model is. A true community modeling effort would support the modeling of "water anywhere" and would include all relevant scales and processes. 2) Implementation of a community modeling

  15. [Predictive factors of dengue shock syndrome at the children Hospital No. 1, Ho-chi-Minh City, Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Pham, T B; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T Q H; Nguyen, T L; Malvy, D

    2007-02-01

    The dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is primarily a complication of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) among children in South East Asia. A case-control study was carried out at the children hospital no 1 (Ho-Chi-Minh City, Vietnam) in May-July 2005, to identify the predictive factors of the DSS among 1-15 year patients with DHE Forty consecutive admitted cases and forty controls were studied. The associated features of DSS were the 7-12 year age group and the re-infection by the dengue virus. The vaccination against the Japanese encephalitis B was not associated statistically significantly with the shock syndrome. The clinical predictors of DSS gathered an abdominal tenderness, an hepatomegaly, a lethargy, a cold extremity presentation. DSS associated laboratory features were a value of hematocrit a 50 % and a platelet cell count < or = 75,000/mm3.

  16. Testing mutual independence between two discrete-valued spatial processes: a correction to pearson chi-squared.

    PubMed

    Cerioli, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    A common feature of data collected in environmental and earth sciences is that they typically exhibit spatial autocorrelation. Violating the assumption of independent observations can have dramatic effects on inferences derived from standard statistical methods. In this article, we examine the consequences of spatial autocorrelation on Pearson's chi-squared test of mutual independence between two categorical responses with a general number of classes. Correspondingly, we suggest a simple modification to the standard test statistic that allows for spatial autocorrelation. Our modified statistic is based on a first-order correction factor and thus provides only an approximate test. However, we show by Monte Carlo simulation that this approximation results in satisfactory inferences in several situations of practical interest. The usefulness of the method is displayed through an application to categorical data arising in the study of the relationship between the distribution pattern of plant species and woodland age in a forest in northern Belgium.

  17. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, Mai Doan Anh; Brickley, Deborah Bain; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Colby, Donn J; Sohn, Annette H; Trung, Nguyen Quang; Giang, Le Truong; Mandel, Jeffrey S

    2008-07-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are a pressing problem in Vietnam, in particular because of propaganda associating HIV with the "social evils" of sex work and drug use. There is little understanding of the causes and sequelae of stigma and discrimination against PLHIV in Vietnam. Fifty-three PLHIV participated in focus group discussions in Ho Chi Minh City. Nearly all participants experienced some form of stigma and discrimination. Causes included exaggerated fears of HIV infection, misperceptions about HIV transmission, and negative representations of PLHIV in the media. Participants faced problems getting a job, perceived unfair treatment in the workplace and experienced discrimination in the healthcare setting. Both discrimination and support were reported in the family environment. There is a need to enforce laws against discrimination and provide education to decrease stigma against PLHIV in Vietnam. Recent public campaigns encouraging compassion toward PLHIV and less discrimination from healthcare providers who work with PLHIV have been encouraging.

  18. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students. Methods Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusion TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003328 PMID:26147842

  19. Tai Chi, Cellular Inflammation, and Transcriptome Dynamics in Breast Cancer Survivors With Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Nicassio, Perry; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bower, Julienne E.; Cole, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Mind–body therapies such as Tai Chi are widely used by breast cancer survivors, yet effects on inflammation are not known. This study hypothesized that Tai Chi Chih (TCC) would reduce systemic, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation as compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Methods In this randomized trial for the treatment of insomnia, 90 breast cancer survivors with insomnia were assigned to TCC or CBT-I for 2-hour sessions weekly for 3 months. At baseline and postintervention, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C-reactive protein and toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), with a random subsample (n = 48) analyzed by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results Levels of C-reactive protein did not change in the TCC and CBT-I groups. Levels of toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of IL-6 and TNF combined showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P < .02), with similar effects for IL-6 (P = .07) and TNF (P < .05) alone. For genome-wide transcriptional profiling of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P = .001). TELiS promoter-based bioinformatics analyses implicated a reduction of activity of the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, in structuring these differences. Conclusions Among breast cancer survivors with insomnia, 3 months of TCC reduced cellular inflammatory responses, and reduced expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators. Given the link between inflammation and cancer, these findings provide an evidence-based molecular framework to understand the potential salutary effects of TCC on cancer survivorship. PMID:25749595

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Profilin Promotes Recruitment of Ly6Chi CCR2+ Inflammatory Monocytes That Can Confer Resistance to Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Lori M.; Knoll, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes are essential to host defense against Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes and other infections. During T. gondii infection impaired inflammatory monocyte emigration results in severe inflammation and failure to control parasite replication. However, the T. gondii factors that elicit these monocytes are unknown. Early studies from the Remington laboratory showed that mice with a chronic T. gondii infection survive lethal co-infections with unrelated pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, but a mechanistic analysis was not performed. Here we report that this enhanced survival against L. monocytogenes is due to early reduction of bacterial burdens and elicitation of Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes. We demonstrate that a single TLR11/TLR12 ligand profilin (TgPRF) was sufficient to reduce bacterial burdens similar to T. gondii chronic infection. Stimulation with TgPRF was also sufficient to enhance animal survival when administered either pre- or post-Listeria infection. The ability of TgPRF to reduce L. monocytogenes burdens was dependent on TLR11 and required IFN-γ but was not dependent on IL-12 signaling. TgPRF induced rapid production of MCP-1 and resulted in trafficking of Ly6Chi CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes and Ly6G+ neutrophils into the blood and spleen. Stimulation with TgPRF reduced L. monocytogenes burdens in mice depleted with the Ly6G specific MAb 1A8, but not in Ly6C/Ly6G specific RB6-8C5 depleted or CCR2−/− mice, indicating that only inflammatory monocytes are required for TgPRF-induced reduction in bacterial burdens. These results demonstrate that stimulation of TLR11 by TgPRF is a mechanism to promote the emigration of Ly6Chi CCR2+ monocytes, and that TgPRF recruited inflammatory monocytes can provide an immunological benefit against an unrelated pathogen. PMID:24945711

  1. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  2. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-01-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science. PMID:26133872

  3. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science. PMID:26133872

  4. The effects of t’ai chi on muscle activity, pain, and balance in females in their 20s with acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jee-Hun; Cho, Tae-Yong; Cho, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of t’ai chi on females in their 20s with acute low back pain. The subjects were 30 females in their 20s with acute low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] They were equally and randomly divided into a t’ai chi group and a stretching group. The intervention was applied three times per week, one hour each time, for a total of eight weeks. During the one hour, the subjects conducted warm-up exercises for 10 min, primary exercises for 40 min, and cool-down exercises for 10 min. In order to examine changes in low back pain in the patients according to the intervention method, muscle activity, pain, and balance elements (left and right side movement distance, forward and backward movement distance) were measured. [Results] Muscle activity and the visual analog scale score significantly decreased in both the t’ai chi group and the stretching group. Regarding changes in balance elements, the t’ai chi group’s left and right side movement distance decreased, which was statistically significant. However, the t’ai chi group’s forward and backward movement distance and the stretching group’s forward and backward movement distance and left and right side movement distance did not change. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, t’ai chi is considered an appropriate exercise program to reduce acute low back pain in females in their 20s. This is because when compared with stretching, it enables posture maintenance with lesser force due to decreased muscle activity, it is more helpful for improvements in balance ability, and it is effective in decreasing pain. PMID:25931717

  5. The effects of t'ai chi on muscle activity, pain, and balance in females in their 20s with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jee-Hun; Cho, Tae-Yong; Cho, Yong-Ho

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of t'ai chi on females in their 20s with acute low back pain. The subjects were 30 females in their 20s with acute low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] They were equally and randomly divided into a t'ai chi group and a stretching group. The intervention was applied three times per week, one hour each time, for a total of eight weeks. During the one hour, the subjects conducted warm-up exercises for 10 min, primary exercises for 40 min, and cool-down exercises for 10 min. In order to examine changes in low back pain in the patients according to the intervention method, muscle activity, pain, and balance elements (left and right side movement distance, forward and backward movement distance) were measured. [Results] Muscle activity and the visual analog scale score significantly decreased in both the t'ai chi group and the stretching group. Regarding changes in balance elements, the t'ai chi group's left and right side movement distance decreased, which was statistically significant. However, the t'ai chi group's forward and backward movement distance and the stretching group's forward and backward movement distance and left and right side movement distance did not change. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, t'ai chi is considered an appropriate exercise program to reduce acute low back pain in females in their 20s. This is because when compared with stretching, it enables posture maintenance with lesser force due to decreased muscle activity, it is more helpful for improvements in balance ability, and it is effective in decreasing pain. PMID:25931717

  6. Similarity between the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 image and the interface curve of Yin-Yang balance in the Ancient Tai-Chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui

    2009-03-01

    The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field between two cylinders simulate well the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 image [1] and the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram [2]. The particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field involve four parameters. The normalization of the system of equations significantly simplifies the formulation of the flow process and reduces the original four parameters to only one parameter. Furthermore it provides the similarity between the formulation of the spiral arms of Galaxy M51 and that of the interface curve of the Yin-Yang balance in the ancient Tai-Chi diagram.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Tai Chi for Late Life Insomnia and Inflammatory Risk: A Randomized Controlled Comparative Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Yokomizo, Megumi; Lavretsky, Helen; Carroll, Judith E.; Motivala, Sarosh J.; Bootzin, Richard; Nicassio, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Design: Randomized controlled, comparative efficacy trial. Setting: Los Angeles community. Patients: 123 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia. Interventions: Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-hour group sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7 and 16 months. Measurements: Insomnia diagnosis, patient-reported outcomes, polysomnography (PSG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: CBT performed better than TCC and SS in remission of clinical insomnia as ascertained by a clinician (P < 0.01), and also showed greater and more sustained improvement in sleep quality, sleep parameters, fatigue, and depressive symptoms than TCC and SS (all P values < 0.01). As compared to SS, CBT was associated with a reduced risk of high CRP levels (> 3.0 mg/L) at 16 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07–0.97] P < 0.05). Remission of insomnia was associated with lower levels of CRP (P < 0.05) at 16 months. TCC was associated with improvements in sleep quality, fatigue, and depressive symptoms as compared to SS (all P's < 0.05), but not insomnia remission. PSG measures did not change. Conclusions: Treatment of late-life insomnia is better achieved and sustained by cognitive behavioral therapies. Insomnia treatment and remission reduces a marker of inflammatory risk, which has implications for cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes observed with sleep disturbance in epidemiologic surveys. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00280020 Citation: Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carrillo C, Sadeghi N, Breen EC, Witarama T, Yokomizo M, Lavretsky H, Carroll JE, Motivala SJ, Bootzin R, Nicassio P. Cognitive behavioral

