Science.gov

Sample records for kanumas west area

  1. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  2. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  3. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  4. WEST CLEAR CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    Results of geologic, geochemical, and aeromagnetic studies and review of mineral records and prospect examination for the West Clear Creek Roadless Area, Arizona, indicate that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. No concentrations of minerals were identified within the boundary of the area. A small manganese deposit occurs 1-3 mi east of the area but does not extend into the area. Slightly anomalous values for certain trace metals were found in samples taken within the area, but do not indicate the presence of metallic resources. Gypsum, basaltic cinders, and sandstone occur in the area.

  5. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  6. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  7. CRANBERRY WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meissner, Charles R.; Mory, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, West Virginia contains a large demonstrated resource of bituminous coal of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources in beds more than 14 in. thick are about 110 million short tons of which 56. 5 million tons are in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. Other mineral resources in the study area include peat, shale and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone suitable for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. These commodities are found in abundance in other areas throughout the State. Study of the drill-hole data did not reveal indications of a potential for oil and gas resources in the study area. Evidence of metallic mineral potential was not found during this investigation.

  8. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  9. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  10. 3. Building 7 north elevation (west end), showing loading area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Building 7 north elevation (west end), showing loading area. View looking south. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near west edge of Badlands Topographical Area, view to west - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  12. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  13. 15. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Control Area, Interconnecting Corridor VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  14. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  15. 11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  16. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  17. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  18. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 8. VIEW OF HELIPAD IN LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING WEST. BASKETBALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF HELIPAD IN LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING WEST. BASKETBALL COURT ON RIGHT, RETAINING WALL VISIBLE Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 1. General view of building front looking west from area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of building front looking west from area near abandoned fog signal building. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  3. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. A portion of the warhead handling building can be seen on the left. Launch area is in the background - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Exclusion Area Sentry Station, On Patrol Road at entrance to Missile Field, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. 3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near northeast corner of room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: southwest corner, showing stairs to commander's quarters and viewing bridge, windows to controller's room (room 102), south end of control consoles, and holes in pedestal floor for computer equipment cables (tape drive I/O?) - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: northwest corner, with D.M. logistics office below (room 137), and D.O./D.D.O. offices above. Lower stairs lead to entry shown in view 13 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: north part, showing senior battle staff viewing bridge), projection booths, control consoles, and pneumatic tube message port - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: south part, showing commander's quarters and viewing bridge on second floor, controller's room, console, and projection booth on main floor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  15. BELL STAR EAST AND WEST ROADLESS AREAS, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Harris, Lyle E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral and geologic surveys, it was concluded that Bell Star East and West Roadless Areas, Arkansas, have inferred resources of coal in areas of substantiated coal resource potential from the Lower Hartshorne coal bed at depths of 2000 to 4000 ft below the surface. These areas also have a probable potential for natural gas from the Atoka and Hall Formations at depths as much as 6000 ft below the surface. No metallic mineral resources were identified in the roadless areas.

  16. Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately midhangar. Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately mid-hangar. Area of photo encompasses approximately 1/4 of the interior space, with the KC-10 tanker aircraft and the figures beneath it giving an idea of scale, 90mm lens plus electronic flash fill lightening. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  18. Faculae and east-west asymmetry of sunspot area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C.; Haurwitz, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    Asymmetry of sunspot area with respect to the central meridian is found to depend strongly on the location of the spot group in its chromospheric facula or plage. The usual area excess for spots in the eastern half of the disk is reversed for the relatively rare spot groups situated in the following part of the plage. Qualitatively, the observed asymmetries can be explained by supposing that the apparent area of the spot is decreased by overlying bright facula, especially west of central meridian where the spot (in the usual preceding position) is viewed through the relatively bright and extensive follower part of the plage. Since both facula and spot effects are seen along the same line of sight, optical depth must change slowly with geometric depth, that is, in the active region the atmosphere is relatively transparent.

  19. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST SIDE OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING EAST. FORGE IS IN FOREGROUND, WITH THE ANVIL BLOCK JUST TO THE RIGHT AND BEHIND IT. A TRAM CAR IS UPSIDE DOWN TO THE LEFT OF THE FORGE. THE PIPE GOING INTO THE FORGE ON THE RIGHT CARRIED COMPRESSED AIR TO BLOW THE COALS. AT CENTER RIGHT ON THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE THE OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS FOR THE ORE BUCKETS. AT CENTER LEFT IS A BRAKE WHEEL. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES ARE JUST BELOW THIS WHEEL. THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL IS JUST OFF FRAME ON THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  3. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  4. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  5. Holocene paleoceanography of Disko Bugt area, west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet-Bernier, Marie-Michèle; de Vernal, Anne; Moros, Matthias; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Micropaleontological, palynological and isotopic analyses of sediment core MSM343300 (68° 28,311'N, 54° 00,118'W; 519 m water depth) raised off Disko Bugt area (West Greenland) were undertaken in order to document Holocene paleoceanographical changes in the Eastern Baffin bay, at a site now influenced by the Western Greenland Current. Palynological analyses were performed with special attention paid to dinocysts in order to characterize sea-surface conditions whereas isotopic analyses on benthic foraminifers aimed at documenting the "deep" water mass bathing the shelf edge. Palynological assemblages are largely dominated by dinocysts, which suggest high pelagic productivity during the Middle and Late Holocene. The assemblages are dominated by Islandinium minutum accompanied of the cyst of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Brigantedinium spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites elongatus, Selenopemphix quanta and Islandinium? cezare. The application of the Modern analogue technique (MAT) highlighted a major change in sea-surface conditions at ~7300 cal. yr BP. Harsh conditions with dense sea-ice cover, low temperature and low productivity prevailed at surface from at least ~ 10 000 (age of core bottom) until ~7300 cal. yr BP with a large dominance of Islandinium minutum in the dinocyst assemblages. The overall low productivity resulted in low benthic foraminiferal abundances. However a few benchmark isotopic values could be obtained. At ~10 000 cal. yr BP, delta 18O values near +4o pointed to the presence of cold and relatively saline waters at the sea floor. A short interval corresponding to a large amplitude 13C excursion is recorded at ~8200 cal. yr BP, with deltagalues as low as -4.5 and -6.03o in Islandiella norcrossi and Nonionella labradorica, respectively, whereas 13C content in total sedimentary organic carbon did not vary much from the background value of ~ -22o . We tentatively concluded at some linkage with a sea floor methane burst. Postglacial

  6. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized.

  7. 75 FR 29310 - Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... the September 4, 2009, Federal Register (74 FR 45803), GIPSA requested applications for designation to... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  8. Aeromagnetic map of the West Clear Creek roadless area, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Willard E.; Ulrich, George E.

    1983-01-01

    The greater part of the surface is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks, mainly alkali olivine basalts. These overlie Lower Per i an sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of dolomite, limestone, and sandstone strata that dip gently westward. Late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks and deposits mantle several ridges (terrace gravels) and cover basalt flows in Verde Valley at the west end of the area (Verde Formation). Quaternary alluvial deposits occur in the main West Clear Creek drainage and its larger tributaries at the west end of the area.

  9. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2002-05-14

    The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

  10. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan... Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas. (a) The area—Area No. 1. The waters of Behm Canal.... 2. The waters of Behm Canal bounded by a circle 2,000 yards in diameter, centered at 55°34′...

  12. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J. Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  17. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J., Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  18. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  19. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the United States Department of Commerce, which desired an appraisal of the water resources of the Cumberland atra in order to evaluate the effect of the availability of water on the economic development of the area. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to summarize the available water information and to describe the hydrologic factors that affect the availability of water.

  20. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. (a... 25°45′05″, longitude 82°23′30″; thence east to point of beginning. (2) Bombing and strafing...

  1. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. (a... 25°45′05″, longitude 82°23′30″; thence east to point of beginning. (2) Bombing and strafing...

  2. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  4. 76 FR 56482 - Notice and Request For Comments: LSC Elimination of the West Virginia Migrant Service Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... service area in the Federal Register on March 30, 2011 (76 FR 17711). One competitive grant application... Notice and Request For Comments: LSC Elimination of the West Virginia Migrant Service Area Beginning... Legal Services Corporation will eliminate the West Virginia migrant service area, i.e., MWV...

  5. EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-19-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s break room at upper left, top of stairs, work bench at far right - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  8. Seismic evaluation of the Devonian Ohio Shale in the Big Ugly area, southwestern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Li; Wilson, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Devonian Ohio Shale was studied in the Big Ugly area of southwestern West Virginia by reprocessing and interpreting existing seismic and geologic data. These data suggest the presence of detached structures above three decollement zones and cross-strike discontinuities associated with the Alleghanian deformation west of Mann Mountain anticline. A basement growth structure, the Griffithsville basement high, localized detached structures along its southeast flank. High producing trends of gas from the Devonian Ohio Shale occur either near northwest-trending cross-strike structural discontinuities or in the northeast-trending detached structures where fracture density should be increased.

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., 085°45′34″ W; East point—30°14′56″ N, 085°43′45″ W; South point—30°14′01″ N, 085°44′59″ W; West...

  10. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  11. Geologic interpretation of ERTS-1 satellite images for West Aswan Area, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Elkassas, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of West Aswan area were interpreted in terms of geology, drainage, and structure. Twenty-two geological units were distinguished on ERTS-1 images in West Aswan area covering geological formations and erosional levels within some formations ranging from the Precambrian to the Quaternary. Apart from the distinction of Aswan monumental granite the investigated area shows very interesting exposures of sedimentary rocks ranging from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary. Of special interest is the delineation of the iron-ore member of the Nubian Sandstone and the phosphate-bearing formation. The tracing of the geological formations from south to north and the distinction of the varied geological units within the Pliocene and Quaternary, and the discussion on the origin of tufa are of particular significance. Also, the tracing on these images of major fractures and faults intercepting Aswan Dam Reservoir and their significance on the seepage and possible future development of diversion channels from reservoir is emphasized.

  12. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  13. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  14. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas.

    PubMed

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Bromberg, Mel; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa has drawn attention to global health inequalities, in particular the inadequacies of health care systems in sub-Saharan African countries for appropriately managing and containing infectious diseases. The purpose of this article is to examine the sociopolitical and economic conditions that created the environment for the Ebola epidemic to occur, identify challenges to and opportunities for the prevention and control of Ebola and future outbreaks, and discuss policy recommendations and priority areas for addressing the Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks in West Africa. Articles in peer-reviewed journals on health system reforms in developing countries and periodicals of international organizations were used to gather the overview reported in this article. We identify individual, structural, and community challenges that must be addressed in an effort to reduce the spread of Ebola in West Africa. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for the overhaul and transformation of African health care systems to build the capacity in these countries to address infectious diseases. Public-private partnerships for investment in developing countries' health care systems that involve the international community are critical in addressing the current Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks. PMID:25645480

  15. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  16. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  17. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. PMID:25260168

  18. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region.

  19. Ordovician and Silurian acritarch assemblages from the west Leinster and Slievenamon areas of southeast Ireland.

    PubMed

    Maziane-Serraj, N; Brück, P M.; Higgs, K T.; Vanguestaine, M

    2000-12-01

    The Lower Palaeozoic sequences west of the Leinster Granite and in the Slievenamon Inlier of southeast Ireland have been palynologically re-investigated. Most of the productive samples yielded sufficient identifiable acritarchs for positive stratigraphical age determinations for several of the formations. The samples also include rare cryptospores, scolecodonts and tubular structures. Previous work in the area west of the Leinster Granite proposed an unbroken succession from Early Ordovician Ribband Group turbidites and volcanics passing up conformably to Early Ordovician to Late Silurian Kilcullen Group. The new palynological data clearly show that the Kilcullen Group in this area is entirely Silurian (Llandovery-early Wenlock) in age, also results obtained from the same group at Slievenamon confirm the previously reported Silurian age. Ordovician acritarchs found in the Kilcullen Group of both study areas are reworked and range in age from late Tremadoc to Llanvirn. The new data reveal a major stratigraphic break between the Ribband Group dated as Early and Middle Ordovician and the Silurian Kilcullen Group. This major break extends some hundreds of kms southwest to the Dingle Peninsula and possibly equates with a similar discontinuity in the Isle of Man to the northeast. This break would thus appear to be a major feature within the northwestern Avalonian margin sequence.

  20. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  1. Historical tank content estimate for the southwest quadrant of the Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank- by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report.

  2. Construction of temporary mobile office complex in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This environmental assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made concerning the proposed action on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact should be issued or an environmental impact statement should be prepared. The proposed action is the construction and operation of a temporary mobile office and changeroom complex in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Therefore, this environmental assessment evaluates the proposed action and alternatives, including a no action alternative, in keeping with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1500.

  3. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Electronic cone penetration testing at the Hanford Site, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-06-04

    The 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action (ERA) is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology as a provision of both the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID). The ERA allows expedited response to be taken at waste sites where damage to the environment can be significantly reduced by early action to locate, identify the extent, and remediate imminent hazards. The ERA is focusing specifically on the removal of carbon tetrachloride vapor from the soil column and protection of the groundwater in the 200 West Area. The VOC-Arid ID program allows demonstration of new drilling technologies for environmental characterization monitoring and remediation. Soil vapor vacuum extraction has been proposed to remediate the site. This may require vapor extraction wells to be installed within the plume.

  5. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  6. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  7. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  8. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow in the Opequon Creek Watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasing population and economic development in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, water availability has become a primary concern for water-resource managers in the region. To address these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Services and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, developed a numerical steady-state simulation of ground-water flow for the 1,013-square-kilometer Opequon Creek watershed area. The model was based on data aggregated for several recently completed and ongoing USGS hydrogeologic investigations conducted in Jefferson, Berkeley, and Morgan Counties in West Virginia and Clarke, Frederick, and Warren Counties in Virginia. A previous detailed hydrogeologic assessment of the watershed area of Hopewell Run (tributary to the Opequon Creek), which includes the USGS Leetown Science Center in Jefferson County, West Virginia, provided key understanding of ground-water flow processes in the aquifer. The ground-water flow model developed for the Opequon Creek watershed area is a steady-state, three-layer representation of ground-water flow in the region. The primary objective of the simulation was to develop water budgets for average and drought hydrologic conditions. The simulation results can provide water managers with preliminary estimates on which water-resource decisions may be based. Results of the ground-water flow simulation of the Opequon Creek watershed area indicate that hydrogeologic concepts developed for the Hopewell Run watershed area can be extrapolated to the larger watershed model. Sensitivity analyses conducted as part of the current modeling effort and geographic information system analyses of spring location and yield reveal that thrust and cross-strike faults and low-permeability bedding, which provide structural and lithologic controls, respectively, on ground-water flow, must be incorporated into the

  9. Resistivity image beneath an area of active methane seeps in the west Svalbard continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Bedanta K.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Minshull, Timothy A.; Sinha, Martin C.; Westbrook, Graham K.; Marín-Moreno, Héctor

    2016-11-01

    The Arctic continental margin contains large amounts of methane in the form of methane hydrates. The west Svalbard continental slope is an area where active methane seeps have been reported near the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone. The presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) on seismic reflection data in water depths greater than 600 m suggests the presence of free gas beneath gas hydrates in the area. Resistivity obtained from marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data provides a useful complement to seismic methods for detecting shallow hydrate and gas as they are more resistive than surrounding water saturated sediments. We acquired two CSEM lines in the west Svalbard continental slope, extending from the edge of the continental shelf (250 m water depth) to water depths of around 800 m. High resistivities (5-12 Ωm) observed above the BSR support the presence of gas hydrate in water depths greater than 600 m. High resistivities (3-4 Ωm) at 390-600 m water depth also suggest possible hydrate occurrence within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) of the continental slope. In addition, high resistivities (4-8 Ωm) landward of the GHSZ are coincident with high-amplitude reflectors and low velocities reported in seismic data that indicate the likely presence of free gas. Pore space saturation estimates using a connectivity equation suggest 20-50 per cent hydrate within the lower slope sediments and less than 12 per cent within the upper slope sediments. A free gas zone beneath the GHSZ (10-20 per cent gas saturation) is connected to the high free gas saturated (10-45 per cent) area at the edge of the continental shelf, where most of the seeps are observed. This evidence supports the presence of lateral free gas migration beneath the GHSZ towards the continental shelf.

  10. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  11. Analyses and descriptions of geochemical samples, Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mei, Leung; Fletcher, J.D.; Rait, Norma; Lesure, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 64 elements on 95 stream sediment and 122 rock samples from Mountain Lake Wilderness Study Area, Giles and Craig Counties, Virginia and Monroe County, West Virginia, are reported here in detail. Locations for all samples are in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of rock samples are also included. Rocks analysed are mostly sandstone. Samples of hematitic sandstone of the Rose Hill Formation and limonite-cemented sandstone of the Rocky Gap Sandstone contain high values of iron; these rocks are submarginal iron resources. Some of these iron-rich samples have a little more barium, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and/or zinc than in average sandstone, but they do not suggest the presence of economic deposits of these metals. A few samples of Tuscarora Quartzite contain moderate amounts of manganese. These are from a submarginal manganese resource. No other obviously anomalous-values related to mineralized rock are present in the data.

  12. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation.

  13. Monitoring of mass measles campaign in AILA-affected areas of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Samir; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Ghosh, Pramit; Sardar, Jadab Chandra; Roy, Amal Sinha; Sau, Manabendra

    2010-01-01

    A mass measles campaign was organized in AILA-affected areas of West Bengal in July-August 2009. The present cross-sectional study was conducted with the objectives to monitor and assess the cold chain maintenance, safe injection practices, IEC methods adopted, and to observe the conduction of the sessions in the campaign. All the cold chain points at the block level had adequate vaccines and equipments, twice monitoring of temperature which was in optimal range. 82% sessions had team according to microplan, AWW was present and team members were actively mobilizing the children in 83% sessions, puncture proof container was used and vaccines were given in correct sites in more than 95% sessions. The study observed satisfactory conduction of the whole campaign, still the injection safety procedures should be strengthened considering the potential harm to the health care providers.

  14. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  15. Small mammal distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area in West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ralaizafisoloarivony, Njaka A; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Mulungu, Loth S; Leirs, Herwig; Msanya, Balthazar M; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague endemic area in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. Landsat images and field surveys were used to select trapping locations in different landscapes. Three landscapes with different habitats were selected for trapping of small mammals. Three types of trap were used in order to maximise the number of species captured. In total, 188 animals and thirteen species were captured in 4,905 trap nights. Praomys delectorum and Mastomys natalensis both reported as plague hosts comprised 50% of all the animals trapped. Trap success increased with altitude. Species diversity was higher in plantation forest followed by shrub, compared to other habitats, regardless of landscape type. It would therefore seem that chances of plague transmission from small mammals to humans are much higher under shrub, natural and plantation forest habitats.

  16. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area comprises about 7,720 acres in the Monongahela National Forest in east-central West Virginia, southeast of Elkins. The study area lies on a northeast-trending linear ridge bordered on the west by the Right Fork of Tygart River and on the east by Shavers Fork. It averages about 2 mi in length and 1½ mi in width. Altitudes on Cheat Mountain range from about 2,550 to 3,900 ft. 

  17. Soil-gas radon analyses in the Mt. Rose and Lovelock areas, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelli, A.R.; Rigby, J.G.; LaPointe, D.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Soil-gas radon has been sampled and analyzed in two area of differing surficial geology in west-central Nevada. Elevated levels of indoor radon have been found in both area. The Mt. Rose alluvial fan complex, located just southwest of Reno, is an alluvial fan/pediment formed by flow from major drainages in the Carson Range. The surface of the Mt. Rose fan is dominated by glacial outwash deposits believed to be of Donner Lake and Tahoe age. These two units have somewhat differing lithologies and degrees of soil development. The Donner Lake outwash is dominated by volcanic clasts and typically has a thick argillic B-horizon and a moderately to strongly developed duripan. The Tahoe outwash has a mixture of volcanic and granitic clasts and typically has a thinner argillic B-horizon and no duripan. Soil-gas radon levels are generally higher in the Tahoe outwash, probably reflecting either greater emanation from granitic clasts or differences in soil gas permeability. Radon levels along Holocene faults cutting these outwash deposits are fairly typical for the study area and minor differences may be due to the faults' effects on soil gas permeability. Lovelock, about 90 miles northeast of Reno, is located within the Humboldt Sink, one of the lowest parts of the pluvial Lake Lahontan basin. Surficial geology in this area is dominated by fine-grained lacustrine deposits and overbank alluvium from the Humboldt River. During interpluvial periods, this is commonly a marshy area resulting from Humboldt River flow into the basin. Elevated radon levels are likely due to uranium accumulation in black, organic-rich clay layers.

  18. Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Risk Areas, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, Sean C.; McConchie, Alan; Glaser, Carol; Jean, Cynthia; Barker, Chris; Park, Bborie; Padgett, Kerry; Parker, Erin; Aquino, Ervic; Kramer, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time (DYCAST) system is a biologically based spatiotemporal model that uses public reports of dead birds to identify areas at high risk for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission to humans. In 2005, during a statewide epidemic of WNV (880 cases), the California Department of Public Health prospectively implemented DYCAST over 32,517 km2 in California. Daily risk maps were made available online and used by local agencies to target public education campaigns, surveillance, and mosquito control. DYCAST had 80.8% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity for predicting human cases, and κ analysis indicated moderate strength of chance-adjusted agreement for >4 weeks. High-risk grid cells (populations) were identified an average of 37.2 days before onset of human illness; relative risk for disease was >39× higher than for low-risk cells. Although prediction rates declined in subsequent years, results indicate DYCAST was a timely and effective early warning system during the severe 2005 epidemic. PMID:21801622

  19. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  20. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  1. [Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements on sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jie; Dou, Sen; Wang, Li-Min; Liu, Zhao-Shun

    2011-07-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from the sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin province. A variety of ancillary methods were used to determine the soil element content. Then the rare earth elements geochemistry in soil was studied, and the correlation of REEs in this region with other elements and the quality of plant was investigated. The results show that, (1) REE content of the soil in Nong'an is relatively higher to those in Daan and Tongyu. Distribution pattern of rare earth elements in soil for the right tilt of the light rare earth enrichment patterns which is consistent with the national distribution pattern of rare earth elements; (2) REE contents in the three studying areas in the soil are different, and this primarily relates to the soil parent materials; (3) The REEs which positively correlate with soil available potassium are Se, Fe2O3, Ti, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, B, F. The protein content of sunflower seeds has a negative correlation with REE. With the exception of Lu, all REEs show a similar correlation.

  2. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  3. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  4. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  5. Geology and hydrology of the West Milton area, Saratoga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Pauszek, F.H.; Crippen, John R.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the geology, ground-water conditions, streamflow characteristics, and quality of water in the West Milton area, Saratoga County, N.Y. The West Milton area is in the east-central part of New York in the hilly region that forms a transition zone between the Adirondack Mountains and the Hudson-Mohawk valley lowland. Bedrock underlying the area consists of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sandstone, dolomite, limestone, and shale formations of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The formations have been moderately folded and have been displaced as much as several hundred feet' along at least three northeast-trending normal faults. The bedrock is overlain in nearly all parts of the area by a layer of unconsolidated deposits which ranges in thickness from a few feet to more than 200 feet. The unconsolidated deposits are of Pleistocene age and consist of unstratified materials (till) laid down by glacial ice at stratified sediments deposited by glacial meltwaters. The topography of the bedrock surface differs greatly from the topography of the land surface. Although not evident in the present topography, at least two channels, cut in bedrock by preglacial streams, pass through the area. Ground-water supplies adequate to satisfy domestic requirements can be obtained from wells in any part of the area. Large ground-water supplies may be taken from coarse-grained stratified deposits comprising two aquifers in the valley of Kayaderosseras Creek. The Atomic Energy Commission has pumped as much as 1 mgd from a horizontal well drawing from the uppermost aquifer which is composed of flood-plain deposits. Part of the water yielded by this well during extended periods of pumping is induced flow from the creek. Three nearby vertical wells drilled by the Commission comprise a separate well field capable of yielding at least 2 mgd and possibly as much as 3 mgd from the deeper stratified deposits underlying the valley. A pumping test showed that at near the

  6. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... costs of management. Preliminary planning criteria include: 1. Lands addressed in the RMP will be public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY:...

  7. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  9. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rama; Ghosh, Sougata

    2011-04-01

    Following Cyclone Aila, a block of Sundarban area, West Bengal, India, reported an increased number of diarrhoea cases at the end of May 2009. This study was performed to identify the agent and source of the outbreak as well as to propose control measures. The outbreak is described by time, place and person. A matched case-control study was conducted and rectal swabs and water specimens were collected. In total, 1076 probable case patients and 14 deaths (attack rate 44/10 000) were identified. Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa was isolated from two of five probable case patients' stool specimens. The outbreak started in the fourth week of May, with two peaks in the second and fourth weeks of June, and lasted until August 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to drink non-chlorinated piped water [matched odds ratio (MOR)=16, 95% CI 4.9-51; population attributable fraction 58%) and were less likely to drink chlorine-treated water (MOR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18). Villagers broke the water pipelines near their houses for easy access to water. Piped water specimens and stored drinking water were positive for faecal contamination. Contaminated drinking water was the probable source of the cholera outbreak. Repairing the pipelines, chlorination at household level and educating villagers regarding the danger of breached water pipe connections controlled the outbreak.

  10. Morphologic characteristics of upland bluffs east and west of Crowley's Ridge in the New Madrid area

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Although presumed to be purely erosional in origin, the development of the bluffs bounding the Mississippi River may be ultimately influenced by tectonic processes. Quantitative morphologic characterization of the bluffs may provide insights to their erosional history and possible tectonic impacts on their evolution. Characterization consists of digitizing topographic planforms of the bluffs, valley floor morphology, and calculation of such parameters as sinuosity (S), valley floor/valley height ratios (Vf) and stream gradient indices for streams cutting the bluffs. Bluff planforms vary in sinuosity from nearly straight, S = 1.3, to highly sinuous, S = 8.2. Sinuosity appears to primarily reflect the size of the streams that dissect the bluffs. On the west side of the river, sinuosities are systematically higher than on the east side, reflecting the consequences of larger streams which effectively embay the bluffs. Interestingly, the lowest sinuosities in the area studied are geographically juxtaposed to the highest ones, both found on the east side of the river. The low sinuosities are due to the near coincidence of the drainage divide with the bluffs themselves resulting in east flowing drainage away from the bluffs. Vf ratios show a geographic pattern similar to that of sinuosity.