  8. Very High Resolution Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of a Chemically Peculiar Star: Results of the chi LUPI Pathfinder Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Brage, Tomas

    1999-03-01

    We summarize here the results of a major eight-year investigation of the extraordinarily detailed UV spectrum of the sharp-lined, nonmagnetic, main-sequence, chemically peculiar star chi Lupi (B9.5p HgMn + A2 Vm). The UV observations are composed of 345 Å of the spectrum acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope at an average resolution of 0.023 Å. The complete set of echelle spectrograms is presented as an atlas in a companion paper. These data were supplemented by optical-wavelength spectra obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Quantitatively accurate analysis and theoretical interpretation of these data required major improvements in the accuracy and completeness of available atomic data-wavelengths, transition probabilities, hyperfine structure, and isotope shifts-for the lowest ionization states of many elements. A large, international group of theoretical and experimental atomic physicists has collaborated in this investigation, and their results are summarized or referenced in this paper. In turn, the GHRS observations of chi Lupi have become a useful source of data for atomic spectroscopy, displaying many transitions that are difficult to observe in a laboratory setting. Measured abundances or upper limits are presented for 72 ions of 51 chemical elements, spanning the periodic table. We have confirmed and refined previously identified isotopic abundance anomalies in mercury and platinum and have discovered similar isotopic anomalies in thallium and, tentatively, in lead. Large discrepancies among the LTE abundances derived, using a chemically homogeneous model atmosphere, from two or three ionization states of the same element are found to be common. In some cases these are due to departures from LTE in the ionization equilibria, but the largest such discrepancies probably result from chemical stratification within the photosphere. We find qualitative trends in the abundances of the elements

  9. Human cytomegalovirus-induced NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) natural killer cells are effectors dependent on humoral antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeguang; Sinzger, Christian; Frascaroli, Giada; Reichel, Johanna; Bayer, Carina; Wang, Li; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Mertens, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that expansion of NKG2C-positive natural killer (NK) cells is associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV); however, their activity in response to HCMV-infected cells remains unclear. We show that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells gated on CD3(neg) CD56(dim) cells can be phenotypically identified as HCMV-induced NK cells that can be activated by HCMV-infected cells. Using HCMV-infected autologous macrophages as targets, we were able to show that these NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are highly responsive to HCMV-infected macrophages only in the presence of HCMV-specific antibodies, whereas they are functionally poor effectors of natural cytotoxicity. We further demonstrate that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are intrinsically responsive to signaling through CD16 cross-linking. Our findings show that the activity of pathogen-induced innate immune cells can be enhanced by adaptive humoral immunity. Understanding the activity of NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells against HCMV-infected cells will be of relevance for the further development of adoptive immunotherapy.

  10. Tai Chi exercise increases SOD activity and total antioxidant status in saliva and is linked to an improvement of periodontal disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703

  11. Tai Chi Exercise Increases SOD Activity and Total Antioxidant Status in Saliva and Is Linked to an Improvement of Periodontal Disease in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703

  12. Paterno`-Bu¨chi Reaction as a Demonstration of Chemical Kinetics and Synthetic Photochemistry Using a Light Emitting Diode Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew P.; Agger, Jonathan; Wong, Lu Shin

    2015-01-01

    The Paterno`-Bu¨chi photocycloaddition reaction is used as the basis for physical-organic final-year undergraduate laboratory experiments designed to emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to modern-day chemical practice. These reactions are performed using commercially available LED-based light sources, which offer a convenient and safe tool…

  13. Co-Expression and Co-Localization of Cartilage Glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Puzzo, Lidia; Leonardi, Rosy; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common human arthritis characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Several studies reported that levels of human cartilage glycoprotein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) are known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA), whereas lubricin appears to be chondroprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-expression and co-localization of CHI3L1 and lubricin in normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage to correlate their modified expression to a specific grade of OA. Samples of normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage were analyzed by the Kellgren–Lawrence OA severity scores, the Kraus’ modified Mankin score and the Histopathology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) system for histomorphometric evaluations, and through CHI3L1 and lubricin gene expression, immunohistochemistry and double immuno-staining analysis. The immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of lubricin increased in normal cartilage and decreased in OA cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). By contrast, the immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of CHI3L1 increased in OA cartilage and decreased in normal cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). Our findings are consistent with reports suggesting that these two glycoproteins are functionally associated with the development of OA and in particular with grade 2/3 of OA, suggesting that in the future they could be helpful to stage the severity and progression of the disease. PMID:26978347

  14. Co-Expression and Co-Localization of Cartilage Glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Puzzo, Lidia; Leonardi, Rosy; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common human arthritis characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Several studies reported that levels of human cartilage glycoprotein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) are known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA), whereas lubricin appears to be chondroprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-expression and co-localization of CHI3L1 and lubricin in normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage to correlate their modified expression to a specific grade of OA. Samples of normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage were analyzed by the Kellgren-Lawrence OA severity scores, the Kraus' modified Mankin score and the Histopathology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) system for histomorphometric evaluations, and through CHI3L1 and lubricin gene expression, immunohistochemistry and double immuno-staining analysis. The immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of lubricin increased in normal cartilage and decreased in OA cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). By contrast, the immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of CHI3L1 increased in OA cartilage and decreased in normal cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01). Our findings are consistent with reports suggesting that these two glycoproteins are functionally associated with the development of OA and in particular with grade 2/3 of OA, suggesting that in the future they could be helpful to stage the severity and progression of the disease.

  15. F-Test Alternatives to Fisher's Exact Test and to the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity in 2x2 Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Starbuck, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for homogeneity in two-by-two tables is developed. The method provides for Type I error rates which are closer to the stated alpha level than either of the alternatives. (JKS)

  16. Comparison of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the Doppler broadening functions psi(x,theta) and chi(x,theta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B., Jr.; Semler, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    Several approximations to the Doppler broadening functions psi(x, theta) and chi(x, theta) are compared with respect to accuracy and speed of evaluation. A technique, due to A. M. Turning (1943), is shown to be at least as accurate as direct numerical quadrature and somewhat faster than Gaussian quadrature. FORTRAN 4 listings are included.

  17. Effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weibing; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Longbing; Wang, Zhenwei; Hu, Jun; Yan, Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Background Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise that has been widely practiced in the People’s Republic of China for many centuries. This exercise has also been applied as a training modality in pulmonary rehabilitation programs for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in COPD patients. Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Biology Medicine disc) were searched. Entries published from January 1980 to March 2014 were included in the search. Eligible studies included those that involved randomized controlled trials and those that lasted for at least 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). Effect estimates were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Results Eleven articles involving 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. All included articles compared COPD patients in a Tai Chi group versus COPD patients in nonexercise and/or physical exercise groups. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonexercise group, the COPD patients practicing Tai Chi demonstrated significantly enhanced 6MWD (mean difference 35.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.63–56.35, P=0.0005), decreased SGRQ total score (mean difference −10.02, 95% CI −17.59, −2.45, P=0.009), and increased CRQ total score (mean difference 0.95, 95% CI 0.22–1.67, P=0.01). Compared with the physical exercise group, the Tai Chi group showed significantly reduced SGRQ total score (mean difference −3.52, 95% CI −6.07, −0.97, P=0.007), but no statistical significance was found for 6MWD between the two groups

  18. CD11b+ Ly6Chi Ly6G- immature myeloid cells recruited in response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection exhibit protective and immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jason W; Kullas, Amy L; Mena, Patricio; Bliska, James B; van der Velden, Adrianus W M

    2014-06-01

    Immature myeloid cells in bone marrow are a heterogeneous population of cells that, under normal conditions, provide tissues with protective cell types such as granulocytes and macrophages. Under certain pathological conditions, myeloid cell homeostasis is altered and immature forms of these cells appear in tissues. Murine immature myeloid cells that express CD11b and Ly6C or Ly6G (two isoforms of Gr-1) have been associated with immunosuppression in cancer (in the form of myeloid-derived suppressor cells) and, more recently, infection. Here, we found that CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) and CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells accumulated and persisted in tissues of mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Recruitment of CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) but not CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells from bone marrow into infected tissues depended on chemokine receptor CCR2. The CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells exhibited a mononuclear morphology, whereas the CD11b(+) Ly6C(int) Ly6G(+) cells exhibited a polymorphonuclear or band-shaped nuclear morphology. The CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells following ex vivo culture and could present antigen to T cells in vitro. However, significant proliferation of T cells was observed only when the ability of the CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells to produce nitric oxide was blocked. CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection could also present antigen to T cells in vivo, but increasing their numbers by adoptive transfer did not cause a corresponding increase in T cell response. Thus, CD11b(+) Ly6C(hi) Ly6G(-) immature myeloid cells recruited in response to S. Typhimurium infection exhibit protective and immunosuppressive properties that may influence the outcome of infection.

  19. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.

  20. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services.

  1. Application of the modified chi-square ratio statistic in a stepwise procedure for cascade impactor equivalence testing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benjamin; Lee, Sau L; Delvadia, Renishkumar; Lionberger, Robert; Li, Bing V; Tsong, Yi; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2015-03-01

    Equivalence testing of aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) through multi-stage cascade impactors (CIs) is important for establishing bioequivalence of orally inhaled drug products. Recent work demonstrated that the median of the modified chi-square ratio statistic (MmCSRS) is a promising metric for APSD equivalence testing of test (T) and reference (R) products as it can be applied to a reduced number of CI sites that are more relevant for lung deposition. This metric is also less sensitive to the increased variability often observed for low-deposition sites. A method to establish critical values for the MmCSRS is described here. This method considers the variability of the R product by employing a reference variance scaling approach that allows definition of critical values as a function of the observed variability of the R product. A stepwise CI equivalence test is proposed that integrates the MmCSRS as a method for comparing the relative shapes of CI profiles and incorporates statistical tests for assessing equivalence of single actuation content and impactor sized mass. This stepwise CI equivalence test was applied to 55 published CI profile scenarios, which were classified as equivalent or inequivalent by members of the Product Quality Research Institute working group (PQRI WG). The results of the stepwise CI equivalence test using a 25% difference in MmCSRS as an acceptance criterion provided the best matching with those of the PQRI WG as decisions of both methods agreed in 75% of the 55 CI profile scenarios.

  2. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements. PMID:26047473

  3. Tai Chi Exercise can Improve the Obstacle Negotiating Ability of People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Jae, Hyun Dong; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC)-based exercise on dynamic postural control during obstacle negotiation by subjects with mild or moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects] Twelve subjects (mean age, 65.3±6.1 years) diagnosed with idiopathic PD were enrolled for this study. [Methods] All the subjects were tested a week before and 12 weeks after the initiation of the TC exercise. In the test, they were instructed to negotiate an obstacle from the position of quiet stance at a normal speed. They were trained with TC exercise that emphasized multidirectional shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support, challenging the postural stability, three times per week for 12 weeks. Center of pressure (COP) trajectory variables before and after TC exercise were measured using two force plates. [Results] A comparison of the results between pre- and post-intervention showed a statistically significant improvement in anteroposterior and mediolateral displacement of COP. [Conclusion] Twelve weeks of TC exercise may be an effective and safe form of stand-alone behavioral intervention for improving the dynamic postural stability of patients with PD. PMID:25140088

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Qigong/Tai Chi Easy on Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Larkey, Linda K.; Roe, Denise J.; Weihs, Karen L.; Jahnke, Roger; Lopez, Ana Maria; Rogers, Carol E.; Oh, Byeongsang; Guillen-Rodriguez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background Many breast cancer survivors experience fatigue, mood, and sleep disturbances. Purpose To compare a Meditative Movement practice, Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE), with sham Qigong (SQG), testing effects of meditation/breath aspects of QG/TCE on breast cancer survivors' persistent fatigue and other symptoms. Methods A double-blind, randomized controlled trial tested 12-weeks of QG/TCE versus SQG on fatigue, depression and sleep among 87 post-menopausal, fatigued breast cancer survivors, Stage 0-III, age 40–75. Results Fatigue decreased significantly in the QG/TCE group compared to control at post-intervention (p = 0.005) and 3 month follow-up (p = 0.024), but not depression and sleep quality. Improvement occurred over time for both interventions in depression and sleep quality (all p < 0.05). Conclusions QG/TCE showed significant improvement over time compared to SQG for fatigue, but not depression or sleep. Both QG/TCE and SQG showed improvement for two prevalent symptoms among breast cancer survivors, depression and sleep dysfunction. PMID:25124456

  5. The EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual adequacy in cross-cultural research.

    PubMed

    Steels, Stephanie Linawati

    2016-03-01

    The European Urban Health Indicators System Project Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) is a cross-national study that was implemented in Europe. It consists of four data collection tools that were specifically developed to collect health data at an urban level. This paper reviews some of the methodological constraints in adapting the EURO-URHIS 2 study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. No attempt to extend the original study beyond Europe has been reported before. Cultural, political, economic and social differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. This paper sets out how these challenges were addressed, examining key aspects of the methodology, including study design, translation of the questionnaire and data collection. It was found that the EURO-URHIS 2 adult data collection tool methodology could not be replicated in Vietnam. A lack of basic infrastructure and population registers led to significant changes being made to the sampling and survey administration. It was recommended that the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was used as the replacement method. Despite the limitations in using the EPI method, the overall strengths and benefits were found to address methodological issues and the resource poor setting.

  6. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  7. Radon and radium concentrations in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Cong Hao; Huynh, Nguyen Phong Thu; Nguyen, Van Thang; Le, Quoc Bao

    2015-11-01

    The results of (222)Rn and (226)Ra activity measurements in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed using a RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company, Inc. Mean concentrations of (222)Rn and (226)Ra were found to be 0.11±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.11±0.02Bql(-1) in 14 drinking water samples. They are 0.12±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.10±0.02Bql(-1) in 15 tap water samples, respectively. The mean (222)Rn concentration of 1.40±0.03Bql(-1) in the 20 groundwater samples of this study is also lower than the WHO advised level of 100Bql(-1). Fifty percent of groundwater samples analysed have (226)Ra levels in excess of the USEPA recommended maximum contaminant level of 0.185Bql(-1). The occurrence of elevated concentrations of (226)Ra in groundwater samples was explained by pH and alkaline conditions.

  8. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Phan, My V T; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  9. Phytochemicals from Camellia nitidissima Chi inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products by scavenging methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixin; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Zhennan; Qi, Jing; Yuan, Shengtao; Zhang, Weijie; Chen, Hongjuan; Finley, John W; Gu, Liwei; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of Camellia nitidissima Chi (CNC) on the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. CNC was extracted with ethanol and further separated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water soluble fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic and quercetin content compared with other fractions. Sixteen phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC Triple TOF MS/MS. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose assay showed that dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fraction inhibited AGE formation by 88.1% and 87.5% at 2.5mg/mL. BSA-methylglyoxal assay showed that ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 54.1% AGE formation while dichloromethane fraction inhibited 28.1%. Over 96.0% of methylglyoxal was scavenged by different fractions within 12h. Both mono- and di-methylglyoxal quercetin adducts were identified after incubating quercetin with methylglyoxal using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). The results in this study suggest that CNC extracts inhibited AGEs formation in part through scavenging methylglyoxal by phenolic compounds. PMID:27006232

  10. Radon and radium concentrations in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Cong Hao; Huynh, Nguyen Phong Thu; Nguyen, Van Thang; Le, Quoc Bao

    2015-11-01

    The results of (222)Rn and (226)Ra activity measurements in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed using a RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company, Inc. Mean concentrations of (222)Rn and (226)Ra were found to be 0.11±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.11±0.02Bql(-1) in 14 drinking water samples. They are 0.12±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.10±0.02Bql(-1) in 15 tap water samples, respectively. The mean (222)Rn concentration of 1.40±0.03Bql(-1) in the 20 groundwater samples of this study is also lower than the WHO advised level of 100Bql(-1). Fifty percent of groundwater samples analysed have (226)Ra levels in excess of the USEPA recommended maximum contaminant level of 0.185Bql(-1). The occurrence of elevated concentrations of (226)Ra in groundwater samples was explained by pH and alkaline conditions. PMID:26334782

  11. Preliminary site-survey report on Frit Bagging Operation at Chi-Vit Corporation, Urbana, Ohio, June 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.

    1982-07-01

    A visit was made to the Frit Bagging Operation at the Chi-Vit Corporation located at Urbana, Ohio for the purpose of examining methods used at this facility to control worker exposure to hazardous materials during the production of various frits. Frit was the basic material for porcelain enamel used in major appliance finishes. The three major raw materials used to produce frit were soda-ash, borax, and silica-flour. In the manufacturing area batching, mixing, smelting, and bagging take place. All new employees were given a preemployment physical. An annual hearing evaluation was performed for all workers. Ventilation was provided throughout the operation. Each weight bin in the batching area was equipped with exhaust ventilation. The frit was moved by a vibration conveyor between smelter and bagger and passed under three exhaust hoods to remove airborne dust during this last portion of this transfer. A small capture hood at the packer unit removed airborne dust generated as material falls from the slide gate to the packer spout. The disposal of the bags was carried out in a very satisfactory manner. The author concludes that the controls used provided an exemplary work environment. The author recommends that an in-depth survey be conducted at this site.

  12. Design and methods of the Gentle Cardiac Rehabilitation Study – A behavioral study of tai chi exercise for patients not attending cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wayne, Peter; Bock, Beth C; Dunsiger, Shira; Wu, Wen-Chih; Stabile, Loren; Yeh, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with a history of acute coronary events or revascularization procedures, but only 30 % of patients enroll in CR and attrition rates reach up to 60 %. Tai chi, a mind-body practice based on light/moderate aerobic exercise accompanied by meditative components could be a possible exercise option for patients who do not attend CR. Methods/Design Sixty patients will be randomized to a “LITE ” condition (one tai chi session twice weekly for 12 weeks) or to a “PLUS” condition (one tai chi session 3 times weekly for 12 weeks, followed by maintenance classes 1–2 times weekly for an additional 12 weeks). Measurements will be conducted at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9 months after enrollment. The primary outcome is to determine the feasibility, acceptability and safety of each dose. Secondary outcomes include estimates of effect size of each dose on accelerometry-assessed physical activity; the proportion of patients meeting current recommendations for physical activity; and measures of fitness, quality of life, body weight, and sleep. In addition, we will collect exploratory information on possible mediators (exercise self-efficacy, perceived social support, resilience, mindfulness, and depression). Conclusions Findings from this pilot study will provide preliminary indications about the usefulness of tai chi as an exercise option for patients not attending traditional CR programs. Results will also shed light on the possible mechanisms by which tai chi practice may improve overall physical activity among patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. PMID:26115880

  13. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  14. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.

  15. Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Shaw, Jessica R; Wasserman, Rachel H; Chen, Vanessa W; Kanojia, Alok; Bayer, Thomas; Kelley, John M

    2008-06-01

    The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term practitioners. The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners focus specific mental attention on the body's extremities including the fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor used a validated method (Van Boven et al. in Neurology 54(12): 2230-2236, 2000) to compare TC practitioners' and controls' ability to discriminate between two different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths at the fingertip. Study results showed that TC practitioners' tactile spatial acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (P < 0.04). There was a trend showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (P < 0.066), suggesting that TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional practice's effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices (such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects.