  11. Water resources in the Wardensville Area, Hardy County, West Virginia, October 2003-May 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, Ronald D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2004-01-01

    Communities within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of West Virginia are concerned about the availability and sustainability of their water supplies. The water resources of the Wardensville area of West Virginia were investigated and data sources were reviewed that will be useful in similar resource assessments elsewhere in the region. Estimates of long-term average discharge of the Cacapon River, Waites Run, and Trout Run are 170, 21, and 78 cubic feet per second, respectively. Average flow from Wardensville Spring during the study was determined to be 0.265 cubic feet per second, and the apparent age of this water was about 20 years. Increases in springflow and drops in temperature of the water during significant winter runoff events suggest that Wardensville Spring may be under the influence of surface runoff at such times. About 80 total coliform colonies per 100 milliliters (mL) of water were found in the spring, but less than 1 colony per 100 mL of water was fecal coliform, and their source is unknown. A well completed during the study in the Marcellus Shale near the contact with the Oriskany Sandstone is capable of yielding 60 gallons per minute, and water produced from the well has an apparent age of 50 years. Iron and manganese concentrations in the well (1,680 and 114 micrograms per liter, respectively) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. It is likely that a well drilled about 130 feet from Wardensville Spring is hydraulically connected to the spring because pumping at the time of well completion induced drawdown at the spring. About 20 total coliform colonies per 100 mL of water were found in that well, but fecal coliform counts were less than 1 colony per 100 mL of water. Transmissivity values of the aquifer as determined at two wells completed in the Marcellus Shale near the contact with the Oriskany Sandstone on opposite sides of Anderson Ridge are 200 and 400 feet squared per day.

  12. STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  13. Factors controlling groundwater hydrogeochemistry in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwan, Mostafa; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality suffers from various degradation mechanisms such as extensive urbanization, agricultural and industrial activities in many developing countries. This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the change in the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt. The Piper diagrams show the predominance of Na-Cl (75%) with minor Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Cl water-types. The equiline diagrams and ionic ratios show the dominance of Ca2+ + Mg2+ over Na+ + K+ and HCO3- + SO42- over Cl- suggesting silicate minerals dissolution and reverse ion exchange reactions Results of Gibb's diagram revealed that the chemical budget of the groundwater in this area is mainly derived from water-rock interaction and evaporation-crystallization dominances. The R-mode factor analysis applied to quantify the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the anthropogenic impacts that affect groundwater quality, revealed that the Pliocene clays are the major sources of Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater due to silicate minerals dissolution and ion exchange reactions and, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals abundant in the Pleistocene Qena Formation lithologies. Higher concentration of SO42- at the newly reclaimed lands may be due to the effect of rainfall, addition of potassium sulfates fertilizers to the agricultural soils and gypsum-anhydrite dissolution. The results of this study suggest that the R-mode factor analysis combined with the geological-hydrogeological analyses of the aquifer is useful in recognizing the geochemical trends and identifying the anthropogenic sources affecting the groundwater quality.

  14. Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, T; Uchino, T; Tokunaga, H; Ando, M

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of total arsenic in food composites, collected from the villagers, was carried out in arsenic-affected areas of the Murshidabad district, West Bengal where the agricultural system is mostly groundwater dependent. The shallow, large-diameter tubewells installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean 0.085 mg/l, n=6). Even the soil is arsenic-contaminated (mean 11.35 mg/kg, n=36), so some arsenic can be expected in the food chain from crops cultivated in this area. The results revealed that the individual food composite and food groups containing the highest mean arsenic concentrations (microg/kg) are potato skin (292.62 and 104), leaf of vegetables (212.34 and 294.67), arum leaf (331 and 341), papaya (196.50 and 373), rice (226.18 and 245.39), wheat (7 and 362), cumin (47.86 and 209.75), turmeric powder (297.33 and 280.9), cereals and bakery goods (156.37 and 294.47), vegetables (91.73 and 123.22), spices (92.22 and 207.60) and miscellaneous items (138.37 and 137.80) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. Arsenic is absorbed by the skin of most of the vegetables. The arsenic concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low (mean 2.72 microg/kg, n=45). Higher levels of arsenic were observed in cooked items compared with raw. Daily dietary intakes of arsenic (microg) from the foodstuffs for adults are 171.20 and 189.13 and for children are 91.89 and 101.63 in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively.

  15. Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, T; Uchino, T; Tokunaga, H; Ando, M

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of total arsenic in food composites, collected from the villagers, was carried out in arsenic-affected areas of the Murshidabad district, West Bengal where the agricultural system is mostly groundwater dependent. The shallow, large-diameter tubewells installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean 0.085 mg/l, n=6). Even the soil is arsenic-contaminated (mean 11.35 mg/kg, n=36), so some arsenic can be expected in the food chain from crops cultivated in this area. The results revealed that the individual food composite and food groups containing the highest mean arsenic concentrations (microg/kg) are potato skin (292.62 and 104), leaf of vegetables (212.34 and 294.67), arum leaf (331 and 341), papaya (196.50 and 373), rice (226.18 and 245.39), wheat (7 and 362), cumin (47.86 and 209.75), turmeric powder (297.33 and 280.9), cereals and bakery goods (156.37 and 294.47), vegetables (91.73 and 123.22), spices (92.22 and 207.60) and miscellaneous items (138.37 and 137.80) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. Arsenic is absorbed by the skin of most of the vegetables. The arsenic concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low (mean 2.72 microg/kg, n=45). Higher levels of arsenic were observed in cooked items compared with raw. Daily dietary intakes of arsenic (microg) from the foodstuffs for adults are 171.20 and 189.13 and for children are 91.89 and 101.63 in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. PMID:12176088

  16. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  18. Moho depth determination from waveforms of microearthquakes in the West Bohemia/Vogtland swarm area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubcova, Pavla; Vavrycuk, Vaclav; Horalek, Josef; Bouskova, Alena

    2013-04-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland area is known for its increased geodynamic activity with reoccurrence of intraplate earthquake swarms. Previous geophysical studies, namely active and passive seismic investigations, revealed a high velocity lower crust in this area with increased reflectivity. To refine this result and retrieve a more detailed structure of the deep crust and the Moho discontinuity we analyzed waveforms of local microearthquakes that occurred in this area during the 2008 swarm and were observed at the WEBNET seismic network stations. We developed a new multi-azimuthal approach in data processing to increase resolution of Moho phases in the waveforms. The waveforms typically display dominant direct P and S waves followed by converted and reflected waves secondarily generated at shallow and deep subsurface structure. Apart from the velocity structure and the source-receiver geometry, the waveforms are significantly affected by focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. Thus, the waveforms of earthquakes were grouped into clusters with similar focal mechanisms and clusters were processed separately. We applied the waveform cross-correlation of the P and S waves, and rotated, aligned and stacked the seismograms to extract the Moho SmS, PmP, and PmS reflected/converted phases. These phases were inverted for laterally varying Moho depth by ray tracing and a grid search inversion algorithm. The model retrieved was verified using modeling of full waveforms computed by the discrete wave number method. The newly applied multi-azimuthal approach revealed details in the velocity structure of the crust/mantle transition at each station. Instead of a single interface with a sharp velocity contrast, the inversion indicates a reflective zone at Moho depths with one or two strongly reflective interfaces, which is in agreement with the zone interpreted by previous investigations. The thickness of the zone varies from 2-4 km within the depth range of 27-31.5 km and is delimited by

  19. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.

  20. Carbon-dioxide flow measurement in geodynamically active area of West Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Josef; Fischer, Tomas; Heinicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to degassing flux of magmatic origin occurring in natural moffettes and mineral springs. While monitoring of earthquakes is done by a standard local seismic network, monitoring of amount of CO2 is at its initial stage. Despite lack of data, the 2014 earthquake swarm showed also very interesting increase in CO2 flow. This correlation with seismicity motivated us to develop robust and reliable methods of CO2 flow measurement, which would be sufficient to create denser monitoring network. Standard usage of gas-flowmeter for the purpose of gas flow measurement is dependent on the weather and device conditions, which makes the measurement instable in time and unreliable. Although gas-flowmeter is also accompanied with measurement of the gas pressure in the well to check flow rate value, reliability of this method is still low. This problematic behavior of the flow measurement was the reason to test new methods to measure CO2 amount - the first is based on measuring the density water with bubbles in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second one utilizes electric conductivity measurement to determine the density of bubbles in the water-gas mixture. Advantage of these methods is that their probes are directly in the well or moffette, where the concentration is measured. This approach is free of the influence of moving parts and assures the independence of measurements of environmental conditions. In this paper we show examples of obtained data series from selected sites and compare the trend of the curves, the mutual relations of the measured quantities and the influence of environmental conditions.

  1. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas. PMID:22618763

  2. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  3. Hydrothermal Chloride Flux from the Area of Ongoing Uplift West of South Sister Volcano, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, E. A.; Randolph-flagg, N. G.; Newman, A. C.; Murveit, A. M.; Mariner, R. H.; Evans, W. C.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Uplift west of South Sister began in 1997 at a rate of 3-5 cm/yr and is ongoing at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. Many springs in the area of uplift have anomalous chloride (up to 20 mg/L) and sulfate concentrations (up to 20 mg/L), are anomalously warm (up to 5oC above expected ambient), and have high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.6 times RA). There is a strong intercorrelation among chloride (Cl-) concentration, temperature, and 3He concentration, suggesting a common magmatic source. Since uplift was detected in 2002 we have monitored hydrothermal Cl flux at two locations: the first site several hundred m below the spring vent with the highest 3He/4He ratio and the second site ~20 km downstream of that spring in Separation Creek, which captures the total hydrothermal Cl flux (~12 g/s) from the ~175 km2 area of uplift. Best fit lines for long-term trend in Cl flux at both sites have shallow slopes ( < 0.2 g/s per year at Separation Creek). There is, however, a strong seasonality to the Cl flux. At the site with the highest 3He/4He ratio, the Cl flux varies from ~0.1 g/s in late spring to ~0.2 g/s in late fall. The periods of decrease/increase in Cl flux coincide with presence/absence of snow cover. The temperature at the vent with highest 3He/4He ratio shows almost constant temperature (ranging from 7.7-7.8oC over a 13-month period of record in 2009-2010). Spectral analysis done using a 0.5-2.5 cycle/day bandpass filter shows significant peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies for Cl flux, discharge, temperature, and specific-conductance time series from both sites, suggesting sensitivity to Earth tides. Data gaps and changes in sampling interval complicate determination of significance at longer (fortnightly to annual) periods. Published compilations indicate that earthquake-induced hydrologic changes are fairly common for seismic energy density e > 0.01 J/m3 (Wang and Manga, Earthquakes and Water, 2010), and during the 2002-2010 period of record, local to regional

  4. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  5. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  6. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  7. Socio-Cultural Factors and Energy Resource Development in Rural Areas in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    Drawing upon and synthesizing social and demographic data (1940-70) from 14 counties in the Rocky Mountain West which are currently facing extensive population growth as the result of large scale energy resource development, a preliminary model of potential sociocultural impact was developed. Including national energy needs and traditional…

  8. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings.

  9. Evidence for Subglacial Volcanic Activity Beneath the area of the Divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing body of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, heat flow, subglacial volcanic earthquakes, several exposed active and subglacial volcanoes and other lines of evidence for volcanic activity associated with the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) since the origin (~25 Ma) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), which flows through it. Exposed late Cenozoic, alkaline volcanic rocks, 34 Ma to present concentrated in Marie Byrd Land (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990), but also exposed along the rift shoulder on the Transantarctic Mountains flank of the WR, and >1 million cubic kilometers, of mostly subglacially erupted 'volcanic centers' beneath the WAIS inferred from aeromagnetic data, have been interpreted as evidence of a magmatic plume. About 18 high relief, (~600-2000 m) 'volcanic centers' presently beneath the WAIS surface, probably were erupted subaerially when the WAIS was absent, based on the 5-km orthogonally line spaced Central West Antarctica aerogeophysical survey. All would be above sea level after ice removal and isostatic adjustment. Nine of these high relief peaks are in the general area beneath the divide of the WAIS. This high bed relief topography was first interpreted in the 1980s as the volcanic 'Sinuous Ridge ' based on a widely spaced aeromagnetic -radar ice sounding survey (Jankowski et al,. 1983). A 70-km wide, circular ring of interpreted subglacial volcanic rocks was cited as evidence of a volcanic caldera underlying the ice sheet divide based on the CWA survey (Behrendt et al., 1998). A broad magnetic 'low' surrounding the caldera area possibly is evidence of a shallow Curie isotherm. High heat flow reported from temperature logging (Clow et al., 2012) in the WAISCORE and a thick volcanic ash layer in the core (Dunbar et al., 2012) are consistent with this interpretation. A 2 km-high subaerially erupted volcano (subglacial Mt Thiel, ~78.5 degrees S, 111 degrees W) ~ 100 km north from the WAISCORE could be the source of the ash

  10. Analytical determinations from samples taken in the Ten Mile West Roadless Area, Boise and Elmore counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 584 stream-sediment and rock samples were collected from within or near the Ten Mile West Roadless Area, Boise and Elmore Counties, Idaho, as part of a geologic study aimed at appraising the mineral resource potential of the area. Emphasis was placed on stream-sediment samples because stream sediments represent the erosional products of a drainage system and offer a rapid means of locating anomalous concentrations of ore-forming elements. An unusually high proportion of the stream-sediment samples contained concentrations of silver and molybdenum. Unaltered rocks of the area contain normal quantities of the common rock-forming elements. Some exposures of altered or mineralized rocks and some quartz veins contain significant quantities of gold and silver.

  11. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  12. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  13. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68[degrees] and 72[degrees] is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  14. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68{degrees} and 72{degrees} is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  16. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not equipped with radio equipment, the Navy shall signal with flashing beacon lights whether passage is prohibited and when it is safe to pass through the area. A flashing green beacon indicates that vessels may proceed through the area. A flashing red beacon means that the area is closed to all...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... not equipped with radio equipment, the Navy shall signal with flashing beacon lights whether passage is prohibited and when it is safe to pass through the area. A flashing green beacon indicates that vessels may proceed through the area. A flashing red beacon means that the area is closed to all...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not equipped with radio equipment, the Navy shall signal with flashing beacon lights whether passage is prohibited and when it is safe to pass through the area. A flashing green beacon indicates that vessels may proceed through the area. A flashing red beacon means that the area is closed to all...

  19. Seismic studies along the western shelf of Spitsbergen and the adjacent area of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (Isfjorden).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, M.; Mjelde, R.; Faleide, Y. I.

    2009-04-01

    Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago that is located in the north-western corner of the Barents Sea. The island has a long history of sedimentation, structural deformation, vertical and horizontal movements. Geological studies of Spitsbergen and surrounding areas play a key role in the understanding of the geotectonic evolution of the Arctic region. The area along the western coast of Spitsbergen is part of the mainly sheared western Barents Sea-Svalbard continental margin. This part of the margin is unique in the sense that the margin tectonics partly can be studied on exposed, virtually vegetation free, terrains located along the westernmost part of Spitsbergen. Interpretation of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired along the western shelf of Spitsbergen allowed identification of the main geological features of the area, including the Hornsund Fault Zone, and the Forlandsundet and Bellsund grabens. The Bellsund Graben represents the southward continuation of the Forlandsundet Graben initiated during the transpressional regime related to the evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt. The final phase of graben formation took place during oblique extension from early Oligocene until final breakup and opening of the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea (and the Fram Strait Gateway linking the NE Atlantic and Arctic) in Miocene time. The grabens are cut by strike-slip faults outside Isfjorden and Van Mijenfjorden, related to transfer faults evolving during breakup and opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The presence of flower-structure faults along the western major fault of the Bellsund Graben reflects transpressional and transtensional regimes during graben formation. The lowermost reflector that underlies Bellsund Graben has been interpreted as a detachment surface formed during Late Eocene?-Oligocene extension as reactivation of a thrust plane, which developed during formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust

  20. Radioactivity in environmental samples taken in the Sellafield, Ravenglass and Morecambe Bay areas of west Cumbria.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E J; Popplewell, D S; Ham, G J

    1991-06-01

    Seaborne sediments deposited in the estuaries of the Esk, Duddon, Leven and Kent have been analysed for fission products and actinides discharged in waste from the Sellafield processing works in west Cumbria, and the values compared with the generally expected values due to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Analyses of tissues from sheep grazing the marshes of these estuaries show that the internal radiation dose of the general public through eating mutton or liver from these animals would be at most a few percent of recommended limits. Analytical data are presented on the actinide content of beef cattle, and on potato crops grown under field conditions; these data show that, as with the sheep data, the radiation dose to the consumer would be small.

  1. Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention. PMID:23354139

  2. Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in a dengue-endemic area--Puerto Rico, 2007.

    PubMed

    Torres-Aponte, Jomil M; Luce, Richard R; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Beltrán, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Argüello, D Fermín; García, Enid J; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M

    2013-05-01

    In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions.

  3. Magnitude and frequency of flooding on small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, M.A.; Woodham, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected on nine small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida and a method for estimating peak discharges in the study area are described. The watersheds have mixed land use and range in size from 0.34 to 3.45 square miles. Watershed soils, land use, and storm-drainage system data are described. Urban development ranged from a sparsely populated area with open-ditch storm sewers and 19% impervious area to a completely sewered watershed with 61% impervious cover. The U.S. Geological Survey natural-basin and urban-watershed models were calibrated for the nine watersheds using 5-minute interval rainfall data from the Tampa, Florida, National Weather Service rain gage to simulate annual peak discharge for the period 1906-52. A log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis of the simulated annual maximum discharge was used to determine the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood discharges for each watershed. Flood discharges were related in a multiple-linear regression to drainage area, channel slope, detention storage area, and an urban-development factor determined by the extent of curb and gutter street drainage and storm-sewer system. The average standard error for the regional relations ranged from + or - 32 to + or - 42%. (USGS)

  4. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, Randolph County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behum, Paul T.; Hammack, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Physiographically, the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area is in the Allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus province and is situated at the eastern edge of the Appalachian coal region. Cheat Mountain, a northeast-trending ridge, is bordered on the west by the right fork of Files Creek and on the east by Shavers Fork and its tributaries. Most of the area occupies an elevated plateau capped by resistant sandstone and conglomerate. Altitudes range form 2,320 ft on Lime Kiln Run to more than 3,900 ft on Cheat Mountain. The topography ranges from relatively flat in the uplands to very steep in the canyons along tributaries of Shavers Fork. The area is heavily forested with vegetation varying from mixed hardwoods on the western slope of Cheat Mountain to thickets of conifers in the uplands. Hemlocks are sparsely interspersed and red spruce, the dominant tree at higher elevations prior to logging in the mid 1920's, is again reforesting upland areas. Rhododendron and laurel flourish in moist protected areas along drainage courses and in coves.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any time. No vessel may anchor within the restricted area or tow a drag of any kind, deploy a net or.... No vessel may anchor within the restricted area or tow a drag of any kind, deploy a net or dump any... instrumentation, anchoring is prohibited and the towing of a drag or any object within 100 feet of the bottom...

  6. Malaria Transmission Pattern in an Area Selected for Clinical Trials in the Sudanian Area of Senegal (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Touré, Aissatou; Ngom, El Hadji Malick; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    Malaria transmission pattern was studied in 3 villages (Toubanding, Daga Ndoup, and Keur Samba Guèye) situated within an area selected for clinical trials. The study was conducted in the rainy season from July to December 2011. The main objective of this work was to gather baseline data on malaria transmission intensity and other entomological parameters before the advent of clinical trials. Mosquitoes were collected by Human-Landing Collections (HLCs) and by pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs). Five anopheline species were collected, namely, An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. pharoensis, and An. rufipes, giving a heterogeneous distribution within the study area. The populations dynamics of the vectors varied temporarily in each village depending on the pattern of the rainy season. Transmission intensity estimated by the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was measured in each of the three villages with the variations linked to the microecological differences between the villages. Measurements were calculated for August, September, and October and were found to vary between 4 and 30 infected bites per person over the study period with a peak intensity observed in September. These results indicate that epidemiological field trials on malaria could be conducted in this area on the basis of the differences observed with transmission intensity, micro-ecological variations, and the objectives of the trials. PMID:23476671

  7. Phytoplankton assemblages in the CoOP-WEST coastal upwelling area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, Adria M.; Wilkerson, Frances P.; Dugdale, Richard C.; Hogue, Victoria E.

    2006-12-01

    Elevated levels of phytoplankton were observed at the Northern California coastal upwelling ecosystem studied as part of the CoOP-WEST project during monthly summer surveys in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The high concentrations of chlorophyll were made up mostly of larger cells; the phytoplankton communities that resulted were dominated by centric diatoms. The highest chlorophyll a concentrations were observed when large diatoms or small colony-forming species dominated the assemblages. In contrast, when smaller nano-flagellates and picoplankton were dominant, total chlorophyll a concentrations were over four or five-fold lower than when diatoms were prevalent, illustrating the importance of large diatoms to total phytoplankton biomass. Each year, when chlorophyll concentrations were greatest, Chaetoceros species created a Chaetoceros-dominated system. A few other genera contributed to the upwelling diatom community, mostly the centric diatoms Asterionella, Thalassiosira, Rhizosolenia (including Guinardia and Proboscia), and the pennate Nitzschia. These diatoms have been described in other coastal upwelling ecosystems, and at this study site form a functional group that are apparently well adapted to the high-nutrient, turbulent conditions that are typical of these coastal regions.

  8. Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is useful as a surface geophysical method for exploring geology and subsurface features in karst settings. Interpretation of GPR data was used to infer lithology and hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida. This study demonstrates how GPR methods can be used to investigate the hydrogeology of an area. GPR transmits radio- frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground and receives reflected energy waves from subsurface interfaces. Subsurface profiles showing sediment thickness, depth to water table and clay beds, karst development, buried objects, and lake-bottom structure were produced from GPR traverses obtained during December 1987 and March 1990 in Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Hardee Counties in west-central Florida. Performance of the GPR method is site specific, and data collected are principally affected by the sediment and pore fluids, conductances and dielectric constants. Effective exploration depths of the GPR surveys through predominately unsaturated and saturated sand and clay sediments at five study sites ranged from a few feet to greater than 50 feet below land surface. Exploration depths were limited when high conductivity clay was encountered, whereas greater exploration depths were possible in material composed of sand. Application of GPR is useful in profiling subsurface conditions, but proper interpretation depends upon the user's knowledge of the equipment and the local hydrogeological setting, as well as the ability to interpret the graphic profile.

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  10. Digital models of a glacial outwash aquifer in the Pearl-Sallie Lakes area, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.P.; McBride, Mark S.; Wolf, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    -p^e need for study of lake-ground-water interchange has been accentuated by eutrophication of lakes in the Pearl-Sallie Lakes area of west-central Minnesota. The local ground-water flow system is dominated by an outwash aquifer that is sandwiched between two till layers in the western part of the area and exposed at the land surface in the eastern part. Ground water discharges from the aquifer into lakes in the outwash area but is recharged from lakes in the till-covered area. Irregular aquifer geometry resulted in a complex ground-water flow system. Simulation of the system by areal and vertical-section models showed that the lakes significantly control groundwater flow near their boundaries. Inadequate field data and complex geology caused difficulty in obtaining solutions with the vertical-section model. The models may be used to guide collection and interpretation of field data, and quantification of the ground-water flow system. With modification, they could be used to predict aquifer response to transient stresses. They also could be incorporated into more complex models to determine the movement of solutes in the ground-water system.

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow in the High Plains aquifer, southern sandhills area, west-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, J.S.; Chen, H.H.; Goeke, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A generalized ground-water flow model was prepared for the High Plains aquifer in the southern sandhills area of west-central Nebraska. A grid of 4- by 4-mile nodes was established over the study area. Steady-state water levels were simulated using a distribution of recharge from a soil-moisture budget model and from estimates of hydraulic conductivity obtained from logs of test holes in the area. The final calibrated simulation used hydraulic- conductivity values that were 122 percent, and recharge rates that were 89 percent of the original values used in the model. Sixty-seven percent of the simulated recharge to the High Plains aquifer discharges to rivers, streams, and lakes. Discharges through ground-water evapotranspiration and from pumping wells account for 20 percent, with the wells accounting for less than 10 percent of the total discharge, and subsurface boundary outflow accounts for 13 percent. Twenty years of simulated pumping, assuming one additional well would be added to each township annually for 10 years, and two wells per township would be added each year for the succeeding 10 years, produced a maximum simulated drawdown of less than 10 feet when a uniform specific yield of 16 percent for the aquifer in the study area was assumed.

  12. The subsurface cross section resistivity using magnetotelluric method in Pelabuhan Ratu area, West Java, implication for geological hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2016-02-01

    Pelabuhan Ratu area is located on the south coast of West Java. Pelabuhan Ratu area's rapid development and population growth were partly stimulated by the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 66 the year 1998 that made Pelabuhan Ratu the capital city of the district of Sukabumi. Because of this fact, it is very important to create a geological hazard mitigation plan for the area. Pelabuhan Ratu were passed by two major faults: Cimandiri fault in the western and Citarik fault in the eastern. Cimandiri fault starts from the upstream of Cimandiri River to the southern of Sukabumi and Cianjur city. While Citarik fault starts from the Citarik River until the Salak Mountain. These two faults needs to be observed closely as they are prone to cause earthquake in the area. To mitigate earthquake that is estimated will occur at Cimandiri fault or the Citarik fault, the Research Center for Geotechnology LIPI conducted research using Magnetotelluric (MT) method with artificial Phoenix MT tool to determine the cross-section resistivity of the Pelabuhan Ratu and the surrounding area. Measurements were taken at 40 points along the highway towards Jampang to Pelabuhan Ratu, and to Bandung towards Cibadak with a distance of less than 500 meters between the measuring points. Measurement results using this tool will generate AMT cross-section resistivity to a depth of 1500 meters below the surface. Cross-section resistivity measurement results showed that there was a layer of rock with about 10 Ohm-m to 1000 Ohm-m resistivity. Rocks with resistivity of 10 Ohm-m was interpreted as conductive rocks that were loose or sandstone containing water. If an earthquake to occur in this area, it will lead to a strong movement and liquefaction that will destroy buildings and potentially cause casualties in this area.

  13. Arsenicosis and its relationship with nutritional status in two arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Alok Chandra; Kar, Sandeep; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2013-11-01

    Incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the lower Gangetic plain has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater and potential health crisis associated with exposure to groundwater As. Arsenic toxicity of local inhabitants and their nutritional status were investigated in two As affected villages (Nonaghata and Doulatpur) of West Bengal, India. Population-based case study on randomly selected subjects was used to assess chronic As exposure through medical evaluation and individual health survey. Groundwater As concentrations were found as high as 870 μg/L and 1752 μg/L in Nonaghata and Doulatpur respectively at a depth 50-100 ft. In Nonaghata, 26.7% of people (among 385 surveyed) showed dermatological manifestation and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. In both the age groups, cases of melanosis were higher (22.5% and 31.5%) compared to keratosis (15.4% and 12.5%). In Doulatpur 27.4% of people (among 440 surveyed) was found with dermatological manifestations and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. Cases of melanosis are higher (27.2% and 31.4%) compared to keratosis (10.8% and 30.7%) in these two age groups. Assessment on calories intake (mainly carbohydrate and protein) by local inhabitants showed that 67.5% and 66.8% people of these two villages belongs to poor nutrition. Assessment of odds ratios (OR) suggested that the stronger associations were with low nutrition which may increase susceptibility to arsenical skin lesions. Thus it is a matter of concern that nutritional status may be an important factor causing prevalence of As toxicity among local inhabitants.