  16. Effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Song, Qipeng; Li, Weiping; Cong, Yan; Chang, Shuwan; Mao, Dewei; Hong, Youlian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of 1-year regular Tai Chi (TC) on neuromuscular reaction in elderly women. A total of 41 elderly women (55 years-68 years) completed the study. The TC group (n = 21) performed the 24-form TC, while the control group (C, n = 20) was instructed to read newspapers or watch television when the TC group practised. Electromyogram measurements were conducted before and after intervention. After a year-long intervention, the post-test results of between-group neuromuscular reaction time showed significant differences in the rectus femoris (t = 3.607, p = 0.001), semitendinosus (t = 2.678, p = 0.011), anterior tibialis (t = 3.455, p = 0.001), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 4.061, p = 0.000). Within-group results showed that the TC group had significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time compared to its baseline value in the rectus femoris (t = 3.066, p = 0.006), semitendinosus (t = 2.485, p = 0.022), anterior tibialis (t = 2.311, p = 0.032), and gastrocnemius muscles (t = 2.462, p = 0.023). Results suggested that year-long regular TC can improve neuromuscular reaction function in elderly women.

  17. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Combined with Mental Imagery Theory in Improving Balance in a Diabetic and Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy, affects the sensation in the feet and can increase the chance of falling. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on improving balance in people with diabetes and an age matched control group. Material/Methods Seventeen healthy subjects and 12 diabetic sedentary subjects ranging from 40–80 years of age were recruited. All subjects in both groups attended a Yang style of TC class using MI strategies, 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Each session was one hour long. Measures were taken using a balance platform test, an Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, a one leg standing test (OLS), functional reach test (FRT) and hemoglobin A1C. These measures were taken twice, pre and post-study, for both groups. Results Both groups experienced significant improvements in ABC, OLS, FRT (P<0.01) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise with no significant improvement between groups. Subjects using the balance platform test demonstrated improvement in balance in all different tasks with no significant change between groups. There was no significant change in HbA1C for the diabetic group. Conclusions All results showed an improvement in balance in the diabetic and the control groups; however, no significant difference between the groups was observed. Since the DM group had more problems with balance impairment at baseline than the control, the diabetic group showed the most benefit from the TC exercise. PMID:26454826

  18. Fall Prevention in Community Settings: Results from Implementing Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance in Three States

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Parker, Erin M.; Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Wilson, Ashley D.; Stevens, Judy A.; Ehrenreich, Heidi; Lee, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance (TCMBB) is an evidence-based fall prevention exercise program being disseminated in selected communities through state injury prevention programs. This study: (1) describes the personal characteristics of TCMBB participants; (2) quantifies participants’ functional and self-reported health status at enrollment; and (3) measures changes in participants’ functional and self-reported health status post-intervention. There were 421 participants enrolled in 36 TCMBB programs delivered in Colorado, New York, and Oregon. Of the 209 participants who completed both baseline enrollment and post-intervention surveys, the average age of participants was 75.3 (SD ± 8.2) years. Most participants were female (81.3%), non-Hispanic (96.1%), White (94.1%), and described themselves as in excellent or very good health (52.2%). Paired t-test and general estimating equation models assessed changes over the 3-month program period. Pre- and post-assessment self-reported surveys and objective functional data [Timed Up and Go (TUG) test] were collected. On average, TUG test scores decreased (p < 0.001) for all participants; however, the decrease was most noticeable among high-risk participants (mean decreased from 18.5 to 15.7 s). The adjusted odds ratio of reporting feeling confident that a participant could keep themselves from falling was five times greater after completing the program. TCMBB, which addresses gait and balance problems, can be an effective way to reduce falls among the older adult population. By helping older adults maintain their functional abilities, TCMBB can help community-dwelling older adults continue to live independently. PMID:25964934

  19. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Infant Anemia in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin-Ying; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past decades, studies on infant anemia have mainly focused on rural areas of China. With the increasing heterogeneity of population in recent years, available information on infant anemia is inconclusive in large cities of China, especially with comparison between native residents and floating population. This population-based cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the anemic status of infants as well as the risk factors in a representative downtown area of Beijing. Methods: As useful methods to build a predictive model, Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis and logistic regression analysis were introduced to explore risk factors of infant anemia. A total of 1091 infants aged 6–12 months together with their parents/caregivers living at Heping Avenue Subdistrict of Beijing were surveyed from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 12.60% with a range of 3.47%–40.00% in different subgroup characteristics. The CHAID decision tree model has demonstrated multilevel interaction among risk factors through stepwise pathways to detect anemia. Besides the three predictors identified by logistic regression model including maternal anemia during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months, and floating population, CHAID decision tree analysis also identified the fourth risk factor, the maternal educational level, with higher overall classification accuracy and larger area below the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusions: The infant anemic status in metropolis is complex and should be carefully considered by the basic health care practitioners. CHAID decision tree analysis has demonstrated a better performance in hierarchical analysis of population with great heterogeneity. Risk factors identified by this study might be meaningful in the early detection and prompt treatment of infant anemia in large cities. PMID:27174328

  20. The substantive equivalence of transgenic (Bt and Chi) and non-transgenic cotton based on metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Modirroosta, Bentol Hoda; Tohidfar, Masoud; Saba, Jalal; Moradi, Foad

    2014-03-01

    Compositional studies comparing transgenic with non-transgenic counterpart plants are almost universally required by governmental regulatory bodies. In the present study, two T(2) transgenic cotton lines containing chitinase (Line 11/57) and Bt lines (Line 61) were compared with non-transgenic counterpart. To do this, biochemical characteristics of leaves and seeds, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, anions, and cations contents of the studied lines were analyzed using GC/MS, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and ion chromatography (IC) analyzers, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses confirmed the presence and expression of Chi and Bt genes in the studied transgenic lines. Although, compositional analysis of leaves contents confirmed no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic counterpart lines, but it was shown that glucose content of chitinase lines, fructose content of transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) and asparagine and glutamine of chitinase lines were significantly higher than the non-transgenic counterpart plants. Both the transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) showed significant decrease in the amounts of sodium in comparison to the non-transgenic counterpart plants. The experiments on the seeds showed that histidine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine contents of all transgenic and non-transgenic lines were the same, whereas other amino acids were significantly increased in the transgenic lines. Surprisingly, it was observed that the concentrations of stearic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in the chitinase line were significantly different than those of non-transgenic counterpart plants, but these components were the same in both Bt line and its non-transgenic counterpart. It seems that more changes observed in the seed contents than leaves is via this point that seeds are known as metabolites storage organs, so they show greater changes in the

  1. Spatial profile reconstruction of individual componentsof the nonlinear susceptibility tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}' -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}) of a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-06-30

    We have proved for the first time and proposed an algorithm of unique spatial profile reconstruction of the components {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}{sub yyyy} of complex tensors {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, {omega}', {omega}', -{omega}, {omega}) and {chi}-circumflex {sup (3)}(z, 2{omega}{+-}{omega}', {+-}{omega}', {omega}, {omega}), describing four-photon interaction of light waves in a one-dimensionally inhomogeneous plate, whose medium has a symmetry plane m{sub y} that is perpendicular to its surface. For the media with an additional symmetry axis 2{sub z}, 4{sub z}, 6{sub z} or {infinity}{sub z} that is perpendicular to the plate surface, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct about one-fifth of all independent components of the above tensors. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  2. The abundances of Pt, Au, and Hg in the chemically peculiar HgMn-type stars kappa Cancri and chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Leckrone, David S.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Rosberg, Maria; Brage, Tomas

    1995-01-01

    Echelle mode spectra obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have been used to determine the abundances of the heavy elements Pt, Au, and Hg in the chemically peculiar HgMn-type stars kappa Cancri and chi Lupi. The abundances were determined by fitting observed line profiles with synthetically generated spectra and are found to be enhanced relative to solar system values by between three and five orders of magnitude in both stars. The Hg isotope mixture in kappa Cancri is found to resemble the terrestrial mixture while that of chi Lupi is dominated by the heaviest isotope. As determined from multiple ionization states, the abundances place constraints upon theories attempting to explain the large superficial abundances of heavy elements.

  3. CHiCP: a web-based tool for the integrative and interactive visualization of promoter capture Hi-C datasets

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, E. C.; Carver, T.; Achuthan, P.; Freire-Pritchett, P.; Spivakov, M.; Todd, J. A.; Burren, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Promoter capture Hi-C (PCHi-C) allows the genome-wide interrogation of physical interactions between distal DNA regulatory elements and gene promoters in multiple tissue contexts. Visual integration of the resultant chromosome interaction maps with other sources of genomic annotations can provide insight into underlying regulatory mechanisms. We have developed Capture HiC Plotter (CHiCP), a web-based tool that allows interactive exploration of PCHi-C interaction maps and integration with both public and user-defined genomic datasets. Availability and Implementation: CHiCP is freely accessible from www.chicp.org and supports most major HTML5 compliant web browsers. Full source code and installation instructions are available from http://github.com/D-I-L/django-chicp. Contact: ob219@cam.ac.uk PMID:27153610

  4. Measurement of Decay Amplitudes of B to (ccbar) K^* withan Angular Analysis, for (ccbar)=J/Psi,Psi(2S) and Chi_c1

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors perform the first three-dimensional measurement of the amplitudes of B {yields} {psi}(2S)K* and B {yields} {chi}{sub c1}K* decays and update the previous measurement B {yields} J/{psi}K*. They use a data sample collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring, corresponding to 232 million B{bar B} pairs. The longitudinal polarization of decays involving a J{sup PC} = 1{sup ++} {chi}{sub c1} meson is found to be larger than that with a 1{sup --} J/{psi} or {psi}(2S) meson. No direct CP-violating charge asymmetry is observed.

  5. Direct evaluation of n-point single-trace MHV amplitudes in 4d Einstein-Yang-Mills theory using the CHY formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we extend our techniques, developed in a previous paper [1] for direct evaluation of arbitrary n-point tree-level MHV amplitudes in 4d Yang-Mills and gravity theory using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formalism, to the 4d Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory. Any single-trace color-ordered n-point tree-level MHV amplitude in EYM theory, obtained by a direct evaluation of the CHY formula, is of an elegant factorized form of a Parke-Taylor factor and a Hodges determinant, much simpler and more compact than the existing formulas in the literature. We prove that our new expression is equivalent to the conjectured Selivanov-Bern-De Freitas-Wong (SBDW) formula, with the help of a new theorem showing that the SBDW generating function has a graph theory interpretation. Together with ref. [1], we provide strong analytic evidence for hidden simplicity in quantum field theory.

  6. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). Plasma NO, CO, and H2S levels in the HTC group were increased after 12 weeks (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). SBP, DBP and MAP levels were significantly lower in the HTC than in the HP group (all p < 0.05). However, no changes were observed in the HP and NP groups. Correlations were observed between changes in SBP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.45, -0.51 and -0.46, respectively, all p < 0.05), and between changes in MAP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.36, -0.45 and -0.42, respectively, all p < 0.05). In conclusion, Tai Chi exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  7. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  8. Effects of Tai Chi and Walking Exercises on Weight Loss, Metabolic Syndrome Parameters, and Bone Mineral Density: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Xie, Yao Jie; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy Chi-Yui

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi and walking are both moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) that can be easily practiced in daily life. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of these two PAs on weight loss, metabolic syndrome parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adults. We randomized 374 middle-aged subjects (45.8 ± 5.3 years) into 12-week training (45 minutes per day, 5 days per week) of Tai Chi (n = 124) or self-paced walking (n = 121) or control group (n = 129). On average, Tai Chi and walking groups lost 0.50 and 0.76 kg of body weight and 0.47 and 0.59 kg of fat mass after intervention, respectively. The between-group difference of waist circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) was −3.7 cm and −0.18 mmol/L for Tai Chi versus control and −4.1 cm and −0.22 mmol/L for walking versus control. No significant differences were observed regarding lean mass, blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMD compared to control. Change in lean mass, not fat mass or total weight loss, was significantly correlated to the change in BMD. Our results suggest that both of these two PAs can produce moderate weight loss and significantly improve the WC and FBG in Hong Kong Chinese adults, with no additional effects on BMD. PMID:26543489

  9. Evidence of CCR2-independent transmigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into the brain after permanent cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hannah X; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Broughton, Brad R S; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2016-04-15

    Previously we showed that INCB3344, a CCR2 antagonist, inhibits transmigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into the brain after ischemia-reperfusion. Here we tested the effect of CCR2 inhibition during permanent cerebral ischemia. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (30 or 100mg/kg IP) 1h before middle cerebral artery occlusion and at 2 and 6h after the initiation of ischemia. After 24h, we assessed functional outcome, infarct volume and quantified immune cells in blood and brain. The increase in circulating bone marrow-derived Ly6C(hi) monocytes, but not the infiltration of those cells into the brain, was blocked by the CCR2 antagonist. INCB3344 had no effect on either neurological deficit or infarct volume. Our data confirm that cerebral ischemia triggers a CCR2-dependent increase in circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes, but suggest that in the absence of reperfusion these cells may transmigrate into the ischemic brain in a CCR2-independent manner.

  10. BjMYB1, a transcription factor implicated in plant defence through activating BjCHI1 chitinase expression by binding to a W-box-like element

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Jia, Shuangwei; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Fujun; Wang, Fajun; Zhao, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified the W-box-like-4 (Wbl-4) element (GTAGTGACTCAT), one of six Wbl elements in the BjC-P promoter of the unusual chitinase gene BjCHI1 from Brassica juncea, as the core element responsive to fungal infection. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the cognate transcription factor interacting with the Wbl-4 element. Using Wbl-4 as a target, we performed yeast one-hybrid screening of a B. juncea cDNA library and isolated an R2R3-MYB transcription factor designated as BjMYB1. BjMYB1 was localized in the nucleus of plant cells. EMSA assays confirmed that BjMYB1 binds to the Wbl-4 element. Transiently expressed BjMYB1 up-regulated the activity of the BjC-P promoter through its binding to the Wbl-4 element in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. In B. juncea, BjMYB1 displayed a similar induced expression pattern as that of BjCHI1 upon infection by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, heterogeneous overexpression of BjMYB1 significantly elevated the resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to the fungus B. cinerea. These results suggest that BjMYB1 is potentially involved in host defence against fungal attack through activating the expression of BjCHI1 by binding to the Wbl-4 element in the BjC-P promoter. This finding demonstrates a novel DNA target of plant MYB transcription factors. PMID:27353280

  11. Ly6Chi Monocyte Recruitment Is Responsible for Th2 Associated Host-Protective Macrophage Accumulation in Liver Inflammation due to Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcia; Huang, Stanley C.; Smith, Amber; Everts, Bart; Lam, Wing; Bassity, Elizabeth; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of M2 macrophages in the liver, within the context of a strong Th2 response, is a hallmark of infection with the parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, but the origin of these cells is unclear. To explore this, we examined the relatedness of macrophages to monocytes in this setting. Our data show that both monocyte-derived and resident macrophages are engaged in the response to infection. Infection caused CCR2-dependent increases in numbers of Ly6Chi monocytes in blood and liver and of CX3CR1+ macrophages in diseased liver. Ly6Chi monocytes recovered from liver had the potential to differentiate into macrophages when cultured with M-CSF. Using pulse chase BrdU labeling, we found that most hepatic macrophages in infected mice arose from monocytes. Consistent with this, deletion of monocytes led to the loss of a subpopulation of hepatic CD11chi macrophages that was present in infected but not naïve mice. This was accompanied by a reduction in the size of egg-associated granulomas and significantly exacerbated disease. In addition to the involvement of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in hepatic inflammation due to infection, we observed increased incorporation of BrdU and expression of Ki67 and MHC II in resident macrophages, indicating that these cells are participating in the response. Expression of both M2 and M1 marker genes was increased in liver from infected vs. naive mice. The M2 fingerprint in the liver was not accounted for by a single cell type, but rather reflected expression of M2 genes by various cells including macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Our data point to monocyte recruitment as the dominant process for increasing macrophage cell numbers in the liver during schistosomiasis. PMID:25144366

  12. Comparison of new experimental and atrophysical f-values for some Ru II lines, observed in HST spectra of chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric G.; Joueizadeh, Ali; Litzen, Ulf; Larsson, Jorgen; Persson, Anders; Wahlstrom, Claes-Goran; Svanberg, Sune; Leckrone, David S.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    1994-01-01

    We report an experimental absolute oscillator strengths for 18 UV lines of Ru II, obtained by combining laser-induced flourescence measurements of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions from line intensities in a calibrated Fourier-transform spectrum Hubble Space Telescope/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (HST/GHRS) observations of the spectrum of the sharp-lined B star chi Lupi contain six of these lines, for which 'astrophysical' relative f-values have been determined. The agreement is within 0.10 dex for a Ru abundance of log N(Ru)/N(H) = -7.90, which is 2.3 dex above the solar abundance.

  13. The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Robinson, Carol

    2007-10-01

    Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits.

  14. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels. PMID:25389403

  15. The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Dong-Yang; Chi, Li-Kang; Li, Fuzhong; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels. PMID:25389403

  16. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    SciTech Connect

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  17. Capacity building toward evidence-based medicine among healthcare professionals at the university of medicine and pharmacy, ho chi minh city, and its related institutes.

    PubMed

    Nga, LE Thi Quynh; Goto, Aya; Trung, Tran The; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2014-02-01

    Research capacity development enhances a country's ownership of activities aimed at strengthening its health system. In Vietnam, continuing medical education (CME) is attracting increasing attention with the establishment of legal and policy frameworks. During 2010-2013, the Japan International Cooperation Agency funded a research capacity building project targeting physicians in Ho Chi Minh City. The project had been developed in four previous courses that were conducted in collaboration with Fukushima Medical University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP). The project succeeded in obtaining accreditation as the city's CME course. A total of 262 physicians attended three courses that have a divided set of research competencies. Following the Kirkpatrick Model for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, we confirmed the participants' positive reaction to the courses (Level 1 evaluation), their perceived increase in knowledge and confidence in research skills (Level 2 evaluation), and application of learned knowledge in their practice (Level 3 evaluation). Presented here is a step-by-step scaling-up model of health research capacity building. Strategies for the further expansion include: further capacity building of instructors; responding to clinicians' specific needs; building a recruiting system with authorization; and improving the Level 3 training evaluation.

  18. Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer

  19. Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Simon, Lacey; Astete, Carlos E; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami; Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize α-tocopherol (α-T) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) entrapped in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA (PLGA-Chi) based nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized and the effect of nanoparticles entrapment on the cellular uptake, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of α-T and TRF were tested. In vitro uptake studies in Caco2 cells showed that PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles displayed a greater enhancement in the cellular uptake of α-T and TRF when compared with the control without causing toxicity to the cells (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the cellular internalization of both PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles labeled with FITC was investigated by fluorescence microscopy; both types of nanoparticles were able to get internalized into the cells with reasonable amounts. However, PLGA-Chi nanoparticles showed significantly higher (3.5-fold) cellular uptake compared to PLGA nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity studies demonstrated that entrapment of α-T and TRF in PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation at 48 h compared to the control. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed marked cytotoxicity of TRF on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines when delivered by PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles after 48 h incubation compared to control. In summary, PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles may be considered as an attractive and promising approach to enhance the bioavailability and activity of poorly water soluble compounds such as α-tocopherol and tocotrienols.

  20. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San

    2014-01-01

    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients.

  1. The pursuit of heavy elements in the HgMn-type star Chi Lupi: Observations with the GHRS in the COSTAR era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Brage, Tomas; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Johansson, Sveneric G.; Leckrone, David S.; Lindler, Don J.; Litzen, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the ultra-sharp-lined HgMn star Chi Lupi made with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) after the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) First Servicing Mission display the effect of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement instrument (COSTAR) upon the spectral resolution of several observing modes. The resolution is restored to levels expected in the absence of the telescope spherical aberration for all observations made through the GHRS Large Science Aperture (LSA). The Small Science Aperture (SSA) spectra are nearly identical in resolution to the pre-COSTAR values while benefiting from higher throughput. The line spread function for the LSA relative to the SSA shows little wavelength dependence and reflects a Gaussian profile approximately 20%-30% broader than for SSA spectra. Absorption features containing components of As II and Bi II represent upper limit enhancements of 2.9 and 2.1 dex for As II and Bi II, respectively, relative to meteoritic abundance determinations.