  14. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Yin-Long; Luo, Shou-Hua; Li, Ren-Hong; Dai, Hong-Zhong

    2012-08-01

    From January 2008 to January 2009, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 5, 15, and 30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) on the soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China. As compared with the control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), simulated N deposition stimulated the activities of soil hydrolases (beta-fructofuranosidase, cellulase, acid phosphatase, and urease) significantly, but depressed the activities of soil oxidases (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase). These results suggested that the increased exogenous inorganic N could stimulate soil microbial activity and increase the demands of both B. luminifera and soil microbes for C and P, whereas the depress of soil polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities under N addition could inhibit the degradation of litter and promote its accumulation in soil, leading to the increase of soil C storage in the B. luminifera plantation ecosystem.

  15. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Yin-Long; Luo, Shou-Hua; Li, Ren-Hong; Dai, Hong-Zhong

    2012-08-01

    From January 2008 to January 2009, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 5, 15, and 30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) on the soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China. As compared with the control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), simulated N deposition stimulated the activities of soil hydrolases (beta-fructofuranosidase, cellulase, acid phosphatase, and urease) significantly, but depressed the activities of soil oxidases (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase). These results suggested that the increased exogenous inorganic N could stimulate soil microbial activity and increase the demands of both B. luminifera and soil microbes for C and P, whereas the depress of soil polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities under N addition could inhibit the degradation of litter and promote its accumulation in soil, leading to the increase of soil C storage in the B. luminifera plantation ecosystem. PMID:23189689

  16. High Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus Antibodies Among Pregnant Women Living in an Urban Area in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Anastasia; Marchi, Serena; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Perrin, Renè Xavier; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Sambri, Vittorio; Landini, Maria Paola; Varani, Stefania; Rossini, Giada

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antichikungunya virus (anti-CHIKV) antibodies in pregnant women living in an urban area of Benin (West Africa). Results were obtained by screening sera collected in 2006 and 2007 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Positive results were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test and microneutralization assay. We found that a large proportion (36.1%) of pregnant women living in Cotonou had specific IgG against CHIKV, indicating a high seroprevalence of the infection in urban southern Benin, whereas no active cases of CHIKV infection were detected. PMID:25940198

  17. Application of remote geologic analysis to gas exploration in Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Mroz, T.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system uses a unique, automated pattern-recognition approach to identify potential fracture zones (of any dip from vertical to < 40{degree}) by coplanar analysis of their geomorphic expression in digital models of topography. For its first oil and gas-related field trial, the authors applied the RGA system to the fracture characterization of Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1 in the Big Sandy gas field in southwestern West Virginia. They selected this site to blind test their technology because of the characterization data available from well drilling, gas production, and seismic surveys. The Morgantown staff used these data and performed a geologic analysis of the region coincidentally but separately from their fracture analysis to ensure that they did not introduce bias into their interpretations. Their structure and isopach maps show significant trends in the faulting and folding of the producing formations that control production volumes, which correlate well with the principal interpreted fracture sets from their results. Three fracture sets for the Big Creek, West Virginia, 1:24,000 quadrangle parallel major geologic structures that are associated with basement faulting (steep dip, northeast trend) and thrust faulting (60{degree} dip, northwest trend). These structures appear, in combination with anticlinal folding, to enhance gas production. To date, only the most prominent fracture planes from their analyses have been correlated with the large-scale structural features (basement faulting) in the study area. The next step in this field trial will be to determine if lesser planar features from their analyses correlate with the detailed structural geology and regional geomorphology of the rocks exposed at the surface.

  18. 77 FR 76451 - Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the May 30, 2012 Federal Register (77 FR 31830), GIPSA requested applications for designation to provide official services in the geographic areas presently serviced by Cal- Agri, Frankfort.... (Cal-Agri); Frankfort Grain Inspection, Inc. (Frankfort); and Virginia Department of Agriculture...

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  20. Magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area (Case study: Pasir Ipis-Lembang, West Bandung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhani, Rifat; Fitriani, Dini; Hajar Kirana, Kartika; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Sutanto, Ogi

    2016-08-01

    In this study we have analized magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area. Top soil and four soil cores from Pasir Ipis as study area were taken as samples. All samples measured by rock magnetism method, magnetic susceptibility, to describe the characteristic of the physical property of samples. Magnetic susceptibility values of top soil samples are ranging from 193 × 10-8 m3/kg to 545 × 10-8 m3/kg, whereas for soil cores the magnetic susceptibility values range from 245 × 10-8 m3/kg to 674 × 10-8 m3/kg. It implies that the soil samples are dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals. Relative difference of magnetic susceptibility values measured at two frequencies or χfd f (%) for all samples range from 2 to 10%, indicating that the samples contain a mixture of ultrafine superparamagnetic grains and non superparamagnetic grains.

  1. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, Miguel Angel

    1996-01-01

    The micrometeorological methods of energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation probably are suitable for determining evapotranspiration from unforested sites, but the aerodynamic effects of tall tree canopies need to be considered when the methods are used for forested sites. Potential evapotranspiration methods might not yield reliable estimates of evapotranspiration for all areas of native vegetation. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration ranged from 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site to 1,060 millimeters for a pine flatwood site.

  2. Analysis study of multispectral data, ERTS-A, from an area in West Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geomorphic features related to a known porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan, are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. No new prospecting sites were recognized on the basis of the images alone, but new information from the images was used in conjunction with known geology to evaluate two previously known speculative areas and to suggest one additional one. The study showed that Saindak-type deposits are less likely in some extensive areas of the Chagai District than formerly believed. The Saindak deposit is in an area of relatively soft folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The deposit is characterized by a linear zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by a resistant rim of hornfels and propylitically altered rock. Both this rim and the central sulfide-rich valley are conspicuous features on the images. Swarms of dikes are probably useful for distinguishing real rims from other resistant rock types, but there is no expression of them on the image, although they are easily seen on aerial photographs of the Saindak rim. During field mapping, patches of strong red and yellow hue related to the mineral natrojarosite were noted in the central valley. Attempts to detect a color anomaly using simple false color composites were not successful.

  3. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  4. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  5. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  6. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  7. Moho depth retrieval from waveforms of micro-earthquakes in the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubcova, P.; Vavrycuk, V.; Bouskova, A.

    2011-12-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is the area of an increased geodynamic activity manifested by numerous mineral springs and CO2 emissions located at the intersection of fault zones. The seismicity is characterized by a reoccurrence of intraplate earthquake swarms with the local magnitude mostly less than 4. Knowledge of a detailed crustal structure in this area is essential for all advanced studies of seismicity and focal parameters of the micro-earthquakes. In our study, we concentrate on the velocity model and Moho depth retrieval using waveforms of local micro-earthquakes that occurred during the 2008 swarm and were observed at the WEBNET seismic network stations. The waveforms typically display dominant direct P and S waves followed by converted and reflected waves secondarily generated at shallow and deep subsurface structure. Apart from the velocity structure and the source-receiver geometry the waveforms are significantly affected by focal mechanisms of the earthquakes Therefore, the waveforms are processed separately for clusters of earthquakes with a similar mechanism. Applying the waveform cross-correlation for the P and S waves we calculate the accurate time shifts of seismograms. The aligned seismograms are stacked to extract the Moho reflected PP and SS waves. The PP and SS arrival times are inverted for laterally varying depth of the Moho using the ray-tracing approach. The retrieved model is verified using modelling of the full waveforms calculated by the discrete wavenumber method.

  8. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  9. Selenium in soil, water, sediment, and biota of the lower Sun River area, West-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David A.; Lambing, John H.; Palawski, Donald U.

    1993-01-01

    A U.S. Department of the Interior study started in 1990 examined the source, movement, fate, and possible biological effects of selenium associated with irrigation drainage from the Sun River Irrigation Project in west-central Montana. Concentrations of total selenium in soil samples ranged from 0.1 to 8.5 micrograms per gram; the maximum concentrations were measured in nonirrigated areas overlying geologic formations containing seleniferous shale. In irrigated areas, concentrations of dissolved selenium in ground water flowing toward Freezeout Lake ranged from less than 1 to 18 micrograms per liter (??g/L) in terrace gravel and from 1 to 190 ??g/L in glacial deposits derived from seleniferous shale. Concentrations of total selenium ranged from less than 1 to 180 ??g/L in surface irrigation drainage, and from less than 1 to 1,000 ??g/L in natural flows from nonirrigated land. Selenium concentrations in water from lakes generally were less than the aquatic-life criterion for chronic toxicity. The range of selenium concentrations in bottom sediment of lakes was similar to that of local soils. However, biological samples indicate that selenium is accumulating through the aquatic food chain. Selenium concentrations indicative of biological risk were exceeded in at least 80 percent of the freshwater-invertebrate, bird-egg, and bird-liver samples collected from all wetland sites.

  10. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  11. Oil and gas developments in West Coast area in 1982. [Canada, Oregon, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dainty, N.D.; Woltz, D.

    1983-10-01

    Activity was brisk in the onshore area of California during 1982. Four hundred and seventy-five exploratory wells (41.4% successful) were drilled, including the discovery of 2 new oil and 4 new gas fields. The number of wells drilled decreased from a record 486 in 1981 to 475 in 1982; however, the total footage drilled increased from 2,711,217 ft in 1981 to 2,910,277 ft in 1982, and the average footage per well jumped sharply from 5,579 to 6,127 ft. In addition, 2,062 development wells were drilled (97.4% successfully). At various times during the year, up to 10 drilling vessels were active in state and federal waters. Four new offshore discoveries were announced by Texaco, Atlantic Richfield, Oxy, and Union. Texaco's ''Hueso'' discovery is a probable extension of the Chevron-Phillips Point Arguello field announced in October 1981. The field is believed to be a giant oil field containing over 100 million bbl of recoverable reserves. Union, Oxy, and Atlantic Richfield struck oil in the fractured Monterey Shale. Further delineation drilling will be needed to determine field reserves. California's total oil production for 1982 was 401.4 million bbl, a 4% increase from the 1981 record of 385 million bbl. Five unsuccesful wildcats were abandoned in Washington. Although there were some encouraging shows, the accumulations were deemed noncommercial. The bulk of drilling activity in Oregon centered around the Mist gas field. There were no discoveries announced for 1982. Geothermal activity in California was concentrated in The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and Coso areas. Oregon activity continued at the Newberry caldera.

  12. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in an area endemic for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Sebesta, O; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z; Juricová, Z; Rudolf, I; Sikutová, S; Svobodová, P; Reiter, P

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito collections with CDC light traps using dry ice and pigeon-baited traps were carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic) from April to October in 2007 and 2008 at two study sites. In 2007, 11 two-day captures were carried out in two-week intervals, and 1,490 female mosquitoes of nine species were caught. In 2008, 15 two-day trappings of mosquitoes were carried out: 6,778 females of 22 species of mosquitoes were trapped. The results showed marked differences in abundance and species composition of mosquitoes between both study sites and between the trapping methods. In the floodplain forest ecosystem of the Soutok study area, Aedes vexans predominated. The species composition in the Nesyt study site was more varied and the most common species was Culex pipiens. At the latter study site, Anopheles hyrcanus (var. pseudopictus) and Uranotaenia unguiculata, mosquito species with largely southern Eurasian distribution, were repeatedly demonstrated. The largest capture of mosquitoes was in traps with CO2 placed at a height 1 m above the ground. The capture of mosquitoes in the pigeon-baited traps as well as in the traps with CO2 placed in the canopy of trees was markedly lower in both study sites, with the predominant species being Culex pipiens.

  14. Treponemal infection and the outcome of pregnancy in a rural area of The Gambia, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, A M; D'Alessandro, U; Sisay, F; Greenwood, B M

    1992-10-01

    Of 826 pregnant women studied in a rural area of The Gambia, 77 (9.3%) were seropositive for a treponemal infection (positive rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination [TPHA] test). The perinatal death rate recorded prospectively in babies of 77 seropositive women (39.0/1000 births) was less than that among babies of 720 seronegative women (77.6/1000 births; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.57). No increase in mortality or morbidity was found among the children of 39 seropositive women compared with the children of 39 control women. Seropositivity was found in only 20 (1.1%) of 1872 children less than 14 years old residing in the same community. The finding that the babies of rural Gambian women seropositive for syphilis are not at risk of early death is of importance in determining the priority that should be given to establishing antenatal screening programs in The Gambia and neighboring communities. PMID:1527421

  15. Community perception of Dengue in slum areas of metropolitan city of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Anima; Gupta, Urmila Das; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Laskar, Krishna; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Sen, Sumitra

    2008-09-01

    Dengue is one of the major public health problems which can be controlled with active participation of the community. A cross sectional study was conducted in urban field practice area of Calcutta National Medical College to determine perception of general population on the disease Dengue. A total 161 individuals were interviewed regarding the different aspects of the Dengue fever. The result showed that out of total respondents, majority (68.9%) had knowledge that fever is the main symptom of the disease, though only 6.2% knew of retro-orbital pain as the pathognomic symptom of the disease. Out of total respondents 83.3% were unaware regarding modes of transmission of disease and the level of awareness is significantly higher among educated group (p < 0.05). 69.6% were unaware about the prevention of disease but there is no significant variation in relation to literacy status. Regarding awareness about vector control 60% of the respondents belonging to the lower socio economic class were unaware followed by 58.6% of the upper lower class. Only 39.1% had knowledge about breeding places of Aedes aegypti. The main source of information was found to be mass media (65%) and 7% of the respondents did not get any information about Dengue. Specific intervention measures such as Information Education Communication to be provided to the urban slum community for prevention and control of Dengue/Dengue haemorrhagic fever.

  16. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  17. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  18. Difference flow measurements under permafrost conditions in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, A. M.; Rouhiainen, P.; Pöllänen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.

    2012-12-01

    To advance the understanding of the impact of glacial processes on the long-term performance of a deep geologic repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modeling study of the Greenland ice sheet (2009-2012), was established collaboratively by the Swedish, Finnish and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations (SKB, POSIVA and NWMO, respectively). In order to study how groundwater flow and water chemistry is influenced by an existing ice sheet and continuous permafrost, a 645 m deep drillhole (DH-GAP04) was drilled, hydraulically tested using the Posiva Difference Flowmeter (PFL DIFF) method and instrumented at the ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area in July 2011. PFL DIFF allows the quick and reliable characterization of flow-yielding fractures in bedrock. PFL DIFF measures the flow rate into or out of defined drillhole sections. The advantage that follows from measuring the flow rate in isolated sections is improved detection of incremental changes of flow along the drillhole. PFL DIFF can measure flows in the range 30 - 300 000 mLh-1. In addition, the PFL DIFF probe can be used to measure the electrical conductivity of both the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, the single point resistance (SPR) of the bedrock, the water pressure profile in a drillhole and the temperature of the drillhole water. Normally, PFL DIFF measurements in a new drillhole are conducted a week after the end of drilling in order to let the groundwater state recover in the drillhole. The PFL DIFF measurements were done in DH-GAP04 already three days after the drilling was completed. This measurement was the first PFL DIFF measurement ever conducted in an area of continuous permafrost and therefore, the measurement program was carefully designed. The length of the section in the flow logging measurements was 10 m and the interval spacing was two meters. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section

  19. Availability of psychiatric medication in an urban area of The Gambia/West Africa.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes; Marenah, Essa; Moraru, Diana; Höppner, Jacqueline; Nyan, Ousman

    2011-09-01

    The use of a wide and differentiated arsenal of psychopharmacological substances is integral part of modern psychiatric treatment in addition to non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., psychotherapy). However, worldwide the access to such medication can vary considerably. In this study, access to a wide range of psychiatric medication including antidepressants, antipsychotics, tranquilisers, mood stabilisers and ADHD medication was analysed for the Western African country of The Gambia by surveying private pharmacies within the urban and sub-urban areas of Banjul, the country's capital. The results show that most of these pharmacies tend to keep a very limited range of psychiatric drugs in stock. In many instances only a tricyclic antidepressant (e.g., amitriptyline), the neuroleptic haloperidol and the benzodiazepine diazepam were readily available. None of the pharmacies kept ADHD medication in stock, and only very few had mood stabilisers. However, several pharmacies reported to be able to obtain at request most of the drugs from international sources, including atypical antipsychotics, SSRIs, and dual-acting antidepressants. Therefore, it can be concluded that in rapidly growing urban centres of developing countries exemplified by Banjul, the infrastructure for modern psychopharmacotherapy is well established, and that the lack of immediate access to modern psychopharmacological compounds represents not so much a genuine lack of availability, but rather a lack of demand which may be associated with the considerable cost-implications of such treatment and the absence of prescribers (i.e. psychiatrists and other doctors with an expertise in modern psychopharmacotherapy). To our knowledge this is the first such study for The Gambia and results might be representative for the wider Western African region. It also exemplifies the challenges psychiatry is facing in developing countries worldwide. It is essential that government-sponsored so-called "essential

  20. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  1. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  2. Late quaternary vegetation and climatic history of the Long Valley area, west-central Idaho, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doerner, J.P.; Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoenvironmental data, including pollen and sediment analyses, radiocarbon ages, and tephra identifications of a core recovered from a fen, provide a ca. 16,500 14C yr B.P. record of late Quaternary vegetation and climate change in the Long Valley area of west-central Idaho. The fen was deglaciated prior to ca. 16,500 14C yr B.P., after which the pollen rain was dominated by Artemisia, suggesting that a cold, dry climate prevailed until ca. 12,200 14C yr B.P. From ca. 12,200 to 9750 14C yr B.P. temperatures gradually increased and a cool, moist climate similar to the present prevailed. During this period a closed spruce-pine forest surrounded the fen. This cool, moist climate was briefly interrupted by a dry and/or cold interval between ca. 10,800 and 10,400 14C yr B.P. that may be related to the Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. From ca. 9750 to 3200 14C yr B.P. the regional climate was significantly warmer and drier than at present and an open pine forest dominated the area around the fen. Maximum aridity occurred after the deposition of the Mazama tephra (ca. 6730 14C yr B.P). After 3200 14C yr B.P. regional cooling brought cool, moist conditions to the area; the establishment of the modern montane forest around the fen and present-day cool and moist climate began at ca. 2000 14C yr B.P. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  3. Subsurface evaluation of the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, using two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2002-01-01

    During September 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey made 10 two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profile surveys in the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, to identify subsurface areas of anomalously high or low resistivity that could indicate potential contamination, contaminant pathways, or anthropogenic structures. Six of the 10 surveys (transects) were in the west parking lot. Each of the inverted sections of these transects had anomalously high resistivities in the terrace alluvium/fill (the surficial subsurface layer) that probably were caused by highly resistive fill material. In addition, each of these transects had anomalously low resistivities in the Walnut Formation (a bedrock layer immediately beneath the alluvium/fill) that could have been caused by saturation of fractures within the Walnut Formation. A high-resistivity anomaly in the central part of the study area probably is associated with pea gravel fill used in construction of a French drain. Another high resistivity anomaly in the west parking lot, slightly southeast of the French drain, could be caused by dense nonaqueous-phase liquid in the Walnut Formation. The inverted sections of the four transects in the landfill 3 area tended to have slightly higher resistivities in both the alluvium/fill and the Walnut Formation than the transects in the west parking lot. The higher resistivities in the alluvium/fill could have been caused by drier conditions in grassy areas relative to conditions in the west parking lot. Higher resistivities in parts of the Walnut Formation also could be a function of drier conditions or variations in the lithology of the Walnut Formation. In addition to the 10 vertical sections, four horizontal sections at 2-meteraltitude intervals show generally increasing resistivity with decreasing altitude that most likely results from the increased influence of the Walnut Formation, which has a higher resistivity than the terrace

  4. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  5. [Fine root biomass and carbon storage in surface soil of Cinnamomum camphora plantation in rainy area of West China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Liu, Yun-Ke; Su, Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Fine root in forest ecosystems plays an important role in global C cycle. In this study, a measurement was made on the fine root biomass and carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) of a 31 year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the Rainy Area of West China in November, 2010-December, 2011. The total biomass and carbon storage of the fine roots (living and dead) in the surface soil were 1592.29 kg x hm(-2) and 660.68 kg C x hm(-2), in which, living fine roots accounted for 91.1% and 91.8% respectively. The total biomass and carbon storage of the first five order living roots and dead roots decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, and the living root biomass and carbon storage increased significantly with root order. The sum of the biomass and carbon storage of living and dead fine roots was the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter, but the biomass and carbon storage of the dead fine roots were the largest in winter and the smallest in summer. The biomass and carbon storage of the first two order roots were the largest in summer and the smallest in winter, while those of the last three order roots were the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter. The spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and nutrients was the main factor affecting the fine root biomass and carbon storage.

  6. Regional hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow modeling in the arsenic-affected areas of the western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2007-11-01

    The first documented interpretation of the regional-scale hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow is presented for a ˜21,000-km2 area of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal [Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas (including Calcutta)], India. A hydrostratigraphic model demonstrates the presence of a continuous, semi-confined sand aquifer underlain by a thick clay aquitard. The aquifer thickens toward the east and south. In the south, discontinuous clay layers locally divide the near-surface aquifer into several deeper, laterally connected, confined aquifers. Eight 22-layer model scenarios of regional groundwater flow were developed based on the observed topography, seasonal conditions, and inferred hydrostratigraphy. The models suggest the existence of seasonally variable, regional, north-south flow across the basin prior to the onset of extensive pumping in the 1970s. Pumping has severely distorted the flow pattern, inducing high vertical hydraulic gradients across wide cones of depression. Pumping has also increased total recharge (including irrigational return flow), inflow from rivers, and sea water intrusion. Consequently, downward flow of arsenic contaminated shallow groundwater appears to have resulted in contamination of previously safe aquifers by a combination of mechanical mixing and changes in chemical equilibrium.

  7. [Soil enzyme activities in a Pleioblastus amurus plantation in Rainy Area of West China under simulated nitrogen deposition].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ren-hong; Dai, Hong-zhong; Luo, Shou-hua; Xiang, Yuan-bin; Huang, Li-hua

    2009-12-01

    From November 2007 to May 2009, a simulation test was conducted in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the activities of soil enzymes. Four treatments were installed, i.e., control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). Half year after N deposition, 0-20 cm soil samples were collected monthly, and the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase were determined. All test enzyme activities had apparent, seasonal variation, with the peak of cellulase, suerase, and acid phosphatase activities in spring, of urease activity in autumn, and of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in winter. Nitrogen deposition stimulated the activities of polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase, inhibited cellulase activity, but had no significant effects on peroxidase activity. The test P. amurus plantation ecosystem was N-limited, and nitrogen deposition stimulated the decomposition of soil organic matter by microbe-enzyme system.

  8. [Soil enzyme activities in a Pleioblastus amurus plantation in Rainy Area of West China under simulated nitrogen deposition].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ren-hong; Dai, Hong-zhong; Luo, Shou-hua; Xiang, Yuan-bin; Huang, Li-hua

    2009-12-01

    From November 2007 to May 2009, a simulation test was conducted in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the activities of soil enzymes. Four treatments were installed, i.e., control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). Half year after N deposition, 0-20 cm soil samples were collected monthly, and the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase were determined. All test enzyme activities had apparent, seasonal variation, with the peak of cellulase, suerase, and acid phosphatase activities in spring, of urease activity in autumn, and of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in winter. Nitrogen deposition stimulated the activities of polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase, inhibited cellulase activity, but had no significant effects on peroxidase activity. The test P. amurus plantation ecosystem was N-limited, and nitrogen deposition stimulated the decomposition of soil organic matter by microbe-enzyme system. PMID:20353060

  9. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  10. Practice of rational drug uses in a rural area of 24 pgs(s) in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Alipta; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Rational drug use is a function of prescription practices having medical, social, and economic implications. A household level cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prescribing practices and extent of rational therapy in the rural area of 24 pgs (s) South district. Following multistage stratified random sampling, 250 households were selected for the study from 24 pgs South, West Bengal, India. Medical care received by morbid persons was noted as per prescription details, wherever available. The results indicate that of the total of 485 morbid episodes, 302 were treated at some healthcare facility and prescriptions were available for 137 (45.36%) only. Injection use was seen in 9.49% of the prescriptions. In all, 29.20% prescriptions contained at least one antibiotic. This observation was more or less the same among the private and public practitioners (34%). The average number of drugs found was 3.153 per prescription. Overall 63.51% prescriptions were found to be irrational. The prescribing practices and use of drugs have been found to be truly unsatisfactory. PMID:22247872

  11. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  12. Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Alok C; Kar, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Santra, Subhas C

    2011-01-01

    The widespread incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the Bengal Delta has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater as well as accumulation in foodstuffs, as there are potential health risks associated with exposure to As from both sources. This study deals with human As exposure through the drinking of groundwater, consumption of locally grown foodstuffs (e.g., crops and vegetables) and cooked food in Nadia district, West Bengal. Groundwater and foodstuffs were collected and analyzed with FI-HG-AAS to estimate the total As content. Urine samples collected from human subjects were analyzed to assess the As exposure. Two major crops, boro and aman rice, showed a considerable amount of As, with mean values of 194 and 156 μg kg(-1), respectively. Significant levels of As were also found in other common crops and vegetables cultivated in this area (for example, the mean As in Arum and radish was 780 and 674 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total intake of As from foodstuffs by adults (560 μg day(-1)) and children (393 μg day(-1)) in the area was found to be at alarming levels. Arsenic exposure was demonstrated by the presence of As in urine (ranging between 154 and 276 μg L(-1)), with overall As retention of 50-60 %. The results of this study further indicate the potential risk of As exposure to local inhabitants through the food chain which is associated with continuous consumption of As-contaminated foodstuffs. Therefore, more action needs to be taken to control the contamination pathways (such as the water-soil-crop system) to protect humans from continuous ingestion of As through foodstuffs.