  2. The Role of CHI3L1 (Chitinase-3-Like-1) in the Pathogenesis of Infections in Burns in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J; Vasko, Radovan; Shen, Keyue; Golberg, Alexander; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    In severe burn injury the unique setting of a depleted, dysfunctional immune system along with a loss of barrier function commonly results in opportunistic infections that eventually proof fatal. Unfortunately, the dynamic sequence of bacterial contamination, colonization and eventually septic invasion with bacteria such as Pseudomonas species is still poorly understood although a limiting factor in clinical decision making. Increasing evidence supports the notion that inhibition of bacterial translocation into the wound site may be an effective alternative to prevent infection. In this context we investigated the role of the mammalian Chitinase-3-Like-1 (CHI3L1) non-enyzmatic protein predominately expressed on epithelial as well as innate immune cells as a potential bacterial-translocation-mediating factor. We show a strong trend that a modulation of chitinase expression is likely to be effective in reducing mortality rates in a mouse model of burn injury with superinfection with the opportunistic PA14 Pseudomonas strain, thus demonstrating possible clinical leverage.

  3. Evaluation of the Sustaining Effects of Tai Chi Qigong in the Sixth Month in Promoting Psychosocial Health in COPD Patients: A Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Albert; Lee, Diana T. F.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the sustaining effects of Tai Chi Qigong (TCQ) in improving the psychosocial health in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in the sixth month. Background. COPD affects both physical and emotional aspects of life. Measures to minimize patients' suffering need to be implemented. Methods. 206 COPD patients were randomly assigned into three groups: TCQ group, exercise group, and control group. The TCQ group completed a three-month TCQ program, the exercise group practiced breathing and walking exercise, and the control group received usual care. Results. Significant group-by-time interactions in quality of life (QOL) using St. George's respiratory questionnaire (P = 0.002) and the perceived social support from friends using multidimensional scale of perceived social support (P = 0.04) were noted. Improvements were observed in the TCQ group only. Conclusions. TCQ has sustaining effects in improving psychosocial health; it is also a useful and appropriate exercise for COPD patients. PMID:24282383

  4. Endemic diphtheria in Ho Chi Minh City; Viet Nam: a matched case-control study to identify risk factors of incidence.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Phuong, Nguyen M; Thang, Ho V; Chau, Nguyen V; Giao, Pham N; Tho, Nguyen D

    2010-11-29

    From 1999 to 2004, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vie Nam reported 401 clinically suspected and 90 laboratory-confirmed diphtheria. To identify risk factors, a matched case-control study was conducted during 2005 and 2006. In total, 88 cases that occurred in 2003 and 2004 and 352 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. No DPT/DT immunisation (odds ratio, 9.9 [95% CI, 1.9-52.3]) and bathing only once a day or less (OR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.0-2.9]) were associated with diphtheria incidence. Estimated vaccine efficacy of three or more DPT/DT doses was 88%. Immunising children with zero-dose status of diphtheria toxoid inoculation, rather than the introduction of booster doses, and the promotion of skin hygiene were considered to be the priority interventions in controlling the endemic diphtheria in HCMC.

  5. Distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with particle size in urban aerosols at the roadside in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, To Thi; Thanh, Le Tu; Kameda, Takayuki; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi

    The purpose of this study was to characterize size distributions of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with 4-6 rings at the roadside in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Ten PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benzo[ a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene, benzo[ k]fluoranthene, benzo[ a]pyrene, benzo[ ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) in atmospheric particulate matters (PM) at the roadside were measured in the dry and rainy seasons in 2005 at Ho Chi Minh City, using a low-pressure cascade impactor. The PM were separated into nine fractions by their aerodynamic diameter, i.e. >9.0, 9.0-5.8, 5.8-4.7, 4.7-3.3, 3.3-2.1, 2.1-1.1, 1.1-0.7, 0.7-0.4 and <0.4 μm (a final filter). PAHs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Total PAHs measured were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The mass of coarse particles occupied a higher fraction than that of fine particles in both seasons. Total PAHs were mainly concentrated in particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 0.4 μm. The particle size distributions of PAHs investigated were bi-modal with a peak in fine particle mode (<2.1 μm) and another peak in coarse particle mode (>2.1 μm). Generally, 5,6-ring PAHs associated mainly with fine particles and 4-ring PAHs spread out in both fine and coarse particles.

  6. Structural investigation of a novel N-acetyl glucosamine binding chi-lectin which reveals evolutionary relationship with class III chitinases.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Dev, Aditya; Dhindwal, Sonali; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2013-01-01

    The glycosyl hydrolase 18 (GH18) family consists of active chitinases as well as chitinase like lectins/proteins (CLPs). The CLPs share significant sequence and structural similarities with active chitinases, however, do not display chitinase activity. Some of these proteins are reported to have specific functions and carbohydrate binding property. In the present study, we report a novel chitinase like lectin (TCLL) from Tamarindus indica. The crystal structures of native TCLL and its complex with N-acetyl glucosamine were determined. Similar to the other CLPs of the GH18 members, TCLL lacks chitinase activity due to mutations of key active site residues. Comparison of TCLL with chitinases and other chitin binding CLPs shows that TCLL has substitution of some chitin binding site residues and more open binding cleft due to major differences in the loop region. Interestingly, the biochemical studies suggest that TCLL is an N-acetyl glucosamine specific chi-lectin, which is further confirmed by the complex structure of TCLL with N-acetyl glucosamine complex. TCLL has two distinct N-acetyl glucosamine binding sites S1 and S2 that contain similar polar residues, although interaction pattern with N-acetyl glucosamine varies extensively among them. Moreover, TCLL structure depicts that how plants utilize existing structural scaffolds ingenuously to attain new functions. To date, this is the first structural investigation of a chi-lectin from plants that explore novel carbohydrate binding sites other than chitin binding groove observed in GH18 family members. Consequently, TCLL structure confers evidence for evolutionary link of lectins with chitinases.

  7. Analysis of phi and chi 1 torsion angles for hen lysozyme in solution from 1H NMR spin-spin coupling constants.

    PubMed

    Smith, L J; Sutcliffe, M J; Redfield, C; Dobson, C M

    1991-01-29

    Three-bond 3JHN alpha coupling constants have been determined for 106 residues and 3J alpha beta coupling constants have been measured for 57 residues of the 129-residue protein hen egg white lysozyme. These NMR data have been compared with torsion angles defined in the tetragonal and the triclinic crystal forms of the protein. For most residues the measured 3JHN alpha values were consistent with the phi torsion angles found in both crystal forms; the RMS difference between the coupling constants calculated by using the tetragonal crystal structure phi angles and the experimental 3JHN alpha values is 0.88 Hz. Thus there appears to be no significant averaging of the phi torsion angle either in the interior or at the surface of the protein. For 41 of the residues where 3J alpha beta coupling constants have been determined, the values are consistent with a single staggered conformation about the chi 1 torsion angle and there is complete agreement between the NMR data in solution and the torsion angles defined in the crystalline state. In contrast, for the other 16 residues where 3J alpha beta coupling constant values have been measured, the data indicate extensive motional averaging about the chi 1 torsion angle. These residues occur largely on the surface of the protein and examination of the crystal structures shows that many of these residues adopt a different conformation in the triclinic and tetragonal crystal forms and have high crystallographic temperature factors. It appears, however, that in solution conformational flexibility of the side chains of surface residues is significantly more pronounced than in individual crystal structures.

  8. The effectiveness of Tai Chi on the physical and psychological well-being of college students: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college-age youths tends to continuously decline around the world. It is therefore important to promote health during this period. As a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) may be an available selection. However for the college student population, the evidence is unclear as to whether TCC can be recommended as an effective exercise for promoting their physical and psychological wellbeing. Therefore high quality, rigorous, prospective, and well-controlled randomized trials are needed to further understand TCC serving as a psychological and physical intervention in college age populations. Method/Design We designed a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial with a sample size of 206 participants. All the participants who meet the inclusion criteria come from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (FJTCM). Participants of the TCC training group will receive TCC training at a frequency of five days per week for one hour per day for 12 weeks. No specific exercise will be administered on the participants in the control group. Both physical and mental health outcomes, including balance ability, lower limb proprioception, flexibility, physical fitness, self-efficacy, psychological symptoms, attention span, stress, self-esteem, mood and mindfulness, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Safety outcomes will be evaluated by blinded operators at baseline, 12 and 24-weeks post-intervention. Discussion This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that will test the effectiveness and safety of TCC on the physical and psychological wellbeing of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher quality evidence of TCC on the physical and mental health of college age populations. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003328. PMID:24742146

  9. Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048

  10. Use of pragmatic community-based interventions to enhance recruitment and adherence in a randomized trial of Tai Chi for osteopenic women: Insights from a qualitative sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary; Fugate-Woods, Nancy; Wayne, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To qualitatively evaluate the feasibility of utilizing a pragmatic network of community-based Tai Chi schools to deliver 9-month exercise interventions to osteopenic women and to explore the impact of this design feature on facilitators and barriers to trial recruitment and participant adherence during and following the trial. Methods Within a randomized trial comparing 9 months of Tai Chi plus usual care to usual care alone for post-menopausal women with moderately low bone mass, exit interviews were conducted with 43 participants randomized to the pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi intervention. Transcripts were digitially recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Qualitative content analysis was used to code the data. Patterns emerging from among the codes were further examined and clustered into themes. Results Analyses revealed features of pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi programs that both facilitated and impeded study participation and/or post trial adherence. Direct facilitators included: convenience of class locations and times, alternative learning modalities, quality of teaching, community and social support and perceived health benefits. Barriers consisted primarily of time-related issues. A possible causal mechanism--self-efficacy--was also identified. Conclusions Factors related to using pragmatically-delivered intervention were beneficial in fostering both study participation and post-trial adherence to the Tai Chi programs. The qualitative sub-study was valuable for identifying these factors and a possible causal mechanism. These findings will assist in the design and conduct of future studies exploring the use of Tai Chi in fracture prevention and health-related quality of life in post-menopausal women. PMID:24845395

  11. The fibrinogen antigenic turbidimetric assay (FIATA): the X2x test--the corrected chi-square comparison against the control-mean.