  13. Hierarchical multi-species modeling of carnivore responses to hunting, habitat and prey in a West African protected area.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Cole; Sam, Moses K; Balangtaa, Cletus; Brashares, Justin S

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of global efforts to shield wildlife from anthropogenic impacts, yet their effectiveness at protecting wide-ranging species prone to human conflict--notably mammalian carnivores--is increasingly in question. An understanding of carnivore responses to human-induced and natural changes in and around PAs is critical not only to the conservation of threatened carnivore populations, but also to the effective protection of ecosystems in which they play key functional roles. However, an important challenge to assessing carnivore communities is the often infrequent and imperfect nature of survey detections. We applied a novel hierarchical multi-species occupancy model that accounted for detectability and spatial autocorrelation to data from 224 camera trap stations (sampled between October 2006 and January 2009) in order to test hypotheses about extrinsic influences on carnivore community dynamics in a West African protected area (Mole National Park, Ghana). We developed spatially explicit indices of illegal hunting activity, law enforcement patrol effort, prey biomass, and habitat productivity across the park, and used a Bayesian model selection framework to identify predictors of site occurrence for individual species and the entire carnivore community. Contrary to our expectation, hunting pressure and edge proximity did not have consistent, negative effects on occurrence across the nine carnivore species detected. Occurrence patterns for most species were positively associated with small prey biomass, and several species had either positive or negative associations with riverine forest (but not with other habitat descriptors). Influences of sampling design on carnivore detectability were also identified and addressed within our modeling framework (e.g., road and observer effects), and the multi-species approach facilitated inference on even the rarest carnivore species in the park. Our study provides insight for the conservation

  14. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Antelope Valley-Bedell Flat area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewel, Eleanore B.; Ponce, David A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    In April 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established 211 gravity stations in the Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat area of west-central Nevada (see figure 1). The stations were located about 15 miles north of Reno, Nevada, southwest of Dogskin Mountain, and east of Petersen Mountain, concentrated in Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat (figure 2). The ranges in this area primarily consist of normal-faulted Cretaceous granitic rocks, with some volcanic and metavolcanic rocks. The purpose of the survey was to characterize the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in support of future hydrologic investigations. The information developed during this study can be used in groundwater models. Gravity data were collected between latitude 39°37.5' and 40°00' N and longitude 119°37.5' and 120°00' W. The stations were located on the Seven Lakes Mountain, Dogskin Mountain, Granite Peak, Bedell Flat, Fraser Flat, and Reno NE 7.5 minute quadrangles. All data were tied to secondary base station RENO-A located on the campus of the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR) in Reno, Nevada (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.69 mGal). The value for observed gravity was calculated by multiple ties to the base station RENO (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.65 mGal), also on the UNR campus. The isostatic gravity map (figure 3) includes additional data sets from the following sources: 202 stations from a Geological Survey digital data set (Ponce, 1997), and 126 stations from Thomas C. Carpenter (written commun., 1998).

  15. Hierarchical Multi-Species Modeling of Carnivore Responses to Hunting, Habitat and Prey in a West African Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Burton, A. Cole; Sam, Moses K.; Balangtaa, Cletus; Brashares, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of global efforts to shield wildlife from anthropogenic impacts, yet their effectiveness at protecting wide-ranging species prone to human conflict – notably mammalian carnivores – is increasingly in question. An understanding of carnivore responses to human-induced and natural changes in and around PAs is critical not only to the conservation of threatened carnivore populations, but also to the effective protection of ecosystems in which they play key functional roles. However, an important challenge to assessing carnivore communities is the often infrequent and imperfect nature of survey detections. We applied a novel hierarchical multi-species occupancy model that accounted for detectability and spatial autocorrelation to data from 224 camera trap stations (sampled between October 2006 and January 2009) in order to test hypotheses about extrinsic influences on carnivore community dynamics in a West African protected area (Mole National Park, Ghana). We developed spatially explicit indices of illegal hunting activity, law enforcement patrol effort, prey biomass, and habitat productivity across the park, and used a Bayesian model selection framework to identify predictors of site occurrence for individual species and the entire carnivore community. Contrary to our expectation, hunting pressure and edge proximity did not have consistent, negative effects on occurrence across the nine carnivore species detected. Occurrence patterns for most species were positively associated with small prey biomass, and several species had either positive or negative associations with riverine forest (but not with other habitat descriptors). Influences of sampling design on carnivore detectability were also identified and addressed within our modeling framework (e.g., road and observer effects), and the multi-species approach facilitated inference on even the rarest carnivore species in the park. Our study provides insight for the

  16. Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Alok C; Kar, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Santra, Subhas C

    2011-01-01

    The widespread incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the Bengal Delta has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater as well as accumulation in foodstuffs, as there are potential health risks associated with exposure to As from both sources. This study deals with human As exposure through the drinking of groundwater, consumption of locally grown foodstuffs (e.g., crops and vegetables) and cooked food in Nadia district, West Bengal. Groundwater and foodstuffs were collected and analyzed with FI-HG-AAS to estimate the total As content. Urine samples collected from human subjects were analyzed to assess the As exposure. Two major crops, boro and aman rice, showed a considerable amount of As, with mean values of 194 and 156 μg kg(-1), respectively. Significant levels of As were also found in other common crops and vegetables cultivated in this area (for example, the mean As in Arum and radish was 780 and 674 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total intake of As from foodstuffs by adults (560 μg day(-1)) and children (393 μg day(-1)) in the area was found to be at alarming levels. Arsenic exposure was demonstrated by the presence of As in urine (ranging between 154 and 276 μg L(-1)), with overall As retention of 50-60 %. The results of this study further indicate the potential risk of As exposure to local inhabitants through the food chain which is associated with continuous consumption of As-contaminated foodstuffs. Therefore, more action needs to be taken to control the contamination pathways (such as the water-soil-crop system) to protect humans from continuous ingestion of As through foodstuffs. PMID:21879858

  17. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Several possible causes for the east-west striping of the MAGSAT anomaly maps are listed and discussed including: (1) the inadequacy of the field model used for core-crustal separation of geomagnetic anomalies; (2) external field noise remaining in the available maps; (3) east-west trends of crustal uplift and depression; (4) east-west trends to convection patterns in the mantle; (5) bands of crustal materials of similar metamorphic grade; (6) variations in the depth of the Curie isotherm; and (7) the data processing techniques used to overcome the absence of tie lines and orbital path of MAGSAT.

  18. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  19. Impacts of ground water over exploitation on agricultural development and environment using RS & GIS case study (Garabolli area North west of Libya )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shbeli, E.

    Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in nort-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S AND GIS. This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity . Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  20. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... southwest, west and northwest of Key West bounded as follows: Beginning at latitude 25°45′00″, longitude 82°07′00″; thence southeast to latitude 24°49′00″, longitude 81°55′00″; thence southwest to latitude 24°37′30″, longitude 82°00′30″; thence westerly to latitude 24°37′30″, longitude 82°06′00″;...

  1. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  2. Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies) are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers) and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after the incentive intervention

  3. [Response of fine root decomposition to simulated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, rainy area of West China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-Hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    As an important contributor to carbon (C) flux in the global C cycle, fine root litter decomposition in forests has the potential to be affected by the elevated nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. From November 2007 to January 2013, a field experiment involving monthly simulated deposition of N in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four levels of nitrogen deposition were included as control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). After 3 years of simulated N deposition experiment (January 2011) , a two-year fine root decomposition experiment was conducted in the simulated N deposition plots using litterbag method, under monthly experimental N deposition. The decomposition rates of fine roots were fast first and then slow. Mass loss of fine roots in the first year of decomposition was up to 60%, and the change of the remaining mass was very slow in the second year. The time of 50% and 95% mass loss of fine roots was 1.20 and 5.17 years, respectively, under the conditions of no addition N input. In general, decomposition rates were underestimated using negative exponential model. Simulated N deposition significantly inhibited the decomposition of fine roots. The remaining mass in the high nitrogen treatment was 51.0% higher than that in the control, after two years of decomposition. Simulated N deposition increased C, P and K contents in the remaining mass of litter. Compared with the control, soil pH decreased significantly in the medium and high nitrogen treatments, soil organic C, total N, ammonium and nitrate contents and fine root biomass of P. amarus increased significantly in the high nitrogen treatment after simulated N deposition for 4. 5 years. Key words: nitrogen deposition; fine root decomposition; Pleioblastus amarus.

  4. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  5. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  6. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  7. Detection of shallow crustal discontinuities from high frequency waveforms of swarm earthquakes in West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Vavryčuk, Václav; Boušková, Alena

    2015-04-01

    The western part of the Bohemian Massif, the West Bohemia/Vogtland region, is the area of the increased geodynamic activity manifested by repeated occurrence of intraplate earthquake swarms and fluid degassing. To understand geodynamic processes, knowledge of a detailed crustal structure is essential for all advanced studies of seismicity and focal parameters of the micro-earthquake swarms that occur in this region. The crustal structure is usually inferred from active seismic investigations, i.e., reflection and refraction seismic imaging. Passive seismic investigation focused on swarm microearthquakes has an advantage over the active exploration. The microseismic investigation typically handles large amount of data ideal for stacking, foci are usually far from the shallowest structure so waveforms are rather simple, and data acquisition is not expensive. The standard microseismic monitoring of swarms is prevalently used for retrieving information on seismic source parameters, such as magnitude, location, seismic moment, and moment tensors. However, high-frequency seismic waves generated by local sources are sensitive to sharp changes in velocities or density and the structure can be determined from reflected and converted phases secondarily originating at deep and shallow subsurface layers. In our study we concentrate on the velocity distribution in the upper crust. The upper crustal structure is studied from waveforms of local microearthquakes that occurred during the 2008 swarm in West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region. They were recorded by the WEBNET network consisting of 22 three-component seismic stations. We focus on high-frequency PS and SP converted waves generated at shallow interfaces at depths between 2 and 5 km. Apart from velocity contrast at the interfaces, the amplitudes of converted waves are significantly affected by source-receiver geometry and focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. This observation complicates the analysis, being absent in

  8. 78 FR 54394 - Determination of Attainment for the West Central Pinal Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Action On July 12, 2013 (78 FR 41901), EPA proposed to determine that the West Central Pinal... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  9. Serum Levels of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Women Living in a Highly Industrialized Area of West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like constituents with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KV) of West Virginia have been well documented. This study evaluated the impact of potentially high background dioxin exposure to body burdens i...

  10. Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the basin and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, West-Central Nevada, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in west-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.

  11. Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in north-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shbeli, E.

    2003-04-01

    This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity. Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  13. Comparing the Areas of Interest in the Field of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder and Neurogastroenterology and Motility Between the East and the West

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yup; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Gi Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that compare the differences in published articles submitted from the East and the West in the area of neurogastroenterology and motility (NM). To compare the article topics from the East and the West which have been published, 5 Western (Gastroenterology, Gut, American Journal of Gastroenterology, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, and Neurogastroenterology and Motility) and 3 Eastern gastrointestinal journals (Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility) were selected based on the impact factor. Published papers were classified into 12 categories and 60 subcategories. The titles and abstracts of review articles, original articles, and meta-analyses from these journals were reviewed for the last 2 years (2013–2014). In case of Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility which is published quarterly, this search was performed for 5 years (2010–2014). Of the total 2656 reviewed articles, 842 (260 from the East and 582 from the West) were classified into the category of NM. The most frequently published papers from the Western researchers were categorized as brain-gut interaction, visceral hypersensitivity, and irritable bowel syndrome, whereas those from the Eastern researchers were categorized as gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. This difference between the East and the West is not just due to the journal itself, but it also depends on the author’s affiliation and their ability to perform high quality research in the area of the NM. These data provide evidence for the research trend and give valuable information to the researchers for determining subjects for the study and for selecting proper journals for publishing their studies. PMID:26351091

  14. Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-12-30

    This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) currently is preparing a plan identifying locations for groundwater extraction wells, injection wells, transfer stations, and one or more treatment facilities to address contaminants of concern identified in the 200-ZP-1 CERCLA Record of Decision. To accomplish this, a current understanding of the inventory of CTET is needed throughout the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) previously developed an estimate of the CTET inventory in the area using a Monte Carlo approach based on geostatistical simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of CTET and chloroform in the aquifer. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) (the previous site contractor) requested PNNL to update that inventory estimate using as input a set of geostatistical realizations of CTET and chloroform recently created for a related but separate project, referred to as the mapping project. The scope of work for the inventory revision complemented the scope of work for the mapping project, performed for FH by PNNL. This report briefly describes the spatial and univariate distribution of the CTET and chloroform data, along with the results of the geostatistical analysis and simulation performed for the mapping project.

  15. Radioactivity in environmental samples taken in the Sellafield and Ravenglass areas of West Cumbria, 1977-1982.

    PubMed

    Bradford, W R; Curtis, E J; Popplewell, D S

    1984-05-01

    Terrestrial foodstuffs and other materials of agricultural importance have been analyzed for fission products and actinides discharged in waste from the Sellafield processing works in west Cumbria . Results obtained between 1977 and 1982 are summarized and it is concluded that the internal radiation exposure of the general public due to consumption of locally produced food in no instance amounts to more than a small fraction of recommended limits. Deposition of seaborne sediment is shown to be the main route by which radionuclides of Sellafield origin reach grazing land bordering a nearby tidal estuary.

  16. A taxa summary for the Simulium damnosum complex, with special reference to distribution outside the control areas of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Crosskey, R W

    1987-04-01

    A synoptic list is provided of currently recognized taxa in the Simulium damnosum complex, with an indication of their geographical distributions. Outline maps are given for the distribution of S. damnosum sensu lato, and for the West African cytospecies of the complex. Short reports on the identities and distributions of member taxa are given for countries other than those of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin (OCP) and its Senegambia Extension; these are mainly based on collation of published and unpublished data for the post-1976 period (since the last WHO Expert Committee Report on Onchocerciasis). PMID:3689026

  17. A taxa summary for the Simulium damnosum complex, with special reference to distribution outside the control areas of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Crosskey, R W

    1987-04-01

    A synoptic list is provided of currently recognized taxa in the Simulium damnosum complex, with an indication of their geographical distributions. Outline maps are given for the distribution of S. damnosum sensu lato, and for the West African cytospecies of the complex. Short reports on the identities and distributions of member taxa are given for countries other than those of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin (OCP) and its Senegambia Extension; these are mainly based on collation of published and unpublished data for the post-1976 period (since the last WHO Expert Committee Report on Onchocerciasis).

  18. Ground-Water Quality in Unmined Areas and Near Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines in the Northern and Central Appalachian Coal Regions, Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Findings are presented from investigations during 1996-1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Ground-water quality in 58 wells downgradient of reclaimed surface coal mines is compared to ground-water quality from 25 wells in unmined areas (background concentrations) in the bituminous coal fields of the northern Appalachian coal region (high-sulfur coal region) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia and the central Appalachian coal region (low-sulfur coal region) in West Virginia. Ground water in the mined high-sulfur coal region has significantly greater median concentrations of sulfate, hardness, calcium, and specific conductance compared to the unmined high-sulfur coal region and to both mined and unmined areas in the low-sulfur coal region. Ground water in mined areas had median values of mine-drainage constituents (sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, hardness, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, and specific conductance) that were significantly greater than medians for wells in unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents include cations such as calcium and magnesium that become elevated compared to levels in unmined areas because of exposure of acidic mine drainage to calcareous materials. The transport of pyrite-oxidation products from the mined site and subsequent neutralization reactions by calcareous materials at the mine site or along the flow path are likely processes that result in greater concentrations of mine-drainage constituents in mined areas compared to unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents generally exceeded unmined-area background concentrations within about 500 feet of mined sites but were at or below background levels in wells more than 1,000 feet downgradient of mined sites. Concentrations of sulfate, hardness, and total dissolved solids were greatest at well depths of 50 to 150 feet but generally were less than background concentrations in wells deeper than 150 feet. Concentrations of iron, manganese

  19. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    PubMed Central

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:26140675

  20. Spatiotemporal characterization of interswarm period seismicity in the focal area Nový Kostel (West Bohemia/Vogtland) by a short-term microseismic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häge, Martin; Joswig, Manfred

    2009-11-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is one of the seismically most interesting areas in Europe because of its swarm-like occurrence of seismicity. The installation of the local West Bohemian seismological network (WEBNET) has made the recording of small magnitude seismicity (detection threshold ML ~ -0.5) possible. We investigated if microseismicity exists below the detection threshold of WEBNET. A microseismic field campaign was carried out in the focal area Nový Kostel. The measurement was performed with three small arrays lasting for 6 d in a seismically quiet, interswarm period. We were able to detect and locate 13 microearthquakes in the magnitude range -1.5 <= ML <= -0.1 and achieved a detection threshold about one magnitude lower than the local network. A relative location suggests that the recorded seismicity is rather related to a specific fault segment than randomly distributed. The determined fault zone is aligned NW-SW and confirms the viability of mapping active faults with short-term measurements. The results demonstrate that a linear extrapolation of the b-value, determined by the network bulletin, down to ML = -0.5 fits well with the amount of our recorded events.

  1. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province.

    PubMed

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated.

  2. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    There is lack of acceptance of quantitative crustal models by specialists on regional geology because of the problem of east-west banding on MAGSAT anomaly maps. The possibility of some of the Earth's magnetic field being created in the mantle below the Curie isotherm is discussed as well as the need to remove spherical harmonics of degrees less than 15 from the anomaly map. Two dimensional models were produced for northern South America that might be considered as working models. These models suggest that the presumed Amazon River depression is better developed near Belem and in the upper Amazon basin than in the central Amazon basin. An attempt is proposed for separating the core field from the crustal field using a flat-Earth model.

  3. Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

  4. An Allocation of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources to Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Milici, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River in West Virginia. Using the results of an assessment of undiscovered resources from ten assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas, 1.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 45 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to part of Gauley River National Recreation Area, and 39 billion cubic feet of gas, 24 thousand barrels of oil, and 644 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to New River Gorge National River. These allocated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in undiscovered fields.

  5. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the Black Belt area of west-central Alabama, and estimated water use for aquaculture, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, R.E.; Lambeth, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial production of catfish in west-central Alabama began about 1970, and by 1991 catfish ponds covered about 16,000 acres in the Black Belt area of the State. The rapid increase in catfish farming or aquaculture and the associated demand for ground water led the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies in 1990 to initiate a study to better define the ground-water resources in the Black Belt area. The major aquifers in the study area are sand and gravel beds in the Eutaw, Gordo, and Coker Formations. Recharge to these aquifers occurs primarily in areas where those formations crop out. The average recharge to the major aquifers in the study area, as estimated from baseflow analysis of streams in the outcrop area, is 11.4 inches per year. Water from the major aquifers in the study area generally is of good quality and suitable for most uses. Water from the Eutaw aquifer, however, contains chloride in concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter in central Greene County and in downdip areas in Marengo and Wilcox Counties and is not suitable for public water supply. Some ground water with elevated chloride concentrations is used for catfish farming in these areas, however. The total estimated water use for aquaculture in the study area in 1990 was 21.83 million gallons per day, 16.08 million gallons per day from ground-water sources, and 5.75 million per day from surface water sources. About 13.54 million gallons per day of water was used for filling catfish ponds and an additional 8.29 million gallons per day was used to replace evaporation losses.

  6. A Comprehensive Approach for Modelling Elephant Habitat within the Network of Protected Areas Oti-Keran-Mandouri in Togo (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo-Akpisso, A.; Coulibaly, M.; Soulemane, O.; Wala, K.; Tano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The network of protected areas Oti-Keran-Mandouri (OKM) is part of one of the most important ecogeographical region for the African savannah elephant conservation in West Africa. However, OKM is under high anthropogenic pressure but it is still considered as a first priority corridor for elephant migration. Therefore a comprehensive suitability model was developed in a GIS environment to identify remaining suitable patch of habitat. Considering the ecology of the African Savannah elephant, criteria such as pound thickness, distance to rivers, distance to roads, distance to settlements, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were standardized using appropriate fuzzy membership functions and sum overlaid. A set of elephant occurrence data from park managers and from casual sighting was used as test data. About 29.01 % of the area of OKM was classified as suitable habitat whereas 60.84 % and 10.14% were respectively considered as somewhat and less suitable habitats. About 36.5% of the occurrence data felt in the suitable area while 62.16% in the somewhat suitable area. Forest lands were the main contributor to the suitable habitat whereas others land cover types (savannahs, wetlands and croplands) contributed mostly to the somewhat suitable habitat (60.97% to 63.43%). The Habitat Unit Index (HUI) for suitable habitat shows that forests are the most preferred vegetation type (0.49) followed by wetlands (0.32) and savannah (0.31). Despite the high anthropogenic pressure on OKM, there are still potential suitable patches of elephant habitat. Improvement of management and restauration activities could enable OKM to play a key role in biodiversity conservation in West Africa by allowing the seasonal migration of elephants. This study gives an insight on the availability of suitable habitat within OKM, however, further investigation is needed to refine the model and to assess habitat fragmentation.

  7. Abundance and Diversity of Mosquito Species Collected From a Rural Area of Central Mississippi: Implications for West Nile Virus Transmission in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Varnado, Wendy; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    To determine abundance and seasonality of potential West Nile virus (WNV) mosquito vectors in a forested area of central Mississippi, mosquitoes were collected weekly from a wildlife management area located approximately 10 mi from a local urban area known to have numerous human WNV cases. We were particularly interested in the presence or absence of Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vector of WNV in Mississippi, although other Culex species were assayed. Two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps baited with CO2 were set once a week from 2005 through 2006 in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area (PRWMA), which consists of 6,925 acres primarily composed of bottomland hardwood forest with wetland areas. Traps were placed midafternoon and picked up the following morning. A total of 199,222 mosquitoes were collected during the 2-year study. No Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected throughout the entire study, although other health department surveys have indicated they are abundant just a few miles away. As for other potential WNV vectors, 1,325 (0.6%) Cx. nigripalpus, 1,804 (0.9%) Cx. restuans, and 6,076 (3.1%) Cx. salinarius were collected in the PRWMA over the 2-year period. These data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus is not usually found in remote forested environments, but is more associated with human habitation. PMID:26181696

  8. The impact of handpump corrosion on water quality in rural areas of West African sub-region.

    PubMed

    Ibe, K M; Egereonu, U U; Sowa, A H O

    2002-08-01

    Water, even in its natural environment, contains some level of impurities. Water is nearly a universal solvent. It contains dissolved solids and gases, and hosts a number of micro-organisms. The exploitation of groundwater by means of boreholes for supplying small user groups and rural communities with water has been widely applied in certain parts of the world for several decades. In recent years this practice has spread all over the globe, and hundred of thousands of boreholes have been drilled to tap low-yield aquifers. It is evident that such boreholes require pumps for lifting the water. In developing countries these are usually handpumps, but solar as well as other systems with submersible pumps are also used, depending upon the energy sources available and the financial means of the beneficiaries. This article gives a general overview of groundwater quality with regard to its physico-chemical composition. The results presented originate from the experience gained from handpump equipped boreholes within the UNICEF through German Centre for Technical Education Transfer executed inter-regional UNDP-Handpumps Project in West African Regions. Particular attention is paid to presenting corrosion on the water quality of wells in terms of iron concentration and other parameters. Furthermore, the corrosion attack on galvanised iron, the effect of biofilms on the corrosion rate, and the difference between internal and external corrosion of rising mains are shown. PMID:12197639

  9. Magnetostratigraphy susceptibility for the Guadalupian Series GSSPs (Middle Permian) in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Lambert, Lance L.; Tomkin, Jonathan H.; Bell, Gordon L.; Nestell, Galina P.

    2012-01-01

    Here we establish a magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Middle Permian Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) that have recently been defined, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, West Texas, USA. These GSSPs, all within the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, define (1) the base of the Roadian Stage (base of the Guadalupian Series), (2) the base of the Wordian Stage and (3) the base of the Capitanian Stage. Data from two additional stratigraphic successions in the region, equivalent in age to the Kungurian–Roadian and Wordian–Capitanian boundary intervals, are also reported. Based on low-field, mass specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements of 706 closely spaced samples from these stratigraphic sections and time-series analysis of one of these sections, we (1) define the magnetostratigraphy susceptibility zonation for the three Guadalupian Series Global boundary Stratotype Sections and Points; (2) demonstrate that χ datasets provide a proxy for climate cyclicity; (3) give quantitative estimates of the time it took for some of these sediments to accumulate; (4) give the rates at which sediments were accumulated; (5) allow more precise correlation to equivalent sections in the region; (6) identify anomalous stratigraphic horizons; and (7) give estimates for timing and duration of geological events within sections.

  10. Investigation of the presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the North Wales and West Midlands areas of the UK in 2007 to 2008 using scanning surveillance.

    PubMed

    Snow, L C; Wearing, H; Stephenson, B; Teale, C J; Coldham, N G

    2011-12-17

    Between November 5, 2007 and November 4, 2008, faecal samples from cattle and sheep submitted for diagnostic purposes to the Aberystwyth and Shrewsbury Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) (now AHVLA) regional laboratories (covering North Wales and the West Midlands) were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli that produces CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) using the selective medium CHROMagar CTX. Samples from 113 farms were tested and eight ESBL-positive farms identified. Of these, six farms were identified via submissions of cattle faeces and two from sheep. Gene sequencing revealed both group 1 and group 9 CTX-M enzymes corresponding to CTX-M-14, CTX-M-14B (group 9) and CTX-M-15/28 (group 1). Analysis of these isolates by nanoarray revealed that some were carrying a range of virulence genes including ireA, iroN and prfB, which have been associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E coli, and were multidrug resistant. Geographical analysis with choropleth maps suggested that these CTX-M genes are relatively widespread in the North Wales and West Midlands study area. This work was carried out concurrently with the running of a VLA ESBL surveillance system, which has subsequently identified many more CTX-M positive farms in the UK. PMID:22021063

  11. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, D; Swan, G E; Botha, C J

    2001-12-01

    Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84% of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64%) or in mixtures (36%) for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage form was a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine. PMID:12219913

  12. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  13. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  14. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  15. Flow origin, drainage area, and hydrologic characteristics for headwater streams in the mountaintop coal-mining region of Southern West Virginia, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paybins, Katherine S.