    PubMed

    Stief, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Vancomycin precipitates fibrinogen. The turbidity induced by this vancomycin-fibrinogen interaction is used to establish a simple standardized antigenic assay for plasmatic fibrinogen, the FIATA. 1 mM vancomycin or 2 mM chloramine-T inactivates 50% of fibrinogen in human plasma. In contrast to chloramine-T, vancomycin does not react in NaJ-based photometric assay for chloramines,vancomycin does not inactivate the singlet oxygen-sensible antithrombin III, and the vancomycin action against fibrinogen is not changed in spite of the presence of the 1O2 quenchers methionine or ascorbic acid. The FIATA is performed as follows: to 25 microL plasma 50 microL PBS are added and the absorbance (A) at 405 nm is read. Then 50 microL FIATA-reagent, consisting of 4.4 mM vancomycin in PBS, are added. After 2 minutes (RT) DeltaA is determined and standardized against a plasma pool of 100% of norm (2.8 g/L) fibrinogen. The FIATA is nearly linear up to a fibrinogen concentration of about 150% of norm (4.2 g/L), resulting in a DeltaA of about 600 mA. The lower detection limit is 4% of norm (0.1 g/L). The intra-assay and interessay CV values are < 4%. The normal range of FIATA is 100% +/-20% (x- +/- 1 SD). In = 321 or 344 unselected patient plasmas the FIATA (x- = 130%; SD = 52% or 43%) correlated with the functional fibrinogen assays a) modified Clauss-Method (x- = 4.1 g/L; SD =1.7 g/L) with r = 0.755 and b) FIFTA (x- = 124%; SD = 40%) with r = 0.813. The vancomycin/fibrinogen interaction (binding of about 16 molecules of vancomycin/molecule of fibrinogen) can be used to purify fibrinogen out of plasma. Vancomycin also clouds dysfunctional fibrinogen (fibrinogen in presence of EDTA or chloramine-T)or soluble fibrin. Vancomycin-reacted fibrinogen stimulates tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) up to about 20-fold. The experimental data are analyzed by a new significance test: the two foldYates-corrected chi-square comparison against the mean value ofthe control-collective, called

  12. Large {ital CP} asymmetries in {ital B}{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}{eta}{sub {ital c}}({chi}{sub {ital c}0}){pi}{sup {plus_minus}} from the {eta}{sub {ital c}}({chi}{sub {ital c}0}) width

    SciTech Connect

    Eilam, G.; Gronau, M.; Mendel, R.R.

    1995-06-19

    We study {ital CP} asymmetries in {ital B}{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}{ital h}{pi}{sup {plus_minus}} decays, where the hadronic states {ital h}={rho}{rho}, {ital K{bar K}}{pi}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital K}{sup +}{ital K}{sup {minus}}, etc., and {ital h}={pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, {ital K}{sup +}{ital K}{sup {minus}}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}), etc., are taken on the resonances {eta}{sub {ital c}} and {chi}{sub {ital c}0}, respectively. The relatively large {eta}{sub {ital c}} and {chi}{sub {ital c}0} decay widths, of about 10--15 MeV, provide the necessary absorptive phase in the interference between the resonance (going through {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital c{bar c}d}) and the background (through {ital b}{r_arrow}{ital u{bar u}d}) contributions to the amplitude. Large asymmetries of order 10% or more are likely in some modes.

  13. Community-Based Mind-Body Meditative Tai Chi Program and Its Effects on Improvement of Blood Pressure, Weight, Renal Function, Serum Lipoprotein, and Quality of Life in Chinese Adults With Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and poor quality of life are common conditions associated with hypertension, and incidence of hypertension is age dependent. However, an effective program to prevent hypertension and to improve biomedical factors and quality of life has not been adequately examined or evaluated in Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a Tai Chi program to improve health status in participants with hypertension and its related risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and quality of life in older adults in China. A randomized study design was used. At the conclusion of the intervention, 266 patients remained in the study. Blood pressure and biomedical factors were measured according to the World Diabetes Association standard 2002. A standardized quality-of-life measure was used to measure health-related quality of life. It was found that a Tai Chi program to improve hypertension in older adults is effective in reducing blood pressure and body mass index, maintaining normal renal function, and improving physical health of health-related quality of life. It did not improve existing metabolic syndrome levels, lipid level (dyslipidemia) or fasting glucose level (hyperglycemia), to prevent further deterioration of the biomedical risk factors. In conclusion, Tai Chi is effective in managing a number of risk factors associated with hypertension in Chinese older adults. Future research should examine a combination of Tai Chi and nutritional intervention to further reduce the level of biomedical risks. PMID:26251005

  14. Community-Based Mind-Body Meditative Tai Chi Program and Its Effects on Improvement of Blood Pressure, Weight, Renal Function, Serum Lipoprotein, and Quality of Life in Chinese Adults With Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and poor quality of life are common conditions associated with hypertension, and incidence of hypertension is age dependent. However, an effective program to prevent hypertension and to improve biomedical factors and quality of life has not been adequately examined or evaluated in Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a Tai Chi program to improve health status in participants with hypertension and its related risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and quality of life in older adults in China. A randomized study design was used. At the conclusion of the intervention, 266 patients remained in the study. Blood pressure and biomedical factors were measured according to the World Diabetes Association standard 2002. A standardized quality-of-life measure was used to measure health-related quality of life. It was found that a Tai Chi program to improve hypertension in older adults is effective in reducing blood pressure and body mass index, maintaining normal renal function, and improving physical health of health-related quality of life. It did not improve existing metabolic syndrome levels, lipid level (dyslipidemia) or fasting glucose level (hyperglycemia), to prevent further deterioration of the biomedical risk factors. In conclusion, Tai Chi is effective in managing a number of risk factors associated with hypertension in Chinese older adults. Future research should examine a combination of Tai Chi and nutritional intervention to further reduce the level of biomedical risks.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of three iridoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi decoction using LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhi-Min; Bi, Kai-Shun; Huo, Yan-Shuang; Yan, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiao-Hui

    2011-10-01

    A sensitive and efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of geniposide, 6α-hydroxygeniposide, and genipin gentiobioside in rat plasma. After the addition of internal standard (I.S.) salidroside and acidification (formic acid, 0.1%), plasma samples were carried out by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated on a Kromasil C(18) column (200 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) within a runtime of 15.0 min. The linear ranges were 2-250 ng/mL for both 6α-hydroxygeniposide and genipin gentiobioside and 2-2000 ng/mL for geniposide, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2 ng/mL for all the analytes. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics study of geniposide, 6α-hydroxygeniposide, and genipin gentiobioside in rats after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi decoction.

  16. Investigation of internal magnetic structures and comparison with two-fluid equilibrium configurations in the multi-pulsing CHI on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, T.; Hanao, T.; Hirono, H.; Hyobu, T.; Ito, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Kanki, T.

    2012-10-01

    Spherical torus (ST) plasmas have been successfully maintained by Muti-pulsing Coaxial Helicity Injection (M-CHI) on HIST. This research object is to clarify relations between plasma characteristics and magnetic flux amplifications, and to compare magnetic field structures measured in the plasma interior to a flowing equilibrium calculation. Two-dimensional magnetic probe array has been newly introduced nearby the gun muzzle. The initial result shows that the diverter configuration with a single X-point can be formed after a bubble burst process of the plasma. The closed magnetic flux is surrounded by the open magnetic field lines intersecting with the gun electrodes. To evaluate the sustained configurations, we use the two-fluid equilibrium code containing generalized Bernoulli and Grad-Shafranov equations which was developed by L.C. Steinhauer. The radial profiles of plasma flow, density and magnetic fields measured on the midplane of the FC are consistent to the calculation. We also found that the poloidal shear flow generation is attributed to ExB drift and ion diamagnetic drift. In addition, we will study temporal behaviors of impurity lines such as OV and OVI during the flux amplification by VUV spectroscopic measurements.

  17. Observation of the chi_c2(2P) meson in the reaction gamma gamma -> D Dbar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G. /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-05-26

    A search for the Z(3930) resonance in {gamma}{gamma} production of the D{bar D} system has been performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. The D{bar D} invariant mass distribution shows clear evidence of the Z(3930) state with a significance of 5.8{sigma}. We determine mass and width values of (3926.7 {+-} 2.7 {+-} 1.1)MeV/c{sup 2} and (21.3 {+-} 6.8 {+-} 3.6)MeV, respectively. A decay angular analysis provides evidence that the Z(3930) is a tensor state with positive parity and C-parity (J{sup PC} = 2{sup ++}); therefore we identify the Z(3930) state as the {chi}{sub c2}(2P) meson. The value of the partial width {Lambda}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} x {Beta}(Z(3930) {yields} D{bar D}) is found to be (0.24 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.04) keV.

  18. Flood risk analysis and adaptive strategy in context of uncertainties: a case study of Nhieu Loc Thi Nghe Basin, Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Long-Phi; Chau, Nguyen-Xuan-Quang; Nguyen, Hong-Quan

    2013-04-01

    The Nhieu Loc - Thi Nghe basin is the most important administrative and business area of Ho Chi Minh City. Due to system complexity of the basin such as the increasing trend of rainfall intensity, (tidal) water level and land subsidence, the simulation of hydrological, hydraulic variables for flooding prediction seems rather not adequate in practical projects. The basin is still highly vulnerable despite of multi-million USD investment for urban drainage improvement projects since the last decade. In this paper, an integrated system analysis in both spatial and temporal aspects based on statistical, GIS and modelling approaches has been conducted in order to: (1) Analyse risks before and after projects, (2) Foresee water-related risk under uncertainties of unfavourable driving factors and (3) Develop a sustainable flood risk management strategy for the basin. The results show that given the framework of risk analysis and adaptive strategy, certain urban developing plans in the basin must be carefully revised and/or checked in order to reduce the highly unexpected loss in the future

  19. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica{reg_sign} computer programs which are provided.

  20. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam.

  1. Sex, love and gender norms: sexual life and experience of a group of young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of gender norms on the sexual life and experience of a group of young Vietnamese people. It is based on a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion among young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There were two general attitudes towards premarital sex. One view supported young people in a serious, loving relationship engaging in sex before marriage; the other opposed premarital sex because it affected the reputation of girls and their families. These general attitudes were similar to the views on virginity: one group believed strongly in girls maintaining their virginity and the other group emphasised love, emotion and trust, not virginity, as the most important criteria for marriage. Among women there were more supporters than opponents of the traditional view of premarital sex and virginity. Premarital sex was more acceptable for young people in a serious, loving relationship with certain commitment to marriage. Young men considered sex a way to express their love and to become more intimate. Women's view was that premarital sex only occurred within a serious, loving relationship or when there was a serious commitment to marriage. It is clear that young people's sexual life is shaped and constrained by gender norms through political interventions, sexual education and moral judgements. Under the pressure of these norms, young people face many difficulties in order to fulfill a safe and satisfying sexual life.