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics of perennial and intermittent headwater streams were documented in the mountaintop removal coal-mining region of southern West Virginia in 2000?01. The perennial-flow origin points were identified in autumn during low base-flow conditions. The intermittent-flow origin points were identified in late winter and early spring during high base-flow conditions. Results of this investigation indicate that the median drainage area upstream of the origin of intermittent flow was 14.5 acres, and varied by an absolute median of 3.4 acres between the late winter measurements of 2000 and early spring measurements of 2001. Median drainage area in the northeastern part of the study unit was generally larger (20.4 acres), with a lower median basin slope (322 feet per mile) than the southwestern part of the study unit (12.9 acres and 465 feet per mile, respectively). Both of the seasons preceding the annual intermittent flow visits were much drier than normal. The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection reports that the median size of permitted valley fills in southern West Virginia is 12.0 acres, which is comparable to the median drainage area upstream of the ephemeralintermittent flow point (14.5 acres). The maximum size of permitted fills (480 acres), however, is more than 10 times the observed maximum drainage area upstream of the ephemeral-intermittent flow point (45.3 acres), although a single valley fill may cover more than one drainage area. The median drainage area upstream of the origin of perennial flow was 40.8 acres, and varied by an absolute median of 18.0 acres between two annual autumn measurements. Only basins underlain with mostly sandstone bedrock produced perennial flow. Perennial points in the northeast part of the study unit had a larger median drainage area (70.0 acres) and a smaller median basin slope (416 feet per mile) than perennial points in the southwest part of the study unit (35.5 acres and 567 feet per mile, respectively

  16. Tectonic stratigraphy near a metamorphic core complex: Lessons from the Castaneda-signal area of west-central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, I. ); Suneson, N.H. )

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of latest Oligocene through Quaternary sedimentary and volcanic rocks, when analyzed tectonically and combined with lithologically distinctive source terranes, clarifies the character and timing of Neogene extension just north of the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex (BRMCC) in west-central Arizona. The oldest strata (basal arkose of Lucchitta and Suneson) reflect regional stability and a southwesterly paleoslope. In latest Oligocene time, this drainage was ponded by an upwarp (now exposed as the BRMCC) rising to the southwest. The resulting lake beds contain a thin 26.6 MA airfall tuff that marks the beginning of volcanic activity in the region. A widespread breccia records the progressive unroofing of the still-rising CC. Mantle-driven crustal heating probably caused the upwarp and allowed the eruption of voluminous mantle-derived basalt and basaltic andesite about 19 MA (early basalts, Artillery Basalt). The overlying syntectonic conglomerate (arkose of Keenan Camp) was deposited during a period of extreme extension, low-angle detachment faulting, and block rotation, typical of highly extended terranes. The conglomerate is interlayered with widespread silicic volcanic rocks (15--10 MA) derived from the lower crust and large gravity-glide sheets lithologically identical to the breccia and similarly derived from the CC to the south. Unconformably overlying the conglomerate are locally derived fanglomerate and 13--8.5 MA (mesa-forming) basalt that accumulated in present-day basins of classic basin-range type. Untilted and nearly unfaulted 7.7--5.4 MA mantle-derived megacryst-bearing basalt marks the cessation of tectonic activity.

  17. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  18. The Outpatient Provision of Care for Mental Disorders in a Rural Area: An Analysis of Reimbursement Claims in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania*

    PubMed Central

    Hannöver, Wolfgang; Späte, Nora; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders cause a substantial amount of the burden of disease. Although they are less frequent in rural areas, their provision of care is disproportionately lower. Reimbursement claims in the federal state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania of the years 2006/2007 serve as the basis for the descriptive distribution of subgroups on the total number of mental disorders and their outpatient care. Of all claims, 35.3% were allotted to neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, 24.2% to affective disorders and 12.5% to substance use disorders. Claims for reimbursement were made for 44.7% by general practitioners, 15.1% by neurologists and psychiatrists, 12.6% by gynaecologists, and 8.1% by internists. Psychotherapists claimed 3.1%. These results cause considerations regarding the establishment of psychotherapeutic and neurological / psychiatric practices as well as the significance of mental disorders in the training of general practitioners. PMID:25648344

  19. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  20. Geohydrology and model analysis for water-supply management in a small area of west-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunlap, L.E.; Kume, Jack; Thomas, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The saturated thickness of the Ogallala aquifer in an intensive-study area (12-square miles in northeastern Wichita County) has decreased substantially since the development of irrigation. Water levels have declined 1.08 to 2.22 feet per year during 1950-78. In 1977, saturated thickness in the area ranged from 40 to 80 feet, aquifer storage was about 61,000 acre-feet, and natural recharge was estimated to be 0.28 inches per year. During 1977-78, irrigation wells pumped 7,400 acre-feet per year and water-level declines ranged from 0.91 to 5.05 feet. A groundwater flow model was used to project the changes in water level from 1978 to 1988 in the intensive-study area if pumpage in the model area was (1) one-half, (2) equal to , or (3) double the 1977 rate. Water-level declines would range from 5 to 15 feet, 15 to 30 feet, and 25 to 40 feet, respectively. If pumpage in the intensive study area is changed to one-half or double the 1977 rate, water-level declines would range from 10 to 20 feet or 20 to 25 feet, respectively. (USGS)

  1. The impact of macroalgal blooms on the use of the intertidal area and feeding behaviour of waders (Charadrii) in the Mondego estuary (west Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João Alexandre; Pardal, Miguel Â.; Lopes, Ricardo J.; Múrias, Tiago; Marques, João Carlos

    1999-07-01

    The present paper examined the possible impact of macroalgal blooms, among other influential factors, on prey abundance and availability to waders, assessing the consequences for feeding behaviour and for the specific patterns of use of the intertidal areas by these birds when macroalgal mats become dense and contiguous covering large areas of the Mondego estuary (west Portugal). Three representative microhabitats were chosen in intertidal flats to control and evaluate the effects of various factors on waders. This study shows that foraging waders did not seem to be indifferent to the effects of some biological factors, sediment characteristics and epistructures when selecting feeding microhabitats. Overall, the results suggest that the predominant and constant negative effects on specific patterns of use of the intertidal sub-areas by the majority of waders were determined by two main factors: gull perturbation and macroalgal biomass. The macroalgal blooms assumed, by their persistence over a period of several months, a different magnitude of effect when compared with sporadic factors such as gull presence. Contrary to the effects on distribution, macroalgal blooms do not influence negatively the feeding behaviour parameters considered. Moreover, we were unable to prove that the presence of macroalgae on the sediment was pernicious to the wader prey organisms, perhaps because the total amount of the area of the estuary affected by weed during the study period never exceeded 36 % and was surrounded by important algal-free areas that ensured a healthy prey population. Nevertheless, on the long-term, an increase of dense and contiguous macroalgal mats due to the progressive eutrophication of the Mondego estuary, covering large areas of the intertidal flats, may affect directly or indirectly all wader species.

  2. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  3. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  4. 78 FR 43854 - Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Annapolis, MD; and West Lafayette, IN Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ..., 2012 Federal Register Notice (77 FR 65855), GIPSA requested applications for designation to provide... Indianapolis, IN. geographic area. In the January 15, 2013 Federal Register Notice (78 FR 2950), GIPSA... (77 FR 76454), GIPSA requested applications for designation to provide official services in...

  5. The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.

    PubMed

    Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

    1978-12-01

    A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta. PMID:741507

  6. The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.

    PubMed

    Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

    1978-12-01

    A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta.

  7. The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

    Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

  8. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved...

  9. Malaria transmission in a rice-irrigation area in Mali, West Africa: Review of past work and new findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touré, M. B.; Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Traoré, S.; Taylor, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "Office du Niger" in the Niono District of Mali oversees irrigation from a dam on the Niger River -- the largest irrigation project in Mali. The facility was first built in 1932, and now irrigates more than 55,000 hectares for rice. A large reservoir in the center of the area provides water throughout the year through a water-control system. This water-control system enables a double cropping of rice. Nearly all residents located near the irrigated areas practice rice cultivation from that irrigation during the rainy season: some of them double crop. It has been well- established that malaria transmission occurs throughout the year in the irrigated area with two peaks --- one peak in the rainy season and the second peak corresponding to irrigated cultivation that occurs in the dry season due to double cropping. The Niono area has been the subject of several intensive studies during past years. Among the findings has been that the irrigated villages experience very large numbers of mosquitoes (often in excess of 550 bites per person per night), and neighboring non-irrigated villages experience far fewer bites (ca 70 bites per person per night). Paradoxically, the rates of malaria are very much lower in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated ones, in spite of the numbers of mosquitoes. We have been studying villages around Niono for the past 10 years, with the hope of understanding what is responsible for the level of malaria transmission and learning how that understanding can be used to control malaria elsewhere. Our work has involved remote sensing, GIS mapping, and collections and modeling of both adult and immature mosquitoes. Recently we have been conducting social surveys as well. In this talk we review our past work and present new results about spatial patterns of vector behavior within villages situated within the irrigated areas.

  10. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  11. Morbidity Among Tribal Under-Five Children of Tea Garden Areas in a Block of Darjeeling District, West Bengal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishore, Kaushik; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background In the developing world, more than half of infant and childhood mortality is related to childhood diseases particularly- acute respiratory infections (ARI) and diarrhoea. The situation is worse among underprivileged population such as tribals and people living in tea garden areas. Aim To identify the morbidity pattern and the associated factors among tribal, under five, children living in tea garden areas of Darjeeling district. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three randomly chosen tea garden areas of a block in Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India from September 2013-February 2014. The collected data was analysed using SPSS software and binary logistic regression was applied to test association between morbidity and other epidemiological correlates. Results Morbidity was noted among 74 out of 192 children studied. Major causes of morbidity were- diarrhoea (26%), acute respiratory infections (24.5%) and fever (16.7%). Proportion of underweight children according to their age was 64.4%. Morbidity status was found statistically significant with some factors, like- religion, socio-economic status, immunization status and number of siblings. Conclusion There is high prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI associated morbidity in this part of the country. PMID:26468469

  12. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  13. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p < 0.001, LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  14. Hydrogeologic Factors Affecting Base-Flow Yields in the Jefferson County Area, West Virginia, October-November 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, Ronald D.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Base-flow yields at approximately the annual 75-percent-duration flow were determined for watersheds in the Jefferson County area, WV, from stream-discharge measurements made during October 31 to November 2, 2007. Five discharge measurements of Opequon Creek defined increased flow from 29,000,000 gallons per day (gal/d) at Carters Ford to 51,400,000 gal/d near Vanville. No flow was observed at 45 of 110 additional stream sites inspected, and discharge at the 65 flowing stream sites ranged from 1,940 to 17,100,000 gallons per day (gal/d). Discharge at 28 springs ranged from no flow to 2,430,000 gal/d. Base-flow yields were computed as the change in stream-channel discharge between measurement sites divided by the change in drainage area between the sites. Yields were negative for losing (influent) channel reaches and positive for gaining (effluent) reaches. Channels in 14 watersheds were determined to have lost flow ranging from -9.6 to -1,770 gallons per day per acre (gal/d/acre). Channels in 51 watersheds were determined to have gained flow ranging from 3.4 to 235,000 gal/d/acre. Water temperature at the stream sites ranged from 5.0 to 16.3 deg C (quarry pumpage), and specific conductance ranged from 51 to 881 microsiemens per centimeter (uS/cm). Water temperature at the springs ranged from 11.5 to 15.0 deg C, and specific conductance ranged from 22 to 958 uS/cm. Large springs in some watersheds in western Jefferson County are adjacent to other watersheds with little or no surface-water discharge; this is probably the result of interbasin transfer of groundwater along faults that dissect the area. Most watersheds located adjacent to the Potomac River in northeastern Jefferson County were not flowing during this study; this is most likely because the Potomac River is deeply incised, and groundwater flows directly to it rather than to the local stream systems in these areas. Except for one watershed with a yield of 651 gal/d/acre, no watersheds in northeastern

  15. BIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF THE VEGETATION REMOVAL ON 218-W-6, 200 West Area, ECR No.2002-200-031

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2003-06-26

    Vegetation will be mechanically removed from the 218-W-6 Low Level Burial Ground (LLBG). The 218-W-6 LLBG consists of shrub-steppe and herbaceous habitats. The Western meadowlark, killdeer, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike could nest in the project area, based on known nesting preferences. We recommend that vegetation removal on 218-W-6 occur outside the nesting season (i.e., August 1 through February 28), in order to avoid potential adverse impacts to nesting individuals and/or their young and to comply with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

  16. Hydrologic monitoring in the area of the proposed Yazoo River navigation project, west-central Mississippi, 1978-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data on ground-water levels collected from the area of the proposed Yazoo River Navigation Project for the years 1978-80 are presented without interpretation. These data were obtained as part of a hydrologic study to understand the hydrologic effects of construction and operation of a waterway on the Yazoo River. The data were collected in cooperation with the Vicksburg District, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. During the data collection period, water-level measurements were made on about a monthly schedule in 62 observation wells in the network. Three of the wells were equipped with continuous water-level recorders. (USGS)

  17. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  18. Comparison of drinking water, raw rice and cooking of rice as arsenic exposure routes in three contrasting areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debapriya; Banerjee, Mayukh; Kundu, Manjari; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Bhattacharya, Udayan; Giri, Ashok K; Ganguli, Bhaswati; Sen Roy, Sugata; Polya, David A

    2010-12-01

    Remediation aimed at reducing human exposure to groundwater arsenic in West Bengal, one of the regions most impacted by this environmental hazard, are currently largely focussed on reducing arsenic in drinking water. Rice and cooking of rice, however, have also been identified as important or potentially important exposure routes. Quantifying the relative importance of these exposure routes is critically required to inform the prioritisation and selection of remediation strategies. The aim of our study, therefore, was to determine the relative contributions of drinking water, rice and cooking of rice to human exposure in three contrasting areas of West Bengal with different overall levels of exposure to arsenic, viz. high (Bhawangola-I Block, Murshidibad District), moderate (Chakdha Block, Nadia District) and low (Khejuri-I Block, Midnapur District). Arsenic exposure from water was highly variable, median exposures being 0.02 μg/kg/d (Midnapur), 0.77 μg/kg/d (Nadia) and 2.03 μg/kg/d (Murshidabad). In contrast arsenic exposure from cooked rice was relatively uniform, with median exposures being 0.30 μg/kg/d (Midnapur), 0.50 μg/kg/d (Nadia) and 0.84 μg/kg/d (Murshidabad). Cooking rice typically resulted in arsenic exposures of lower magnitude, indeed in Midnapur, median exposure from cooking was slightly negative. Water was the dominant route of exposure in Murshidabad, both water and rice were major exposure routes in Nadia, whereas rice was the dominant exposure route in Midnapur. Notwithstanding the differences in balance of exposure routes, median excess lifetime cancer risk for all the blocks were found to exceed the USEPA regulatory threshold target cancer risk level of 10(-4)-10(-6). The difference in balance of exposure routes indicate a difference in balance of remediation approaches in the three districts.

  19. Geochemistry, strontium isotope data, and potassium-argon ages of the andesite-rhyolite association in the Padang area, West Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, G.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Marvin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Padang area on the west coast of Sumatra have produced two-pyroxene, calc-alkaline andesite and volumetrically subordinate rhyolitic and andesitic ash-flow tuffs. A sequence of andesite (pre-caldera), rhyolitic tuff and andesitic tuff, in decreasing order of age, is related to Maninjau caldera. Andesite compositions range from 55.0 to 61.2% SiO2 and from 1.13 to 2.05% K2O. Six K-Ar whole-rock age determinations on andesites show a range of 0.27 ?? 0.12 to 0.83 ?? 0.42 m.y.; a single determination on the rhyolitic ashflow tuff gave 0.28 ?? 0.12 m.y. Eight 57Sr/26Sr ratios on andesites and rhyolite tuff west of the Semangko fault zone are in the range 0.7056 - 0.7066. These ratios are higher than those elsewhere in the Sunda arc but are comparable to the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand and calc-alkaline volcanics of continental margins. An 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7048 on G. Sirabungan east of the Semangko fault is similar to an earlier determination on nearby G. Marapi (0.7047), and agrees with 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the rest of the Sunda arc. The reason for this distribution of 87Sr/86Sr ratios is unknown. The high 87Sr/86Sr ratios are tentatively regarded to reflect a crustal source for the andesites, while moderately fractionated REE patterns with pronounced negative Eu anomalies suggest a residue enriched in plagioclase with hornblende and/or pyroxenes. Generation of associated andesite and rhyolite could have been caused by hydrous fractional melting of andesite or volcanogenic sediments under adiabatic decompression. ?? 1980.

  20. Analysis of leaf area index in the ECMWF land surface model and impact on latent heat and carbon fluxes: Application to West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlan, L.; Balsamo, G.; Lafont, S.; Beljaars, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Mougin, E.

    2008-12-01

    A new version of the land surface model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (Carbon-TESSEL, or CTESSEL) includes a vegetation growth model. This study describes a leaf area index (LAI) data assimilation system (LDAS) based on CTESSEL and satellite LAI for operational Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) predictions. The LDAS is evaluated over West Africa. A preliminary experiment shows a significant impact of the LAI on the CTESSEL NEE. The LAI is compared to two satellite products: the predicted annual cycle is delayed over the Sahel and savannah, and the LAI values differ from the satellite products. Preliminary to their use in the LDAS, the LAI products are rescaled to the CTESSEL predictions. The LDAS simulations are confronted to measurements of biomass and LAI for a site in Mali. The LAI analysis is shown to improve the predicted biomass and the annual cycles of the water (latent heat flux, or LE) and carbon (NEE) fluxes. Afterward, the LDAS is run over West Africa with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products (2001-2005). The analysis of LAI shows a limited impact on LE, but it impacts strongly on NEE. Finally, the CTESSEL NEE are compared to two other models' outputs (simple biosphere (SIB) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford (CASA)). The order of magnitude of the three data sets agrees well, and the shift in annual cycle of CTESSEL is reduced by the LDAS. It is concluded that a LAI data assimilation system is essential for NEE prediction at seasonal and interannual timescales, while a LAI satellite-based climatology may be sufficient for accurate LE predictions.

  1. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  2. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  3. Water temperature variability as an indicator of shallow-depth groundwater behaviour in limestone areas in west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, J.; Pitty, A. F.

    1982-05-01

    The temperatures of groundwaters and surface streams were determined regularly over a 1-yr. period at 139 sampling polints in three limestone areas of the Malay peninsula. The standard deviation (s.d.) of water temperatures recorded at each site provides a measure of temperature variability. Deeper groundwaters exhibit the narrowest temperature fluctuations (s.d. 0.05°C). Shallow-depth groundwaters have a greater temperature variability particularly those, such as vadose streams (mean s.d. 0.27°C) and diffuse-flow seepage in caves (mean s.d. 0.26°C), which encounter circulatory air within the aquifer. Surface streams display much wider fluctuations. Those in tin-mining areas have s.d.-values of over 2.0°C, and this is largely attributed to their small groundwater component and to their banks being mostly unvegetated. Temperature variability is shown to provide a sound basis for characterizing groundwater flow and identifying groundwater components in surface streams.

  4. Modeled Aeromagnetic Anomalies, Controlled By Radar Ice Sounding, As Evidence for Subglacial Volcanic Activity in the West Antarctic Rift System (WR) Beneath the Area of the Divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Thwaites and Pine Island ice shelves, buttressing the WAIS, have passed the turning point as they are eaten away by warmer ocean waters (Joghin et al., 2014; Rignot et al., 2014). There is an increasing evidence (aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, high heat flow, subglacial volcanic seismicity, and several exposed and subglacial active volcanoes), for volcanic activity in the WR beneath the WAIS, which flows through it. The 5-km, orthogonally line spaced, central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey defined >400 high amplitude volcanic magnetic anomalies correlated with glacial bed topography. Modeled anomalies defined magnetic properties; interpreted volcanic edifices were mostly removed by the moving ice into which they were erupted. Very high apparent susceptibility contrasts (.001->.3 SI) are typical of measured properties from volcanic exposures in the WAIS area. About 90% of the magnetic sources have normal magnetization in the present field direction. Two explanations as to why the anomalies are not approximately 50% negative: (1) Volcanic activity resulting in these anomalies occurred in a predominantly normal field (unlikely). (2) Sources are a combination of induced and remanent magnetization resulting in anomalies of low amplitude (induced cancels remanent) and are not recognized because they are <100 nT (most probable). About 18 high relief, (~600-2000 m) "volcanic centers" beneath the WAIS surface, probably were erupted subaerially when the WAIS was absent; nine of these are in the general area beneath the divide of the WAIS. A 70-km wide, ring of interpreted subglacial volcanic rocks may define a volcanic caldera underlying thedivide (Behrendt et al., 1998). A 2 km-high subaerially erupted volcano (subglacial Mt Thiel, ~78o30'S, 111oW) ~ 100 km north of the WAISCORE, could be the source an ash layer observed in the core. Models by Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh (2011) indicate >4mm/yr basal melting beneath the WAIS, supportive of high heat flow

  5. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  6. Modelling the risk of being bitten by malaria vectors in a vector control area in southern Benin, west Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diversity of malaria vector populations, expressing various resistance and/or behavioural patterns could explain the reduced effectiveness of vector control interventions reported in some African countries. A better understanding of the ecology and distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. Here, we analyzed the spatio-temporal risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. in an area of Benin with high coverage of vector control measures with an unprecedented level of resolution. Methods Presence-absence data for the three vectors from 1-year human-landing collections in 19 villages were assessed using binomial mixed-effects models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validations of the models, predictive maps of the risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. were computed. Results Model validations showed that the An. funestus, An. gambiae M form, and S form models provided an excellent (Area Under Curve>0.9), a good (AUC>0.8), and an acceptable (AUC>0.7) level of prediction, respectively. The distribution area of the probability of contact between human and An. funestus largely overlaps that of An. gambiae M form but this latter showed important seasonal variation. An. gambiae S form also showed seasonal variation but with different ecological preferences. Landscape data were useful to discriminate between the species’ distributions. Conclusions These results showed that available remote sensing data could help in predicting the human-vector contact for several species of malaria vectors at a village level scale. The predictive maps showed seasonal and spatial variations in the risk of human-vector contact for all three

  7. Crop area mapping in West Africa using landscape stratification of MODIS time series and comparison with existing global land products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintrou, Elodie; Desbrosse, Annie; Bégué, Agnès; Traoré, Sibiry; Baron, Christian; Lo Seen, Danny

    2012-02-01

    In Africa, food security early warning systems use satellite-derived data concerning crop conditions and agricultural production. Such systems can be improved if they are provided with a more reliable estimation of the cultivated area at national scale. This paper evaluates the potential of using time series from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD13Q1 (16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index at 250 m resolution) to extract cultivated areas in the fragmented rural landscapes of Mali. To this end, we first stratified Southern Mali into 13 rural landscapes based on the spatio-temporal variability of NDVI and textural indices, using an object-oriented classification scheme. The accuracy of the resulting map (MODIS crop) and how it compares with existing coarse-resolution global land products (GLC2000 Africa, GLOBCOVER, MODIS V05 and ECOCLIMAP-II), was then assessed against six crop/non-crop maps derived from SPOT 2.5 m resolution images used as references. For crop areal coverage, the MODIS crop cultivated map was successful in assessing the overall cultivated area at five out of the six validation sites (less than 6% of the absolute difference), while in terms of crop spatial distribution, the producer accuracy was between 33.1% and 80.8%. This accuracy was linearly correlated with the mean patch size index calculated on the SPOT crop maps ( r2 = 0.8). Using the Pareto boundary as an accuracy assessment method at the study sites, we showed that (i) 20-40% of the classification crop error was due to the spatial resolution of the MODIS sensor (250 m), and that (ii) compared to MODIS V05, which otherwise performed better than the other existing products, MODIS crop generally minimized omission-commission errors. A spatial validation of the different products was carried out using SPOT image classifications as reference. In the corresponding error matrices, the fraction of correctly classified pixels for our product was 70%, compared

  8. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.

  9. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  10. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  11. Histochemical enzyme variation in Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae from rain-forest and Sudan-savanna areas of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Omar, M S; Prost, A; Marshall, T F

    1982-01-01

    Histochemical staining methods for acid phosphatase were used to study the differences among microfilariae of various West African strains of Onchocerca volvulus in both forest and Sudan-savanna onchocerciasis zones. The results have shown statistically significant differences in the staining patterns of microfilarial populations in the two zones. In the rain-forest areas, where onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense and S. squamosum, there were no significant differences of microfilarial staining patterns in patients, by age and sex, between the three Simulium-Onchocerca complexes studied. There was a close relationship between the "strain differences", as revealed morphoenzymatically, and the clinical picture of the disease in both the forest and the Sudan-savanna zones. The present findings are in favour of the hypothesis that there are intrinsic differences in the strains of the parasite occurring in the two areas. The application of the histochemical means of parasite characterization appears to be a useful tool in differentiating strains of O. volvulus and could contribute towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of human onchocerciasis in different bioclimatic zones where the disease is endemic.

  12. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  13. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  14. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny.

  15. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  16. 210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

    2010-03-01

    The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value.

  17. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  18. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  19. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management.

  20. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  1. Present and past Gulf Stream variability in a cold-water coral area off Cape Lookout, West Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Pedersen, A.; Duineveld, G.; Seidenkrantz, M.; Fischel, A.; Matos, L.; Bane, J. M.; Frank, N.; Hebbeln, D.; Ross, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cold-water coral mounds are common on the SE slope of the US from Florida to Cape Hatteras between depths of 400-600 m. All coral areas lie in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, which is characterized by strong currents transporting relatively warm water northwards. Thus far little is known about the recent and past environmental conditions inside the cold-water coral habitats on the SE US slope and particularly the effect of changing patterns of the Gulf Stream. Near Cape Lookout, which is the northern most cold-water coral area on the SE US slope, cold-water corals have formed mounds up to 60 m high with a tear drop shape, which are oriented in a SSW-NNE direction. Past explorations of major reef sites of N Carolina using remote and manned submersibles have shown living Lophelia pertusa colonies on the current facing side of the mound structures and a high biodiversity of associated fauna, especially fish. Two autonomous benthic landers were deployed amidst Lophelia reefs off Cape Lookout (NC) for a period of 6 months to define oceanographic patterns that are relevant for the development and persistence of cold-water coral ecosystems. Furthermore, a 3.6 m long piston core was collected in 2010 during a cruise with the R.V. Pelagia. This pistoncore was used to determine the changes of current strength through time, using foraminiferal counts, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes on foraminifera, XRF and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Cold-water coral fragments were dated with U/Th and foraminifera from the same depth interval were dated with C14. Bottom landers have recorded a number of events that are characterized by of peaks in temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and turbidity. The current during these events was directed to the NNE. During some of these events temperature rose up to 9 degrees in one day. The temporary replacement of the colder bottom water by warm (and saline) water in combination with the strong currents to the NNE

  2. Arsenic and other heavy metals in soils from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Tarit; Uchino, Tadashi; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    Domkal is one of the 19, out of 26 blocks in Murshidabad district where groundwater contains arsenic above 0.05 mg/l. Many millions of cubic meters of groundwater along with arsenic and other heavy metals are coming out from both the hand tubewells, used by the villagers for their daily needs and shallow big diameter tubewells, installed for agricultural irrigation and depositing on soil throughout the year. So there is a possibility of soil contamination which can moreover affect the food chain, cultivated in this area. A somewhat detailed study was carried out, in both micro- and macrolevel, to get an idea about the magnitude of soil contamination in this area. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of As (5.31), Fe (6740), Cu (18.3), Pb (10.4), Ni (18.8), Mn (342), Zn (44.3), Se (0.53), Mg (534), V (44.6), Cr (33.1), Cd (0.37), Sb (0.29) and Hg (0.54) in fallow land soils are within the normal range. The mean As (10.7), Fe (7860) and Mg (733) concentrations (mg/kg) are only in higher side whereas Hg (0.17 mg/kg) is in lower side in agricultural land soils, compared to the fallow land soils. Arsenic concentrations (11.5 and 28.0 mg/kg respectively) are high in those agricultural land soils where irrigated groundwater contains high arsenic (0.082 and 0.17 mg/l respectively). The total arsenic withdrawn and mean arsenic deposition per land by the 19 shallow tubewells per year are 43.9 kg (mean: 2.31 kg, range: 0.53-5.88 kg) and 8.04 kg ha(-1) (range: 1.66-16.8 kg ha(-1)) respectively. For the macrolevel study, soil arsenic concentration decreases with increase of distance from the source and higher the water arsenic concentration, higher the soil arsenic at any distance. A proper watershed management is urgently required to save the contamination.

  3. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  4. Identification of singlet oxygen photosensitizes in lambs drinking water in an alveld risk area in West Norway.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Mysterud, Ivar; Karlsen, Jan; Skulberg, Olav M; Laane, Carl M M; Schumacher, Trond

    2013-02-01

    Alveld is a hepatogenous photosensitivity disorder in lambs. Although alveld has been known in Norway for more than 100years, there are still questions related to the cause of the disease. Phytoporphyrin has long been incriminated as the photosensitizer in hepatogenous photosensitivity diseases but previous findings suggest that the photosensitizing mechanism in alveld is more complex, possibly involving other co-factors. The current work investigates the presence of non-hepatogenous photosensitizers originating in lamb's drinking water from various sources. In addition samples of two of the predominent cyanobacteria found in a representative biofilm (i.e. aggregates of microbes) were identified and isolated in axenic (i.e. pure) cultures. Information from the absorption-, fluorescence emission-, and -excitation spectra and the action spectrum for the formation of singlet oxygen was combined in order to identify the chromophores responsible for the formation of singlet oxygen, e.g. phycocyanins from the cyanobacteria. The highest level of singlet oxygen formation was detected in lotic (i.e. flowing) water in the period consistent with the outbreak of the alveld disease in the area. Meteorological data indicate a warm and wet May with a high radiation exposure leading up to a colder and wet June with an even higher solar irradiance. The seasonal variation in the amount of photosensitizers in lamb's drinking water combined meteorological data can be important to predict the outbreak of alveld.

  5. Assessment of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in a mineralized uranium area in south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C

    2014-01-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used to determine the activity concentration of (238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (210)Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were sampled from areas with different levels of influence from the installation and hence had different levels of contamination. The vertical profiles of the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. To determine the origin of these natural radionuclides the Enrichment Factor was used. Also, study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same radioactive series allowed us to assess the different types of behaviors of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for the radionuclide members of the (238)U series were different at each sampling point, depending on the level of influence of the installation. However, the profiles of each point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series ((238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, and (226)Ra). Moreover, a major imbalance was observed between (210)Pb and (226)Ra in the surface layer, due to (222)Rn exhalation and the subsequent surface deposition of (210)Pb.

  6. Inland area contingency plan and maps for Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, District of Columbia (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    EPA Region III has assembled on this CD a multitude of environmental data, in both visual and textual formats. While targeted for Facility Response Planning under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, this information will prove helpful to anyone in the environmental arena. Specifically, the CD will aid contingency planning and emergency response personnel. Combining innovative GIS technology with EPA`s state-specific data allows you to display maps, find and identify map features, look at tabular information about map features, and print out maps. The CD was designed to be easy to use and incorporates example maps as well as help sections describing the use of the environmental data on the CD, and introduces you to the IACP Viewer and its capabilities. These help features will make it easy for you to conduct analysis, produce maps, and browse the IACP Plan. The IACP data are included in two formats: shapefiles, which can be viewed with the IACP Viewer or ESRI`s ArcView software (Version 2.1 or higher), and ARC/INFO export files, which can be imported into ARC/INFO or converted to other GIS data formats. Point Data Sources: Sensitive Areas, Surface Drinking Water Intakes, Groundwater Intakes, Groundwater Supply Facilities, NPL (National Priority List) Sites, FRP (Facility Response Plan) Facilities, NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) Facilities, Hospitals, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) Sites, TRI (Toxic Release Inventory) Sites, CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) Sites Line Data Sources: TIGER Roads, TIGER Railroads, TIGER Hydrography, Pipelines Polygon Data Sources: State Boundaries, County Boundaries, Watershed Boundaries (8-digit HUC), TIGER Hydrography, Public Lands, Populated Places, IACP Boundaries, Coast Guard Boundaries, Forest Types, US Congressional Districts, One-half Mile Buffer of Surface Drinking Water Intakes.

  7. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  8. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linwei; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Wenjie; Liang, Song; Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily YY; Zhou, Shuisen; Sung, Joseph JY

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide. PMID:18565224

  9. Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.

    PubMed

    Boakye, D A; Back, C; Fiasorgbor, G K; Sib, A P; Coulibaly, Y

    1998-10-01

    During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed. PMID:9824818

  10. Sibling species distributions of the Simulium damnosum complex in the west African Onchocerciasis Control Programme area during the decade 1984-93, following intensive larviciding since 1974.

    PubMed

    Boakye, D A; Back, C; Fiasorgbor, G K; Sib, A P; Coulibaly, Y

    1998-10-01

    During the decade from 1984 to 1993, nine species of the Simulium damnosum complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were identified from the area covered by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. These were S. damnosum s.s., S. dieguerense, S. konkourense, S. leonense, S. sanctipauli, S. sirbanum, S. soubrense, S. squamosum, and S. yahense. Some of these species were found to consist of two chromosomal variant populations. These were S. konkourense 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms, S. sanctipauli sensu stricto and 'Djodji' form, S. soubrense 'Chute Milo' and 'Beffa' forms. The distribution of these twelve cytological taxa was assessed in relation to the two main vegetation zones of West Africa (forest and savanna), topography, river size and other factors. The range of each species was influenced by seasonal climatic changes in wind movement and river water level. The most widely distributed species were S. sirbanum and S. damnosum s.s., associated with savanna areas, recorded from all river basins. Simulium dieguerense was restricted mainly to Western Mali on the Rivers Bafing and Bakoye in the Senegal River basin. Simulium squamosum was identified from rivers draining mountainous areas in both the forest and savanna zones. Simulium yahense was found in small permanent rivers along a wide forested band parallel to the coast and was absent from the plains of Togo and Benin. Members of the S. sanctipauli subcomplex had restricted distributions except for S. sanctipauli s.s., which was widespread in large rivers of the forest zone from Sierra Leone to the Volta Lake in Ghana. Simulium soubrense 'Beffa' form occurred in Togo and Benin, S. soubrense 'Chutes Milo' form in Guinea, both 'Konkouré' and 'Menankaya' forms of S. konkourense occurred predominantly in Guinea and S. leonense in Sierra Leone. The relevance of the distribution maps and the importance of the data bank to vector control larvicidal operations are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasi, Alireza; Jafarirad, Alireza; Kheyrollahi, Hasan; Rahimi, Mana; Afzal, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    The Piranshahr-Sardasht-Saqqez Zone (PSSZ) in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSZ) hosts some major Iranian gold deposits. In the south-east of PSSZ, there is a north-east trending orogenic gold belt which contains three gold deposits/occurrences (Qolqoleh, Kervian and Ghabaghloujeh). In this research, studies are focused on processing and analysing airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to find applicable indicators for prospecting gold in this area. Former studies on the gold deposits/occurrences in the study area suggest three essential factors in local orogenic gold mineralisation: (1) intersecting deep bending structures/shear zones, (2) Fe-rich mafic meta-volcanic lithologies (primary source and host rocks) and (3) altered mylonitic granites (secondary host rock). Geological structures and lithological contacts can be mapped based on locating edges in the magnetic field at different depths. In this study, we extracted the structure from aeromagnetic data by reduction to the pole, upward continuation and applying a tilt derivative filter to the horizontal derivative of the upward continued data. Upward continuation was to several levels from 500 to 4000 m. Afterwards, a 3D architecture was built based on extracted subsurface lineaments in different levels. This 3D model can assist in the visualisation of the underground shape of structures that may influence gold mineralisation. Moreover, mafic meta-volcanic rocks in the study area, which contain magnetic minerals such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and ilmenite, can be mapped using aeromagnetic data. Mylonitic granites, which are the other host rock in the deposits, were mapped using airborne radiometric data.

  12. Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Badal K; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n=25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n=33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAs(III)) (14.3), arsenate (iAs(V)) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 microg L(- 1) (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7% in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMA(V) (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAs(III) (25.9), MMA(V) (30.3), and DMA(V) (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 microg kg(- 1)) (25.81-312.44 microg kg(- 1)) along with iAs(III) (9.62-194.93), iAs(V) (17.63-78.33), MMA(V) (9.47-73.22) and DMA(V) (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the

  13. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  14. Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Gautam; Das, Dipankar; Mandal, Badal K; Chowdhury, Tarit Roy; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Pal, Arup; Ahamed, Sad

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water was also analyzed. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that hair and nail arsenic was highly correlated with water arsenic concentrations, whereas arsenic in urine and breast milk did not cluster with water arsenic. Our present study indicated that among the lactating women who had high arsenic body burden and arsenical skin lesions, they had elevated level of arsenic in their breast milk. Arsenic in hair, nails, and urine samples of infants were analyzed, and the results showed significantly high-body burden of infants in those areas. PCA showed the age-dependent relationship between the hair and nail arsenic concentrations of the mothers and their babies.

  15. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  16. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment. PMID:22762786

  17. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  18. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and associated factors in adolescents, at the central west area of the state São Paulo (SP, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Goya, Suzana; Sant'Anna, Rute Moreira de Freitas; Silva, Henrique Mendes; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Silva, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues da; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the DMFT index, in 207 adolescents aged 12 years old, from 8 public and private schools of the central west area of São Paulo State. From a sample of 380 12 year-old adolescents, both genders, 207 were examined. We used the index DMFT, CBI for weight, measured of stature and applied a questionnaire about alimentary habits, characteristic anthropometrics and physical activity. Regarding body weight, 55.93% was normal, 35.59% had low weight, and 8.47% were pre-obese in private schools. In the public schools, 52.03% had normal weight, 41.22% had low weight, 4.73% were pre-obese and 2.03% were obese, without significant difference (p=0.45). The DMFT of public schools was 2.16, compared to 0.23 in private schools (p<0.05), with 39.2% of caries-free individuals in public schools and 88.1% in private schools. There was no correlation between the increase in BMI and the increase in DMFT. There was negative correlation between socioeconomic conditions and dental caries. It was concluded that, even though the pre-obese and obese groups presented a higher frequency of food ingestion, obesity was not correlated with the increase in dental caries. However, the socioeconomic conditions were determinant for this occurrence.

  19. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  20. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (p<0.01), Cd and Cu (p<0.05) were found in the lichens especially in samples collected from road sites. Higher As concentration (48.1±2.1 μg g(-1)) in samples were found near the paddy field, indicating pesticide-herbicides as its source used in agriculture. The substrate exhibits lower concentration of most of the metals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment.

  1. Impact of potential large-scale and medium-scale irrigation on the West African Monsoon and its dependence on location of irrigated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; IM, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of potential large-scale (about 400,000 km2) and medium-scale (about 60,000 km2) irrigation on the climate of West Africa using the MIT Regional Climate Model. A new irrigation module is implemented to assess the impact of location and scheduling of irrigation on rainfall distribution over West Africa. A control simulation (without irrigation) and various sensitivity experiments (with irrigation) are performed and compared to discern the effects of irrigation location, size and scheduling. In general, the irrigation-induced surface cooling due to anomalously wet soil tends to suppress moist convection and rainfall, which in turn induces local subsidence and low level anti-cyclonic circulation. These local effects are dominated by a consistent reduction of local rainfall over the irrigated land, irrespective of its location. However, the remote response of rainfall distribution to irrigation exhibits a significant sensitivity to the latitudinal position of irrigation. The low-level northeasterly flow associated with anti-cyclonic circulation centered over the irrigation area can enhance the extent of low level convergence through interaction with the prevailing monsoon flow, leading to significant increase in rainfall. Despite much reduced forcing of irrigation water, the medium-scale irrigation seems to draw the same response as large-scale irrigation, which supports the robustness of the response to irrigation in our modeling system. Both large-scale and medium-scale irrigation experiments show that an optimal irrigation location and scheduling exists that would lead to a more efficient use of irrigation water. The approach of using a regional climate model to investigate the impact of location and size of irrigation schemes may be the first step in incorporating land-atmosphere interactions in the design of location and size of irrigation projects. However, this theoretical approach is still in early stages of development and

  2. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  3. Remediation of Mercury-Contaminated Storm Sewer Sediments from the West End Mercury Area at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12061

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Diana; Douglas, Steven G.

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN has faced an ongoing challenge from mercury entrapped in soils beneath and adjacent to buildings, storm sewers, and process pipelines. Previous actions to reduce the quantity and/or mobilization of mercury-contaminated media have included plugging of building floor drains, cleaning of sediment and sludge from sumps, manholes, drain lines, and storm sewers, lining/relining of storm sewers and replacement of a portion of the storm sewer trunk line, re-routing and removal of process piping, and installation of the Central Mercury Treatment System to capture and treat contaminated sump water. Despite the success of these actions, mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls that discharge to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) continues to pose a threat to long-term water quality. A video camera survey of the storm sewer network revealed several sections of storm sewer that had large cracks, separations, swells, and accumulations of sediment/sludge and debris. The selected remedy was to clean and line the sections of storm sewer pipe that were determined to be primary contributors to the mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls. The project, referred to as the West End Mercury Area (WEMA) Storm Sewer Remediation Project, included cleaning sediment and debris from over 2,460 meters of storm sewer pipe followed by the installation of nearly 366 meters of cure-in-place pipe (CIPP) liner. One of the greatest challenges to the success of this project was the high cost of disposal associated with the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater generated from the storm sewer cleaning process. A contractor designed and operated an on-site wastewater pre-treatment system that successfully reduced mercury levels in 191 cubic meters of sludge to levels that allowed it to be disposed at Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) disposal cell as a non-hazardous, low-level waste. The system was also effective at pre-treating over 1

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of the early Mesozoic pyroxene andesites in the Maixiu Area, West Qinling, China: Products of subduction or syn-collision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Mo, Xuan-Xue; Yu, Xue-Hui; Ding, Yi; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Wei, Ping; He, Wen-Yan

    2013-07-01

    The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogen is dotted with Mesozoic igneous rocks and its exact tectonic origin is still controversial, especially the precise timing of initial collision between the North China Block (NCB) and the Yangtze Block (YB) and the subsequent closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean in Qinling, China. This paper presents geochronological and geochemical data for pyroxene andesites in Maixiu area, West Qinling. Laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar dating for matrix glass yields an isochron age of 234 ± 3 Ma. The Maixiu pyroxene andesites (MPAs) display a hyalopilitic texture, and the predominant phenocryst phases are plagioclase, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene generally displays delicately normal zoning, whereas some clinopyroxene grains exhibit reverse zonings. Textural relations indicate that magma mixing plays a key role for the genesis of the MPAs. The MPAs, with 53.75-57.29 wt.% SiO2, 0.6-0.82 wt.% TiO2 and 48-72 Mg#, are characterized by high magnesium contents in some samples. The MPAs display enriched light rare earth elements (LREEs) and relatively high (La/Yb)N ratios (5-9). Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are depleted in some HFSE (e.g., Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ti) and some LILE (i.e., Ba, K and Sr), and are enriched in some other HFSE (e.g., Th and U), REE (e.g., Nd and Sm) and some other LILE (e.g., Rb and Pb). The MPAs have uniformly low εNd(t) values (- 7.74 to - 9.27) and high (87Sr/86Sr)t ratios (0.70788 to 0.71225), implying a continental rather than oceanic type magma source. Based on data for clinopyroxene phenocrysts, we estimate a temperature range of 956 to 1087 °C with the mean value of 1032 ± 39 °C (1σ), and a pressure range from 5.9 to 13.6 kbar with an average of 9.8 ± 1.9 kbar (1σ). We conclude that the petrogenesis of the MPAs in West Qinling Orogen may have involved magma mixing between melts derived from the sedimentary cover of the northward-subducting A'nyemaqen-Mianlue oceanic slab and peridotite-derived basaltic melts from the

  5. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Hahn, D.A.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because of concerns about potential effects of irrigation drainage on fish and wildlife resources and on human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior initiated a program in 1985 to assess water-quality problems associated with Federal irrigation projects in the Western United States. Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected for a detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, during 1991-92. This report lists onsite measurements and concen- trations of major constituents, trace elements, and stable isotopes for surface-water- and ground-water-sampling sites. Insecticide data collected in the Grand Valley are presented. Ranges of specific-conductance measurements and dissolved- oxygen concentrations for selected wells and a daily record of water-level altitude and specific conduc- tance for a well in the Grand Valley are presented. The report presents historical water-level and dissolved-solids data for two wells in the Grand Valley. Concentrations of trace elements, major constituents, total carbon, and organic carbon in bottom-sediment, bedrock, and in aquifer-sediment samples and semiquantitative data on clay and bulk mineralogy of samples of the Mancos Shale are presented. The report contains selenium-speciation data for selected water and bottom-sediment samples and selected aquifer-test results. Biological samples collected in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley included aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, and bird eggs. The report lists concentrations of trace elements in biological samples collected in 1991-92. A limited number of biological samples were analyzed for pesticides, PCB's, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  7. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  8. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Biogeochemical trace gas and oxygen concentration signatures from the West African upwelling areas as observed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E.; Fiedler, B.; Leppert, R.; Seifert, T.; Neves, L.; Heimann, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present 3-year records of atmospheric concentrations of trace gases (CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and SF6), and oxygen at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO). The Observatory is located on Sao Vicente Island in the north-eastern subtropical Atlantic (16.86° N, 24.87° W), and was first established within the frame of the Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere project (SOLAS). The air is sampled from a 30-m tower. The analytical system is automated and samples air continuously (16 min for every O2 and CO2 measurement and 12 min for the rest of the species (Kozlova and Manning, 2009)). In addition, air flask samples are collected biweekly and subsequently analyzed at the Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry. The Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory is located in the North Atlantic trade wind system. We analyse the composition of marine boundary layer air masses that often have passed over the coastal upwelling areas off the coast of Western Sahara and Mauritania. These upwelling waters are supersaturated in CO2, CH4, and partly in N2O, and undersaturated in oxygen. Small shifts in the wind trajectories are reflected in synoptic variations of the atmospheric concentrations depending on the travel time of the air mass over the upwelling region. Using a footprint analysis with an atmospheric backtrajectory model, we analyse and quantify the integrated contribution of surface ocean gas exchange from these areas. We can place bounds on the gas exchange coefficient in the upwelling area by combining the flux estimates with in situ measurements of dissolved surface ocean oxygen from autonomous gliders (taken as part of the SOPRAN project) and remotely sensed ocean chlorophyll data (ocean color). The location of the Observatory provides a unique opportunity for monitoring long-term changes in spatially integrated marine productivity and oxygen depletion in the upwelling area of the West African Coast. Kozlova, E. A., and A. C. Manning, Methodology and calibration for

  10. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (

  11. Current procedures of the integrated urban vector-mosquito control as an example in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa) and Wrocław area (Poland).

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Current strategy of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) comprises the general approach of environmentally friendly control measures. With regard to mosquitoes it includes first of all application of microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) delta-endotoxins as well as the reduction of breeding habitats and natural enemy augmentation. It can be achieved thorough implementation of the interdisciplinary program, i. e., understanding of mosquito vector ecology, the appropriate vector-diseases (e. g., malariometric) measurements and training of local personnel responsible for mosquito abatement activities, as well as community involvement. Biocontrol methods as an alternative to chemical insecticides result from the sustainability development concept, growing awareness of environmental pollution and the development of insecticide-resistant strains of vector-mosquito populations in many parts of the world. Although sustainable trends are usually considered in terms of the monetary and training resources within countries, environmental concerns are actually more limiting factors for the duration of an otherwise successful vector control effort. In order to meet these new needs, increasing efforts have been made in search of and application of natural enemies, such as parasites, bacterial pathogens and predators which may control populations of insect vectors. The biological control agent based on the bacterial toxins Bti and Bs has been used in the Wrocław's University and Municipal Mosquito Control Programs since 1998. In West-Africa biocontrol appears to be an effective and safe tool to combat malaria in addition to bed-nets, residual indoor spraying and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria parasites which are the major tools in the WHO Roll Back Malaria Program. IVM studies carried out 2005-2008 in Cotonou (Benin) as well those in Wrocław Irrigated Fields during the last years include the following major

  12. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in different crops grown in long-term sewage-irrigated areas of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sushanta; Hazra, G C; Saha, Bholanath; Mandal, Biswapati

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sewage water on the accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni) in soils and commonly grown plants were evaluated by monitoring the fields along the water channel running some 30 km eastward of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The results revealed that the mean Cu, Cd, and Zn contents in sewage water were higher than the recommended level whereas mean concentration of Cd in the irrigated soil is several folds higher than the safe limit. The highest single element pollution index (SEPI) value was found for Cd which ranged from 2.93 to 6.03 with a mean of 5.32 indicating high contamination levels. The value of combined pollution index (CPI) ranged from 1.32 to 1.93 with an average of 1.67 for all the sites indicates that metal concentrations are above the hazard criteria and exhibit multi-element contamination. Furthermore, the results of enrichment factor (EF) indicated that the soils of the study area were highly enriched with metals such as Cd (452.04, extremely high enrichment) followed by Pb (17.32, significant to very high enrichment) > Zn (5.99, significant enrichment) > Cu (3.14, minimal to significant) > Ni (3.07, minimal to moderate). The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Ni were above the permissible limit in all the crops and Colocasia and Amaranthus accumulate highest metal on the basis of overall metal uptake. The highest mean transfer coefficients (TCs) values for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni were found for cauliflower (0.59), Colocasia (0.67), Amaranthus (0.93), Colocasia (1.02), and Amaranthus (1.09), respectively.

  13. Greenland to gather more exploration data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-28

    Danish authorities are taking steps to make more exploration data available on Greenland in advance of a possible West Greenland shelf licensing round in 1993. Seismic data acquisition and other studies continue toward more fully evaluating Greenland's oil and gas potential. Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU), Copenhagen, Denmark, is processing 2,041 line miles of reflection seismic data shot on the West Greenland shelf in August and September of 1990. Sixty-fold stacks and migrations will be obtained. Total field magnetic data were also recorded during the survey, known as project Syd Vest Seis. Early work is under way to kick off the multicompany Kanumas seismic acquisition project, proposed in 1986, during 1991. Meanwhile, the Mineral Resources Administration for Greenland (MRA), Copenhagen, the Danish and Greenland governments aim to sweeten Greenland's exploration regulations prior to making areas available.

  14. The Railroad and the Frontier West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewig, Rick

    1988-01-01

    Points out railroad building in the West as a cause rather than an effect of the rapid development of the area. Railroads hastened the demise of American Indian autonomy and their land base, brought permanent Anglo-American settlers to the West and provided a market relationship between East and West. (KO)

  15. GeoPowering the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  16. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S.; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  17. Fluvial sedimentary styles and associated depositional environments in the buntsandstein west of river rhine in saar area and pfalz (F.R. Germany) and vosges (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachroth, Wolfgang

    The Buntsandstein west of river Rhine in Saar area, Pfalz and Vosges consists of three fluvial magnacycles which are characterized by different associated non-alluvial environments. The stratigraphic sequence is divided by several unconformities reflecting tectonic movements which were connected with periods of extension of the depositional area. Two major phases and two minor events are recognized by the evaluation of the Pfalz unconformity and the Lothringen unconformity, and the Leuter unconformity and the Saar unconformity, respectively. The Lower Buntsandstein (including Zechstein) compries the first magnacycle and is built up of alluvial-fan deposits, fluvial braidplain sediments and marine to lagoonal deposits. Some aeolian sands as well as several palaeosols are also present. The palaeolandscape consists of alluvial fans seaming the margin of the basin and fluvial braidplains reaching from the toes of the fan belt to the centre of the depositional area which is occupied by a lagoonal sea that partially evolves into a playa-lake with progressive refreshment. The Middle Buntsandstein comprises the second magnacycle and is composed of an alternation of aeolian Dünnschichten and fluvial Felsbänke. The third facies are alluvial-fan deposits of palaeogeographically restricted distribution along the margins of the basin. The aeolian Dünnschichten originate in the marginal parts of chott-type depressions (in comparison with the recent Chott Djerid in Tunesia) where rising ground water moistens the dry sediments that are laid down on the playa floor and thus allows their enhanced preservation. In dry periods, wind-blown sand is spread out as plane sheets or as migrating wind ripple trains, or accumulates to barchanoid-type dunes that advance across the flat. Depending on supply of sand, all stages of transition between dune fields with only narrow interdune corridors between the ridges and interdune playas with isolated widely-spaced dunes are developed. The

  18. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  19. [Evaluation of a self-prepared anti-WNV-IgG diagnostic ELISA kit with a panel of serum samples collected from the people from areas in which West Nile fever is endemic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Shao, Qiang; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhen, Wei; Wu, Xue-Min; Ma, Xue-Zheng; Zhao, Yong; Hu, Kong-Xin

    2014-09-01

    In view of that there is no report of west Nile virus infection cases in our country, evaluation the self-prepared anti-WNV-IgG diagnostic ELISA kit should be employed with the establishment of the serum sample panel collected from the entry personnel. All individuals of entry personnel were traveled from epidemic area of infectious west Nile disease. In our study, the serum samples were both detected by self-prepared anti-WNV-IgG diagnostic ELISA kit and the FDA certified kits ,which are FOCUS West Nile Virus IgG Dxselect and Panbio Dengue IgG Capture ELISA kits. The self-prepared kit and FDA certified kits were compared and assessed simultaneously. Furthermore, the specificity, repeatability and stability of the kits were also evaluated. The results indicated that no significant difference of detective rates (35. 6% for self-prepared kit vs. 32.5% for FOCUS kit, χ2 = 3. 05, P > 0.05) and good consistency (Kappa = 0.8372) between the self-prepared kit and FDA certified kits. Also, the positive coincidence rate, the negative coincidence rate and the total coincidence rate were calculated as 91.18%, 95.34% and 92.66%, respectively. The laboratory self-developed kit presented similar quality as the counterpart kits with FDA certificate. The development of our self-prepared anti-WNV-IgG diagnostic ELISA kit will provide technical support for the prevention and control of west Nile virus entry.