  2. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial.

  3. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

  4. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  5. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  6. Suan Zao Ren Tang in Combination with Zhi Zi Chi Tang as a Treatment Protocol for Insomniacs with Anxiety: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin-lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-hua

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000–0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety. PMID:25793006

  7. The Role of CHI3L1 (Chitinase-3-Like-1) in the Pathogenesis of Infections in Burns in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, Stefan; Patel, Suraj J.; Vasko, Radovan; Shen, Keyue; Golberg, Alexander; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    In severe burn injury the unique setting of a depleted, dysfunctional immune system along with a loss of barrier function commonly results in opportunistic infections that eventually proof fatal. Unfortunately, the dynamic sequence of bacterial contamination, colonization and eventually septic invasion with bacteria such as Pseudomonas species is still poorly understood although a limiting factor in clinical decision making. Increasing evidence supports the notion that inhibition of bacterial translocation into the wound site may be an effective alternative to prevent infection. In this context we investigated the role of the mammalian Chitinase-3-Like-1 (CHI3L1) non-enyzmatic protein predominately expressed on epithelial as well as innate immune cells as a potential bacterial-translocation-mediating factor. We show a strong trend that a modulation of chitinase expression is likely to be effective in reducing mortality rates in a mouse model of burn injury with superinfection with the opportunistic PA14 Pseudomonas strain, thus demonstrating possible clinical leverage. PMID:26528713

  8. A Supplemental Report to a Randomized Cluster Trial of a 20-Week Sun-Style Tai Chi for Osteoarthritic Knee Pain in Elders with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Chang, Jason Y.; Beck, Cornelia; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Keefe, Francis J.; Rosengren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Objective This was a secondary data analysis of a cluster-randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a 20-week Sun-style Tai Chi (TC) program in reducing pain in community-dwelling elders with cognitive impairment and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study also examined whether elders’ level of cognitive function was related to the outcomes of the TC program. Method Elders (N=55) were recruited from 8 study sites. Each site was randomly assigned to participate in either a 20-week TC or an education program. Verbal report of pain was measured by a Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) at Weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 (designated as Times 1-6). Pain behaviors and analgesic intake were also recorded at Times 1-6. Results At post-test, scores on the VDS and observed pain behaviors were significantly better in the TC group than in the control group (p=.008-.048). The beneficial effects of TC were not associated with cognitive ability. Conclusion These results suggest that TC can be used as an adjunct to pharmacological intervention to relieve OA pain in elders with cognitive impairment. PMID:26275650

  9. Chain Bias in Chi-Stimulated Heteroduplex Patches in the λ Ren Gene Is Determined by the Orientation of λ Cos

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, A. T.; Rosenberg, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Heteroduplex patch recombinants have received information in one DNA chain but have not recombined flanking markers. Evidence regarding which chain is exchanged bears on the structure of recombination intermediates. The direction of travel along DNA of RecBCD recombinase, the central enzyme in the Escherichia coli RecBCD pathway of homologous recombination, is determined in phage λ by the orientation of the packaging origin, cos. cos is a double-chain cut site which serves as a preferred entry site for RecBCD. Using partially denaturing gels to resolve heteroduplex molecules, we have examined patch recombinants at the λ ren gene. We report that the transferred information in Chi-stimulated patches at ren can occur on either chain, but is biased to the chain ending 5' at the right of the λ map (the λ r chain) in phage carrying cos in its normal orientation. The chain bias switches in favor of the chain that ends 3' at the right (the λ l chain) when RecBCD travel direction is reversed by inverting cos. We entertain models that accommodate these and other results pertaining to the structure of RecBCD-mediated recombinants. PMID:1836442

  10. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  11. [Penicillium marneffei infection and AIDS. A review of 12 cases reported in the Tropical Diseases Centre, Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thi Xuan Tuyet; Nguyen, Huu Chi; Dinh Nguyen, Huy Man; Do, Minh Trung; Odermatt-Biays, Sophie; Degrémont, Antoine; Malvy, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a thermal dimorphic fungus which is endemic in an ecologic niche restricted to the Far East and which may cause deep-seated infection in humans and rodents. Discovered in the late 1950s from the bamboo rat Rhizomys sinensis, in Vietnam, P. marneffei was initially identified in HIV-infected individuals. A disseminated and progressive infection, it is the third most common opportunistic morbidity in the late course of HIV infection. We report the clinical and therapeutic features of a series of 12 HIV-infected adults with disseminated P. marneffei infection in Vietnam. From May to September, 2001, 12 patients with P. marneffei infection confirmed by culture were identified among 273 HIV-infected patients studied at the Tropical Diseases Centre, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The clinical signs were related to the reticuloendothelial system involvement. Common clinical features included fever, cutaneous manifestations, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and marked anemia. The organism was identified from skin specimens or blood culture. Cases were consistently found with low CD4 (+) cell count. Treatment with parenteral amphotericin B and itraconazole was relatively effective, although treatment with a delaying diagnosis remained associated with pejorative prognosis.

  12. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam. PMID:26608271

  13. Positive impact of Tai Chi Chuan participation on biopsychosocial quality of life compared to exercise and sedentary controls: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Alex; J P Francis, Andrew

    2013-05-24

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a traditional Chinese medicine practice and martial art with biopsychosocial aspects. This study aimed to examine the impact of participation in TCC on multiple domains of Quality of Life (QoL) and to assess the involvement of the psychological factors of self-efficacy, Locus of Control (LoC) and Hope in these effects. A total of 68 participants from the general community (13 males and 55 females) aged between 18 and 68 (M=43.55 years) and not currently suffering from a mental or physical illness took part in the study. It was found that TCC participants, as a group, scored significantly better than those in sedentary (book club) and active (gym exercise) control conditions on Psychological and Physical QoL, and that the Physical QoL benefits of TCC continue to accrue with years of practice. The three psychological factors were shown to variously mediate (self-efficacy) and moderate (internal LoC and Hope) this latter relationship. Whilst the results bear limitations (in particular small sample sizes), it is hoped that these findings will encourage further research into TCC, and consideration of TCC as part of the range of treatment options available in community-based mental and physical health management.

  14. Novel porcine-like human G26P[19] rotavirus identified in hospitalized paediatric diarrhoea patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    My, Phan Vu Tra; Rabaa, Maia A; Donato, Celeste; Cowley, Daniel; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Anh, Pham Hong; Vinh, Ha; Bryant, Juliet E; Kellam, Paul; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Kirkwood, Carl D; Baker, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P[19] rotavirus (RV)--an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P[19] strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26-P[19]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1-3 and NSP2-5). We proposed that this G26P[19] strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance. PMID:25121549

  15. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... It emphasizes the intercon- nected nature of the body and mind (Figure 1), combining “physical movement, breathing techniques, and ... and focus. Figure 1. The interconnected nature of body and mind and concept of balance is symbolized by the ...

  16. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  17. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  18. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen WK; Yu, Doris SF; Choi, KC; Lee, Diana TF; Sit, Janet WH; Chan, Helen YL

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related cognitivee decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ) on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27) or the control group (n=25). The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004), sleep duration (P=0.003), habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002), and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001). The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life) mental health component than the control group. Conclusion TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment. Clinical trial registration CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287). PMID:27698557

  19. Blood Pressure, Salivary Cortisol, and Inflammatory Cytokine Outcomes in Senior Female Cancer Survivors Enrolled in a Tai Chi Chih Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Light, Kathleen C.; O’Connor, Kathleen; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C.; Pappas, Lisa M.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Irwin, Michael R.; Hill, Harry R.; Martins, Thomas B; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Older cancer survivors are a vulnerable population due to an increased risk for chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease) compounded with treatment late-effects and declines in physical functioning. Therefore, interventions that reduce chronic disease risk factors (i.e., blood pressure, chronic inflammation, & cortisol) are important in this population. Tai Chi Chih (TCC) is a mind-body exercise associated with reductions in chronic disease risk factors, but has not been examined with older cancer survivors. In a feasibility randomized controlled trial of TCC, we examined secondary outcomes of blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-4) due to their implications in chronic diseases. Methods Sixty-three senior female cancer survivors (Mage=67 years, SD=7.15) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 physical functioning≤80 or role-physical≤72) were randomized to 12-weeks (60-minutes, three times a week) of TCC or Health Education control (HEC) classes. Resting blood pressure, 1-day salivary cortisol samples, and fasting plasma samples for cytokine multiplex assays were collected at baseline and 1-week post-intervention. Results Controlling for baseline values, the TCC group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP, p=0.002) and cortisol area-under-curve (AUC, p=0.02) at post-intervention than the HEC group. There was no intervention effect on inflammatory cytokines (p’s>0.05). Conclusions This TCC feasibility trial was associated with significant reductions in SBP and cortisol AUC in senior female cancer survivors. Larger, definitive trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25164513

  20. Effect of tai chi on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health changes in low income, multiple ethnicity mid to older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tai Chi (TC) has proven to be effective at improving musculoskeletal fitness by increasing upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility and overall physical health. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health after a 16 week TC program in a low income multiple ethnicity mid to older adult population. Methods Two hundred and nine ethnically diverse mid to older community dwelling Canadian adults residing in low income neighbourhoods were enrolled in a 16 week Yang style TC program. Body Mass Index and select musculoskeletal fitness measures including upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility and self-reported physical health measured by SF 36 were collected pre and post the TC program. Determinants of health such as age, sex, marital status, education, income, ethnicity of origin, multi-morbidity conditions, weekly physical activity, previous TC experience as well as program adherence were examined as possible musculoskeletal health-related fitness change predictors. Results Using paired sample t-tests significant improvements were found in both upper and lower body strength, low back flexibility, and the SF 36 physical health scores (p < 0.05). Based on multiple linear regression analyses, no common health determinants explained a significant portion of the variation in percent changes of the musculoskeletal fitness and SF 36 measures. Conclusions These results reveal that TC has the potential of having a beneficial influence on musculoskeletal health-related fitness and self-reported physical health in a mid to older low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse sample. PMID:24160867