  20. [C and N allocation patterns in planted forests and their release patterns during leaf litter decomposition in subalpine area of west Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeng-wen; Duan, Er-jun; Pan, Kai-wen; Zhang, Li-ping; Du, Hong-xia

    2009-01-01

    With the planted forest ecosystems of Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Betula utilis, Pinus yunnansinsis, and Picea asperata in subalpine area of west Sichuan as test objects, their total biomass and the C and N contents in soils and tree organs were determined. The results showed that the allocation of C in tree organs had less correlation with the age of the organs, while that of N and C/N ratio had closer relationship with the age. The N content in young organs was higher than that in aged ones, whereas the C/N ratio was higher in aged organs than in young organs, and higher in the leaf litters of needle-leaved forests than in those of broad-leaved forests. There was an obvious enrichment of C and N in the topsoil of test forests. The accumulated amounts of C and N in the whole planted forest ecosystem, including tree, litter, and 0-40 cm soil layer, were 176.75-228.05 t x hm(-2) and 11.06-16.54 t x hm(-2), respectively, and the nutrients allocation ratio between soil-litter and tree was (1.9-3.3):1 for C and (15.6-41.5):1 for N. Needle-leaved forests functioned as a stronger "C-sink" than broad-leaved forests. The decomposition rate of the leaf litters in needle-leaved forests was larger than that in broad-leaved forests, with the turnover rate being 2.2-3.7 years and 3.9-4.2 years, respectively. During the decomposition of leaf litter, the C in all of the four forests released at super-speed, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.4 years. As for N, it also released at super-speed in C. japonicum and B. utilis forests, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.2 years, but released at low speed in P. yunnansinsis and P. asperata forests, with the turnover rate being 6.7-8.5 years. PMID:19449557

  1. Hydrology of the Helena area bedrock, west-central Montana, 1993-98; with a section on geologic setting and a generalized bedrock geologic map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.

    2000-01-01

    The Generalized Bedrock Geologic Map of the Helena Area, West-Central Montana (plate 1 in the report) provides an intermediate-scale overview of bedrock in the Helena area. The geologic map has been compiled at a scale of 1:100,000 from the most widely available sources of geologic map information (see index to geologic mapping on pl. 1). That information has been updated by M.W. Reynolds for this report with more recent geologic mapping and field revision of published maps. All well locations and all bedrock units penetrated during drilling have been confirmed on geologic maps at the largest scale available. Source geologic maps are all at scales larger than 1:100,000 scale. Care has been taken to ensure accurate representation of the original geology at the compilation scale. However, positional accuracy of some features might be somewhat diminished at the smaller scale of the base map when compared with the original data source. Also, line thicknesses for contacts and faults necessarily assume a greater width, relative to the real geologic feature, at the scale of the generalized map than on any original map. The map is not intended for large-scale, site-specific detailed planning. Bedrock units throughout the Helena area are generally covered by young surficial deposits such as alluvium, colluvium, glacial debris, or windblown sediment. Thickness of such deposits varies from veneers through which the underlying bedrock is clearly discernible to major thicknesses that conceal all underlying bedrock and structure. Boundaries of major accumulations of surficial deposits are attributed separately from bedrock contacts. These boundaries should not be considered precise at the map scale or at larger scales. Boundaries shown may be less accurate positionally than bedrock contacts and faults because (1) surficial deposits commonly thin to a knife edge; (2) different mappers will interpret the edge differently when drawing a boundary; or (3) the original geologic map

  2. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  3. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The former Black Angel lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1-0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42-1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60-68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and other fish

  5. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  6. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  7. Different region climate regimes and topography affect the changes in area and mass balance of glaciers on the north and south slopes of the same glacierized massif (the West Nyainqentanglha Range, Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wusheng; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Pu, Jianchen; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Zhao, Huabiao; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shenghai; Wang, Weicai; Ma, Linglong

    2013-07-01

    This project launched a comparative study to investigate the areas of the Zhadang glacier (on the leeward slope/north slope of the West Nyainqentanglha Range, Tibetan Plateau) and the Gurenhekou glacier (on the windward slope/south slope) for nearly 40 years (1970-2007) and measure the mass balance of the two glaciers for three (2005-2008) and four (2004-2008) mass balance years, respectively. Results show that, in 1970-2007, overall annual precipitation decreased slightly caused by the weakening Indian monsoon and strengthened westerlies and annual mean air temperatures increased gradually in the areas to the north and south of the West Nyainqentanglha Range, respectively, resulting in the areas of the two glaciers reduced over the last nearly four decades. The rate of air temperature increase in the north is higher than that in the south. Moreover, mean annual precipitation in the south exceeds that in the north, due to the weakening of the Indian Monsoon activities across the West Nyainqentanglha Range. As a result, the area decrease of Zhadang glacier in the north slope of the West Nyainqentanglha Range is more intensive than that of Gurenhekou glacier in the south slope. Results also show that these two small glaciers experienced gradual reduction of the mass loss during the observation period of 2005-2008 and 2004-2008, and exhibited positive mass balances in 2008, possibly resulting from increases of annual precipitation and decreases in mean annual air temperatures, especially the lowering of air temperatures and the notably increasing of precipitation during the ablation period in 2006-2008. However, the mass balances of the two glaciers differed considerably. The differences in mass balance between the glaciers appear closely related to local climatic factors (different local moisture recycling and different seasonal distributions of precipitation) and glacier topography (the leeward/windward slopes and different elevations of the accumulation and

  8. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  9. Determinants of the population growth of the West Nile virus mosquito vector Culex pipiens in a repeatedly affected area in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent spread of West Nile Virus in temperate countries has raised concern. Predicting the likelihood of transmission is crucial to ascertain the threat to Public and Veterinary Health. However, accurate models of West Nile Virus (WNV) expansion in Europe may be hampered by limited understanding of the population dynamics of their primary mosquito vectors and their response to environmental changes. Methods We used data collected in north-eastern Italy (2009–2011) to analyze the determinants of the population growth rate of the primary WNV vector Culex pipiens. A series of alternative growth models were fitted to longitudinal data on mosquito abundance to evaluate the strength of evidence for regulation by intrinsic density-dependent and/or extrinsic environmental factors. Model-averaging algorithms were then used to estimate the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic variables in describing the variations of per-capita growth rates. Results Results indicate a much greater contribution of density-dependence in regulating vector population growth rates than of any environmental factor on its own. Analysis of an average model of Cx. pipiens growth revealed that the most significant predictors of their population dynamics was the length of daylight, estimated population size and temperature conditions in the 15 day period prior to sampling. Other extrinsic variables (including measures of precipitation, number of rainy days, and humidity) had only a minor influence on Cx. pipiens growth rates. Conclusions These results indicate the need to incorporate density dependence in combination with key environmental factors for robust prediction of Cx. pipiens population expansion and WNV transmission risk. We hypothesize that detailed analysis of the determinants of mosquito vector growth rate as conducted here can help identify when and where an increase in vector population size and associated WNV transmission risk should be expected. PMID:24428887

  10. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  11. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  12. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  13. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  14. VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 63, FACING EAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 63, FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. 19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Knapton, J.R.; Palawski, D.U.

    1994-01-01

    Physical chemical, and biological data were collected in the lower Sun River area of west-central Montana during 1990-92 as part of a U.S. Department of the Interior detailed study of the extent, magnitude, sources, and potential biological impacts of contaminants associated with irrigation drainage. Physical and chemical data were collected from areas within and near the Sun River Irrigation Project and from wetland areas receiving irrigation drainage. Biological data were collected from areas in and near Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Additional biological data were collected previously during 1987-89 as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service program. This report presents data for selenium and other potentially toxic constituents in solid-phase, water, and biological media. Data consist of concentrations of major and trace elements in soil and drill cores; concen- trations of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in ground water and surface water; and trace-element concentrations in bottom sediment and biological tissue. Hydrogeologic data for domestic and test wells and daily streamflow data for selected sites also are included.

  1. Short communication: analysis of the integrase gene from HIV type 1-positive patients living in a rural area of West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Turriziani, Ombretta; Montagna, Claudia; Falasca, Francesca; Bucci, Mauro; Russo, Gianluca; Lichtner, Miriam; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Vullo, Vincenzo; Pistello, Mauro; Antonelli, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Major mutations associated with HIV-I integrase inhibitors (INI) resistance are rare in INI-naive patients. However, polymorphisms at positions that may influence the genetic barrier and/or drive the selection of specific INI resistance pathways are common in HIV non-B subtypes. The aim was to evaluate the presence of natural polymorphisms and/or INI resistance mutations in HIV-1 non-B subtype samples obtained from INI-naive patients living in rural west Cameroon. Thirty-three HIV-1 non-B samples were obtained from INI-naive African women and, as controls, 15 samples of HIV-1 subtype B were obtained from antiretroviral-naive Italian patients. The integrase gene was amplified and sequenced using Trugene Core Reagents. Several amino acid positions in B and non-B subtypes were found to be polymorphic. Interestingly, two patients infected with the CRF02_AG subtype had the resistance mutations N155H and E157Q/E and 12% of African samples had an amino acid substitution at position 143. Silent mutations leading to a higher increment of genetic barriers were detected at 140 and 151 positions in non B-subtypes. Although most polymorphisms may have little effect on INI susceptibility, the IN gene variations found in the present study should be taken into consideration as they may facilitate or delay the emergence of variants fully resistant to INIs.

  2. Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

  3. Phylogenetic diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of root-nodulating bacteria associated with cowpea in the South-West area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa S; Yamakawa, Takeo; Fujimoto, Syunsei; Saeki, Yuichi; Thao, Hoang T B; Myint, Aung K

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of cowpea root-nodulating bacteria in the South-West of Japan was investigated using 60 isolates. Seeds of cowpea were aseptically sown in vermiculite and inoculated with a suspension of Cowpea Soil (CS) or Bean Soil (BS) or without a soil suspension as a control. CS and BS were collected from the Kyushu University's farm (Japan) at sites where cowpea and bean, respectively, have been cultivated previously. Based on an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, 56 isolates were assigned to the genus Bradyrhizobium, while one isolate was found to be closely related to the genus Ralstonia. The ITS-based phylogeny showed 53 isolates, 2 isolates, and 1 isolate, to be closely related to B. yuanmingense, B. elkanii and B. japonicum, respectively, suggesting that B. yuanmingense strains predominated in the soils. Among the isolates tested, B. yuanmingense TSC10 and TTC9 exhibited a greater symbiotic activity and could be considered efficient inoculants for cowpea.

  4. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  5. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  6. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  7. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  8. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  9. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  10. [Spatial variability of surface soil nutrients in the landslide area of Beichuan County, South- west China, after 5 · 12 Wenchuan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Mai, Ji-shan; Zhao, Ting-ning; Zheng, Jiang-kun; Shi, Chang-qing

    2015-12-01

    Based on grid sampling and laboratory analysis, spatial variability of surface soil nutrients was analyzed with GS⁺ and other statistics methods on the landslide area of Fenghuang Mountain, Leigu Town, Beichuan County. The results showed that except for high variability of available phosphorus, other soil nutrients exhibited moderate variability. The ratios of nugget to sill of the soil available phosphorus and soil organic carbon were 27.9% and 28.8%, respectively, showing moderate spatial correlation, while the ratios of nugget to sill of the total nitrogen (20.0%), total phosphorus (24.3%), total potassium (11.1%), available nitrogen (11.2%), and available potassium (22.7%) suggested strong spatial correlation. The total phosphorus had the maximum range (1232.7 m), followed by available nitrogen (541.27 m), total nitrogen (468.35 m), total potassium (136.0 m), available potassium (128.7 m), available phosphorus (116.6 m), and soil organic carbon (93.5 m). Soil nutrients had no significant variation with the increase of altitude, but gradually increased from the landslide area, the transition area, to the little-impacted area. The total and available phosphorus contents of the landslide area decreased by 10.3% and 79.7% compared to that of the little-impacted area, respectively. The soil nutrient contents in the transition area accounted for 31.1%-87.2% of that of the little-impacted area, with the nant reason for the spatial variability of surface soil nutrients.

  11. [Spatial variability of surface soil nutrients in the landslide area of Beichuan County, South- west China, after 5 · 12 Wenchuan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Mai, Ji-shan; Zhao, Ting-ning; Zheng, Jiang-kun; Shi, Chang-qing

    2015-12-01

    Based on grid sampling and laboratory analysis, spatial variability of surface soil nutrients was analyzed with GS⁺ and other statistics methods on the landslide area of Fenghuang Mountain, Leigu Town, Beichuan County. The results showed that except for high variability of available phosphorus, other soil nutrients exhibited moderate variability. The ratios of nugget to sill of the soil available phosphorus and soil organic carbon were 27.9% and 28.8%, respectively, showing moderate spatial correlation, while the ratios of nugget to sill of the total nitrogen (20.0%), total phosphorus (24.3%), total potassium (11.1%), available nitrogen (11.2%), and available potassium (22.7%) suggested strong spatial correlation. The total phosphorus had the maximum range (1232.7 m), followed by available nitrogen (541.27 m), total nitrogen (468.35 m), total potassium (136.0 m), available potassium (128.7 m), available phosphorus (116.6 m), and soil organic carbon (93.5 m). Soil nutrients had no significant variation with the increase of altitude, but gradually increased from the landslide area, the transition area, to the little-impacted area. The total and available phosphorus contents of the landslide area decreased by 10.3% and 79.7% compared to that of the little-impacted area, respectively. The soil nutrient contents in the transition area accounted for 31.1%-87.2% of that of the little-impacted area, with the nant reason for the spatial variability of surface soil nutrients. PMID:27111993

  12. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

  13. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

  14. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) surveillance for arboviruses in an area endemic for West Nile (Lineage Rabensburg) and Tahyna viruses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Bakonyi, T; Kazdová, K; Halouzka, J; Sebesta, O; Sikutová, S; Juricová, Z; Nowotny, N

    2010-05-01

    Six viral isolates were obtained from 23,243 female mosquitoes (examined in 513 pools) belonging to 16 species and collected along the lower reaches of the Dyje River in South Moravia (Czech Republic, central Europe) during 2006-2008: five isolates of Orthobunyavirus Tahyna (TAHV, California group, family Bunyaviridae: three isolations from Aedes vexans (Meigen), one from Ae. sticticus (Meigen), one from Culex modestus Ficalbi); and one isolation of Flavivirus West Nile (WNV, Japanese encephalitis group, family Flaviviridae)-strain Rabensburg (proposed lineage 3 of WNV) from Ae. rossicus (Dolbeshkin et al). All viral isolates were recovered from mosquitoes collected in 2006 (15,882 mosquitoes examined), while no virus was isolated from mosquitoes trapped in 2007 and 2008, when 1,555 and 5,806 mosquitoes were examined, respectively. The population density of local mosquitoes was very low in 2007 and 2008 because of warm and dry summer including a considerably low water table, compared with environmental conditions favorable for mosquito development in 2006. The virus isolation procedure was based on intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice. In parallel, more than one-third of the samples (183 pools consisting of 8,470 individual mosquitoes) were also examined by inoculating Vero cell cultures in Leighton tubes. However, the latter method detected only three of the six virus isolates (including WNV-Rabensburg). Ae. rossicus is a new potential vector for WNV-Rabensburg. This species feeds mostly on mammals including man; this raises the question whether this virus lineage is not adapted to an alternative mosquito-mammal cycle in the South-Moravian natural focus.

  16. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324.

  17. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  18. Statistical classification of hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland and parts of the District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Brandon J.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland were classified using geographic information system tools with principal components and cluster analyses. A study area consisting of the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) watersheds with rivers that flow through the fractured rock area of Maryland and bounded by the Fall Line was further subdivided into 21,431 catchments from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus. The catchments were then used as a common hydrologic unit to compile relevant climatic, topographic, and geologic variables. A principal components analysis was performed on 10 input variables, and 4 principal components that accounted for 83 percent of the variability in the original data were identified. A subsequent cluster analysis grouped the catchments based on four principal component scores into six hydrogeologic regions. Two crystalline rock hydrogeologic regions, including large parts of the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan regions that represent over 50 percent of the fractured rock area of Maryland, are distinguished by differences in recharge, Precipitation minus Potential Evapotranspiration, sand content in soils, and groundwater contributions to streams. This classification system will provide a georeferenced digital hydrogeologic framework for future investigations of groundwater availability in the fractured rock area of Maryland.

  19. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    PubMed

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction.

  20. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city to about 90 m at the southern parts where it increases to the south and southeast directions. Generally the aquifer system in the area can be divided into Pleistocene and Pliocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifer is the shallower aquifer in the area and it consists almost of gravelly to clayey sand deposits. The Pliocene aquifer is the main aquifer where it is composed of sand to gravelly sand deposits. Depending on the results of the geoelectric prospecting represented by the true resistivity map, we can infer the quality of the groundwater. A brackish groundwater can be found at the northern and northeastern parts of the study area at shallow depths whereas relatively fresh water can be detected at the southern and southeastern parts around Wadi El Natrun city at deep depths. The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  1. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  2. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less.

  3. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less. PMID:19534157

  4. Scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), spotted fever (Rickettsia australis) and dengue fever as possible causes of mysterious deaths in the Strickland Gorge area of Southern Highlands and West Sepik Provinces of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Spicer, P E; Taufa, T; Benjamin, A L

    2007-01-01

    A medical investigation was carried out in April 2001 into an outbreak of a mysterious haemorrhagic disease and deaths in the remote picturesque Strickland River area of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The area is in part of the Southern Highlands and West Sepik Provinces and situated downstream from the Porgera Joint Venture gold mine. 9 villages were visited and 140 persons, consisting of immediate blood relatives of the deceased (cases) and others in the village picked at random (controls), were physically examined. Specimens of blood, urine and faeces were collected from each person for laboratory tests in PNG and Australia. Positive sera for dengue (15%) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) (6%) were identified. Surprisingly, a number of the sera were positive for scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) (28%) and spotted fever (Rickettsia australis) (11%). The last reported cases of scrub typhus in PNG were during World War Two among the allied troops. This is the first time spotted fever (R. australis) has been reported in PNG. These conditions may have been the cause of the deaths described by the villagers. However, there were significantly more dengue-positive results among relatives of the deceased than non-relatives though no such difference was found with rickettsial infections: haemorrhagic dengue fever is thus the most likely cause of this recurring outbreak. Mining did not appear to be a direct causal factor for the deaths in the area.

  5. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of West Virginia. West Virginia is the 41st largest state in the United States, with an area of 24,231 square miles. The total population of West Virginia in 2008 was 1,814,468, making it the 37th most populous state in the United States. Current expenditures per pupil are…

  6. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  7. 77 FR 25225 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA--4061--DR), dated 03/22/2012. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, mudslides and... West Virginia, dated 03/22/2012 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely...

  8. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  9. 75 FR 41246 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00020

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00020 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated 06/ 24/2010. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, mudslides, and... West Virginia, dated 06/24/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely...

  10. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  11. 77 FR 25224 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated 03/ 16/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Flooding... State of WEST VIRGINIA, dated 03/16/2012 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  12. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  13. 41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION 111 INTO SERVICE AREA SHOWING SECURITY LOCK ON DOOR AND CONTROLS FOR WEST PLATFORMS IMMEDIATELY SOUTH (RIGHT) OF DOOR - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  15. Effect of Olive mill wastewater spreading on soil wettability and acidity under different season in a semi humid area: A field study in Bait Reema - West Bank - Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamimi, Nesreen; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated seasonally in large amounts during the olive oil production in Palestine, and it is often disposal of in uncontrolled manner into the open environment. OMW has a high amount of phototoxic compounds, high salinity and acidity and therefore is challenging when disposed on soil. The objective of this study was to study the persistence and degree of water repellency during different season of OMW application in soil samples (0-5 cm deep), and to elucidate how extent this phenomenon is associated with soil acidity, to analyze the relationships between soil water repellency and environmental factors including, temperature and moisture and to describe the seasonal variation in the phenol concentration of the soil. In order to understand how climatic conditions at the time of OMW disposal affect the development of soil water repelleny in field, soil acidity and phenol content in soil, we conducted a field study in Bait Reema village in the West Bank - Palestine. The study site is characterized by 1.5 m thick brown rendzina and has an annual average rainfall of 550 mm. On an extensively used olive orchard field, we implemented 16 plots (2.5 x 3.5 m). OMW application (14 L / m2) was conducted either in winter, spring or summer on two replicate plots distributed randomly among the 16 plots. To test the effect of soil moisture on the persistence of OMW effects, we implemented an OMW application in summer on two additional plots, but kept those plots moist before and after OMW application until start of the rain season. For each of the treatment variants, we implemented two control plots which were treated in the same way as their counterparts, but with tap water. Soil samples (0-5 cm) were collected after 2 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months , 9 months, 12 months , and 18 months. pH was determined and analyzed in aqueous soil extracts (1:5), the total phenol content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, soil water

  16. Geohydrology, ground-water availability, and ground-water quality of Berkeley County, West Virginia, with emphasis on the carbonate-rock area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, R.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Kozar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Berkeley County is underlain by carbonate rocks, upon which karst topography has developed, and by noncarbonate rocks. Ground-water levels tend to follow seasonal trends, and fluctuate more in carbonate areas than in noncarbonate areas. Well yields of greater than 100 gallons per minute are possible from the carbonate rocks, but are unlikely from the noncarbonate rocks. The largest springs, which yield more than 2,000 gallons per minute, are located in the carbonate rocks and are typically on or near faults or the limestone-shale contacts. Ground-water-flow velocities in the carbonate rocks ranged from 32 to 1,879 feet per day. Recharge was estimated to be about 10 inches per year for a 60-square-mile area of carbonate rocks. Specific yield for carbonate rocks ranged from 0.044 to 0.049. Estimated transmissivity values for carbonate rocks ranged from 730 to 9,140 feet squared per day. Concentrations of the following constituents exceeded the maximum and secondary maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in ground water from at least one site: iron, manganese, nitrate, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria, pH, total dissolved solids, and chloride. Analyses of the ground water indicated that the following organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides were present in detectable concentrations: chlordane, DDE, DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and malathion. Triazine herbicides that were present in detectable concentrations were atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine. Radon concentrations ranged from 92 to 1,600 picocuries per liter. Ground water from four springs in the carbonate rocks was analyzed for 36 volatile organic compounds. None of the compounds were present in detectable concentrations.

  17. Mapping Deforestation In Parts Of The Amazon Forest Using JERS-1 SAR Images: Case Study For An Area North West Of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Li, S.

    2008-12-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon rain forests, especially around Rondonia, is well known and documented in literature. Time series analyses of deforestation from 1975 through 2001 using medium resolution images from the Landsat satellite are available. However, as the Brazilian rain forests are often masked with thick cloud cover, the use of satellite images acquired in the visible and infrared region for deforestation studies poses a serious limitation, as the cloud free scenes for a season in a particular year are few or not available at all. Processing images acquired by JERS-1 from 1993 through 1996, for an area just northwest of the town of Rondonia, Brazil, we demonstrated the potential of SAR images to successfully map deforested areas and to serve as a complimentary data source to optical images for monitoring deforestation activities. An important objective of our study was to devise a simple image processing scheme that could be used by novice users without the need for expensive commercially available software packages. Image pre-processing included importing, georeferencing, and subsetting all images to bring them to a common format, projection and coverage. Image processing involved classification using unsupervised maximum likelihood classifier and by density slicing (grey scale thresholding). The classified product, which showed a strong "salt pepper effect" due to high frequency variations, was smoothed out using a Gamma MAP filter of different kernel sizes to generate the final forest cover map. Simpler low pass filters were also tested. We also tested the effect of image filtering prior to image classification. Amount of deforestation was computed by taking the numeric difference in the number of pixels classified as forest and multiplying this difference by the pixel size. Processing results showed that unsupervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier gave results slightly superior to a simple density slicing. Image filtering prior to

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sun River area, west-central Montana, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Sun River area was selected for a reconnaissance investigation of irrigation drainage because sufficient information existed to indicate that potential problems of a toxic nature might exist. The area of study included the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freeze-out Lake Game Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Water, bottom sediment , and biota were sampled at selected sites and analyzed for inorganic and organic constituents that could be toxic at large concentrations. Although selenium was of primary concern, other trace elements and selected pesticides were also analyzed. Some water quality problems have been prevalent for many years in the Sun River Irrigation Projects, including the Sun River and Muddy Creek. However, during this study, most sampling sites were free of concentrations of toxic constituents that are in excess of established criteria and standards. There was little change in arsenic, boron, mercury, and selenium concentrations in fish and invertebrates at Sun River sampling sites upstream and downstream from the irrigation project. Presently, the most serious threat within the irrigation project appears to be from nitrate in groundwater. Water from some wells contains nitrate concentration in excess of drinking water standards (10 mg/L) established for the State of Montana. The largest selenium concentrations in water and bottom sediment were from seeps that surround Benton Lake, with maximum concentrations of 580 mg/L in water and biological samples. Several eared-grebe livers from Freezeout Lake and several coot livers and eggs from Benton Lake had selenium concentrations indicative of contamination. (See also W89-07064) (Author 's abstract)

  19. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  20. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating, paleomagnetism, and tephrochemistry of Pliocene strata of the hominid-bearing Woranso-Mille area, west-central Afar Rift, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deino, Alan L; Scott, Gary R; Saylor, Beverly; Alene, Mulugeta; Angelini, Joshua D; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-02-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of tuffs and mafic lavas, tephra geochemistry, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy have been used to establish the chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene hominid-bearing fossiliferous succession at Woranso-Mille, a paleontological study area in the western part of the central Afar region of Ethiopia. The succession in the northwestern part of the study area ranges in (40)Ar/(39)Ar age from 3.82-3.570 Ma, encompassed by paleomagnetic subchron C2Ar (4.187-3.596 Ma). One of the major tuff units, locally named the Kilaytoli tuff, is correlative on the basis of age and geochemistry to the Lokochot Tuff of the Turkana Basin. A hominid partial skeleton (KSD-VP-1) was found in strata whose precise stratigraphic position and age is still under investigation, but is believed to correspond to the later part of this interval. Woranso-Mille fills a significant gap in the fossil record of northeastern Africa at the time of the lower to middle Pliocene transition, when many extant species lineages of African fauna were established.

  1. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating, paleomagnetism, and tephrochemistry of Pliocene strata of the hominid-bearing Woranso-Mille area, west-central Afar Rift, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deino, Alan L; Scott, Gary R; Saylor, Beverly; Alene, Mulugeta; Angelini, Joshua D; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-02-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of tuffs and mafic lavas, tephra geochemistry, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy have been used to establish the chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene hominid-bearing fossiliferous succession at Woranso-Mille, a paleontological study area in the western part of the central Afar region of Ethiopia. The succession in the northwestern part of the study area ranges in (40)Ar/(39)Ar age from 3.82-3.570 Ma, encompassed by paleomagnetic subchron C2Ar (4.187-3.596 Ma). One of the major tuff units, locally named the Kilaytoli tuff, is correlative on the basis of age and geochemistry to the Lokochot Tuff of the Turkana Basin. A hominid partial skeleton (KSD-VP-1) was found in strata whose precise stratigraphic position and age is still under investigation, but is believed to correspond to the later part of this interval. Woranso-Mille fills a significant gap in the fossil record of northeastern Africa at the time of the lower to middle Pliocene transition, when many extant species lineages of African fauna were established. PMID:20034653

  2. INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. Soil erosion and risk-assessment for on- and off-farm impacts: a test case using the Midhurst area, West Sussex, UK.

    PubMed

    Boardman, John; Shepheard, Mark L; Walker, Edward; Foster, Ian D L

    2009-06-01

    Soil erosion on agricultural land is a growing problem in Western Europe and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. The off-site impacts of runoff and eroded soil, principally eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of gravel-bedded rivers, loss of reservoir capacity, muddy flooding of roads and communities, are increasingly recognised and costed. The shift of funding in the European Union (EU) from production-related to avoidance of pollution and landscape protection, raises issues of cross-compliance: public support for agriculture has to be seen to give value-for-money. In this context risk-assessment procedures have been introduced to help farmers recognise sites where either certain crops should not be grown or anti-erosion measures are required. In England, Defra [Defra, 2005a. Controlling Soil Erosion: a Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Revised September 2005. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London] sets out a system of risk-assessment, including ranking of crops susceptible to erosion and anti-erosion measures, that may be selected. We assess this system using field data for an area of erodible soils in the Rother valley, Sussex. The Defra approach correctly identifies most at-risk fields and, taken together with land-use maps, allows non-compliance with advice to be highlighted. We suggest a simple extension to the system which would further identify at-risk fields in terms of possible damage to roads and rivers from muddy runoff. The increased risk of erosion in the study area is associated with certain crops: potatoes, winter cereals, maize and grazed turnips and seems unlikely to be the result of changes in rainfall which over the last 130 years are minimal. We have not evaluated proposed anti-erosion measures in the area because few have been put into practice. The European Water Framework

  4. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop ...

  5. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater as Part of the Greenland Analogue Project in an Area of Continuous Permafrost Adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkemans, E.; Frape, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson-Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Annable, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    Studying groundwater in areas of continuous permafrost is often limited to studies of springs and open pingos (eg. Pollard et al. 1999 and Allen et al. 1976). Boreholes in such locations are expensive, risky and logistically challenging (eg. Stotler et al. 2011) resulting in a limited understanding of the interaction between continental scale ice sheets and groundwater. Continental ice sheet models are often coupled to groundwater flow systems; however, there is a lack of modern field data with which to compare the results of models and their treatment of groundwater flow systems under the influence of glaciation. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) aims to eliminate some of the uncertainties in modeling ice sheets by using the Greenland ice sheet as a modern analogue for past glaciations. Since 2009, 3 boreholes have been drilled, 2 of which contain sampling systems. DH-GAP01 is a 191 m deep borehole drilled at an angle into a talik and has been sampled and studied since 2009. DH-GAP04 is a 632 m deep, angled borehole that intersects the groundwater flow system directly beneath Isunguata Sermia and is producing preliminary groundwater samples. Additional information on groundwater in the Kangerlussuaq area comes from a spring located directly in front of the Leverett ice lobe. Geochemical and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H, δ37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S and δ18O of SO4) tools are used to interpret geochemical processes acting on groundwaters and provide insight into groundwater flow. Analyses of δ18O and δ2H in groundwaters from DH-GAP01 show the borehole waters fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Evaporation is an important process affecting the δ18O-δ2H of surface waters in the region causing lakes to plot along a local evaporation line (Leng and Anderson, 2003). The waters from the Leverett spring plot to the right of the GMWL as possibly a mixture of groundwater and surface evaporated fluids. However, both the waters from DH-GAP01 and the Leverett

  7. 7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST WALL BEYOND ROOF LINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ELEVATION HAS TWO STORIES. IDO MTR-635-IDO-7-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110590, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  11. High Species C Human Adenovirus Genome Copy Numbers in the Treated Water Supply of a Neotropical Area of the Central-West Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hugo D; Fongaro, Gislaine; Garcíazapata, Marco T A; Melo, Arthur T O; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P; de Faria, Karla M S; Anunciação, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    There is little information about the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV) in drinking water in Neotropical regions. Thus, the present study sought to conduct quantification and molecular characterization of HAdVs detected in treated water samples from an area of the Cerrado ecoregion of Brazil. Between August and November 2012, samples were collected from four treated water reservoirs and their respective sites along the water distribution network of the city of Goiânia, for a total of 80 samples. All samples were concentrated and analyzed by qPCR, and selected samples were sequenced. Overall, 76.6 (10(0)-10(9) GC mL(-1)) and 37.5% (10(1)-10(8) GC mL(-1)) of samples drawn from reservoirs and their distribution sites, respectively, were positive for virus by qPCR. All samples selected for sequencing were characterized as species C human adenovirus. Such high HAdV counts have in treated water samples. This finding merits special attention, particularly from the sanitation authorities, because the high number of GC mL(-1) may be an indicative of risk to human health.

  12. Consolidated environmental regulation in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, D.M.; Beckett, K.G.; McThomas, M.P.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, West Virginia enacted the single largest piece of legislation in its history. The 1,400-page bill that made up this legislation was the crowning achievement of more than a decade of efforts to consolidate and streamline West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs. The result has been the empowerment of the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (DEP) as the centerpiece of environmental regulation in West Virginia. This Article explores the principal initiatives leading to the passage of the legislation empowering the DEP. In addition, it analyzes the substantive provisions of the DEP`s legislative authority and the relationship of that authority to other agencies. Finally, this Article identifies additional areas for the refinement of West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs.

  13. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  14. Hydrologic and water-quality data related to the occurrence of arsenic for areas along the Madison and Upper Missouri Rivers, southwestern and west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuck, L.K.; Dutton, D.M.; Nimick, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park contribute large quantities of arsenic to the headwaters of the Madison River. Water in some Quaternary and Tertiary valley-fill deposits along the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers also is locally enriched in arsenic. Arsenic in surface and ground water in these valleys is an important public- health concern because arsenic concentrations frequently exceed the State of Montana water- quality human health standard of 18 micrograms per liter as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter. This report presents hydrologic and water-quality data for the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers and selected tributaries, irrigation supply canals or ditches, drains, springs and seeps, for Lake Helena, and for ground water in adjacent areas. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected and compiled to provide information to more fully understand the extent, magnitude, and source of arsenic in surface and ground water along the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers; to assess, to the extent possible, the mechanisms that control arsenic concentrations; and to assess the effect of irrigation on arsenic concentrations. Hydrologic and arsenic- concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies for 104 surface-water sites and 273 ground-water sites during this and previous studies. The quality of analytical results for arsenic concentrations was evaluated by quality-control samples that were submitted from the field and analyzed in the laboratory with routing samples. Quality-control samples consisted of replicates, standard reference samples, interlaboratory comparison samples, and field blanks.

  15. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India—Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan

    PubMed Central

    Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M. A.; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  16. Impact of aerial spraying of pyrethrin insecticide on Culex pipiens and Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and West Nile virus infection rates in an urban/suburban area of Sacramento County, California.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Kelley, Kara; Wright, Stan; Laffey, Rhonda; Yoshimura, Glenn; Reed, Marcia; Goodman, Gary; Thiemann, Tara; Reimer, Lisa; Reisen, William K; Brown, David

    2008-07-01

    In response to an epidemic amplification of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), the Sacramento and Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District (SYMVCD) sprayed ultralow-volume (ULV) formulations of pyrethrin insecticide (Evergreen EC 60-6: 6% pyrethrin insecticide, 60% piperonylbutoxide; MGK, Minneapolis, MN, applied as 0.003 kg/ha [0.0025 lb/acre] ) over 218 km2 in north Sacramento and 243.5 km2 in south Sacramento on three consecutive evenings in August 2005. We evaluated the impact of this intervention in north Sacramento on the abundance and WNV infection rates of Culex pipiens L. and Culex tarsalis Coquillett. Mortality rates of caged Cx. tarsalis sentinels ranged from 0% under dense canopy to 100% in open fields. A comparison of weekly geometric mean mosquito abundance in CO2-baited traps in sprayed and unsprayed areas before and after treatment indicated a 75.0 and 48.7% reduction in the abundance of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis, respectively. This reduction was statistically significant for Cx. pipiens, the primary vector of WNV, with highest abundance in this urban area, but not for Cx. tarsalis, which is more associated with rural areas. The infection rates of WNV in Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis collected from the spray zone were 8.2 and 4.3 per 1,000 female mosquitoes in the 2 wk before and the 2 wk after applications of insecticide, respectively. In comparison, WNV infection rates in Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis collected at same time interval in the unsprayed zone were 2.0 and 8.7 per 1,000, respectively. Based on the reduction in vector abundance and its effects on number of infective bites received by human population, we concluded that the aerial application ofpyrethrin insecticide reduced the transmission intensity of WNV and decreased the risk of human infection. PMID:18714879

  17. The feasibility of population migration from arid mountainous areas of Central Gansu to the oasis west of the Yellow River in the province.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Zhang, Z; Yuan, H

    1991-01-01

    This article on population migration from Central Gansu, China, which is made up of 18 impoverished counties in Dingxi Region, to Hexi in the Yellow River Valley focuses on the basic mechanisms and characteristics of population migration, the effects of migration on adaptability, the return rate, and the socioeconomic and ecological benefits of migration. Analysis is based on logical deduction and empirical evidence. The reasons for migration are poverty and unchecked population growth. Population in Central Gansu doubled (110.1%) between 1952-83, while the population in the province increased 86.67% and in the country 83.52%. Per capita grain allocations in Dingxi and the marginal utility of agricultural production declined. Population pressure led to short supplies of food and fuel and excessive land reclamation, which produced soil erosion, and a downward spiral. Migrants were attracted to Hexi because of favorable farming conditions and a developed economy. Subsidies were used to encourage people to migrate voluntarily. 31,485 people migrated to the Hexi Corridor in 1988. 4450 came from Huining County and 3743 from Dingxi. Most went to Jiuquan (17,490 people), and 7,357 migrated to Zhongye, both areas with good irrigation facilities. 78.33% of the migrants were individually placed and 21.67% were placed as groups in "hanging" villages of 320/village. The inter-regional migration rate was 85.27% between 1983-86 in Jiuquan region, or 14,000 people. Migrants found their living conditions to be greatly improved. Per capita income increased 12.8 times from 497.5 yuan in 1983, while the income of nonmigrants underwent only a 4.45-fold increase. There were also differences in grain allocation. Jiuquan had a low return migration rate of 14.73% between 1983-86. Variations occur from region to region due to excessive economic disparity, incomplete basic facilities, and forced group migration. The annual yield of investment in migration was 19.87%, which makes the

  18. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallock, Robert J., (Edited By); Hallock, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

  19. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 m. y. old in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of the west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee and others (1974), Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976). The abstract by McKee and others (1974) lists only the ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). The dates of Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976) are taken from written communications cited by Luedke and Smith (1978); therefore, both references are shown on the map for those ages.

  20. The prevalence of goiter and hypothyroidism among school children 6 years after introduction of a mandatory salt iodination program in a severely iodine-deficient area of the West Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Hakan; Gozkaya, Sercin; Yesildal, Nuray; Okur, Mesut; Arslanoglu, İlknur; Kocabay, Kenan; Senses, Dursun A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of iodine deficiency after mandatory salt iodization in Yığılca's school-aged children. A total of 806 school children aged 6-19 years were evaluated. The prevalence of goiter in children aged 6-12 and 13-19 years was 20.3 and 23.8%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in children aged 6-12 and 13-19 years was 10.4 and 18.9%, respectively. The median serum free tetraiodothyronine (fT4) levels in children aged 6-12 and 13-19-years were 1.16 ng/dL and 0.91 ng/dL, respectively. The median urinary iodine concentration levels in children aged 6-12 and 13-19 years were 83 µg/l and 78 µg/l, respectively. The frequency of autoimmune thyroid disease was 2.1% in Yığılca's SAC. Goiter and iodine deficiency problems remain in rural areas of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  1. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bounded by the Cross Creek Tax District Marshall, WV 1 Marshall County (part) 10-4-13 Nonattainment. Area consisting of Clay Tax district, Franklin Tax District, and Washington Tax District 1 Excludes Indian country located in each area, if any, unless otherwise specified. West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated...

  2. 14. WEST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 343 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WEST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 343 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. 70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO STORAGE AREA SHOWING THE FOUR STORAGE ROOM ENTRANCES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  4. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. 11. WEST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 342 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. WEST FRONT ELEVATION OF BUILDING 342 (STORAGE MAGAZINE) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration.

  9. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  10. West Nile Virus in California

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

  11. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  12. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation and stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  15. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  17. Identification of third-order (approx. 10{sup 6} yrs) and fourth-order (approx. 10{sup 5}/10{sup 4} yrs) stratigraphic cycles in the South Addition, West Cameron Lease Area, Louisiana offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Meeks, P.; Hoffman, K.

    1996-09-01

    In the highly explored South Addition of the West Cameron Lease Area, Louisiana offshore, interpretation of a six-mile ({approx}10 km) seismic section across a single intraslope basin yielded 20 sediment packages. Several interpretive tools were necessary. Seismic stratigraphy indicated that the shallower zone was an outer shelf marked by 8 major sea level oscillations. In the portion between 1 and 3 seconds, seismic stratigraphy and paleontology led to the interpretation of depositional environments such as upper slope, and paleobathymetrically deeper intervals with descent through the section. The intraslope basin, while small, may be viewed as a micro-continental margin. Each sea level oscillation cycle apparently made a distinct progradational unit, decipherable in the seismic data. Fourth order cycles have been provisionally interpreted, throughout most of the entire 3.7 second section. Such precision is possible only in explored basins with excellent seismic data. The sequence thickness showed a seven-fold variability, from 0.08 to 0.58 seconds. The shallower section, deposited along an outer shelf, has an average individual sequence thickness of 0.13 seconds. Individual seismic sequences in the deeper section, interpreted to have been deposited on an upper slope, have average thicknesses of 0.25 seconds. The thinner sequences of the shallower section are compatible with the notion that the outer shelf was a bypass zone during a glacial epoch. The thicker sequences of the deeper section are the result of deposition onto an aggrading upper slope within an intraslope basin during a highstand.

  18. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. . Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Hazeltine, R.D. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Gentle, K.W. ); Hogan, J.T. ); Porkolab, M. . Dept. of Physics); Sigmar

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995.

  19. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Tarit; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori

    2003-06-01

    An investigation of arsenic, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc and selenium concentration in foodstuffs and drinking water, collected from 34 families and estimation of the average daily dietary intake were carried out in the arsenic-affected areas of the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, Murshidabad district, West Bengal where arsenic-contaminated groundwater (mean: 0.11 mg/l, n=34) is the main source for drinking. The shallow large diameter tubewells, installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean: 0.094 mg/l, n=10). So some arsenic can be expected in the food chain and food cultivated in this area. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic. The mean arsenic levels in food categories are vegetables (20.9 and 21.2 microg/kg), cereals and bakery goods (130 and 179 microg/kg) and spices (133 and 202 microg/kg) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. For all other heavy metals, the observed mean concentration values are mostly in good agreement with the reported values around the world (except higher zinc in cereals). The provisional tolerable daily intake value of inorganic arsenic microg/kg body wt./day) is: for adult males (11.8 and 9.4); adult females (13.9 and 11); and children (15.3 and 12) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively (according to FAO/WHO report, the value is 2.1 microg/kg body wt./day). According to WHO, intake of 1.0 mg of inorganic arsenic per day may give rise to skin lesions within a few years. The average daily dietary intake of copper, nickel and manganese is high, whereas for zinc, the value is low (for adult males: 8.34 and 10.2 mg/day; adult females: 8.26 and 10.3 mg/day; and children: 4.59 and 5.66 mg/day) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively, compared to the recommended dietary allowance of zinc for adult males, adult females and children (15, 12 and 10 mg/day, respectively). The average daily dietary intake of selenium microg/kg body wt

  1. Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Tarit; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori

    2003-06-01

    An investigation of arsenic, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc and selenium concentration in foodstuffs and drinking water, collected from 34 families and estimation of the average daily dietary intake were carried out in the arsenic-affected areas of the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, Murshidabad district, West Bengal where arsenic-contaminated groundwater (mean: 0.11 mg/l, n=34) is the main source for drinking. The shallow large diameter tubewells, installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean: 0.094 mg/l, n=10). So some arsenic can be expected in the food chain and food cultivated in this area. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic. The mean arsenic levels in food categories are vegetables (20.9 and 21.2 microg/kg), cereals and bakery goods (130 and 179 microg/kg) and spices (133 and 202 microg/kg) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. For all other heavy metals, the observed mean concentration values are mostly in good agreement with the reported values around the world (except higher zinc in cereals). The provisional tolerable daily intake value of inorganic arsenic microg/kg body wt./day) is: for adult males (11.8 and 9.4); adult females (13.9 and 11); and children (15.3 and 12) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively (according to FAO/WHO report, the value is 2.1 microg/kg body wt./day). According to WHO, intake of 1.0 mg of inorganic arsenic per day may give rise to skin lesions within a few years. The average daily dietary intake of copper, nickel and manganese is high, whereas for zinc, the value is low (for adult males: 8.34 and 10.2 mg/day; adult females: 8.26 and 10.3 mg/day; and children: 4.59 and 5.66 mg/day) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively, compared to the recommended dietary allowance of zinc for adult males, adult females and children (15, 12 and 10 mg/day, respectively). The average daily dietary intake of selenium microg/kg body wt

  2. 1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233S), ReductionOxidation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233-S), Reduction-Oxidation Building (REDOX-202-S) to the right. Looking east. - Reduction-Oxidation Complex, Plutonium Concentration Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. 1. 185/189D in center, north end west facades (190D front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 185/189-D in center, north end west facades (190-D front left and west facade; 195-D rear right). Looking south. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  4. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  5. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. West and south sides of the west wing of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south sides of the west wing of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Temporal Changes in Spatial Distribution of Basal Melting and Freezing in the Catchment Areas of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C, West Antarctica: Interplay of Climatic Changes and Ice Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, S. W.; Tulaczyk, S.; Joughin, I.

    2002-12-01

    Basal thermal regimen of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) plays the key role in determining the dynamics and stability of this ice sheet. Basal melt water lubricates the ice base allowing fast ice streaming while basal freeze-on increases basal resistance to ice flow. Within WAIS, basal melting is dominant in the interior, where geothermal heat is trapped underneath ~2-to-4-km-thick layer of ice. Basal freeze-on is dominant beneath the slow moving, ~1-km-thick interstream ridges separating fast-moving ice streams. There, conductive heat escape through exceeds the geothermal flux and basal frictional heating is low. Using a time-dependent basal energy balance model (Vogel et al., in press) we examined spatial and temporal distribution of basal melting and freezing in the catchment areas of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~20,000 years ago). Model results indicate that basal melting peaked despite lower surface temperatures during late LGM (~15,000), due to a thickened ice sheet (Steig et al., 2001). This widespread and abundant basal lubrication may have initiated the retreat and thinning of the ice sheet that continued through the Holocene. However, the ice-sheet thinning itself caused gradually a general decrease in basal melting rates in spite of higher Holocene surface temperatures. This reduction in basal water production may be responsible for the recent stoppage of Ice Stream C and slow down of the Whillans Ice Stream. Our modeling results indicate that WAIS is still adjusting to the significant climate warming that marked the end of the LGM and the beginning of Holocene. Only the thinnest portions of the Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Stream C (<1 km) might have adjusted enough to cause locally significant basal freeze-on and to, at least temporarily, slow the ice sheet decay (Joughin and Tulaczyk, 2002). Basal thermal regimen of the rest of WAIS is changing in such a way as to favor increased basal melting, and

  8. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  9. West Nile virus: North American experience.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  10. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  11. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  13. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  14. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  15. 9. WEST SIDE OF HANGAR, FACING NORTHEAST. TAKEN FROM LOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST SIDE OF HANGAR, FACING NORTHEAST. TAKEN FROM LOW ROOF OF TAN 679 ON WEST SIDE OF HANGAR. DETAIL OF ARCH ABUTMENTS, FOUNDATIONS, SMC WASTE HANDLING STRUCTURE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Reclamation of abandoned mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reclamation of abandoned mine lands in West Virginia involves disturbed areas from both surface and deep mining activities. Reclamation of deep mine lands deal with mine waste piles and mine openings. Reclamation of surface mine lands involves shaping and grading material to obtain a stable slope and installing water management practices.

  17. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification.... Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH: Cabell County Nonattainment. Mason County (part) Nonattainment. Graham Tax District Wayne County Nonattainment. Marion County, WV (aka Fairmont CBSA): Harrison County (part)...

  18. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type Classification... Attainment. Graham Tax District Wayne County 12/28/12 Attainment. Marion County, WV (aka Fairmont CBSA): Harrison County (part) Tax District of Clay Unclassifiable/Attainment. Marion County...

  19. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  20. West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P; Arroyo, J; Miller, C; Guirakhoo, F

    2001-05-01

    Within the past 5 years, West Nile encephalitis has emerged as an important disease of humans and horses in Europe. In 1999, the disease appeared for the first time in the northeastern United States. West Nile virus (a mosquito-borne flavivirus) has flourished in the North American ecosystem and is expected to expand its geographic range. In this review, the rationale for a human and veterinary vaccine is presented and a novel approach for rapid development of a molecularly-defined, live, attenuated vaccine is described. The technology (ChimeriVax) is applicable to the development of vaccines against all flaviviruses, and products against Japanese encephalitis (a close relative of West Nile) and dengue are in or are nearing clinical trials, respectively. ChimeriVax vaccines utilize the safe and effective vaccine against the prototype flavivirus -yellow fever 17D- as a live vector. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of yellow fever 17D vaccine with the corresponding genes of the target virus (e.g., West Nile). The resulting chimeric virus contains the antigens responsible for protection against West Nile but retains the replication efficiency of yellow fever 17D. The ChimeriVax technology is well-suited to the rapid development of a West Nile vaccine, and clinical trials could begin as early as mid-2002. Other approaches to vaccine development are briefly reviewed. The aim of this brief review is to describe the features of West Nile encephalitis, a newly introduced infectious disease affecting humans, horses and wildlife in the United States; the rationale for rapid development of vaccines; and approaches to the development of vaccines against the disease.

  1. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  3. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  4. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  6. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  7. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  11. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EMAD FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE E-MAD FACILITY AND THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL SETTING. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 14. VIEW IN THE WEST OPERATING GALLERY OF POSTMORTEM CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW IN THE WEST OPERATING GALLERY OF POST-MORTEM CELL WORK STATION AND MANIPULATOR ARMS. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. 5. View toward west, east face ("B" wall) of perimeter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View toward west, east face ("B" wall) of perimeter acquisition radar building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. 2. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  16. Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, building 1205, view to west showing roof truss system, 90 mm lens plus electronic flash fill lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. 2. VIEW OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE OF BUILDING #2205 (AREA CONTAINING STORAGE AND EQUIPMENT SUPPLIES), FACING SOUTHEAST. - Medford Service Center, Warehouse, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  18. 8. BUILDING 8769, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING 8769, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  1. 4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE AND ORIGINAL WINDOW. See also PA-1345 C-5 - Marshall's Court Area Study, David Simpson House, 411 Marshall's Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. View of first level, north access, from west. Hoist motors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level, north access, from west. Hoist motors for 200-ton derrick with "American" label in mid-ground right of center. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 13. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT IN ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT IN ROOM 2, RADIATION EFFECTS ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell A Facility, Test Cell A Building & Addition, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road F, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall of stacked 4' X 6' 's in foreground. Opening leads to refrigeration equipment area. Freezer room to the rear. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  7. GOES-West animation of Tropical Storm Rick

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the weakening of Tropical Storm Rick into a remnant low pressure area from Nov. 21 to Nov. 23. Credit: NASA/NOAA...

  8. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  11. 2. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house, west facing front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house, west facing front and south side, looking northeast from within yard area. - Clovelley Farm Tenant House, 4958 Paris Road (east side), Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  12. 2. LOOKING NORTHWEST PAST THE CRANE AT THE WEST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTHWEST PAST THE CRANE AT THE WEST END OF THE PROJECT AREA, TOWARD THE CHANNEL AND MT. TAMALPAIS BEHIND THE CRANES IN THE FAR DISTANCE. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  13. 7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  14. 41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, (RIGHT) IN FOREGROUND - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  15. 25. STATIC TEST TOWER WEST SIDE STANDING ON FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. STATIC TEST TOWER WEST SIDE - STANDING ON FLAME DEFLECTOR GRILL LOOKING UP TOWARDS F-1 ENGINE SET UP. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. 30. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF A SECOND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF A SECOND CONTROL PANEL IN ROOM 105, THE CONTROL ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 32. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF A HONEYWELL WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF A HONEYWELL WALL PRESSURE GAUGE IN ROOM 105, THE CONTROL ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 15. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF ROOM 107, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF ROOM 107, THE HOT STORAGE AND PACKAGING ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. Closeup view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of EPA Farm cattle shelter lamp, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  1. 7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  2. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  3. 51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST (REAR) ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. EXTERIOR CLOSEUP VIEW OF SINGLE BAY ON WEST FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR CLOSEUP VIEW OF SINGLE BAY ON WEST FACADE - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 56, Wright Field Warehouse, block bounded by E & F, Third & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  5. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  6. NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. 29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. Composting moves west

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.

    1996-05-01

    The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

  9. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world.

  10. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

  11. West Flank Coso FORGE Magnetotelluric 3D Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-01-01

    This is the 3D version of the MT data for the West Flank FORGE area.The Coso geothermal field has had three Magnetotelluric (MT) datasets collected including surveys in 2003, 2006, and 2011. The final collection, in 2011, expanded the survey to the west and covers the West Flank of FORGE area.This most recent data set was collected by Schlumberger/WesternGeco and inverted by the WesternGeco GeoSolutions Integrated EM Center of Excellence in Milan, Italy; the 2003 and 2006 data were integrated for these inversions in the present study.

  12. 51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, part of original Forest Cottage as of 1901. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  13. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  14. 3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO EAST. DETAIL OF WEST FACE OF WEST STATION HOUSE. GREEK REVIVAL WINDOW ENTABLATURE. - Union Elevated Railroad, Madison-Wabash Avenue Station, Madison Steet & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  16. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  17. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  18. 282. 183234 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (50511) TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    282. 1832-34 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (505-11) TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  19. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south abutment and south railing panel looking east - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD