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Sample records for kaohsiung harbor taiwan

  1. Composition and source of butyltins in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2015-04-01

    Fifty-eight sediment samples were collected from the Kaohsiung Harbor (Taiwan) for analyses of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), using gas chromatography/flame photometric detector (GC/FPD). The concentration of total butyltins (ΣBTs), sum of MBT, DBT, and TBT, varied from 3.9 to 158.5 ng Sn/g dw in sediment samples with TBT being the major component of the sediment samples, except for the vicinity of the Love River mouth where MBT was the most abundant BT compound (a proportion of over 57%). Based on the BTs concentration, distribution, composition and correlations, the sources of BTs found in harbor sediments are shipping activities, and TBT is the main pollutant; the estuary (i.e. Love River) has been the anthropogenic source of MBT from upstream inputs. Influences of TBT on aquatic organisms are evaluated using the toxicity guidelines proposed by the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and the ACCI (assessment class criterion for imposex) proposed by OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commission). The evaluation shows that the TBT contained in the sediment at Kaohsiung Harbor is likely to have a negative influence at ACCI class C because gastropods present imposex and TBT levels are above ecotoxicological assessment criteria (EAC) limits.

  2. Seasonality of diffusive exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene across the air-sea interface of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Meng-Der; Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2008-12-15

    Gaseous and dissolved concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in the ambient air and water of Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon, Taiwan, from December 2003 to January 2005. During the rainy season (April to September), gaseous PCB and HCB concentrations were low due to both scavenging by precipitation and dilution by prevailing southwesterly winds blown from the atmosphere of the South China Sea. In contrast, trace precipitation and prevailing northeasterly winds during the dry season (October to March) resulted in higher gaseous PCB and HCB concentrations. Instantaneous air-water exchange fluxes of PCB homologues and HCB were calculated from 22 pairs of air and water samples from Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon. All net fluxes of PCB homologues and HCB in this study are from water to air (net volatilization). The highest net volatile flux observed was +172 ng m(-)(2) day(-1) (dichlorobiphenyls) in December, 2003 due to the high wind speed and high dissolved concentration. The PCB homologues and HCB fluxes were significantly governed by dissolved concentrations in Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon. For low molecular weight PCBs (LMW PCBs), their fluxes were also significantly correlated with wind speed. The net PCB and HCB fluxes suggest that the annual sums of 69 PCBs and HCB measured in this study were mainly volatile (57.4 x 10(3) and 28.3 x 10(3) ng m(-2) yr(-1), respectively) and estimated yearly, 1.5 kg and 0.76 kg of PCBs and HCB were emitted from the harbor lagoon surface waters to the ambient atmosphere. The average tPCB flux in this study was about one-tenth of tPCB fluxes seen in New York Harbor and in the Delaware River, which are reported to be greatly impacted by PCBs.

  3. Diffusive exchange of PAHs across the air-water interface of the Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Meng-Der; Lee, Chon-Lin; Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E

    2012-11-15

    Instantaneous air-water polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exchange fluxes were calculated in 22 pairs of ambient air and water samples from Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon, from December 2003 to January 2005. The highest net volatilization (3135 ng m(-2) day(-1)) and absorptive (-1150 ng m(-2) day(-1)) fluxes in the present study were obtained for the three-ring PAH phenanthrene on 7 April and 27 January 2004, respectively. All PAH diffusive fluxes for three-ring PAHs except phenanthrene were mainly volatilization exchange across the air-water interface. Phenanthrene and the four-ring PAHs were absorbed primarily from the atmosphere and deposited to the surface water, although some minor volatilization fluxes were also observed. Differences in flux magnitude and direction between the dry and wet seasons were also evident for PAHs. Strong absorptive/weaker volatilization PAH fluxes occurred in the dry season, but the opposite was found in the wet season. The mean daily PAH diffusive fluxes were an in flux of -635 ng m(-2) day(-1) in the dry season and an efflux of 686 ng m(-2) day(-1) in the wet season. The integrated absorbed and emitted fluxes of PAHs for harbor lagoon surface waters in the dry and wet seasons were 3.1 kg and 3.4 kg, respectively. Different from water bodies located in temperate zone, phenanthrene diffusive fluxes in Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon was favored in volatilization from surface waters during the wet season (April to September) because of scavenging by precipitation and dilution by prevailing southwesterly winds. In addition, this study used both of salinity and temperature to improve estimation of Henry's law constants (H) of PAHs in a tropical coastal area and show that correction for salinity produced 13-15% of differences in H values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution, origin, and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from 12 locations of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations varied from 472 to 16,201 ng g(-1) dry weight. The highest PAH concentrations were from the industrial zone docks situated in south Kaohsiung Harbor. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial zone dock could be coal combustion while in the other zones it could be petroleum combustion. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQcarc) of PAHs varied from 55 to 1964 ng TEQ g(-1) dry weight. Higher total TEQcarc values were found at industrial zone docks (from 1404 to 1964 ng TEQ g(-1) dry weight). As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the observed levels of PAHs at industrial zone docks exceeded the effects range low (ERL), and could thus cause acute biological damage. However, the lower levels of PAHs at the other zones would probably not exert adverse biological effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composition and source apportionment of PAHs in sediments at river mouths and channel in Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di; Tu, Yao-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-eight sediment samples were collected in 2009 from the bottom of river mouths near Kaohsiung Harbor (Taiwan) and the harbor channel for the analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentrations of total PAHs varied from 39 to 30,521 ng g(-1) (dry weight); samples collected from the mouths of Love River, Canon River, Jen-Gen River, and Salt River showed the highest PAHs concentrations. This indicates that the major sources of sediment PAHs come from those polluted urban rivers and the harbor channel. In samples collected from the Salt River mouth, approximately 43% of the PAHs are identified as PAHs with 2 or 3 rings. However, samples collected from other locations contain predominantly PAHs with 4 rings (32 to 42%) or 5 and 6 rings (36 to 44%). Emissions from traffic-related sources and waste incineration contribute to the majority of PAHs found in most channel and river mouth sediments. However, coal/oil combustion is the main cause of high concentrations of PAHs observed in the Salt River mouth sediments. Principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression (PCA/MLR) have been used to further quantify the source contributions, and the results show that the contributions of coal/oil combustion, traffic-related and waste incineration are 37%, 33% and 30%, respectively.

  6. Vertical profile, contamination assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals in sediment cores of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-12-01

    Six sediment cores collected at the Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan were analyzed to evaluate their vertical profiles, enrichments, accumulations, and source apportionments of heavy metals. This was performed to investigate any potential ecological risks posed by heavy metals. Results indicated that the mean heavy metal content (mg kg(-1)) in the six sediment cores was as follows: Hg (0.4-6.4), Cd (<0.05-2.4), Cr (18-820), Cu (16-760), Pb (31-140), and Zn (76-1900). The patterns of heavy metal content in the sediment cores differed substantially among the four river mouths. However, the vertical profiles of metals were relatively stable, indicating that wastewater has the constant characteristics and has been discharged into the rivers for a long period of time. Results of pollution assessment of enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index, and pollution load index revealed that river mouths experience severe enrichment, strong accumulation, and high contamination from the primary heavy metals. It was not consistent in the assessment results of mean effect range median quotient, potential ecological risk index, and total toxic unit method. Potential ecological risks caused by Hg in the sediments at Canon River and Love River mouths on aquatic organisms were extremely high. The estimates derived from the receptor modeling of multiple linear regression of the absolute principal component scores indicated that the contributions of the composite heavy metals derived from the Canon River and the Love River on the potential toxicity and risks to the water environment of Kaohsiung Harbor were highest, followed by those derived from Salt River and Jen-Gen River. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  8. NMR-based metabolomics for the environmental assessment of Kaohsiung Harbor sediments exemplified by a marine amphipod (Hyalella azteca).

    PubMed

    Chiu, K H; Dong, C D; Chen, C F; Tsai, M L; Ju, Y R; Chen, T M; Chen, C W

    2017-03-03

    Inflow of wastewater from upstream causes a large flux of pollutants to enter Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan daily. To reveal the ecological risk posed by Kaohsiung Harbor sediments, an ecological metabolomic approach was employed to investigate environmental factors pertinent to the physiological regulation of the marine amphipod Hyalella azteca. The amphipods were exposed to sediments collected from different stream inlets of the Love River (LR), Canon River (CR), Jen-Gen River (JR), and Salt River (SR). Harbor entrance 1 (E1) was selected as a reference site. After 10-day exposure, metabolomic analysis of the Hyalella azteca revealed differences between two groups: {E1, LR, CR} and {JR, SR}. The metabolic pathways identified in the two groups of amphipods were significantly different. The results demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics can be effectively used to characterize metabolic response related to sediment from polluted areas.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Giant Sea Perch Iridovirus in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus strain, GSIV-K1, isolated from a farmed giant sea perch (Lates calcarifer) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. GSIV-K1 causes mortality in farmed marine fish, including giant sea perch and groupers. The genome sequence is nearly identical to the genome of the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus. PMID:27125488

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Giant Sea Perch Iridovirus in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chiu-Ming; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-04-28

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus strain, GSIV-K1, isolated from a farmed giant sea perch (Lates calcarifer) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. GSIV-K1 causes mortality in farmed marine fish, including giant sea perch and groupers. The genome sequence is nearly identical to the genome of the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus.

  11. Evaluation of the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, using the CIPP evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wen-Wei; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kaohsiung Suicide Prevention Center (KSPC) of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, during the period from June 2005 to June 2008. We used a modified CIPP evaluation model to evaluate the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung. Four evaluation models were applied to evaluate the KSPC: a context evaluation of the background and origin of the center, an input evaluation of the resources of the center, a process evaluation of the activities of the suicide prevention project, and a product evaluation of the ascertainment of project objectives. The context evaluation revealed that the task of the KSPC is to lower mortality. The input evaluation assessed the efficiency of manpower and the grants supported by Taiwan's Department of Health and Kaohsiung City government's Bureau of Health. In the process evaluation, we inspected the suicide prevention strategies of the KSPC, which are a modified version of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy of Australia. In the product evaluation, four major objectives were evaluated: (1) the suicide rate in Kaohsiung, (2) the reported suicidal cases, (3) crisis line calls, and (4) telephone counseling. From 2005 to 2008, the number of telephone counseling sessions (1,432, 2,010, 7,051, 12,517) and crisis line calls (0, 4,320, 10,339, 14,502) increased. Because of the increase in reported suicidal cases (1,328, 2,625, 2,795, and 2,989, respectively), cases which were underreported in the past, we have increasingly been able to contact the people who need help. During this same time period, the half-year suicide re-attempt rate decreased significantly for those who received services, and the committed suicide rate (21.4, 20.1, 18.2, and 17.8 per 100,000 populations, respectively) also decreased. The suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung is worth implementing on a continual basis if financial constraints are addressed.

  12. Ascertaining the impact of catastrophic events on dengue outbreak: The 2014 gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks often occur in the aftermath of catastrophic events, either natural or man-made. While natural disasters such as typhoons/hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes have been known to increase the risk of infectious disease outbreak, the impact of anthropogenic disasters is less well-understood. Kaohsiung City is located in southern Taiwan, where most dengue outbreaks had occurred in the past two decades. It is also the center of petrochemical industry in Taiwan with pipelines running underneath city streets. Multiple underground gas explosions occurred in Kaohsiung in the evening of July 31, 2014 due to chemical leaks in the pipelines. The explosions caused 32 deaths, including five firefighters and two volunteer firefighters, and injured 321 persons. Historically, dengue outbreaks in southern Taiwan occurred mostly in small numbers of around 2000 cases or less, except in 2002 with over 5000 cases. However, in the months after the gas explosions, the city reported 14528 lab-confirmed dengue cases from August to December. To investigate the possible impact, if any, of the gas explosions on this record-breaking dengue outbreak, a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, is utilized to study the temporal patterns of the spread of dengue in the districts of Kaohsiung in the proximity of the explosion sites and to pinpoint the waves of infections that had occurred in each district in the aftermath of the gas explosions. The reproduction number of each wave in each district is also computed. In the aftermath of the gas explosions, early waves occurred 4–5 days (which coincides with the minimum of human intrinsic incubation period for dengue) later in districts with multiple waves. The gas explosions likely impacted the timing of the waves, but their impact on the magnitude of the 2014 outbreak remains unclear. The modeling suggests the need for public health surveillance and preparedness in the aftermath of future disasters. PMID:28520740

  13. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Kaohsiung City located at southern Taiwan, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Sun, Jun-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2015-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates circulating in southern Taiwan. In this 9-year population-based study, the TB situation in the Kaohsiung region was characterized by genotypic analysis of 421 MTB isolates. All 421 isolates of MTB were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. Drug-resistance patterns were also analyzed. The percentage of EAI (East African-Indian) strains increased across sampling years (2000-2008) in southern Taiwan, whereas the proportion of Beijing lineages remained unchanged. Clustering was more frequent with EAI genotype infections (odds ratio = 3.6, p<0.0001) when compared to Beijing genotypes. Notably, MTB resistance to streptomycin (STR) had significantly increased over time, but resistance to other antibiotics, including multidrug resistance, had not. Three major genes (gidB, rpsL and rrs) implicated in STR resistance were sequenced and specific mutations identified. This study revealed that EAI strains were highly transmissible and that STR resistance has increased between 2000 and 2008 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

  14. Receiver Function Analysis of Strong-motion Stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Jyun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County are located in southern Taiwan and bounded on the west side by several active faults. The shallow velocity structure of thick alluvium basin in this area should be delineated to understand the seismic site effect of strong ground motion. Receiver Function (RF) is a conventional technique for studying the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the seismometer. But, the RF analysis of high-frequency acceleration seismograms is also proved to be feasible for estimating shallow structures recently. This study applied the RF technique on the Strong-motion records of almost one-hundred TSMIP stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area to estimate the shallow shear-wave velocity structures. The averaged RFs of all stations exhibit the obvious variation because of the different geologies and site conditions. After the forward modeling of RFs based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) searching, the shallow shear-wave velocity structures beneath all the strong-motion stations in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area were estimated to delineate the iso-depth contour maps of the main formation interfaces and a preliminary shallow 3D velocity model.

  15. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbour and Adjacent Coast, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chon-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Fang, Meng-Der

    2005-01-01

    Surficial sediment samples collected from Kaohsiung Harbour and its nearby coast were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). According to our results, the average total concentrations of n-alkanes (n-C12 to C35) and aromatics (15 PAHs) were 4.33 microg g(-1) dry weight (ranged 0.46-22.60) and 0.59 microg g(-1) dry weight (ranged 0.09-1.75), respectively. The highest concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were recorded in stations near the estuaries of Qianzhen River and Love River, respectively. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in the samples indicate that there has been significant non-petrogenic, possibly terrestrial, contribution in the sediment of the open coast of Kaohsiung Harbour and that there has been dominant contribution from petrogenic sources in the sediment of the inner harbour. PAHs, detected in the samples, however, indicated a higher pyrolytic contribution in open-coast samples and a higher petrogenic contribution in the inner harbour. Overall, sediment concentrations of total alkanes in this study were comparable to those found in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and are higher than those found in Xiamen Harbour, China. Concentrations of total PAHs in inner Kaohsiung Harbour sediments were relatively lower than those found in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and Xiamen Harbour, China, but comparable to those found in Hsin-ta Harbour, Taiwan and Incheon Harbour, Korea. In comparison with several effect-based sediment quality guidelines, most PAH concentrations found in samples taken from inner harbour stations exceeded the Threshold Effect Level of Florida indicating a slight possibility of adverse effects.

  16. Vertical ozone distributions observed using tethered ozonesondes in a coastal industrial city, Kaohsiung, in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ho; Lai, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    This work presents the vertical distributions of ozone and meteorological parameters observed with tethered ozonesondes and meteorological radiosondes in the lower atmosphere during an ozone episode on March 25-27, 2003, in Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Kaohsiung is a coastal industrial city with inland mountain ranges to the east. Extremely complicated ozone structures were identified that spanned day and night during the experimental period. During afternoons, the lower atmosphere was divided into two stratified air layers with substantially different ozone concentrations. On the episode day (March 26), average ozone concentration in the near-ground layer was 85 ppb and the aloft layer was 140 ppb. A very high ozone peak of 199 ppb measured aloft likely resulted from an elevated large point source. Several no-ozone air layers, distributed throughout 400-750 m, were observed to transport on shore during the night. As well, elevated ozone layers peaking at 60-90 ppb and 90-160 ppb were detected below and above the no-ozone air layers, respectively. These complicated ozone structures were likely formed through titration of plumes from large point sources and the circulations of sea breezes or combined sea-breeze/mountain flows in the study area.

  17. Air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma in a tropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Shang-Shyue Tsai; Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2006-07-15

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there is an association between air pollutants levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 1996 through 2003. The relative risk of hospital admission was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days ({>=}25{sup o}C) statistically significant positive associations were found in all pollutants except sulfur dioxide. On cool days ({<=} 25{sup o}C) all pollutants were significantly associated with asthma admissions. For the two pollutant models, CO and O{sub 3} were significant in combination with each of the other four pollutants on warm days. On cool days NO{sub 2} remained statistically significant in all the two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient pollutants increase the risk of hospital admissions for asthma.

  18. Improvement of urban water environment of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, by ecotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Kaohsiung City is the second largest city in Taiwan and suffers from serious floods during the wet season, but it also badly needs water during the dry season. As economic development advances and pollutants increase, water pollution and shortage of water resources become issues of concern for local people in Kaohsiung. A project has been proposed by the city government and executed by the authors to establish a system of sustainable water management in urban areas. In this system, the Caogong Canals, irrigation channels which were established 170 years ago during the Ching Dynasty of China and are still used today for irrigation, were renovated to bring stable and clean water to the urban areas. It is planned to pump clean water into the canal from a river near the city. In this project, 12 constructed wetland systems, functioning as wetland parks, stormwater storage tanks or eco-detention ponds, were built in the city, and the Caogong Canals are planned to connect all these urban constructed wetlands in the second stage of the project.

  19. Influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.S.; Lin, Z.J.; Wu, M.Y.; Liu, J.I.; Yuan, C.

    1998-12-31

    This study investigated the influence of alkaline suspended particles on the chemical composition of acid deposition both temporally and spatially in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan. During the period of January--December, 1996, both wet and dry deposition samples were collected by automatic acid precipitation samplers at six sampling sites which covered the entire metropolitan area. Major cations (NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}) and anions (F{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}) of acid deposition samples were analyzed in a central laboratory, while the pH value and conductivity of rainwater samples were measured in situ. Results from chemical analysis indicated that Ca{sup +2} was the most abundant cation in acid deposition samples. Major cations were Ca{sup +2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}, while major anions were SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. This study also revealed that the pH value, suspended solids, Ca{sup +2}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} of rainwater decreased with rainy time in a sequential rainwater sampling process. It was estimated that approximately 80% of suspended particles could be washed out by rain droplets in the first hour of raining process. Therefore, alkaline suspended particles in the atmosphere played an very important role on the chemical composition of acid precipitation in Kaohsiung metropolitan area in Taiwan.

  20. An online spatio-temporal prediction model for dengue fever epidemic in Kaohsiung,Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Angulo, Jose; Christakos, George

    2013-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) is one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. DF epidemics occur in Taiwan annually especially during summer and fall seasons. Kaohsiung city has been one of the major DF hotspots in decades. The emergence and re-emergence of the DF epidemic is complex and can be influenced by various factors including space-time dynamics of human and vector populations and virus serotypes as well as the associated uncertainties. This study integrates a stochastic space-time "Susceptible-Infected-Recovered" model under Bayesian maximum entropy framework (BME-SIR) to perform real-time prediction of disease diffusion across space-time. The proposed model is applied for spatiotemporal prediction of the DF epidemic at Kaohsiung city during 2002 when the historical series of high DF cases was recorded. The online prediction by BME-SIR model updates the parameters of SIR model and infected cases across districts over time. Results show that the proposed model is rigorous to initial guess of unknown model parameters, i.e. transmission and recovery rates, which can depend upon the virus serotypes and various human interventions. This study shows that spatial diffusion can be well characterized by BME-SIR model, especially at the district surrounding the disease outbreak locations. The prediction performance at DF hotspots, i.e. Cianjhen and Sanmin, can be degraded due to the implementation of various disease control strategies during the epidemics. The proposed online disease prediction BME-SIR model can provide the governmental agency with a valuable reference to timely identify, control, and efficiently prevent DF spread across space-time.

  1. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  2. Seasonal abundance of vectors at outdoor environments in endemic and nonendemic districts of dengue in Kaohsiung, South Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Lu, Yi-Ling

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the seasonal variation in abundance of dengue vectors at open spaces, empty houses, parks, and markets in endemic and nonendemic districts of dengue. Ovitraps were placed in these sites from March 2003 to January 2004 in Kaohsiung Area (Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County), South Taiwan. The index peaked in May, June, and September in the endemic districts and in May and October in nonendemic districts. The egg production of the vectors increased from April on and peaked in September. Aedes albopictus had a significant higher proportion than A. aegypti throughout the study period and in both districts. Although ovitrap indices at open spaces, empty houses, and parks were significantly higher than those in nearby households, no significant difference was found between markets and households. Moreover, the outdoor ovitrap index was significantly higher than the indoor one. No significant difference was found between the endemic and nonendemic districts in egg production, vector maturation, vector abundance at the outdoor environments, or nearby households. These findings indicate the importance of the environmental conditions surrounding the human dwelling sites in the transmission of dengue. Measures applied to remove dengue vectors should include these sites but also outdoor environments as well.

  3. Deformation Front Development at the Northeast Margin of the Tainan Basin, Tainan-Kaohsiung Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiuh-Tsann; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Hung, Jih-Hao; Wu, Jong-Chang; Ting, Hsin-Hsiu; Mei, Wen-Wei; Hsu, Shiang-Horng; Lee, Min

    2004-03-01

    The geological setting south of the Tsengwen River and the Tsochen Fault is the transitional zone between the Tainan foreland basin and Manila accretionary wedge in Southwestern Taiwan. This transitional zone is characterized by the triangle zone geological model associated with back thrusts that is quite unique compared to the other parts of the Western foreland that are dominated by thrust imbrications. The Hsinhua structure, the Tainan anticline, and the offshore H2 anticline are the first group of major culminations in the westernmost part of the Fold-and-Thrust belt that formed during the Penglay Orogeny. Structures in the the Tainan and Kaohsiung areas provide important features of the initial mountain building stage in Western Taiwan. A deeply buried basal detachment with ramp-flat geometry existed in the constructed geological sections. A typical triangle is found by back thrusting, such as where the Hsinhua Fault cuts upsection of the Upper Pliocene and Pleistocene from a lower detachment along the lower Gutingkeng Formation. The Tainan structure is a southward extension of the Hinhua Fault and has an asymmetric geometry of gentle western and steep eastern limbs. Our studies suggest that the Tainan anticline is similar to the structure formed by the Hsinhua Fault. Both are characterized by back thrusts and rooted into a detachment about 5 km deep. The triangle zone structure stops at H2 anticline offshore Tainan and beyond the west of it, All the structures are replaced by rift tectonic settings developed in the passive continental margin. On the basal detachment, a major ramp interpreted as a tectonic discontinuity was found in this study. Above the northeastern end of the major ramp of basal detachment, the Lungchuan Fault is associated with a triangle system development, while at the southwestern end a thrust wedge is present. It could be deduced that a thrust wedge intrudes northwestward. The area below the major ramp, or equivalent to the trailing

  4. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-10-16

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM₂.₅-₁₀) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C), with a 10 µg/m³ elevation in PM₂.₅-₁₀ concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%-5%) rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%-7%) increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%-4%) rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM₂.₅-₁₀ levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅-₁₀ enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days.

  5. Investigating the Local Three-dimensional Velocity Structure of the 2008 Taoyuan Earthquake Sequence of Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, M. H.; Huang, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    March 4, 2008, a moderate earthquake (ML 5.2) occurred in Taoyuan district of Kaohsiung County in the southern Taiwan. It was followed by numerous aftershocks in the following 48 hours, including three events with magnitude larger than 4. The Taoyuan earthquake sequence occurred during the TAIGER (Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research) project which is to image lithospheric structure of Taiwan orogeny. The high-resolution waveform data of this sequence were well-recorded by a large number of recording stations belong to several different permanent and TAIGER networks all around Taiwan. We had collected the waveform data and archived to a mega database. Then, we had identified 2,340 events from database in the preliminary locating process by using 1-D velocity model. In this study, we applied the double-difference tomography to investigate not only the fault geometry of the main shock but also the detailed 3-D velocity structure in this area. A total of 3,034 events were selected from preliminary locating result and CWBSN catalog in the vicinity. The resulting aftershocks are extended along the NE-SW direction and located on a 45° SE-dipping plane which agrees to one of the nodal planes of Global CMT solution (strike = 45°, dip = 40° and rake = 119°). We can identify a clear low-velocity area which is enclosed by events next to the main shock in the final 3D velocity model. We also recognized a 45°-dipping zone which is extended to the ground surface with low-velocity; meanwhile, velocity structure variation in study area correspond with major geologic units in Taiwan.

  6. Short-Term Effect of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality Rate in A Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies examined the short-term effects of air pollution on frequency of daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between exposure to levels of coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)) and daily mortality rate is relatively sparse due to limited availability of monitoring data and findings are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to determine whether an association exists between PM(2.5-10) levels and rate of daily mortality in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a large industrial city with a tropical climate. Daily mortality rate, air pollution parameters, and weather data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2008. The relative risk (RR) of daily mortality occurrence was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for (1) weather variables, (2) day of the week, (3) seasonality, and (4) long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model without adjustment for other pollutants, PM(2.5-10) exposure levels showed significant correlation with total mortality rate both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 14% (95% CI = 5-23%) and 12% (95% CI = 5-20%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM(2.5-10) exerted significant influence on total mortality frequency after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on warm days. On cool days, PM(2.5-10) induced significant elevation in total mortality rate when SO(2) or ozone (O(3)) was added in the regression model. There was no apparent indication of an association between PM(2.5-10) exposure and deaths attributed to respiratory and circulatory diseases. This study provided evidence of correlation between short-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and increased risk of death for all causes.

  7. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5–10) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C), with a 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5–10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%–5%) rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%–7%) increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%–4%) rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5–10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days. PMID:26501308

  8. Monitoring and removal of residual phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Yen, Chia-Heng; Wang, Chih-Lung

    2014-07-30

    This study monitored the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 8 phthalate esters (PAEs) and 13 pharmaceuticals present in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration (EC/EF) process was used to remove the contaminants. To this end, a monitoring program was conducted and a novel laboratory-prepared tubular carbon nanofiber/carbon/alumina composite membrane (TCCACM) was incorporated into the EC/EF treatment module (collectively designated as "TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module") to remove the abovementioned compounds from water samples. The monitoring results showed that the concentrations of PAEs were lower in water samples from drinking fountains as compared with tap water samples. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the two types of water samples. Under optimal operating conditions, the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module yielded the lowest residual concentrations, ranging from not detected (ND) to 52ng/L for PAEs and pharmaceuticals of concern in the tap water samples. Moreover, the performance of the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module is comparable with a series of treatment units employed for the drinking fountain water treatment system. The relevant removal mechanisms involved in the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module were also discussed in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical composition of acid deposition and its seasonal variation in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.S.; Wu, D.Y.; Chen, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    This study investigated the acidification of wet and dry depositions collected in Kaohsiung metropolitan area during the period of January to May in 1996. An acid deposition sampling network including six sampling stations was originally established for this particular study. Both wet and dry depositions were sampled by an automatic rainwater sampler at each station. Major cations (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sup 4+}) and anions (F{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) of acid deposition were determined at Air Pollution Laboratory in the Institute of Environmental Engineering at National Sun Yat-Sen University except that the pH value and conductivity of samples were measured in situ. During the period of investigation, the pH value of rainwater ranged from 3.45 to 7.36 with a mode of 4.4--4.8. The volume-weighted average pH value was 4.65. The probability of acid rain during investigation period was approximately 77.3%. The probability of acid rain in rainy season was much higher than that in dry season. A lower probability in dry season was mainly attributed to the fact that alkaline particles suspended in the atmosphere to be washed by rainwater droplets. Results from correlation analysis indicated that major chemical species (r > 0.85) in rainwater droplets were NaCl, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}NO{sub 3}, and NaCl{sub 2}. Furthermore, the deposition of hydrogen ion in wet process was much higher than that in dry process.

  10. Temperature-dependent association between mortality rate and carbon monoxide level in a subtropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the combined effect of temperature and air pollutant levels on daily non-accidental deaths and cardiovascular causes of mortality. In this study, associations were assessed by means of time-series analyses over the period 1995-1999 for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's largest industrial city, which has a subtropical climate. Ambient exposures to various air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10)), were estimated from the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by an air quality monitoring station nearest to the residential district. Generalized additive models with non-parametric spline were used to identify associations between daily mortality and air pollutants as well as the air pollutant-temperature interaction correlation. Our findings indicate that CO is associated with increased risks of non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. For a 0.2 ppm increase in CO, the increased relative daily risk of non-accidental death is at least 4% on the same day, when the mean temperature is above 24.8 degrees C, while the increased relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is 7% two days later at 19.7 degrees C. The study also suggests a statistically significant interaction between CO concentration and daily mean temperature, with non-accidental mortality increasing with a warm outdoor temperature and the effect of CO on cardiovascular mortality being modified by a cold climate. Further reduction of CO pollution is thus deemed crucial for the benefit of public health.

  11. Carbonyl compounds in dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams in restaurants with varying cooking methods in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Hsuan; Lee, Yi-Shiun; Chen, Kang-Shin

    2016-03-01

    Eighteen carbonyl species in C1-C10 were measured in the dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams of six different restaurant types in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Measured results in the dining areas show that Japanese barbecue (45.06ppb) had the highest total carbonyl concentrations (sum of 18 compounds), followed by Chinese hotpot (38.21ppb), Chinese stir-frying (8.99ppb), Western fast-food (8.22ppb), Chinese-Western mixed style (7.38ppb), and Chinese buffet (3.08ppb), due to their different arrangements for dining and cooking spaces and different cooking methods. On average, low carbon-containing species (C1-C4), e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and butyraldehyde were dominant and contributed 55.01%-94.52% of total carbonyls in the dining areas of all restaurants. Meanwhile, Chinese-Western mixed restaurants (45.48ppb) had high total carbonyl concentrations in kitchens mainly because of its small kitchen and poor ventilation. However, high carbon-containing species (C5-C10) such as hexaldehyde, heptaldehyde and nonanaldehyde (16.62%-77.00% of total carbonyls) contributed comparatively with low carbon-containing compounds (23.01%-83.39% of total carbonyls) in kitchens. Furthermore, Chinese stir-frying (132.10ppb), Japanese barbecue (125.62ppb), Western fast-food (122.67ppb), and Chinese buffet (119.96ppb) were the four restaurant types with the highest total carbonyl concentrations in exhaust streams, indicating that stir-frying and grilling are inclined to produce polluted gases. Health risk assessments indicate that Chinese hotpot and Japanese barbecue exceeded the limits of cancer risk (10(-6)) and hazard index (=1), mainly due to high concentrations of formaldehyde. The other four restaurants were below both limits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  13. A comparative study on the information ethics of junior high school students cognition and behavior between Taiwan and China: Kaohsiung and Nanjing regions used as examples.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Jiuh; Chen, Chihchia; Teng, Chiachien; Gu, Jiangjun

    2008-03-01

    A great deal of progress has been made on information ethics. Which portion is not sufficient? That might be the comparison from countries to countries. The purpose of this study was closely examined using the cross-cultural method for comparison. To determine the ethics cognitions and behaviors of the students, a comprehensive survey was distributed. The questionnaire for the study used Mason's four essential factors in information ethics that included Privacy, Accuracy, Property and Accessibility (PAPA). The samples were comprised of Kaohsiung Taiwan and Nanjing China, junior high school students in 2006. The sample and the survey were obtained from two stages of random sampling that was conducted using an Internet website. Students could read the online questionnaire in the computer laboratory and then send immediate feedback to the website server. The result of the experiment showed the divergence of information ethics in cognition and behavior between Kaohsiung and Nanjing school children. The effects of background and correlation are from cognition and behavior between two regions.

  14. Effect modification of the association between meteorological variables and mortality by urban climatic conditions in the tropical city of Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Goggins, William B; Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward; Yang, Chunyuh; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2013-11-01

    A deeper understanding of extreme hot weather are needed in cities sensitive to heat effects, an investigation was done in the tropical town of Kaohsiung in Taiwan. Its 11 districts were divided into three climatic classes varying from high urban heat, low levels of green space and lack of proximity to water bodies to low urban heat, adequate green space and proximity to water bodies. Daily data on natural mortality, meteorological variables, and pollutants from May-October 1999-2008 were analysed using generalised additive models for the time-series data. Subgroup analyses were conducted, stratifying decedents according to the level of planning activity required in order to mitigate adverse heat effects in their residential areas, classifying districts as "level 1" for those requiring a high level of mitigation action; "level 2" for those requiring some action; and "level 3" for those that need only preserve existing conditions. Stratified analyses showed that mortality increases per 1 °C rise on average, either on the same day or in the previous 4 days (lags 0-4), were associated with 2.8%, 2.3% and -1.3% for level 1, 2 and 3 districts, respectively. The slope describing the association between temperature and mortality was higher above 29.0 °C resulting in corresponding increases of 4.2%, 5.0% and 0.3% per per 1 °C rise in temperature, respectively. Other meteorological variables were not significantly associated with mortality. It is concluded that hot season mortality in Kaohsiung is only sensitive to heat effects in districts classified as having unfavourably climatic conditions and requiring mitigation efforts in city planning. Urban planning measures designed to improve climatic conditions could reduce excess mortality resulting from extreme hot weather.

  15. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi in small mammals around harbors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chang, Shu-Feng; Yen, Tsai-Ying; Shih, Wei-Liang; Chen, Wan-Jen; Wang, Hsi-Chieh; Yu, Xue-Jie; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2016-01-27

    Tick-borne ehrlichiosis and mite-borne scrub typhus represent important emerging zoonotic rickettsial diseases. Although scrub typhus has been recognized by the Taiwanese public health system, information on ehrlichial infections is scarce in Taiwan. In this study, the risk of spread of ectoparasites on rodents through aerial and marine transportation was assessed in international and domestic harbors. Here, we report the first systematic surveillance of seroprevalence against Ehrlichia spp. in small mammals on the main island of Taiwan. In total, 1648 small mammals were trapped from 8 international ports, 18 domestic fishing harbors, and 7 local public health centers around Taiwan from November 2004 to December 2008. Sera were analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence assays to detect IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Orientia tsutsugamushi. A serum titer of ≧1:80 was considered positive. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. and O. tsutsugamushi were detected in 3.28% and 4.92% of small mammals active around harbors, respectively. The seropositive rate against Ehrlichia was higher in northern Taiwan from 2005 to 2008. However, O. tsutsugamushi infections increased in southern Taiwan during this period. The serological evidence of ehrlichial and O. tsutsugamushi infections in all international ports were included in the study. No significant differences were found among the seropositive rates of Ehrlichia spp. and O. tsutsugamushi in small mammals trapped between international and local harbors. The overall prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and O. tsutsugamushi infections in small mammals active around harbors was 3.28% and 4.92%, respectively. The results provided serological evidence supporting the potential risks of transporting pathogens through air and maritime traffic. This study highlights serious issues of the emergence and spread of rickettsial diseases in Taiwan. The incidence of human ehrlichiosis requires further investigation.

  17. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  18. Mapping and profile of emission sources for airborne volatile organic compounds from process regions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Liang; Fang, Hung-Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2006-06-01

    This work surveyed five process regions inside a petrochemical plant in Taiwan to characterize the profiles of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and locate emission sources. Samples, taken with canisters, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry according to the TO-14 method. Each region was deployed with 24 sampling sites, sampled twice, and 240 samples in total were measured during the survey period. All of the data were consolidated into a database on Excel to facilitate retrieval, statistical analysis, and presentation in the form of a table or graph, and, subsequently, the profile of VOCs was elucidated. Emission sources were located by mapping the concentration distribution of either an individual or a type of species in terms of contour maps on Surfer. Through the cross-analysis of data, the abundant VOCs included alkenes, dienes, alkanes, and aromatics. A total of 19 emission sources were located from these five regions. The sources for alkanes stood inside first, third aromatic, and fourth naphtha cracking regions, whereas the ones for alkenes were inside two naphtha cracking regions. The sources for dienes were found inside the third naphtha cracking region alone; in contrast, the sources for aromatics were universally traced except inside the third naphtha cracking region. The measured intensity for sources mostly ranged from 1000 to 7000 ppb.

  19. Influences of fireworks on chemical characteristics of atmospheric fine and coarse particles during Taiwan's Lantern Festival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chien, Li-Hsing; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, the celebration activities of various folk-custom festivals have been getting more and more attention from the citizens in Taiwan. Festivities throughout the whole island are traditionally accompanied by loud and brightly colored firework displays. Among these activities, the firework displays during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung harbor is one of the largest festivals in Taiwan each year. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the influence of fireworks displays on the ambient air quality during the Taiwan's Lantern Festival. Field measurements of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were conducted on February 9th-11th, 2009 during Taiwan's Lantern Festival in Kaohsiung City. Moreover, three kinds of fireworks powders obtained from the same manufacturing factory producing Kaohsiung Lantern Festival fireworks were burned in a self-designed combustion chamber to determine the physicochemical properties of the fireworks' particles and to establish the source profile of firework burning. Several metallic elements of PM during the firework display periods were notably higher than those during the non-firework periods. The concentrations of Mg, K, Pb, and Sr in PM2.5 during the firework periods were 10 times higher than those during the non-firework periods. Additionally, the Cl-/Na+ ratio was approximately 3 during the firework display periods as Cl- came from the chlorine content of the firework powder. Moreover, the OC/EC ratio increased up to 2.8. Results obtained from PCA and CMB receptor modeling showed that major sources of atmospheric particles during the firework display periods in Kaohsiung harbor were fireworks, vehicular exhausts, soil dusts and marine sprays. Particularly, on February 10th, the firework displays contributed approximately 25.2% and 16.6% of PM10 at two downwind sampling sites, respectively.

  20. Taiwanese Elementary Students' Motivation and Attitudes toward Learning English in English Village Program in Kaohsiung County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wan Yu

    2010-01-01

    THE PROBLEM: This study investigated students' perceptions of the English Village Program at the Fong Shan Elementary School in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. The main objectives of this research were to discover the fifth graders' motivation and attitudes toward (a) the simulated theme classrooms, (b) the native English-speaking teacher's instruction,…

  1. A study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations and source identifications by methods of diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis at Taichung chemical Harbor near Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Tse-Tsung

    2006-08-01

    Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(2.5-10)) particulates concentrations of ambient air particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured simultaneously from February 2004 to January 2005 at the Taichung Harbor (TH) sampling site near Taiwan of central Taiwan. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected on quartz filters, the collected sample used soxhlet analytical method extracted with a dichloromethane (DCM)/n-hexane mixture (50/50, v/v) for 24h, and then the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The results indicated that vehicle emissions, coal combustion, incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of fuel and oil burning were the main source of PAHs near Taiwan Strait of central Taiwan. Diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) were also used to characterize and identify PAHs emission source in this study.

  2. Taiwan.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Attention in this discussion of Taiwan is directed to the following: geography; the people -- education, languages, religions, and cultural background; history; administration; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Taiwan. In 1987 the population was estimated to be 19.7 million with an annual growth rate of 1.07%. The infant mortality rate in 1986 was 0.7% with a life expectancy of 70.8 for men and 75.8 for women. Taipei, which continues its claim of sovereignty over all of China in the name of the "Republic of China," exercises control only over the island of Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and about 20 offshore islands, most near the China mainland. Most native Taiwanese speak a variant of the Amoy (Hokkien) dialect of Southern Fujian. The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese sources show migration to Taiwan began as early as A.D. 500. Dutch traders 1st claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the China coast. The 1st major influx of migrants from the Chinese mainland came during the Dutch period. In 1664, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan. Zheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. After his death in 1683, his successors submitted to Manchu control. Manchu China ruled Taiwan as a frontier district until it was declared a separate Chinese province in 1886. The authorities in Taipei claim to be the government of all China, including Taiwan. When President Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, he was succeeded by Vice President Lee Teng-hui, who had been elected along with Chiang by the National Assembly to a 6-year term. Until 1986, Taiwan's political system was effectively 1 party. Before elections in 1986, many "nonpartisans" grouped together to form Taiwan's 1st new political party in over 4 decades -- the Democratic

  3. Characterization of atmospheric particulate and metallic elements at Taichung Harbor near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Lin, Jum-Bo; Lin, Chi-Kwong; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Huang, Shih-Han

    2006-06-01

    Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) and metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the range 132-171.1 microg m(-3) and 43-49.5 microg m(-3), respectively. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the following order: winter>spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.

  4. Implementation of an OSCE at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Min; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min

    2007-04-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), a tool to objectively and fairly assess medical students' clinical competences, has become widely used in medical education worldwide. However, most medical schools in Taiwan have just begun to adopt this assessment method. In 2003, Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU) established the first standardized patient (SP) program in Taiwan and applied SPs with an OSCE. This study reports the process of the implementation of an OSCE at KMU, which includes collecting information, visiting leading clinical skills centers, consulting medical educators from other countries, holding international conferences, establishing an OSCE committee, writing cases, training SPs, administrating the OSCE, and receiving feedback from medical students. Most students were satisfied with the assessment and appreciated the learning experience. Based on the experience in 2003, the OSCE committee decided to incorporate the OSCE into the medical curriculum as a measure to assess medical students' clinical competences. In addition to assessing medical students' clinical competence, the OSCE can also be applied to other professional health education, such as dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. We are currently sharing our experience with other colleges at KMU.

  5. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005–2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871

  6. Analysis of Impact of Geographical Environment and Socio-economic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Kaohsiung Dengue Fever Epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Yin; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is located in subtropical and tropical regions with high temperature and high humidity in the summer. This kind of climatic condition is the hotbed for the propagation and spread of the dengue vector mosquito. Kaohsiung City has been the worst dengue fever epidemic city in Taiwan. During the study period, from January 1998 to December 2011, Taiwan CDC recorded 7071 locally dengue epidemic cases in Kaohsiung City, and the number of imported case is 118. Our research uses Quantile Regression, a spatial infection disease distribution, to analyze the correlation between dengue epidemic and geographic environmental factors and human society factors in Kaohsiung. According to our experiment statistics, agriculture and natural forest have a positive relation to dengue fever(5.5~34.39 and 3.91~15.52). The epidemic will rise when the ratio for agriculture and natural forest increases. Residential ratio has a negative relation for quantile 0.1 to 0.4(-0.005~-0.78), and a positive relation for quantile 0.5 to0.9(0.01~18.0) . The mean income is also a significant factor in social economy field, and it has a negative relation to dengue fever(-0.01~-0.04). Conclusion from our research is that the main factor affecting the degree of dengue fever in predilection area is the residential proportion and the ratio of agriculture and natural forest plays an important role affecting the degree of dengue fever in non predilection area. Moreover, the serious epidemic area located by regression model is the same as the actual condition in Kaohsiung. This model can be used to predict the serious epidemic area of dengue fever and provide some references for the Health Agencies

  7. Explore Seismic Velocity Change Associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung Earthquake by Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Chin-Shang; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Huang, Win-Gee; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2016-04-01

    A ML 6.4 earthquake occurred on 4 March 2010 in Kaohsiung, the southern part of Taiwan, this shallow earthquake is the largest one of that area in the past few years. Some damages occurred on buildings and bridges after the earthquake, obvious surface deformation up to few cm was observed and the transportation including road and train traffic was also affected near the source area. Some studies about monitoring the velocity change induced by the big earthquake were carried out recently, most of studies used cross-correlation of the ambient noise-based method and indicated velocity drop was observed immediately after the big earthquake. However, this method is not able to constrain the depth of velocity change, and need to assume a homogeneous seismic velocity change during the earthquake. In this study, we selected 25 broadband seismic stations in the southern Taiwan and time period is from 2009/03 to 2011/03. Then we explored the velocity change associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake by applying ambient noise tomography (ANT) method. ANT is a way of using interferometry to image subsurface seismic velocity variations by using surface wave dispersions extracted from the ambient noise cross-correlation of seismic station-pairs, then the 2-D group velocity map with different periods could be extracted. Compare to ambient noise-based cross-correlation analysis, we estimated sensitivity kernel of dispersion curves and converted 2-D group velocity map from "with the period" to "with the depth" to have more constraints on the depth of velocity change. By subtracting shear velocity between "before" and "after" the earthquake, we could explore velocity change associated with the earthquake. Our result shows velocity reduction about 5-10% around the focal depth after the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake and the post-seismic velocity recovery was observed with time period increasing, which may suggest a healing process of damaged rocks.

  8. [Lead exposure among Kaohsiung traffic policemen].

    PubMed

    Chiang, H C; Chang, P Y

    1989-06-01

    In this recent century there has been increasing concern over the possible harmful effects of lead from automobile exhaust on human health. Traffic policemen are heavily exposed to automobile exhaust. In Kaohsiung city because of the increasing number of motor vehicles due to rapid urbanization and heavy traffic transportation from suburbs for export trade, traffic policemen have varied exposure experiences. The automobile exhaust of lead additive gasoline was found to be the major type of exposure for traffic policemen whose duties were in the city, while those who worked in the suburb areas were generally exposed to diesel oil exhaust gas. In this study 98 traffic policemen were studied with 118 students used as a control group. Subjects were evaluated for lead absorption and other metabolic effects. The average value of blood lead for traffic policemen (24.43 +/- 5.31 micrograms/dl) in the city of Kaohsiung was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than for the control group (20.14 +/- 5.07 micrograms/dl). According to other bioindicators it was also found that the mean values of carboxyhemoglobin, urine lead and urine coproporphyrin were significantly higher in the traffic policemen group. Linear regression between blood lead and the duration of employment was also found in this study (R = -0.2447, p less than 0.05). The most reasonable explanations for these findings are the effects of lead emission from motor vehicles and the employment shifting system that cause this effect.

  9. New species and records of the genus Geodromicus Redtenbacher, 1857 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shavrin, Alexey V; Smetana, Aleš

    2016-01-19

    Two new species of the genus Geodromicus Redtenbacher, 1857 from Taiwan are described and illustrated: G. philydroides sp. n. (Nantou Hsien) and G. taiwanensis sp. n. (Kaohsiung Hsien, Hualien Hsien). Additional material and a new synonymy for G. ohkurai (Hayashi, 1992) = G. ohkurai yushanensis (Hayashi, 1992), syn. nov. are proposed. A key to species known from Taiwan is given.

  10. Ambient air particulate concentrations and metallic elements principal component analysis at Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Huang, Shih-Han; Rau, Jui-Yeh

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter of total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)), coarse particle (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM (2.5-10)) at the Taichung Harbor (TH) and WuChi Traffic (WT) sampling site of central Taiwan during March 2004 to February 2005. The result indicated the average total suspended particulate concentration in 1 year was 157.31 and 112.58 microg m(-3) at TH and WT sampling site, respectively. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) size was the dominant species at TH and WT sampling site. In TH sampling site, higher correlation coefficient was observed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn. And in WT sampling site, higher correlation coefficients displayed on total suspended particulates of metallic elements Fe and Zn, Fe and Mn. Ambient airborne particle principal component analysis of metallic metals was used to identify the possible pollutant sources in this study. At the TH sampling site, 50.81% of the total variance of the data was observed in factor 1. Higher loading of Fe (0.86), Zn (0.79), Pb (0.76), and Mn (0.68) were contributed by traffic emission and the soil source. At the WT sampling site, factor 1 explained 53.74% of the total variance of the data and had high loading for Zn (0.86) and Cu (0.85), which were identified as industrial/traffic emission sources.

  11. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Industrial Harbor Sediments by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cheng-Di; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant list was carried out in sediment samples of an industrial port in the southern Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan which is supposed to be extensively polluted by industrial wastewater discharges. The determination and quantification of PAHs in sediment samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with the aid of deuterated PAH internal standards and surrogate standards. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 4,425 to 51,261 ng/g dw, with a mean concentration of 13,196 ng/g dw. The PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial port area could be coal combustion. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the various observed levels of PAHs exceeded the effects range median (ERM), and could thus cause acute biological damages. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries in this region for reducing pollution. PMID:22829797

  12. VOC concentration in Taiwan's household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Chiang, T F; Lo, I I; Lai, J S; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-12-03

    The objective of this study is to analyze volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in Taiwan's drinking water supply. Focusing on Taiwan's three major metropolitan areas--Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung (in the north, middle and south, respectively)--171 samples were taken from tap water and 68 from boiled water. Tests showed VOC concentrations were highest in Kaohsiung. This is due to different water sources and methods of treatment. Except for bromoform, trihalomethane (THM) concentrations were highest. Detection rates of toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane were slightly higher than other VOC compounds. VOC concentrations decreased significantly after water was boiled. THMs had a removal rate from 61% to 82%. The authors conclude that the three metropolitan areas contain significantly different levels of VOCs and that boiling can significantly reduce the presence of VOCs. Other sources of pollution that contaminate drinking water such as industrial plants and gas stations must be further investigated.

  13. Effects of local emission sources on the acidification of rainwater in an industrial city in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Der-Yuan Wu

    1996-12-31

    This study investigated the acidification of precipitation in an industrial city in Taiwan Island. The purposes of this study is two fold. The first is to characterize the status of add precipitation around the industrial city. Rainwater samples were collected by automatic rainwater samplers-located at five sampling sites which covered the entire city. The second is to investigate the potential sources of acidic species in the acid rainwater. Further study was taken to ascertain the effects of local emissions as well as long range transportation on the acidification of precipitation. Investigation of acid rain on the Island of Taiwan has been conducted since 1984. Most of these researches were short-term and/or large-scale investigations. Long-term sampling of acid rain at heavy polluted region has never been investigated yet. In this investigation, Kaohsiung was selected as the city for the intensive acid rain sampling since it is the largest industrial city as well as the largest harbor in Taiwan Island. Both dry and wet acid samples were collected daily by the automatic rainwater samplers. Major cations (H{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +2}, and Mg{sup +2}), anions (F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO3{sup -}, and SO4{sup -2}), and conductivity of acid samples were measured simultaneously. Actually, both pH value and conductivity were measured on site. During the period of investigation, 325 collected rainwater samples demonstrated an average pH value of 5.2 with the range of 3.1 to 6.3. This investigation revealed that emissions from local sources such as power plants, petrochemical plants, and cement plants play important roles on the acidification of rainwater in the industrial city in Taiwan.

  14. Experience of problem-based learning in nursing education at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2009-05-01

    Nursing education must keep up with the rapidly changing medical landscape to support the competences of nurses in the areas of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. Problem-based learning (PBL) provides an appropriate strategy for nursing education innovation. Nursing curricula based on PBL remain in the growing stage in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Medical University introduced PBL into nursing education in 2002. The critical events in the process included: (1) nurturing key tutors; (2) using PBL teaching methods in an elective course--Oncology Nursing, and designing a new elective course--Symposiums Regarding Clinical Cases; (3) holding conferences inside and outside the school to promote PBL teaching methods; (4) linking e-learning and PBL teaching methods; (5) conducting PBL research; (6) establishing a committee of PBL, objective structured clinical examination, and teaching material review for the College of Nursing; and (7) setting up a required course--Nursing Ethics. We now have 12 key tutors in the College of Nursing. We have also completed two studies to evaluate the ability of students and to explore the experience of tutors. From our studies, we know that PBL can increase learner abilities in self-directed learning, critical thinking, and PBL performance. The approach helps students to cope with the changing medical landscape. Furthermore, tutors and teachers develop adequate PBL teaching skills. Based on the experience above, we believe that we are on the right path in terms of continuing tutor development, gradually increasing the number of PBL courses, and undertaking further research to promote PBL methods in Taiwan.

  15. The Role of Language in National and Multinational Enterprises in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du-Babcock, Bertha; Babcock, Richard D.

    Communication patterns and language use in four national and multinational companies operating in Taiwan illustrate the potential for communication problems when more than one language is in use. The companies include Texas Instruments, Kaohsiung Monomer Company, Ltd., Bank of America, and Cheng-Yia International Corporation. In the four…

  16. The Role of Language in National and Multinational Enterprises in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du-Babcock, Bertha; Babcock, Richard D.

    Communication patterns and language use in four national and multinational companies operating in Taiwan illustrate the potential for communication problems when more than one language is in use. The companies include Texas Instruments, Kaohsiung Monomer Company, Ltd., Bank of America, and Cheng-Yia International Corporation. In the four…

  17. An Analysis of English Language Education and Its Impact on Business Practice in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du-Babcock, Bertha; Babcock, Richard D.

    The state of English language instruction in Taiwan and its impact on firms doing business there are examined. The analysis draws on case studies of language training and use in four national and multinational corporations, each representing different nationalities and a different industry: Texas Instruments, Kaohsiung Monomer Company Limited,…

  18. The Functional Haplotypes of CHRM3 Modulate mRNA Expression and Associate with Bladder Cancer among a Chinese Han Population in Kaohsiung City

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chiang-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Mei, Chien-Tai; Chang, Chun-Feng; Liu, Li-Lian; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Wen-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the major cancer types and both environmental factors and genetic background play important roles in its pathology. Kaohsiung is a high industrialized city in Taiwan, and here we focused on this region to evaluate the genetic effects on bladder cancer. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) was reported as a key receptor in different cancer types. CHRM3 is located at 1q42-43 which was reported to associate with bladder cancer. Our study attempted to delineate whether genetic variants of CHRM3 contribute to bladder cancer in Chinese Han population in south Taiwan. Five selected SNPs (rs2165870, rs10802789, rs685550, rs7520974, and rs3738435) were genotyped for 30 bladder cancer patients and 60 control individuals and genetic association studies were performed. Five haplotypes (GTTAT, ATTGT, GCTAC, ACTAC, and ACCAC) were found significantly associated with low CHRM3 mRNA level and contributed to increased susceptibility of bladder cancer in Kaohsiung city after rigid 10000 consecutive permutation tests. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study that reveals the genetic contribution of CHRM3 gene in bladder cancer etiology. PMID:28053981

  19. Canine distemper virus in wild ferret-badgers of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Liao, Ming-Huei; Mortenson, Jack A

    2008-04-01

    Canine distemper is an acute or subacute, highly contagious, febrile disease that is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). Two CDV-infected wild Taiwan ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata subauantiaca) were found in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan, in 2005. Each case was confirmed by detecting CDV RNA in lung and brain tissues. A suspected third case was detected based on clinical signs and histology. These cases are the first record of wildlife infected by CDV in Taiwan. It is believed that domestic dogs or coexisting wild carnivores infected with the virus were the most likely source, and a serologic survey is needed to fully understand the host range of this virus in Taiwan. In addition, further genetic sequencing is needed to determine the source of these CDV cases.

  20. Performance of European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation in Veterans General Hospital Kaohsiung cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsin-Hung; Kang, Pei-Luen; Pan, Jun-Yen; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wu, Chieh-Ten; Lin, Chun-Yao; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chou, Wan-Ting

    2011-03-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) model is a widely-used risk prediction algorithm for in-hospital or 30-day mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Recent studies indicated that EuroSCORE tends to overpredict mortality. The aim of our study is to evaluate the validity of EuroSCORE in Veterans General Hospital Kaohsiung (VGHKS) cardiac surgery including a number of different surgical and risk subgroups. From January 2006 to December 2009, 1,240 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery in VGHKS were included in this study. The study was followed the guidelines of the Ethics Committee of Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Both additive and logistic score of all patients were calculated depending on the formula in the official EuroSCORE website. The entire cohort, different surgical type and risk stratification subgroups were analyzed. Model discrimination was tested by determining the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Model calibration was tested by the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square test. Clinical performance of model was assessed by comparing the observed and predicted mortality rates. There were significant differences between the VGHKS and European cardiac surgical populations. The additive score and logistic score for the overall group were 7.16% and 12.88%, respectively. Observed mortality was 10.72% overall, 5.68% for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 4.67% for the mitral valve only and 4.25% for the aortic valve only group. The discriminative ability EuroSCORE was very good in all and various surgical subgroups, with area under the ROC curve from 0.75 to 0.87. The addictive and logistic models of EuroSCORE showed excellent accuracy, 0.839 and 0.845, respectively. Good calibration power was recognized by p value higher than 0.05 for the entire cohort and all subgroups of patients except for isolated CABG. The logistic EuroSCORE model overestimated mortality to different

  1. Vessel traffic patterns in the Port of Kaohsiung and the management implications for preventing the introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Tsai, Tzung-Kuen

    2011-03-01

    Data on shipping traffic in one of the busiest seaports in the world, the Port of Kaohsiung, were analyzed to evaluate the implications for ballast water management. Results show that 67% of the arriving vessels were registered to a flag of convenience, which typically have a lower degree of environmental records. The top five donor countries historically suffer from harmful algal bloom problems. The short journey and busy trading between these countries and Taiwan lead to a higher risk of inoculation. In addition, only 1.4% of all vessels visited more than once every year during the 9-year span, indicating that the port authority encounters many new vessels each year. These findings could influence the design and application of ballast water management strategies as well as highlight the challenges in their implementation. We suggest that an analysis of vessel traffic patterns should be coupled with other useful vessel information to make risk assessment successful.

  2. Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2005-03-01

    A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan.

  3. Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine Magnetic Data Processing and Interpretation: Detection and Positioning of the Power Cables on Seabed Offshore of Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Song, G.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the mapping of marine magnetic data offshore of Kaohsiung, and locate the traces of two power cables by interpreting the processed data. The survey area is roughly rectangle-shaped waters between the coast of Linbian township and Liuqiu island, located at the offshore area of Kaohsiung County in southwestern Taiwan. It is about 1 km wide and 18 km long at a water depth ranging from 10 to 70 meters. The survey system comprises the G880 cesium marine magnetometer, which was towed approximately 25 meters behind the boat. A depressor wing was used for keeping the sensor below the sea surface around 10 meters deep. The reference station of DGPS configuration was located at Taipei about 340 kilometers away from the survey area. To compensate for the natural temporal variations of the Earth's magnetic field during the survey, we had the magnetic data go through diurnal correction. Then the corrected magnetic data were gridded to generate the total field magnetic map. To enhance anomalous features with a certain wavelength, we applied filtering to the signals. A rule of thumb is that the wavelength of an anomaly divided by three or four is approximately equal to the depth at which the body producing the anomaly is buried. [1] After the processing of high pass filtering, long-wavelength anomalies were removed and enhance the contrast of anomalies produced by ferro-metallic source near the seabed, such as pipeline. In conclusion, we can tell the position of magnetic anomalies and the power cables is highly related. The marine magnetic survey can successfully detect and locate power cables on seabed. In order to achieve accuracy of locating cables, we use the USBL to position deep-towed sensor. Furthermore, total horizontal derivative of data can be applied. This enhancement sharpens up anomalies over bodies and tends to reduce anomaly complexity. [1] References 1. Advanced processing and interpretation of gravity and magnetic Data

  5. [Pearl Harbor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  6. A zonation technique for landslide susceptibility in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tian, Yu-Qing; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, global climate changes violently, extreme rainfall events occur frequently and also cause massive sediment related disasters in Taiwan. The disaster seriously hit the regional economic development and national infrastructures. For example, in August, 2009, the typhoon Morakot brought massive rainfall especially in the mountains in Chiayi County and Kaohsiung County in which the cumulative maximum rainfall was up to 2900 mm; meanwhile, the cumulative maximum rainfall was over 1500m.m. in Nantou County, Tainan County and Pingtung County. The typhoon caused severe damage in southern Taiwan. The study will search for the influence on the sediment hazards caused by the extreme rainfall and hydrological environmental changes focusing on southern Taiwan (including Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung and Pingtung). The instability index and kriging theories are applied to analyze the factors of landslide to determine the susceptibility in southern Taiwan. We collected the landslide records during the period year, 2007~2013 and analyzed the instability factors including elevation, slope, aspect, soil, and geology. Among these factors, slope got the highest weight. The steeper the slope is, the more the landslides occur. As for the factor of aspect, the highest probability falls on the Southwest. However, this factor has the lowest weight among all the factors. Likewise, Darkish colluvial soil holds the highest probability of collapses among all the soils. Miocene middle Ruifang group and its equivalents have the highest probability of collapses among all the geologies. In this study, Kriging was used to establish the susceptibility map in southern Taiwan. The instability index above 4.21 can correspond to those landslide records. The potential landslide area in southern Taiwan, where collapses more likely occur, belongs to high level and medium-high level; the area is 5.12% and 17.81% respectively.

  7. A Simulation Study on the Torrential Rainfall over Plain Area of Southwestern Taiwan During the Invasion of Typhoon Fanapi (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T.-C.; Chen, D.-S.; Hsiao, L.-F.; Li, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-H.; Huang, K.-N.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical cyclone Fanapi was named on 15, September 2010. The storm then moved westward and then landed Taiwan on 19, September. During the invasion of Typhoon Fanapi, torrential rainfall occurred in Taiwan area. The maximum accumulated rainfall reaches 1,100 mm in mountainous area of southern Taiwan. The rainfall amount over mountainous area is not particular large comparing to those of other events such as the 2,800 mm of Typhoon Morakot (2009) and 1,500 mm of Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). However, the 6-hour accumulated rainfall amount 626 mm at Marjar township and the daily rainfall amount 872 mm at Kaohsiung city set the new record for Taiwan area and Kaohsiung city, respectively. Where Marjar township locates at the southern Central Mountain Range of Taiwan, and Kaohsiung city locates near the coast and is the major city in southern Taiwan. The intensive rainfall from Typhoon Fanapi, particularly heavy rains over plain area, is exceptional and is worth to do further investigation for improving forecast. In this study, detail observations from radars and local stations were collected and documented. Numerical simulations from a version of WRF model, called TWRF at the Central Weather Bureau, were conducted and analyzed. The TWRF was able to simulate the track of Typhoon Fanapi without large error when Typhoon Fanapi was near and moved over Taiwan. Large rainfall with intensive narrow band over southern Taiwan was simulated. From the simulations, we found that the topography and the structure of the storm caused such a record-breaking rainfall event. Stronger and boarder area of convergence were found on the southern portion of Typhoon Fanapi. The topography of Taiwan enhanced the rainfall over the upwind side of the flow approaches mountain. The slow down of the moving speed after the center moved over and reorganized on the western side of the mountain ridge prolonged the rainfall over Kaohsiung area. The speed, size and strength of the storm are crucial for Typhoon

  8. Theoretical Estimation of the Death Toll caused by collapsed buildings in different regions of Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Chen, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to theoretically estimate the death toll caused by collapsed buildings in different regions of Taiwan from future earthquakes according to the empirical data of the 1999 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake that occurred in Taiwan. The results are presented in a quadratic equation that relates collapsed buildings with Modified Mercalli Intensity (), then matching with a novel reliable function. It is found that two zones are subject to high collapsed building, one zone extends from Hsinchu southward to Taichung, Nantou, Chiayi, and Tainan in western Taiwan and the other extends from Ilan southward to Hualian and Taitung in eastern Taiwan. These zones are also characterized by low b values.We also present the expected probability of collapsed buildings as a function of waiting time in ten major metropolitan areas of Taiwan. The results exhibit relatively low expected probabilities in Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Hengchun; hence, the expected death toll due to collapsed buildings is very low (e.g., the expected death toll in Kaohsiung is zero). However, a relatively high number of collapsed buildings is found for most other areas. These results should be of use to government regulators and practicing engineers in enforcing appropriate building codes to effectively mitigate potential seismic hazards.

  9. Estimation of Maximum Ground Motions in the Form of ShakeMaps and Assessment of Potential Human Fatalities from Scenario Earthquakes on the Chishan Active Fault in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun Sung; Huang, Hsiang Chi; Shen, Jia Rong

    2017-04-01

    Historically, there were many damaging earthquakes in southern Taiwan during the last century. Some of these earthquakes had resulted in heavy loss of human lives. Accordingly, assessment of potential seismic hazards has become increasingly important in southern Taiwan, including Kaohsiung, Tainan and northern Pingtung areas since the Central Geological Survey upgraded the Chishan active fault from suspected fault to Category I in 2010. In this study, we first estimate the maximum seismic ground motions in term of PGA, PGV and MMI by incorporating a site-effect term in attenuation relationships, aiming to show high seismic hazard areas in southern Taiwan. Furthermore, we will assess potential death tolls due to large future earthquakes occurring on Chishan active fault. As a result, from the maximum PGA ShakeMap for an Mw7.2 scenario earthquake on the Chishan active fault in southern Taiwan, we can see that areas with high PGA above 400 gals, are located in the northeastern, central and northern parts of southwestern Kaohsiung as well as the southern part of central Tainan. In addition, comparing the cities located in Tainan City at similar distances from the Chishan fault have relatively greater PGA and PGV than those in Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County. This is mainly due to large site response factors in Tainan. On the other hand, seismic hazard in term of PGA and PGV, respectively, show that they are not particular high in the areas near the Chishan fault. The main reason is that these areas are marked with low site response factors. Finally, the estimated fatalities in Kaohsiung City at 5230, 4285 and 2786, respectively, for Mw 7.2, 7.0 and 6.8 are higher than those estimated for Tainan City and Pingtung County. The main reason is high population density above 10000 persons per km2 are present in Fongshan, Zuoying, Sanmin, Cianjin, Sinsing, Yancheng, Lingya Districts and between 5,000 and 10,000 persons per km2 are present in Nanzih and Gushan Districts in

  10. A survey on the intestinal parasites of the school children in Kaohsiung county.

    PubMed

    Lee, J D; Wang, J J; Chung, L Y; Chang, E E; Lai, L C; Chen, E R; Yen, C M

    2000-09-01

    The present study on the prevalence of intestinal parasites infection, from September to December 1999, was conducted among school children in Taoyuan Hsiang, Kaohsiung county. The investigated areas included three (Jiannshan, Shingjong and Taoyuan) primary schools. The overall infection rate in 305 children determined by Merthiolate-Iodine-Formaldehyde Concentration method of stools was 17%. Four confirmed species of helminthes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana) and three species of protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and Blastocystis hominis) were detected. Males and females had the infection rates of 24% and 11%. The infection rates of aboriginal and non-aboriginal children were 17% and 14%, respectively. Grade 1 and Grade 6 had the highest infection rate (21%). Following tape perianal examination of 302 children, the overall infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was 25%. Males and females had the infection rates of 24% and 26%. The infection rates of aboriginal and non-aboriginal children were 27% and 11%, respectively. Grade 1 had the highest infection rate (37%). Based on these data, the infection rate of intestinal parasites among rural primary school children in Kaohsiung county remains high.

  11. Non-Maternal Infant Handling in Wild Formosan Macaques of Mount Longevity, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minna J; Lin, Shu-I; Lin, Jin-Fu; Lin, Tai-Jung; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present quantitative data on how the social network and sex of infants influence allomothering behaviour among wild Formosan macaques, Macaca cyclopis. Using long-term field data collected from the Mount Longevity study site in Kaohsiung (Taiwan), we have tested relevant hypotheses incorporating data on age, rank and reproductive state of infant handlers, and the relationship between handlers and infants. The results support 2 major hypotheses, i.e. those of reciprocity and alliance formation. Nevertheless, neither could account for the observed occurrences of unrelated infant handling by dominant females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Jen Pan; Yu Jue Hong; Gwo Chin Chang; Frigyes F. Cinkotai; Ying Chin Ko; Ming Tsan Wang

    1994-12-31

    We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere. 32 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. An estimation of sediment thickness using Sp converted phases in Kaoping, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, M.; Wu, Y.; Wei, J.; Chang, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Kaoping area is a triangle alluvial plain, located in the southwestern Taiwan. Accelerograms recorded from 1991 to 2010 by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations are used to study the thickness variations of the Quaternary alluviums beneath Kaoping area by examining the Sp converted phase. Travel-time difference of S and Sp phases is used to estimate the sediment thickness. With highly seismicity activities and dense strong motion array, this technique has been used in Lan-Yang Plain and Chia-Nan Plain. In this study we focus on Kaoping region in order to discuss the underground structures in the study region. The major targets are to determine the location of Chaochou fault and Sp phase is converted from which formation boundary. Results show that the thickness become thicker toward the west in Kaohsiung area, and the thickness become thinner toward east. Details will be presented in this study.

  14. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  15. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-30

    snail-like hermit crab isopod crustacean mantis shrimp peanut worm sea anemone sea cucumber sedentary polychaete worm snapping shrimp tanaid...vegetation..." and typified In Pearl Harbor by organisms such as bryozoans, shrimp , tunlcates, anemones, etc.; 2) the infauna (Figure 2.2-2) "comprising...Harbor by organisms such as alpheld shrimp , bivalve mollusca, vv certain errant and sedentary polychaetes, slpunculld worms, etc.; and 3) "bottom

  16. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Modern sedimentation and sediment dispersal pattern off southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Sheng-Ting; Su, Chih-Chieh; Tsai, Po-Hsuan; Cheng, Yiya

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates and also on the Western North Pacific corridor of typhoons. Every year, three to four typhoons will invaded Taiwan and brought heavy rainfall. The active tectonic setting and climatic conditions create the extremely high sediment yield and export to the ocean. Our study area is located offshore southwestern Taiwan which is mainly composed of a narrow Gaoping Shelf and broad Gaoping Slope. Four major submarine canyons, the Shoshan Submarine Canyon, Kaohsiung Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Submarine Canyon, and Fangliao Submarine Canyon, extended into deep sea, through Penghu Submarine Canyon and subsequently merged into north terminus of Manila Trench. Over 50 box and gravity cores were collected by using R/V Ocean Research 1, 3 and 5 from 2005 to 2014. The cores were split and conducted core description and surface photographs at the Core Laboratory of the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). The following analyses, including X-radiography, bulk density, particle size, Pb-210 chronology, were accomplished at the Marine Radioactivity and Sedimentology Lab at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. The grain size analysis result shows a finer trend from coastal to deep water , except for the lower Fangliao basin which the grain size is larger than the expected value. According to the previous studies on the Pingtung Earthquake induced submarine geohazard, the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and the Lower Fangliao Basin is an important conduit for gravity flow which triggered large scale submarine cable breakages and left coarse sediments on the passage. By using the excess Pb-210 derived sediment accumulation rates, Huh et al. (2009) suggested the depocenter off the southwestern Taiwan is located at the flank of the Gaoping Canyon over the upper slope with the highest rate >1 cm/yr. In this study we integrate the Pb-210 inventory data which covered the area from the

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Coastal Sediments of Southwestern Taiwan: an Appraisal of Diagnostic Ratios in Source Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Lee, C.; Fang, M.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    Fifty seven surface sediment samples along the coast of southwestern Taiwan were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentrations of total PAH (sum of 28 PAH compounds) ranged from15 to 907 ng/g dry weight (dw). Diagnostic ratios revealed petroleum origin PAHs was a significant source to the sediments at Gao-ping estuary stations. However, sediments of Kaohsiung coast might be a combustion-derived PAHs of petroleum, coal, and vehicles. The result of perylene/penta-aromatic PAHs ratio was higher in Tainan coast, Hsinda harbour coast, and some off-shore stations of Kaohsiung coast, suggesting a diagenetic PAH source. A comprehensive appraisal suggested that certain diagnostic ratios are much useful in tracing the distribution of PAHs from specific sources in southwestern Taiwan. P/A (phenanthrene/anthracene) ratio is a better indicator than MP/P (methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene) ratio in tracing petrogenic PAHs. Moreover, BaA/Chr (benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene) and IP/BghiP (indeno(1,2,3- c,d)pyrene/benzo(g,h,i)perylene) ratios can provide more appropriate assignments than BaP/BeP (benzo(a)pyrene/benzo(e)pyrene) and BbF/BkF (benzo(b)fluoranthcene/benzo(k)fluoranthcene) in distinguishing PAHs from various pyrogenic sources in this study. More specifically, automobile and coal sources were found dominant in stations of pyrogenic group delineated by principal component analysis (PCA).

  19. [Liability of pediatric nurses for professional negligence in Taiwan: a case study].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Man; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Liability attribution and professional negligence in pediatric nursing are topics that have been neglected in Taiwan. (1) Identify the definitions of related criminal activities in accordance with domestic criminal law; (2) Elucidate the facts and the dispute in a current case involving a pediatric nurse; (3) Elucidate the principle of 'no punishment without law'; (4) Explore the reasons why the pediatric nurse in the current case received a verdict of 'not guilty'. A literature review and case study approach were used to analyze a sentence reconsideration of the first instance No. 1 (2011) issued by the Taiwan high court, Kaohsiung branch court. The conditions for the scrutiny of criminal activity under Taiwan criminal law are statement of facts, illegality (justifiable cause), and liability (excuse). In this case, the pediatric nurse was accused of failing to prevent an infant from suffocation and of not discharging her obligations as a nurse. The pediatric nurse rebutted the charge of criminal negligence. The intervening behaviors of the pediatric nurse were found to be legal and not culpable. In this case, the High Court and Supreme Court made a final criminal judgment based on the presumption of innocence, and the pediatric nurse was pronounced innocent of the charge. This article intends to assist pediatric nurses understand their liabilities under Taiwan's criminal law. Pediatric nurses should gain a better understanding of the nature of liability for professional negligence in order to clarify how actions that may be illegal do not necessarily make nurses culpable.

  20. Great Lakes Harbors Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-11-01

    Locally.assigned Library of Congress number: HE396 S25 U55 Nj 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) 1. HARBORS 2... WATER TRANSPORTATION 3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4. GREAT LJAKES - 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ie.er.se side It necesaty nd identify by blocA number) Harbor...Scope 2 DESCRIPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Navigation System 2 4 Navigation Season 3 5 Water Levels 4 6 Tributary Area 6

  1. Tomography of the source zone of the 2016 South Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Zhao, Dapeng; Chen, Kate Huihsuan

    2016-10-01

    On 2016 February 6 the South Taiwan earthquake (Mw 6.4) occurred in the Meinong District of Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan, at a depth of 17 km. It caused 117 fatalities and widespread damage to infrastructures, especially in the Tainan city. To clarify the generating mechanism of this damaging earthquake, we determined high-resolution 3-D images of P- and S-wave velocity (VP, VS) and Poisson's ratio (σ) in the epicentral area. We used 105 712 P- and 61 250 S-wave arrival times of 8279 local earthquakes (1.5 ≤ M ≤ 6.4) recorded at 41 seismic stations in South Taiwan during 2000-2011. In the upper crust (depth ≤ 10 km), the most remarkable feature is low-VP, low-VS and high-σ anomalies in areas with known active faults in the southwestern and easternmost parts of Taiwan. In contrast, high-VP, high-VS and low-σ anomalies become dominant in the lower crust. The hypocentre of the 2016 South Taiwan earthquake is located in a boundary zone where seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio change drastically in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the hypocentre is underlain by a vertically elongated high-σ anomaly at depths of 23-40 km, which may reflect ascending fluids from the upper (or uppermost) mantle. The low-V and high-σ anomalies in the upper crust coincide with areas of low heat flow, negative Bouguer gravity anomaly, and low magnetotelluric resistivity, which may reflect crustal fluids contained in the young fold-and-thrust belt. These results suggest that the 2016 South Taiwan earthquake was triggered by ascending fluids from dehydration of the subducting Eurasian slab, invading into active faults with a high loading rate.

  2. A fusion model used in subsidence prediction in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.-J.; Hsu, K.-C.; Lee, C.-H.

    2015-11-01

    The Taiwan Water Resources Agency uses four techniques to monitor subsidence in Taiwan, namely data from leveling, global positioning system (GPS), multi-level compaction monitoring wells (MCMWs), and interferometry synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Each data type has advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for different analysis tools. Only MCMW data provide compaction information at different depths in an aquifer system, thus they are adopted in this study. However, the cost of MCMW is high and the number of MCMW is relatively low. Leveling data are thus also adopted due to its high resolution and accuracy. MCMW data provide compaction information at different depths and the experimental data from the wells provide the physical properties. These data are suitable for a physical model. Leveling data have high monitoring density in spatial domain but lack in temporal domain due to the heavy field work. These data are suitable for a black- or grey-box model. Poroelastic theory, which is known to be more conscientious than Terzaghi's consolidation theory, is adopted in this study with the use of MCMW data. Grey theory, which is a widely used grey-box model, is adopted in this study with the use of leveling data. A fusion technique is developed to combine the subsidence predicted results from poroelastic and grey models to obtain a spatially and temporally connected two-dimensional subsidence distribution. The fusion model is successfully applied to subsidence predictions in Changhua, Yunlin, Tainan, and Kaohsiung of Taiwan and obtains good results. A good subsidence model can help the government to make the accurate strategies for land and groundwater resource management.

  3. Port and Harbor Security

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  4. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

    2011-01-01

    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging.

  5. Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis in Taiwan: an underrecognized disease with poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (NNHCA-IE) is a new category of IE of increasing importance. This study described the clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome of NNHCA-IE in Taiwan. Methods A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with IE admitted to the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan over a five-year period from July 2004 to July 2009. The clinical and microbiological features of NNHCA-IE were compared to those of community-acquired and nosocomial IE. Predictors for in-hospital death were determined. Results Two-hundred episodes of confirmed IE occurred during the study period. These included 148 (74%) community-acquired, 30 (15%) non-nosocomial healthcare-associated, and 22 (11%) nosocomial healthcare-associated IE. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen. Patients with NNHCA-IE compared to community-acquired IE, were older (median age, 67 vs. 44, years, p < 0.001), had more MRSA (43.3% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001), more comorbidity conditions (median Charlson comorbidity index [interquartile range], 4[2-6] vs. 0[0-1], p < 0.001), a higher in-hospital mortality (50.0% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.001) and were less frequently recognized by clinicians on admission (16.7% vs. 47.7%, p = 0.002). The overall in-hospital mortality rate for all patients with IE was 25%. Shock was the strongest risk factor for in-hospital death (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 2.4-25.2, p < 0.001). Conclusions NNHCA-IE is underrecognized and carries a high mortality rate. Early recognition is crucial to provide optimal management and improve outcome. PMID:21849057

  6. Laboratory-Based Surveillance and Molecular Characterization of Dengue Viruses in Taiwan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fen; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Hsu, Tung-Chieh; Su, Chien-Ling; Lin, Chien-Chou; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a laboratory-based surveillance of dengue in Taiwan in 2014. A total of 240 imported dengue cases were identified. The patients had arrived from 16 countries, and Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and China were the most frequent importing countries. Phylogenetic analyses showed that genotype I of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) and the cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 were the predominant DENV strains circulating in southeast Asia. The 2014 dengue epidemic was the largest ever to occur in Taiwan since World War II, and there were 15,492 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the explosive dengue epidemic in southern Taiwan was caused by a DENV-1 strain of genotype I imported from Indonesia. There were several possible causes of this outbreak, including delayed notification of the outbreak, limited staff and resources for control measures, abnormal weather conditions, and a serious gas pipeline explosion in the dengue hot spot areas in Kaohsiung City. However, the results of this surveillance indicated that both active and passive surveillance systems should be strengthened so appropriate public health measures can be taken promptly to prevent large-scale dengue outbreaks.

  7. The observation of crustal deformation derived from Taiwan Continuous GPS Array (2007-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Chien, Tsai; Shui-Beih, Yu; Tzay-Chyn, Shin

    2015-04-01

    Kaohsiung-Pingtung area with a counterclockwise rotation in the directions. The 2007-2013 Taiwan velocity field and GPS position time series can be used in active tectonics and earthquake prediction studies. It also provides important information for seismic hazard analysis.

  8. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. Numerical Study on the Historic Tsunami Events in the Southwest of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Lin, T.

    2012-12-01

    After the devastating 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, people in Taiwan were in great shock because of the similarities in civilization and geographical location between both countries. Both Taiwan and Japan are located on the circum-Pacific seismic belt, and people in both countries live under the shadow of earthquake and tsunami attack. In this study, we intend to understand the potential tsunami threat to the southwest coast of Taiwan where sits two metropolises, Tainan and Kaohsiung. We wish to restate the historic tsunami events and find the tsunami sources numerically. According to the historical documents and modern literature, three tsunami events occurred in 1781 (Chen et al., 1830), 1782/1682 (Soloviev and Go, 1974) and 1894 are discussed in this paper. However, the inconsistency is found in year, location, and death toll between both the historical documents and modern literature. Hence, a field reinvestigation, focused on the oral history, temple inscription, and local historical documents, is conducted before running a numerical simulation. In the field survey, two historic tsunami events carved on the Dong-Lung Temple and Jia-Lian Temple are found. One is in the 1894; the other is in the late 1600s. According the inscription, in the case of 1894 tsunami event, numerous buildings were destroyed by the tsunami and the death toll was high. In the case of the late 1600s, a serious flood was recorded. The later might be the one same as the 1781 Pingtung tsunami or 1782/1682 Tainan tsunami. The field survey results help correct many mistakes documented in the modern literatures and will be presented in this paper. After the survey, a serious of numerical simulations will be carried out by using COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model). The nested grids with 30 m finest resolution are applied to Tainan, Kaohsiung, Tungkang, and Kenting. The result shows the wave height, inundation area, and arrival time. We also found that the southwest of Taiwan

  11. Clinical manifestations of Japanese encephalitis in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuang Ming; Tsai, Hung Chin; Sy, Cheng Len; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Liu, Yung Ching; Wann, Shue Ren; Wang, Yung Hsing; Mai, Ming Hsin; Chen, Jei Kuang; Wu, Kuan Sheng; Chen, Yi Jan; Chen, Yao Shen

    2009-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus infection is a sporadic infectious disease in Taiwan. Despite progress in laboratory examinations and imaging studies, diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis remains underestimated. This study was conducted to identify clinical symptoms and laboratory findings that may assist in early identification of this disease. This retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with Japanese encephalitis at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital from January 2000 through December 2007. Epidemiologic data, predisposing factors, neurological and non-neurological signs and symptoms, laboratory data, and treatment were analyzed. Outcomes and neurological complications were evaluated. Eleven patients had Japanese encephalitis, and 10 had sufficient information for enrolment into the study. Nine patients presented with non-significant constitutional symptoms of fever, nausea, or headache. Other signs and symptoms included rhinorrhea, sore throat, abdominal pain, cough, myalgia, or arthralgia. Eight patients had lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein and borderline low glucose levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Leptomeningeal enhancement and low density lesions were the most common computed tomography findings. T2 hyperintensity lesions and leptomeningeal enhancement were seen in 5 patients. Two patients presenting with acute flaccid paralysis had high intensity lesions on the thalamus and basal ganglion. There were no correlations between clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. None of the patients had neurological sequelae. Presentations, laboratory examination, and clinical signs are not specific for Japanese encephalitis. Sporadic cases are usually seen from May to August, which are associated with monsoon rains. Hence increased awareness of this disease is recommended during these periods.

  12. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van Elk, Cornelis E.; van de Bildt, Marco; Getu, Sarah; Aron, Georgina I.; Verjans, Georges M.G.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; van den Brand, Judith M.A.; Kuiken, Thijs; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2017-01-01

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea. PMID:27983498

  13. Recycling of harbor sediment as lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Yang, Jing-Chiang; Lin, Yong-Yang; Chuang, Shih-Yu; Wang, H Paul

    2008-01-01

    Sediment sampled from Taichung Harbor was mixed with local reservoir sediment at different weight ratios to prepare lightweight aggregate at 1050, 1100, and 1150 degrees C. A pressure of 3000 or 5000 psi was used to shape the powder mixtures into pellets before the heating processes. The results indicate that the leaching levels of trace metals from the lightweight aggregate samples are considerably reduced to levels less than Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration regulatory limits. Increasing final process temperature tends to reduce the bulk density and crushing intensity of lightweight aggregate with a concomitant increase in water sorption capability. Lightweight aggregate with the lowest bulk density, 0.49 g cm(-3) for the 5000 psi sample, was obtained with the heating process to 1150 degrees C. Based on the X-ray absorption near edge structure results, FeSO(4) decomposition with a concomitant release of SO(x) (x = 2,3) is suggested to play an important role for the bloating process in present study.

  14. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  15. Water repellency of Casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia Forest.) windbreaks in central Taiwan

    Treesearch

    Chao-Yuan Lin

    2000-01-01

    Water repellent layer (WRL) in the Casuarina plantation near Taichung harbor in Central Taiwan is mainly due to the development of filamentous fungi. Not only are hyphae of the isolated fungi, the metabolites of fungi strongly hydrophobic, TCHC-5 and TCHC-20 are also significantly hydrophobic. Humic substances decrease the phosphorus fixation and contribute to the...

  16. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Potential release of contaminants stored in harbor sediments through dredging and shipping operations requires that contaminated areas be identified for proper management of the system and protection of wildlife resources. During 1991, Hyalella azteca were exposed in 10-d static-renewal toxicity tests to pore-water and solid-phase sediment samples collected from 26 sites within Savannah Harbor. Pore-water toxicity was more pronounced than that for solidphase sediment. Toxicity and reduced leaf consumption demonstrated impaired sediment quality at specific sites within Savannah Harbor and Back River. Factors responsible for the decreased sediment quality were ammonia, alkalinity, and metal concentrations (cadmium, chromium, lead, molybdenum, and nickel). Elevated concentrations of metals and toxicities in Back River sediments indicated impacts from adjacent dredge-spoil areas.

  17. Can Hospital Competition Really Affect Hospital Behavior or Not? An Empirical Study of Different Competition Measures Comparison in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Wei, Chung-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to measure the hospital competition index might lead to inconsistent results of the effects of hospital competition on innovation adoption. The purpose of this study is to adopt a different approach to define market area and measure the level of competition to examine whether hospital competition has a positive effect on hospital behavior, taking quality indicator projects participation as an example. A total of 238 hospitals located in Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung were recruited in this study. Competition index was used as the independent variable, and participation lists of Taiwan Clinical Performance Indicator and Taiwan Healthcare Indicator Series in 2012 were used as dependent variables. All data used in this study were retrieved from the 2012 national hospital profiles and the participation list of the 2 quality indicator projects in 2012; these profiles are issued by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare annually. Geopolitical boundaries and 4 kinds of fixed radiuses were used to define market area. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and hospital density were used to measure the level of competition. A total of 12 competition indices were produced in this study by employing the geographic information system, while max-rescaled R(2) was used to evaluate and compare the models on goodness of fit. The results show that the effects of hospital competition on quality indicator projects participation were varied, which mean different indicators for market competition might reveal different conclusions. Furthermore, this study also found the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index at 5-km radius was the optimum competition index.

  18. Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii, Breakwater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    state includes a global wave model, Hawaii wave model, and separate nearshore domains for Kauai , Oahu, Maui, and the Big Island (The Maui domain...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -7 Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii , Breakwater Repair C oa st al a n d...Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program ERDC/CHL TR-12-7 May 2012 Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii , Breakwater Repair Jessica H. Podoski and

  19. Body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and choice of infant feeding method: a study in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2004-09-01

    Many factors contribute to a pregnant woman's choice of infant feeding method, yet few studies have investigated which factors might be specific to pregnant women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among factors of body image, maternal-fetal attachment, and the choices made by pregnant Taiwanese women about infant feeding method. One hundred and ninety-five pregnant women were recruited during their third trimester at five hospitals in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants completed three questionnaires, including a demographic data form, an attitude to body image scale, and a modified maternal-fetal attachment scale. The results of stepwise logistic regression indicated that the best subset for predicting the criterion variable of breastfeeding intention included higher level of education, primiparity, and a higher level of maternal-fetal attachment. Maternal-fetal attachment, education, and parity are predictive of intended infant feeding method by pregnant women who choose breastfeeding, thereby adding to existing knowledge of the factors involved in feeding method choices of Taiwanese women. Further research should incorporate maternal-fetal attachment into a supportive model of breastfeeding.

  20. Simulation of Sediment Transport Caused by Landslide at Nanhua Reservoir Watershed in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Hsi; Huang, Cong-Gi; Lin, Huan-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    As a result of heavy rainfall, steep topography, young and weak geological formations, earthquakes, loose soils, slope land cultivation and other human disturbance, much area in Taiwan are prone to the occurrence of disastrous mass movements such as landslides and sediment disasters. During recent years, the extreme rainfall events brought huge amounts of rainfall and triggered severe changes in watershed environments. Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 caused severe landslides, debris flow, flooding and sediment disasters induced by record-break rainfall. The maximum rainfall of mountain area in Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung and Pingtung County were over 2,900 mm. The study area is located at Nanhua reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan. The numerical model (HEC-RAS 4.1 and FLO-2D) will be used to simulate the sediment transport caused by landslide and the study will find out the separating location of erosion and deposition in the river, the danger area of riverbank, and the safety of the river terrace village under the return period of 50-year, 100-year and 200-year (such as Typhoon Morakot). The results of this study can provide for the disaster risk management of administrative decisions to lessen the impacts of natural hazards and may also be useful for time-space variation of sediment disasters caused by Climate Change.

  1. Characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescents versus older adult women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Chou, P

    2001-06-01

    To identify characteristics of males who father babies born to adolescent mothers in southern Taiwan. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of male partners of 1,145 primigravidas (555 adolescent primigravidas and 590 adults) in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, which compared their reports of their male partners' characteristics. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, health behavior problems, and attitudes toward the pregnancy. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas achieved a lower level of education; a greater age discrepancy between themselves and the mothers; a greater unemployment rate; less financial independence; more smoking, drinking, and drug abuse; less supportive attitude toward pregnancy; poorer attendance at childbirth; less provision of postpartum care for mothers and infants; and greater domestic violence than adult primigravidas (p < .05). These negative findings persist even after stratification by age discrepancy. Male partners of the adolescent mothers with an age difference of 5 years or more were more likely to report drug abuse and domestic violence than those of adult primigravidas. Males who father babies born to adolescent primigravidas were found to have many negative characteristics that place their partners and offspring at risk. Questions asked of or about the father of the baby during prenatal visits may help identify pregnant adolescents who need support during pregnancy and after delivery.

  2. Relationship between blood lead concentrations and learning achievement among primary school children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Wu, Ting-Shan; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 20 years lead has been proven to exert an influence on the intelligence of children. Especially for children exposed to environmental lead, average blood lead was often lower than the officially recognized intoxication level. Because Kaohsiung is an industrial area in Taiwan and lead exposure is an important environmental issue, we attempted to ascertain the extent to which environmental lead influences the achievement of primary school children. We randomly selected 934 children from 32 primary schools in 11 districts of Kaohsiung City. Blood lead levels of the children were checked, and they were administered a questionnaire about their family information. Scores of several courses were used in this study on the relationship between a child's blood lead and his or her academic performance (Ranking with his or her classmates), including Chinese (reading and writing short Chinese articles), Mathematics, History and Society, and Natural Science. Multiple regression models were done with adjustments for the confounding effects of their parents' socioeconomic levels. The mean (SD) of 934 blood lead level was 5.50 (1.86) microg/dL. Spearman's coefficient showed that class rankings in Chinese, Mathematics, Natural Science, and History and Society were all strongly associated with blood lead levels (P<0.01). The multiple regression models revealed that blood lead level exerts a stronger influence on children's language ability (Chinese) than on their ability to calculate (Mathematics). Our results suggest that environmental lead exposure adversely affects a child's academic achievement, making a direct link between exposure to lead and academic attainment. 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  3. Taiwan - AFOSR Nanoscience Initiative Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-06

    InGaN/GaN Quantum Dots --- Growth, Nano- structure Material Analysis, and Optical Characterization, Chih -Chung Yang, National Taiwan University...Embedded in InGaN Quantum Well Structures, Chih -Chung Yang, National Taiwan University • 034019, Integrated Field Emission Devices Based On Carbon...1 Taiwan – AFOSR Nanoscience Initiative Status Presented at the USAF/ Taiwan Nanoscience Initiative Workshop, Honolulu HI 17 February 2005 Air Force

  4. Inclusive Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu-Tien, Wu

    2007-01-01

    As an echo of the worldwide movement of inclusive education and because of the conviction of inclusive ideas, special education in Taiwan is moving toward a goal of inclusion, though not necessarily full inclusion. While its terminology is as yet undesignated, principles and strategies are significantly reflected in the Special Education Act and…

  5. Energy policy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite Taiwan's scarcity of natural energy resources, the energy demand for its high growth economy soared over the past 20 years. For the next two decades, the government's new socioeconomic development policy aims at balancing economic growth, which had been the country's highest priority, against improved social welfare and environmental protection. Energy policy for Taiwan was introduced during the first oil crisis in 1973 to ensure the stability of availability and prices. Between the two oil crises, the supply and demand for world energy changed significantly and the crude oil price rose sharply. The energy policy was therefore revised to intensify energy conservation. World oil prices started to drop in February 1983. In this period, due to great concerns over the domestic energy price rationalization, coal mining safety, energy-related environment pollution, and the movement to improve social welfare and environmental protection for the next two decades, Taiwan's energy policy was again revised. Some results for energy policy implementation and key tasks for energy conservation in Taiwan are described.

  6. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi Reevaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    conducte& by the Coastal Engineering Research Center ( CEFC ) and the Mobile District, to resolve the shoaling problems associated with the westward...aligrment which eliminates or minimizes the impacts of island migration on the navigation channel for the economic life of the Gulfport Harbor project. CEFC

  7. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Sleep medicine in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Chia-Mo

    The sleep medicine is a young medical science in Taiwan. It began from less than 10 sleep beds 20 years ago in four hospitals all over Taiwan. By the organization of sleep team in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and the initiation of Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine, sleep medicine becomes a popular medicine in the past decades. The setting of Sleep Society in 2002 is the milestone to promote the sleep medicine, educate the public and professionals, and control of the quality of clinical practice. Epidemiologic study in Taiwan shows many Taiwanese suffer from sleep disorders and hence more sleep institutes are needed. Accreditation has become a mission of the Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine. Technicians, sleep centers, sleep specialists and sleep phycologists are gradually certified by the society. 215 sleep technicians, 307 sleep physicians, 31 iCBT therapists and 21 sleep centers are certified by the society till 2015. The first sleep related medical courses are initiated in the Department of Respiratory Therapy in Chang Gung University from 2003. For the following years, eight medical courses are set in six Universities now. Given the fact that the Asian accounts for the largest proportion of population in the world, investigation on the OSA in Asian population is essential. In this article, we aimed to demonstrate the outcomes of OSA-related research in Asia. In particular, the progress driven by the studies in Taiwan will be discussed. Data were obtained online from the Science Citation Index Expanded database of the Thomson Reuters' Web of Science Core Collection. Keywords including "apnea" and "hyponea" were used to search by applying the filters of the title and the publication years between 1991 and 2014. In total, 2623 articles were hit, subject to the criteria for data search. Among the 2623 articles, sleep and breathing related articles (128, 4.95 %) were the most frequently reported. Japan is the country that published the highest amount of OSA

  9. Accelerated Implementation of Harbor Processes Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    WATERSHEDS, *BIODEGRADATION, *SEDIMENTS, INDUSTRIES, STRATEGY, WATER, NAVY, SITES, SEASONAL VARIATIONS, SAMPLING, CONTAMINANTS, HARBORS, OCEAN BOTTOM, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY , TOXICOLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, ESTUARIES.

  10. SARS Outbreak, Taiwan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cathy W.S.; Hsu, Sze-Bi

    2004-01-01

    We studied the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Taiwan, using the daily case-reporting data from May 5 to June 4 to learn how it had spread so rapidly. Our results indicate that most SARS-infected persons had symptoms and were admitted before their infections were reclassified as probable cases. This finding could indicate efficient admission, slow reclassification process, or both. The high percentage of nosocomial infections in Taiwan suggests that infection from hospitalized patients with suspected, but not yet classified, cases is a major factor in the spread of disease. Delays in reclassification also contributed to the problem. Because accurate diagnostic testing for SARS is currently lacking, intervention measures aimed at more efficient diagnosis, isolation of suspected SARS patients, and reclassification procedures could greatly reduce the number of infections in future outbreaks. PMID:15030683

  11. Trend and geographic analysis of the prevalence of dengue in Taiwan, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason C; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Lu, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading disease caused by a mosquito-borne virus in the world. The incidence of dengue globally has increased 30-fold in the last 50 years. Understanding the prevalence of dengue and its longitudinal trends can improve prevention and control strategies. This study assessed the trends in prevalence of dengue in Taiwan by population characteristics and geographical region. Dengue and population data for the years 2010-2015 were obtained from the public statistics databases of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Department of Statistics, Taiwan Ministry of Interior. Yearly prevalence rates of dengue were calculated by age group, sex, and administrative area within five geographic regions (northern, mid-western, southern, and eastern regions, and outer islands). The national prevalence rate of dengue decreased gradually from 8 to 4 per 100000 population between 2010 and 2013, but it increased substantially in 2014 and 2015 to 67 and 187 per 100000 population, respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence rate between males and females. People aged 60-69 years had a significantly higher prevalence rate than those in the other age groups during 2010-2014, and people aged over 70 years had the highest rate in 2015 (309 per 100000 population). The southern region had the highest yearly dengue prevalence rate (the rate decreased from 23 to 9 per 100000 population between 2010 and 2013, but increased to 220 and 616 per 100000 population in 2014 and 2015, respectively). Three unexpected outbreaks of dengue were observed during the study period: the first outbreak occurred in Penghu County in 2011 (prevalence rate 101 per 100000 population), the second in Kaohsiung City in 2014 (prevalence rate 540 per 100000 population), and the third in Tainan City in 2015 (prevalence rate 1208 per 100000 population). More efforts are still needed to prevent and control dengue in Taiwan. The government should direct resources and

  12. Army Engineers at Pearl Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the Honolulu Engi- neer District, then part of the South Pacific Division. Colonel Albert K.B. Lyman , a native Hawaiian who later attained the rank...aircraft dis- persal at Wheeler Field. On the civil side, Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Wyman, the Honolulu District Engineer, had offices employing 10...Army Engineers at Pearl Harbor Past in Review Native Hawaiian Colonel Albert K.B. Lyman , the Army’s Ha- waiian Department engineer during the attack

  13. Quarantine for SARS, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    King, Chwan-Chuan; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lee, Jen-Yu; Liu, Feng-Chi; Wu, Yi-Chun

    2005-01-01

    During the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Taiwan, >150,000 persons were quarantined, 24 of whom were later found to have laboratory-confirmed SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Since no evidence exists that SARS-CoV is infective before the onset of symptoms and the quarantined persons were exposed but not symptomatic, we thought the quarantine's effectiveness should be investigated. Using the Taiwan quarantine data, we found that the onset-to-diagnosis time of previously quarantined confirmed case-patients was significantly shortened compared to that for those who had not been quarantined. Thus, quarantine for SARS in Taiwan screened potentially infective persons for swift diagnosis and hospitalization after onset, thereby indirectly reducing infections. Full-scale quarantine measures implemented on April 28 led to a significant improvement in onset-to-diagnosis time of all SARS patients, regardless of previous quarantine status. We discuss the temporal effects of quarantine measures and other interventions on detection and isolation as well as the potential usefulness of quarantine in faster identification of persons with SARS and in improving isolation measures. PMID:15752447

  14. Maternity Leave in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-07-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed.

  15. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  16. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and vessels...

  17. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and vessels...

  18. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and vessels...

  19. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and vessels...

  20. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and vessels...

  1. 77 FR 19967 - Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK... temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and adjacent U.S. territorial sea from 12:01 a.m... high volume of vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due...

  2. Harbors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Kadena, Sasebo only) FKN5 (5 copies each) C7 (Brazil and Chile only) F336 (Big Sur, Coos Head, Fli8 FDl Ferndale, and Pacific FKNIO FEI Beach only) FKPIB...of Engineers. This zone is generally located seaward from the mean high- water line. A Corps permit is required for all dredging, filling, construc...2) work in or around existing marshes; and (3) significant reduction of existing intertidal or shallow-water areas. b. U.S. Coast Guard. All aids to

  3. An epidemic of HIV type I CRF07_BC infection among injection drug users in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Shih, Yi-Li; Liu, Yung-Ching; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Ya-Lei; Chin, Chuen; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Guo, Yi-Chi; Zhang, Linqi

    2006-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Taiwan is rapidly escalating because of an increasing number of injection drug users (IDUs). A molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1-infected IDUs in Taiwan was conducted from January 2004 to April 2005. Of the 131 HIV-1-positive specimens collected, all contained detectable sequences, including 105 from the C2-V3 region of env and 87 from the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of pol. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that 128 individuals harbored CRF07_BC, which resembles the dominant strains circulating among IDUs in China. Twenty-three individuals had a history of travel to the southwest provinces of China and shared needles or apparatuses there. This suggests that CRF07_BC might have been transmitted from China into Taiwan, thereby causing an outbreak among IDUs in Taiwan. This is the first report in the English literature of the appearance of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Taiwan. These provide information relevant to the development of antiviral therapy and vaccine in Taiwan and may assist public health workers in the prevention of HIV-1 spread.

  4. Periodic Inspections of Cleveland Harbor East Breakwater, Ohio, and Burns Harbor North Breakwater, Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Hales, CHL. Points-of-contact at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Buffalo District (CELRB) for Cleveland Harbor are Shanon A. Chader and...Cleveland Harbor is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, 96 miles east of Toledo, OH, and 176 miles west of Buffalo , NY (Figure 1). The Harbor is... African engineer for East London Harbor on the southern coast of Africa, witnessed a storm remove over half of the Harbor breakwater’s solid armor

  5. Association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and adolescent asthma from 1995 to 1996 in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.N.; Ko, Y.C.; Chao, Y.Y.; Huang, C.C.; Lin, R.S.

    1999-10-01

    The study aim was to estimate the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution to the 1-year prevalence of adolescent asthma after personal susceptibility and other potential risk factors were taken into account. A large-scaled cross-sectional study was conducted among 165,173 high school students aged 11 to 16 years in the different communities of Kaohsiung and Pintong in Taiwan, from October 1995 to June 1996. Each student and his/her parents participating in the study completed a video and a written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire about symptoms of wheezing and allergies, passive smoking, and demographic variables. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents exposed to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke were found to suffer from asthma at an increased frequency. The authors observed a statistically significant association between outdoor air pollution and asthma, after controlling for potential confound variables. Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and airborne dust particles all displayed an independent association with asthma, respectively. There were no selection biases in this community-based study, which provides evidence that passive smoking and long-term, high average outdoor air pollution are independent risk factors of asthma.

  6. A pilot study: fluid intake and bacteriuria in nursing home residents in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The significance of bacteriuria or urinary tract infection in incontinent residents and the association with fluid intake has not been explored fully. The aim of this study was to test whether or not increasing fluid intake changed the occurrence of bacteriuria in incontinent residents in nursing homes between baseline and 6-week follow-up. A quasiexperimental study with pretest and posttest design was conducted in six nursing homes in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A 6-week increasing fluid regimen (n = 44) was tested against the maintenance group (n = 30). The intake and output checklist was used to record residents' fluid intake, and bacteriuria was confirmed by a positive urine culture. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 29.7% at baseline and 17.6% at the 6-week follow-up. Despite higher percentage of reduction in bacteriuria noted in the increasing group (15.9% vs. 6.7%), increasing fluid intake to reduce the occurrence of bacteriuria was not statistically supported. Adequate amount of fluid intake, participants' characteristics, and components of a fluid regimen are major cautions in interpreting the preliminary results. Fluid intake could be the least harmful and the cheapest method to reduce susceptibility for bacteriuria. Combining behavioral approaches such as improving access to fluid or scheduled toileting may be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of bacteriuria in incontinent elders in nursing homes.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of southwest Taiwan: regional characteristics and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der; Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E

    2011-04-01

    Very little information is available on the contamination of coastal sediments of Taiwan by PBDEs and PCBs. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 19 PBDE and 209 PCB congeners in 57 surface sediment samples to identify the possible sources of PBDEs and PCBs. The total PBDE and PCB concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 7.73 ng/g and 0.88-7.13 ng/g, respectively; these values are within the ranges observed for most coastal sediments worldwide. The PBDE congeners were dominated by BDE-209 (50.7-99.7%), with minor contributions from penta- and octa-BDEs. The signatures of PCB congeners suggested that PCB residues in Kaohsiung coast may be the legacy of past use or the result of ongoing inputs from the maintenance, repair and salvage of old ships. Principal component analysis of the congener-specific composition of PBDEs and PCBs revealed distinct regional patterns that are related to the use of commercial products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear time series analysis of ground-level ozone dynamics in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Chang, Ni-Bin; Lee, T Y

    2008-05-01

    The ozone pollution at ground level in rural and urban areas has been a long-standing problem in the world. This paper focuses on estimating self-affined nature of nonlinearity of ground-level peak ozone time series, which is analyzed by two nonlinear fractal statistical methods, including R/S analysis and BDS test. To explore the underlying structure of ozone observations at ground level and improve the forecasting capacity in urban region, practical implementation was assessed by a case study via collecting and analyzing the monitoring data at Chaojhou and Zenwu in the Kaohsiung metropolitan region, Taiwan. Based on R/S analysis, the time series can be identified as persistent and long-memory processes with Hurst exponents of both about 0.75. In addition, the V statistics specifies possible fluctuation cycle lengths of 32, 170, and 420 day simultaneously. Such results are consistent with the regional meteorological conditions leading to help characterize the regional scale ozone behavioral trend. Furthermore, the BDS test results confirm a strong nonlinearity of both time series associated with these two cities. Yet in both cases, nonlinearity implies chaos. The R/S analysis and BDS test provide strong evidence for nonlinearity and fractality of ozone time series due to noisy chaos, and we could not rule out the possibility of deterministic chaos in tropospheric ozone system.

  9. Climate variability of heat wave and future warming scenario in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-yao

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the heat wave definition and climate variability of HW days according to air temperature are conducted in order to find out the local threshold and variation trends in the past 40 years (1971-2010), in three major cities, Taipei (TP), Taichung (TC) and Kaohsiung (KH) in Taiwan. As for Taiwan's high humidity atmospheric condition, the heat stress index wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is also employed in the past (2003-2012) and future warming scenario in 2075-2099. The simulation WBGT in the past (2003-2012) and future warming projection (2075-2099) are deduced from the results of ECHAM5/MPIOM-WRF (ECW) dynamic downscaling 5-km resolution in these three cities. Box plot analyzing shows the differences between observed and simulated WBGT distribution at 25%, 50% and 75% percentiles are all within 0.7 °C in 2003-2012. Even the extreme values, the differences are all within 0.9 °C. In other words, the ranges of the WBGT variation from observations are reasonably captured by the ECW in three cities. According to the good performance of ECW in the WBGT simulation, the projection of future WBGT in these three cities has been evaluated under IPCC A1B scenario by using ECW. It is estimated that nearly 50% of the days in summer (July and August) are all at the level of danger (WBGT>31 °C ) at the period 2075-2099.It is a significant increase because they are only 10.74%, 4.22% and 11.28% above this level in the past in 2003-2012 in TP, TC and KH, respectively. From public health point of view, the impacts are huge and worthy to pay attention under the global warming trend.

  10. ICU service in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lu, Chin-Li; Chung, Yueh-Chih; Huang, Mei-Chen; Shen, Hsiu-Nien; Chen, Hsing-Min; Zhang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) in order to optimize the resources achieving the best possible care. The study analyzed the status of ICU settings based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between March 2004 and February 2009. A total of 1,028,364 ICU patients were identified. The age was 65 ± 18 years, and 61% of the patients were male. The total ICU bed occupancy rate was 83.8% which went up to 87.3% during winter. The ICU bed occupancy was 94.4% in major medical centers. The ICU stay was 6.5 ± 0.5 days, and the overall ICU mortality rate was 20.2%. The hospital stay was 16.4 ± 16.8 days, and the average cost of total hospital stay was approximately US$5,186 per patient. The rate of ICU bed occupancy was dependent on seasonal changes, and it reached near full capacity in major medical centers in Taiwan. The ICU beds were distributed based on the categories of hospitals in order to achieve a reasonable cost efficiency. ICU faces many challenges to maintain and improve quality care because of the increasing cost of state-of-the-art technologies and dealing with aging population.

  11. Atmospheric turbidity over Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. M.; Feng, T. S.

    The atmospheric turbidity over Taiwan is inferred from the measurements of the direct solar irradiance during the period from July 1982 to June 1987. The turbidity over urban sites, which ranges from 0.30 to 0.48 (mean value 0.39), is significantly higher than values observed over suburban (0.21-0.23), rural (0.16-0.18), and high mountain (0.09) sites. The highest turbidity is observed at Taipei where a positive correlation is found between the turbidity and the daily dustfall data. Low wind speed is usually accompanied with high turbidity. When the surface wind intercepts with mountains, the localized circulation initiated by the blocking of airflow may cause efficient accumulation of aerosols and hence the observed high turbidity. The turbidity tends to be inversely proportional to the stability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL); hence there is an increase of turbidity at most stations from early morning to noontime. A positive correlation between turbidity and r.h. (<80%) and dew point temperature is noted; a negative correlation is found between turbidity and visibility. The annual cycle of turbidity is characterized by spring-fall maxima and winter-summer minima, which is different from the cycle of winter-minimum and summer-maximum observed in the temperate zone. The seasonal change of the synoptic weather pattern occurring around Taiwan is proposed to explain the observed annual cycle.

  12. Prenatal examination behavior of Southeast Asian pregnant women in Taiwan: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Lin, Miao-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2008-05-01

    There is growing concern about the factors affecting the prenatal examinations of immigrant women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the knowledge of pregnancy, attitude toward pregnancy and experience of medical services, and prenatal examination behavior of pregnant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional study with a structured questionnaire administered to participants. Participants were recruited from the community health centers in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. The sampling criteria were as follows: each subject was to (a) have come from a Southeast Asian country, (b) be over 28 weeks pregnant to less than one year postpartum, (c) be able to communicate either in Mandarin or Taiwanese, and (d) be willing to participate in the research after hearing an explanation of it. As a result, 140 participants were recruited. A total of 132 participants completed the questionnaire and were used for data analysis. The participants completed structured questionnaires, which included the Demographic Inventory Scale, Knowledge of Pregnancy Scale, Attitudes toward Pregnancy Scale, Experience of Medical Services Scale and the Prenatal Examination Behavior Scale. Findings show that 80.3% of the subjects attended their first-time prenatal examination during the first trimester and 59.1% of the subjects evaluated their prenatal examinations as being adequate. Their attitude toward childbearing was significantly correlated with their prenatal examination behavior, including the initial time of prenatal examination and frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. Positive attitudes toward childbearing and prenatal examination, and the number of years spent in Taiwan were all significant predictive factors of frequencies of prenatal examinations during pregnancy. The findings of this study can not only help healthcare professionals understand the prenatal examination behavior and related factors of the participants, but

  13. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Taiwan: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2015-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome increases the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. A case-control study. Tertiary university hospital. We retrospectively investigated 181 cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 181 controls from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, in southern Taiwan from 2010 to 2012, comparing their clinical variables. We analyzed the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with Asian modifications. The demographic and clinical characteristics, audiometry results, and outcome were reviewed. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 3.54-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00-6.43, P < .01) of having sudden sensorineural hearing loss compared with those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components, the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss increased (P for trend <.01). Vertigo was associated with a poor outcome (P = .02; 95% CI = 1.13~5.13, adjusted odds ratio = 2.39). The hearing loss pattern may influence the outcome of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (P < .01). These results suggest that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. Vertigo and total hearing loss were indicators of a poor outcome in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Numerical modeling of Waianae Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Lucas, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Waianae harbor problem is an example of the use of numerical modeling techniques available at JTRE of the University of Hawaii to assist in the evaluation of oceanographic fluid dynamic flow problems. The numerical techniques are available to assist in the modeling of many problems of interest to the Hawaii Ocean Experiment. One application that has received considerable effort is the formation, propagation, and run-up of tsunami waves. The interaction of tsunami waves with the island chain is an important problem that needs more study. The models can be used to study storm surge interaction with the Hawaii islands and current and circulation around and through the islands. It is important that the modeling not be limited to the usual nonlinear shallow-water models, since they are inappropriate for many of the problems of interest to the Hawaii Ocean Experiment. 6 references, 5 figures.

  15. Scrap car recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Tai, H.S.; Fan, R.K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The official figure of registered automobiles released by the Ministry of Transportation of Taiwan, R.O.C. as of the end of April 1996, is approximately 4.8 millions. Among them, 18% of the cars are between seven and ten years old and 15% of the cars are old than ten years. The result of this large number of old cars is the problem of abandoned cars on the street of Taiwan. This phenomena not only hinders traffic flow but also undermines the living quality in the cities. To minimize these negative effects, EPA has promulgated a Scrap Motor Vehicles Management Regulation to enforce the scrap car recycling in Taiwan. Under this regulation, a buyer of a new vehicle has to pay the Scrap Motor Vehicle Disposal fee (NT$ 3000, or US$ 110 for a car; and NT$ 700, or US$ 25 for a motorcycle). This paper presents the current status of scrap car recycling in Taiwan.

  16. 78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National... Bull Flugtag National Harbor event'', to be held on the waters of the Potomac River on September 21...; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel, MD'' in the...

  17. 78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National... during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event,'' to be held on the waters of the Potomac River on... of National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a competition...

  18. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. Design An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1) identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2) identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3) building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4) designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 5) undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively), and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively). The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human

  19. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  4. 33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.; except that, from 12...

  5. 33 CFR 117.699 - Little Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Harbor. 117.699 Section 117.699 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Hampshire § 117.699 Little Harbor. The draw of the...

  6. A gregarine from the gut of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Taiwan: dynamic of infection patterns.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Mauricio E; Huang, Chin-Gi; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Benítez, Hugo A

    2013-02-18

    An understanding on host-parasite interaction is essential for control of disease causing organisms in domestic animals. The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) is the predominant flea infesting dogs and cats in Taiwan. It was collected from 933 dogs and 197 cats from Taiwan. A total of 5878 C. felis adults were recovered; 14.6% fleas were observed to harbor Steinina ctenocephali. Female fleas were more susceptible to gregarine infection than males. Further, fleas were more likely to be infected with the gregarine at high temperatures, particularly during March-July with high parasite prevalence and intensity. Fleas harboring gregarines infection were higher in dogs than cats. Our study may help in development and application of appropriate flea control measures in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect on patient loyalty of service quality, patient visit experience and perceived switching costs: lessons from one Taiwan university hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Jun-Ying; Howng, Shen-Long

    2011-02-01

    The reimbursement system changed from fee-for-service to fixed prospective payments in Taiwan, the effect on the physician-patient's relationship is worth being studied. We examined the relationship between patient visit experience, cost perceptions and the two important aspects of quality of care, curing and interpersonal performance, and patients' loyalty to the hospital physicians. A total of 404 patients from an acute care hospital in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (KMUH), were investigated using a self-administered mailing survey. All measures including patient loyalty (PL), curing service quality (CSQ), interpersonal service quality (ISQ), visit experience (VE) and perceived switching costs (PSC), were adapted and modified from existing scales. Our results showed that the physician's CSQ and ISQ positively affected patients' loyalty to KMUH. The interaction between the main effects of service quality, patients' VE and three types of switching visit costs, yielded additional insights into the importance of service quality for patient retention. The CSQ of physicians becomes a more important determinant of loyalty than ISQ as patients' VE increases. The importance of CSQ and ISQ increases in relation to PL as the perceived procedural and relational costs of changing care providers increases. Neither CSQ nor ISQ has a reduced relationship with PL as the perceived financial costs of switching hospitals increase. Our study indicates that the impact of CSQ and ISQ on loyalty varies according to the perceived visit costs of changing hospitals and the patients' VE.

  8. The study on the evaluation of the pollution control situation of the sewage systems in the counties and cities of Taiwan by applying the VIKOR method.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jun-Yuan

    2015-09-15

    County (0.2253) and Kaohsiung City (0.1334). Other cities and counties of Taiwan have good performance in the pollution control of the industrial area sewage systems. The VIKOR value of Kinmen County is 1.0000, which is the worst pollution control among the all public community sewage systems, followed by Hsinchu County (0.7458) and New Taipei City (0.5527). Among the cities and counties with good pollution control of the public community sewage systems, the best is Chiayi County (0.0000), followed by Kaohsiung City (0.0159) and Hsinchu City (0.0352). Chiayi County is a good performance compromise between all VIKOR values (0.0000), whether in industrial or public community area pollution control sewage systems. Yilan County industrial pollution control has the poorest performance of all the industrial area sewage systems in Taiwan, but in the public community, it ranked as fourth place of all the public community area sewage systems in Taiwan. The VIKOR method proposed in this study can effectively evaluate the pollution control situation of the sewage systems, and serve as a reference for the environmental protection authorities in developing the strategies for the pollution control of the sewage systems.

  9. Deep seated landslides along the Meilungshan fault in Laonung River Waterdhed, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Dia-Jie; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Landslides in Taiwan represent one of most relevant natural hazards for the society. In particular, the large scaled deep-seated landslides deserve attention, because they can be reactivated during intense events and can evolve into destructive failures. For example, one deep seated landslide, the Hsiaolin landslide, with an area of about 250 ha, buried the entire village of Hsiaolin in Kaohsiung County causing 397 causalities, the disappearance of 53 others, and buried over 100 houses during the Typhoon Morakot in 2009. The Laonung River watershed which covered 1367 km2 is selected as our study area. The study area is mainly compose of Miocene slate and sedimentary rocks that are separated by a major fault, the Meilungshan fault. The Meilungshan fault is part of the boundary fault separating the Central Range and Western Foothill in southern Taiwan. The fault is a west verging, high angle NNE trending thrust. Some outcrops show the fault zone is over one hundred and fifty meters thick, and it is mainly composed of gouge and fault breccias of slate. Within the study area, 361 sites with an area greater than 10 ha and with sliding topographic features of deep seated landslide such as crown main escarpment, down slope scarp, up slope scarps, and lateral cracks are recognized from LiDAR derived 1 m resolution DEM. Among these, 16 sites are selected for field investigation and all of them are confirmed as deep seated landslides. This implies the reliability of interpretation results from LiDAR derived DEM even in heavy forest region such as Taiwan. In order to know the influence of the Meilungshan fault in the development of deep seated landslides, landslide density are calculated. The landslide density is 7.7% when whole watershed is considered. However, the landslide density significantly increases to 19.3% when only an area 223km2 that contains the Meilungshan fault with a 2km buffer zone is in the calculation. This result indicates that deformation zone associated

  10. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  11. Quantifying the seismicity on Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2013-07-01

    We quantify the seismicity on the island of Taiwan using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our Taiwan study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ≈ 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ≥ 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ≈ 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on Taiwan is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ≈ 9 earthquake north or south of Taiwan cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of Taiwan.

  12. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for... of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan were...

  13. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  14. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  15. 33 CFR 117.603 - Manchester Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.603 Manchester Harbor. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Bridge at mile 1.0 in Manchester, shall operate as follows: (a) The...

  16. Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163886.html Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs' But that area often overlooked when it comes ... Hospital room floors may be more of a "superbug" threat than many hospital staffers realize, new research ...

  17. Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

  18. Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Presque Isle is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie and shelters the federal harbor at Erie , Pennsylvania . The US Army...the evaluation of the shoaling and dredging of sediment materials from Erie Harbor as part of the Presque Isle , Pennsylvania 204 feasibility study...ERDC TR-11-4 1 1 Introduction Problem statement Presque Isle is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie , Pennsylvania at the city of Erie

  19. A Preliminary Neotectonic Map of Taiwan, and its Implications for Future Destructive Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. H.; Sieh, K.; Chen, Y.; Lee, C.; Wang, Y.; Ota, Y.; Lee, J.; Sung, Q.; Rubin, C.

    2001-12-01

    potential for future rupture of the exposed, inactive Chukou fault. At the southern end of Taiwan, accretion of forearc-basin and volcanic-arc rocks is beginning across two domains separated by the Central Range. On the west is the Kaohsiung Domain, across which strike-slip and reverse faults are accommodating E-W shortening and southward extrusion at rapid rates. In the western half of the domain, a complex belt of strike-slip and reverse faults associates with the climbing of the Manila Trench up the continental slope and onto the shelf. In the eastern half of the domain, rapid sinking of the Pingtung Plain between two left-lateral reverse faults may reflect the foundering oceanic crust of the forearc. Active accretion of the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan occurs in distinct southern (Taitung) and northern (Hualien) domains. Rapid accretion in the Taitung Domain manifests itself as folding, faulting, and geodetic gradients on both sides of the arc-forearc suture, the Longitudinal Valley. The oblique component of accretion appears as large components of both sinistral and dip-slip motion on the Longitudinal Valley fault. To the north, accretion has nearly ceased; structures and geodetic measurements there suggest the predominance of sinistal deformation. Our neotectonic map of Taiwan is our initial attempt to define the fundamental kinematic context of active deformation there. We hope that this will assist in ongoing attempts to design geodetic, geophysical, paleoseismic and other research projects.

  20. Nurses' self-assessment of their nursing competencies, job demands and job performance in the Taiwan hospital system.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming

    2004-07-01

    This exploratory study investigated nurses' self-assessment of their own nursing competencies, job demands and job performance in Taiwan. Nurses' self-evaluation on their own job performance was conceptualized as an indicator of nursing care quality. A total of 21 competencies were clustered into three groups: basic-level patient care skills, intermediate-level patient care and fundamental management skills, and advanced-level patient care and supervision skills. Nurse subjects were randomly selected from the member roster of Kaohsiung Nurse Association; 850 nurses were invited to participate and questionnaire packets were sent to their homes. The overall response rate was 35.8%. Multiple regression analyses found that nurses' self-assessment of intermediate patient care skills, the difference between nurses' self-assessment and job demands for basic patient care skills, and nurses' overall satisfaction with their own nursing competencies were three significant predictors of overall satisfaction with nurses' own job performance. Nurses' self-assessment on basic patient care skills and advanced patient care skills contributed to nurses' levels of overall satisfaction with their own nursing competencies. These results suggest a relationship between competency and performance. These findings may serve as a guide to amend academic nursing courses and on-job training programs as appropriate to place a greater emphasis on the competencies desired for providing high quality of nursing services.

  1. Computer laboratory notification system via short message service to reduce health care delays in management of tuberculosis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lin, Chuen-Ju; Feng, Ming-Chu; Chiang, Horn-Che; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the impacts of introducing an expedited acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear laboratory procedure and an automatic, real-time laboratory notification system by short message with mobile phones on delays in prompt isolation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We analyzed the data for all patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis at a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a 1,600-bed medical center, during baseline (January 2004 to February 2005) and intervention (July 2005 to August 2006) phases. A total of 96 and 127 patients with AFB-positive TB was reported during the baseline and intervention phases, respectively. There were significant decreases in health care system delays (ie, laboratory delays: reception of sputum to reporting, P < .001; response delays: reporting to patient isolation, P = .045; and interval from admission to patient isolation, P < .001) during the intervention phase. Significantly fewer nurses were exposed to each patient with active pulmonary TB during the intervention phase (P = .039). Implementation of expedited AFB smear laboratory procedures and an automatic, real-time laboratory mobile notification system significantly decreased delays in the diagnosis and isolation of patients with active TB. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An agent-based model for an air emissions cap and trade program: A case study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-Fu; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2016-12-01

    To determine the actual status of individuals in a system and the trading interaction between polluters, this study uses an agent-based model to set up a virtual world that represents the Kaohsiung and Pingtung regions in Taiwan, which are under the country's air emissions cap and trade program. The model can simulate each controlled industry's dynamic behavioral condition with the bottom-up method and can investigate the impact of the program and determine the industry's emissions reduction and trading condition. This model can be used elastically to predict the impact of the trading market through adjusting different settings of the program rules or combining the settings with other measures. The simulation results show that the emissions trading market has an oversupply, but we find that the market trading amounts are low. Additionally, we find that increasing the air pollution fee and offset rate restrains the agents' trading decision, according to the simulation results of each scenario. In particular, NOx and SOx trading amounts are easily impacted by the pollution fee, reduction rate, and offset rate. Also, the more transparent the market, the more it can help polluters trade. Therefore, if authorities want to intervene in the emissions trading market, they must be careful in adjusting the air pollution fee and program rules; otherwise, the trading market system cannot work effectively. We also suggest setting up a trading platform to help the dealers negotiate successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot Scheme of Health Policy in Stroke Adjuvant Acupuncture Therapy for Acute and Subacute Ischemic Stroke in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yi-Chia; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Ku-Chou; Chang, Chee-Jen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chiu, Hsien-Hsueh Elley

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the health care burden of strokes, the Taiwan Department of Health launched the Pilot Scheme of the Health Policy in Stroke Adjuvant Acupuncture Therapy (HPSAAT) in 2006. This cross-sectional, hospital-based, match-controlled study at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center during 2006∼2008 retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients who electively joined the HPSAAT. The study also evaluated the safety and clinical benefits of adjuvant acupuncture in treating acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients. Twenty-six HPSAAT participants and 52 age-sex matched random controls were enrolled. The stroke baseline of the HPSAAT participants was more severe than the non-HPSAAT controls. Although the stroke severity closely correlates to mortality and comorbidity, this study noted no significant complications in the HPSAAT participants during the acupuncture treatment course. Adjuvant acupuncture was considered safe at the acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke. Due to uneven baseline severity, the clinical benefits in reducing neurological deficits and functional recovery were not concluded in this study. PMID:21584251

  4. Seasonal variation in concentration and metallic constituents of atmospheric particulates near the western coast of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chou, Te-Yen; Lin, I-Chen

    2006-06-01

    In addition to determining the concentration and metallic constituents of particulate matter at Taichung Harbor in central Taiwan, this study attempts to characterize the mass, metallic elements, composition and concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP), fine particles and coarse particles. Statistical approaches, such as the Spearman tests, were also adopted to determine the seasonal variations of concentrations of these pollutants. Experimental results indicate that the mean TSP, fine particulate and coarse particulate concentrations in spring and winter are higher than in summer and autumn on the western coast of central Taiwan. Spearman statistical analysis of metallic elements Mn and Pb showed high concentration coefficients for fine and coarse particulates on the western coast of central Taiwan. The order of mean metallic concentrations in TSP, coarse particulates and fine particles was Fe > Zn > Mg > Cu> Cr > Mn > Pb in TSP, Fe > Cu > Zn > Mg > Mn > Pb > Cr in coarse particulates and Fe > Cu > Mg > Pb > Zn > Mn > Cr in fine particulates.

  5. Black monazite from Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  6. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  7. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  8. The use of fine nets to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes on dry farmland in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hung-Yi; Huang, Joh-Jong; Huang, Ya-Chu; Liu, Pi-Long; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Wang, Mei-Chi

    2009-04-01

    The stagnate water stored in buckets traditionally used by farmers in southern Taiwan to irrigate their dry farmland, serves as favorable breeding ground for Aedes aegypti, the vector of the dengue virus. The public health bureau there distributed fine nets to the farmers to cover their buckets to reduce vector breeding sites. The goal of this study was to compare the container index (CI) in Alian and Tianliao Townships, Kaohsiung County in southern Taiwan over a 2-year period, for 1 year before the fine nets were distributed and 1 year after. In March 2005, we selected eight villages in Alian Township and 10 in Tianliao Township. Specialists monitored the local Stegomyia indices every month. We compared the 2005 CI to the 2004 CI, representing the years before and after the nets were used. The results of the comparisons were analyzed by paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank test. In Alian Township, mean CI had significantly reduced to 1.63 levels (May 2005) from a mean 5.88 level in May 2004 (paired t-test, p=0.001 and Wilcoxon rank signed test, p=0.0012). In Tianliao Township, CI was reduced to 1.2 from 2.3 in May 2004 (p<0.0001 and p=0.007, paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank signed test, respectively). The nets effectively reduced the CIs in these townships, and might be considered for wide scale use. The mosquito nets were generally welcomed by the farmers who found them to be convenient, inexpensive and practical.

  9. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: 18 years' experience in a medical center in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Sy, Cheng Len; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wann, Shue-Ren; Wang, Yung-Hsing; Chen, Jei-Kuang; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2011-10-01

    With the improvement of public health, eosinophilic meningitis associated with Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection is now seldom reported in Taiwan. Eosinophilic meningitis typically occurred sporadically in children. This study aims to analyze the clinical manifestations and change in the contemporary epidemiology of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan. This is a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, from December 1991 to September 2009. The demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiographic imaging, and treatment and clinical outcome were analyzed. A PubMed search with the keywords of eosinophilic meningitis, A cantonensis, and Taiwan was performed to retrieve cases of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A cantonensis since 1960. Thirty-seven patients were diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis during a period of 18 years. The median age was 32 years (range, 2-80 years). Ninety five percent (35/37) of the patients were adults. The median incubation period was 10.5 days (range, 3-80 days). Most of the patients presented with headache (29, 78%), fever (25, 68%), and 11(30%) had hyperesthesia. Patients with hyperesthesia had longer incubation period (55 vs. 7 days, p=0.004), lower serum immunoglobulin E levels (127.5 vs. 1295 IU/mL, p<0.001), and longer duration between symptom onset and spinal taps (14 vs. 5 days, p=0.011). Three patients presented initially with lymphocytic meningitis, and eosinophilia only appeared on a second lumbar puncture. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain disclosed leptomeningeal enhancement (17/26, 65%) and increased signal intensity (10/26, 38%) on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. There were eight relapses and two patients died. No sequela was noted except in one 2-year-old toddler, who had weakness of both lower limbs. The epidemiology of eosinophilic meningitis has changed during the past two decades

  10. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Santa Barbara Harbor Light 4 to Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light....

  11. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Santa Cruz Harbor East Breakwater to Santa Cruz Harbor West...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater...

  17. Kindergartener's Technology Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun-Chin

    According to the American Association for Advancement of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and its Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP), technology education should begin in kindergarten. Educators in Taiwan have also advocated beginning technology education in…

  18. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  19. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  20. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  1. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  2. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Winter... Coast Guard patrol commander may delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

  3. 77 FR 41909 - Safety Zone; Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... unusually high volume of vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with exploratory drilling operations in the Chukchi... high vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor and the adjacent territorial sea, and the event is...

  4. Children's disclosure of sexual abuse during early forensic psychiatric evaluation in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Hsiang; Lu, Ti; Tsai, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Many surveys of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Western countries focus on the victims' disclosures and their associated factors during forensic interviews, but similar data in Asian countries is scarce. We explored the disclosure rate of CSA allegations during forensic interviews in South Taiwan and the factors predicting such disclosure. We compared our findings with those of previous studies. Data were collected from written forensic psychiatric reports of CSA victims who underwent early forensic psychiatric evaluation at two hospitals in Kaohsiung City from 2010 to 2015. All cases were divided into categories of full or nonfull disclosures. We identified the variables that distinguished between the two groups in bivariate analyses using the independent t test and the Chi-square test. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to determine whether those significant correlates in the bivariate analyses were independent predictors of full disclosure. Among the 55 cases, 32 (58%) were full disclosures. Older age at first interview (odds ratio=1.39), no diagnosis of mental retardation (odds ratio=0.04), and experiencing sexual abuse more than once (odds ratio=5.90) were positive factors independently related to the full disclosure of CSA allegations. The rate of disclosure under the program was comparable to that of prior studies. This may suggest a role for early forensic psychiatric evaluation of children to promote disclosure of CSA allegations. We hope the findings may serve as a basis for future studies of CSA disclosure and associated factors in Taiwanese society. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preliminary identification of watershed management strategies for the Houjing river in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C E; Kao, C M; Jou, C J; Lai, Y C; Wu, C Y; Liang, S H

    2010-01-01

    The Houjing River watershed is one of the three major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Based on the recent water quality analysis, the Houjing River is heavily polluted. Both point and non-point source (NPS) pollutants are the major causes of the poor water quality in the Houjing River. Investigation results demonstrate that the main point pollution sources included municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. In this study, land use identification in the Houjing River watershed was performed by integrating the skills of geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). Results show that the major land-use patterns in the upper catchment of the Houjing River watershed were farmlands, and land-use patterns in the mid to lower catchment were residential and industrial areas. An integrated watershed management model (IWMM) and Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2K) were applied for the hydrology and water quality modeling, watershed management, and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the calculated NH₃-N carrying capacity of the Houjing River was only 31 kg/day. Thus, more than 10,518 kg/day of NH₃-N needs to be reduced to meet the proposed water quality standard (0.3 mg/L). To improve the river water quality, the following remedial strategies have been developed to minimize the impacts of NPS and point source pollution on the river water quality: (1) application of BMPs [e.g. source (fertilizer) reduction, construction of grassy buffer zone, and land use management] for NPS pollution control; (2) application of river management scenarios (e.g. construction of the intercepting and sewer systems) for point source pollution control; (3) institutional control (enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards), and (4) application of on-site wastewater treatment systems for the polishment of treated wastewater for water reuse.

  6. Detection of peroxyacetyl nitrate at phytotoxic level and its effects on vegetation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, En-Jang; Huang, Ming-Huei

    Symptoms of toxicity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), namely bronzing and silvering, were initially discovered on lettuce plants in the Taipei area in 1989. The cause and effect relationship was established by the detection of large ambient concentrations of PAN and by reproduction of the symptoms upon exposure to PAN. In the following years, several other plants including spinach, Solanum nigrum, Nicotiana excelsior, and Galinsoga parvifiora were also found with symptoms of a similar nature. Symptoms were artificially reproduced in these plants on exposure to PAN proving that they were also sensitive to PAN. These PAN-type symptoms were prominently different from those caused by ozone or other general pollutants described in the literature. Based on these symptoms, PAN is believed to occur in all three major urban areas of Taiwan, namely Taipei in the north, Taichung in the center, and Kaohsiung in the south. Hydrocarbons emitted from numerous motorcycles are believed to be the principal precursor of this photochemical pollutant. Ambient measurements of PAN in the Taipei area showed that on calm sunny days, PAN typically exceeded 4-12 ppb, and native Sword-leaf lettuce began to show the symptoms the next morning. From July 1992 to April 1993 there were at least 34 d with PAN at significantly phytotoxic concentrations that affected lettuce and other plants. The concentration of PAN was highly correlated with that of ozone according to the regression equation Y(ozone/ppbv) = 16.9X(PAN/ppbv) + 13.5 in warm seasons, and Y(ozone/ppbv) = 3.OX(PAN/ppbv) + 11.1 in cooler seasons, indicating the co-occurrence but distinct ratios of these pollutants.

  7. The Concentrations of Ambient Burkholderia Pseudomallei during Typhoon Season in Endemic Area of Melioidosis in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Min Sheng; Ho, Chi-Kung; Mena, Kristina D.; Wang, Peng-Yau; Chen, Pei-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Background Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. Methods We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September) and reference season (October to December). Results We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. Conclusions Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season. PMID:24874950

  8. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Lei; Yen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Min Sheng; Ho, Chi-Kung; Mena, Kristina D; Wang, Peng-Yau; Chen, Pei-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September) and reference season (October to December). We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  9. The natural history of the patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in Taiwan: A medical center experience.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Wang, Chen-Hua; Chou, Po-Ching; Chen, Wan-Zi; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2017-08-25

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy and caused by DMD gene mutation. In addition to progressive proximal muscle weakness, respiratory, orthopedic, and gastrointestinal complications are often observed in DMD. The natural history of patients with DMD in Taiwan has not been reported thus far. Medical records of 39 patients who received a diagnosis of DMD between 1999 and 2016 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were reviewed. The diagnosis of DMD was confirmed through muscle biopsy or DMD genetic analysis. The mean onset age and mean follow-up period were 2.75 years and 6.76 years, respectively. Seventeen patients (43.5%) had a family history of DMD. The mean full intelligence quotient of the patients was 71.08, and the mean age of walking ability loss was 9.7 years (25 patients). The mean onset age of respiratory insufficiency was 10.64 years with a decline rate of 5.18% per year (25 patients). The mean onset age of cardiomyopathy was 14.69 years (seven patients). The mean onset age of scoliosis was 13.29 years with a progression rate of 11.48° per year (14 patients). Eleven (28.2%) and eight (20.5%) patients had deletions and duplications of DMD, respectively. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had point mutations or small deletions or insertions. Five patients received only multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and exhibited neither deletion nor duplication. No mutation was identified in one patient through both MLPA and exon sequencing. The clinical phenotypes and disease course in our cohort were consistent with that reported in previous studies. However, the proportion of point mutations or small deletions or insertions in our study was considerably higher than that in reports from other populations. Cardiac ejection fraction was found not a reliable biomarker for identifying cardiac problems, discovering a better parameter is necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone... waters including Burnham Park Harbor and the southern part of Chicago Harbor, Lake Michigan, bounded by...

  11. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone... waters including Burnham Park Harbor and the southern part of Chicago Harbor, Lake Michigan, bounded by...

  12. Assessment of Modifications for Improving Navigation at Hilo Harbor, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Piers 1 and 2, affecting waves inside the harbor complex. Reefs inside and outside the harbor are of great help to navigation in Hilo Harbor by...the wave energy by reefs seaward of the breakwater, (c) transmission of wave energy into the harbor because of the porosity of the breakwater, (d...overtopping of the ERDC/CHL TR-16-9 3 breakwater, (e) effects of reefs and the breakwater on wave energy in the inner harbor close to the two

  13. Sediment resuspension characteristics in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maa, J.P.-Y.; Sanford, L.; Halka, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Critical bed shear stress for sediment resuspension and sediment erosion rate were measured in-situ at sites from inner to outer Baltimore Harbor using the VIMS Sea Carousel. Clay mineral contents and biological conditions were almost the same at the four study sites. The experimental results indicated that the erosion rate increased from the outer harbor toward the inner harbor with a maximum difference of about 10 times at an excess bed shear stress of 0.1 Pa. The measured critical bed shear stress strongly depended on the existence of a fluff layer. It was approximately 0.05 Pa if a fluff layer existed, and increases to about 0.1 Pa in the absence of a fluff layer.

  14. Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Tsai, C.

    2003-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the Taiwan area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the Taiwan plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western Taiwan where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the Taiwan area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the Taiwan Island. The other

  15. Estuarine studies in upper Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beverage, Joseph P.; Swecker, Milton N.

    1969-01-01

    Improved management of the water resources of Grays Harbor, Wash., requires more data on the water quality of the harbor and a better understanding of the influences of industrial and domestic wastes on the local fisheries resources. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of these influences, the U.S. Geological Survey joined other agencies in a cooperative study of Grays Harbor. This report summarizes the Survey's study of circulation patterns, description of water-quality conditions, and characterization of bottom material in the upper harbor. Salt water was found to intrude at least as far as Montesano, 28.4 nautical miles from the mouth of the harbor. Longitudinal salinity distributions were used to compute dispersion (diffusivity) coefficients ranging from 842 to 3,520 square feet per second. These values were corroborated by half-tidal-cycle dye studies. The waters of the harbor were found to be well mixed after extended periods of low fresh-water flow but stratified at high flows. Salinity data were used lo define the cumulative 'mean age' of the harbor water, which may be used to approximate a mean 'flushing time.' Velocity-time curves for the upper harbor are distorted from simple harmonic functions owing to channel geometry and frictional effects. Surface and bottom velocity data were used to estimate net tidal 'separation' distance, neglecting vertical mixing. Net separation distances between top and bottom water ranged from 1.65 nautical miles when fresh-water inflow was 610 cubic feet per second to 13.4 miles when inflow was 15,900 cubic feet per second. The cumulative mean age from integration of the fresh-water velocity equation was about twice that obtained from the salinity distribution. Excursion distances obtained with dye over half-tidal cycles exceeded those estimated from longitudinal salinity distributions and those obtained by earlier investigators who used floats. Net tidal excursions were as much as twice those obtained with floats

  16. An Evaluation of Previously Recognized Transfer Fault Zones in Taiwan's Western Foothills Based on Earthquake Distributions and Focal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamont, E.; Rau, R.; Byrne, T. B.; Lewis, J. C.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fault nomenclature defines a transfer fault as a discrete zone of strike-slip or oblique slip accommodating the transfer of differential strain and crustal displacement oblique to a fold-and-thrust belt, often in an en echelon pattern. The existence of NW-SE trending, en echelon fault zones oblique to the NNE-SSW trending Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt have long been debated. Much of this debate extends from confusion in literature as to the appropriate description of each transfer fault zone, because each zone is delineated differently depending on the data type investigated. Geomorphology and paleostress reconstructions have provided evidence suggesting the existence of six transfer fault zones in Western Taiwan: Sanyi, Pakua, Chiayi (a.k.a Chukou or Luliao), Chishan, Fengshan, and Kaohsiung transfer fault zones (TFZs), listed from north to south. In this study, a catalog of earthquake hypocenters and 953 earthquake focal mechanisms collected from Taiwan's dense seismometer array (1991-present) are used to characterize the transfer fault zones at depth. Focal mechanisms were also assessed for faulting style and consistency in nodal plane orientations. Results show that these zones each display different seismic characteristics. The Chiayi and Pakua TFZs were each illuminated by historically large seismic events; therefore, they are designated seismogenic TFZs. The Chiayi TFZ is characterized by a well-clustered, NW-trending, linear spatial distribution of seismicity above the regional decollément; whereas, the Pakua TFZ is characterized by a NW, elongate cluster of seismic events just below the regional decollément. The Sanyi and Chishan TFZs are both characterized by a NW-trending, abrupt spatial boundary between a dispersive band of deep background seismicity to the north and an aseismic zone to the south and are designated Interseismic TFZs. The Fengshan and Kaohsiung TFZs cannot be characterized using seismicity as there are too few seismic events and have

  17. Characteristics and features of the submarine landslides in passive and active margin southwestern offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, numerous multi-channel seismic surveys as well as near seafloor high resolution geophysical investigations were conducted in order to explore and estimate the reserves of gas hydrate southwestern offshore Taiwan. The previous object was focused on searching substitute energy (i.e. gas hydrate) rather than geo-hazards. However, it is suggested that most of the gas hydrate is generally distributed at slope area southwestern offshore Taiwan, which indicates the slope may be failed when steady state was disturbed by some factors, such as sea level or climate change. In addition, once gas hydrate was dissociated, this may induce submarine landslide that further cause devastated tsunami. Thus, it is of great urgency to investigate potential landslide area, particularly, the hydrate-rich continental slope (active and passive margins) in adjacent to populous city like Kaohsiung. In this study, we collected several high resolution multi-channel seismic data with ten seconds shooting rate and 3.125 meters group interval streamer by using R/V ORI and R/V ORV. The seismic data were processed in conventional data processing strategy: bad trace clean, geometry settings, band-pass filter, de-convolution, surface-related multiple rejection, radon filter, stacking,kirchhoff migration and time to depth conversion. Combine the results obtained from the MCS data and subbottom profiles, two major results could be raised in the active margin as followed: (1) Most of the surface creeping and landslide was occurred shallower than 500 meters in water depth, which should be related to the inter-bedded fluid activities. (2) The landslide distribution is lagly affected by the presence of diaper, suggesting the subsequent mud diapirism may destruct slope stability; (3) The submarine landslide deeper than 800 meters in water depth distributes in the thrust fold area, that is probably referred to active thrusting. In the passive margin, large volume mass transportation

  18. Sediment Transportation Induced by Deep-Seated Landslides in a Debris Flow Basin in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meei Ling; Chen, Te Wei; Chen, Yong Sheng; Sin Jhuang, Han

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot brought huge amount of rainfall to the southern Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe landslides and debris flow hazard. After Typhoon Morakot, it was found that the volume of sediment transported by the debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history, which may due to the huge amount of rainfall causing significant deep-seated landslides in the basin. In this study, the effects and tendency of the sediment transportation in a river basin following deep-seated landslides caused by typhoon Morakot were evaluated. We used LiDAR, DEM, and aerial photo to identify characteristics of deep-seated landslides in a debris flow river basin, KSDF079 in Liuoguey District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Eight deep-seated landslides were identified in the basin. To estimate the potential landslide volume associated with the deep-seated landslides, the stability analysis was conducted to locate the critical sliding surface, and the potential landside volume was estimated based on the estimation equation proposed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory (WP/WLI, 1990). The total potential landslide volume of the eight deep-seated landslides in KSDF079 basin was about 28,906,856 m3. Topographic analysis was performed by using DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after typhoon Morakot to calculate the landslide volume transported. The result of erosion volume and deposition volume lead to a run out volume of 5,832,433 m3. The results appeared to consist well with the field condition and aerial photo. Comparing the potential landslide volume and run out volume of eight deep-seated landslides, it was found that the remaining potential landslide volume was about 80%. Field investigation and topographic analysis of the KSDF079 debris flow revealed that a significant amount of sediment deposition remained in the river channel ranging from the middle to the downstream

  19. The impact of Chinese cultural values on Taiwan nursing leadership styles: comparing the self-assessments of staff nurses and head nurses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuanmay

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Chinese culture on nursing leadership behavior in Taiwan nurses. A descriptive study compared staff nurses' assessment of Chinese value in the leadership behavior of their head nurses. Data analysis was made on a convenience sample in Taiwan of 214 head nurses and 2,127 staff nurses who had worked with their head nurse for at least one year. Six medical centers and regional hospitals in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung) Taiwan were recruited for this study. Instruments included the demographic questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey, and Kang's Chinese Leadership Behaviors Module Scale. Results indicated that head nurses scored significantly higher than staff nurses in terms of all cultural values and leadership behaviors. Both staff nurses and head nurses scored the highest mean scores in personal integrity (Yi) and human connectedness (Ren) and the lowest in moral discipline (Li). Staff nurse perceptions of leadership behavior indicated the role of parent to be higher than either the role of director or mentor. Head nurses perceptions of leadership behavior emphasized the role of the director more than either parent or mentor. There were no significant differences between the staff nurses and head nurses in terms of expectative leadership behavior, which gave the role of director higher mean scores than those of either the parent or mentor. Positive and significant associations (r = .266 to r = .334) were found between cultural values and perceptions of leadership behavior. Cultural values predicted 10.6% of leadership behavior variance. The three demographic characteristics of location in northern Taiwan (beta = .09), intention to leave (beta = -.14), and general unit (beta = .10) and the two cultural values of human connectedness (Ren) (beta = .16) and personal integrity (Yi) (beta = .16) together reported a cumulative R2 of 14.6% to explain variance in leadership behavior

  20. Politics of Succession in Taiwan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    succeeds CCK as KMT chairman, such a person or anybody in Taiwan’s future political horizon, will not be able to inherit all the powers and influences...a system not only has deprived military officers of personal control of the troops, but also given CCK enormous advantages to patronize and coopt...independent bases of power--they derive their influence on CCK primarily from their age, past political careers, and their personal relationships with CCK

  1. Sediment bioaccumulation testing: Manistique Harbor sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manistique Harbor AOC public meeting and availability session on August 28th in Manistique, MI. This meeting/session is organized by GLNPO; they are EPA's lead on AOC restoration efforts. The goal of the meeting is to engage with the community with all the work that has been d...

  2. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice...

  3. New Bedford Harbor Long Term Monitoring Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), located in southeastern Massachusetts, was designated as a Superfund site in 1983 due to unacceptably high levels of sediment contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on human health and environmental concerns, the decision was made to d...

  4. New Bedford Harbor Long Term Monitoring Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), located in southeastern Massachusetts, was designated as a Superfund site in 1983 due to unacceptably high levels of sediment contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on human health and environmental concerns, the decision was made to d...

  5. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  6. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  7. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  8. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  9. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lin, L S; Shih, C J

    1993-12-01

    This paper analyzes the available literature on intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in Taiwan. The incidence and symptoms of the disease are studied with a view to assisting practitioners in its recognition. The incidence of intracranial AVM in patients who have suffered hemorrhagic stroke in Taiwan is 2.5% to 4.8%, with the male to female ratio being 1.5:1. The peak age at which bleeding from intracranial AVM occurred ranged from 10 to 40 years; bleeding showed no seasonal variation. Sudden headaches, vomiting, and disturbance of consciousness were the commonest presenting symptoms of AVM, similar to the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. However, the possibility of focal neurological deficit among patients with intracranial AVM was higher than in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, smoking and alcohol intake showed no close relationship to bleeding in intracranial AVM. Pregnancy is not a risk factor in female patients with intracranial AVM with no history of hemorrhage. Small intracranial AVM are more likely to bleed. Since 1961 the majority of Taiwan's intracranial AVM patients have been treated surgically, while before that date general medicine was the treatment of choice. In recent years, several developments such as operation microscope, microsurgical instruments and microsurgical techniques have enhanced the efficacy of surgical intervention in the treatment of AVM. When the mortality and morbidity rates resulting from the two forms of treatment are compared, surgical treatment shows a better prognosis for the treatment of intracranial AVM.

  10. Teaching clinical judgment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pay-Fan; Hsu, Man-Ying; Tasy, Shiow-Luan

    2003-09-01

    Clinical judgment is a process that nurses use during the course of their daily practice to gather and to evaluate data, define the needs of the clients, and to judge the outcome of patient care. Such judgment is also a critical ability used to assess the progress of nursing students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to describe the clinical judgment teaching in nursing education in Taiwan and provide baseline data for future nursing students to learn in a more effective way. Data was collected by in-depth individual interviews of 10 participants, all of whom were senior nursing faculty members from different nursing subspecialties. Two findings were reached. First, clinical judgment included not only the cognitive and the psychomotor domain of learning, but also the affective domain of reasoning. Second, due to cultural differences, " intuition " had never been mentioned in Taiwan, but a similar concept was substituted by use of the term " experience ". The findings suggested a holistic and integrative perspective was needed when teaching clinical judgement in Taiwan.

  11. Occupational neurotoxic diseases in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  12. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  13. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Lee, Mao-Yin; Chen, Lee-Sea; Lin, Hen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the "Database of Taiwan's Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/)" as part of the "Fish Database of Taiwan," can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity.

  14. 1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  15. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  16. 8. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN EAST RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN EAST RIVER TO NEW YORK HARBOR, WITH LOWER MANHATTAN ISLAND AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. 7. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN NEW YORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN NEW YORK HARBOR, WITH LOWER MANHATTAN ISLAND AT LEFT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  18. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTH ACROSS BALTIMORE INNER HARBOR SHOWING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTH ACROSS BALTIMORE INNER HARBOR SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF PIER IN CENTER OF PHOTO - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 4, South side of Pratt Street between Frederick Street & Market Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  20. Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chin, Chuen; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2007-01-01

    We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan. PMID:17370526

  1. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for in subheading 3905.30.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan are being sold in the United States at less than fair value...

  2. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu-Chih; Oren, Gale A; Chen, Muh-Shy; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19(th) century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan). Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  4. Decadal Changes In Benthic Community Measures In New York Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring in New York Harbor, NY, as part of the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program has spanned a decade, and includes habitat and water quality measures and sediment contaminant levels from four sub-basins (Upper NY Harbor, Lower NY Harbor, Newark Bay, and...

  5. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... harbors in the event a tsunami warning is issued for the main Hawaiian Islands. DATES: This rule is... order to evacuate any or all of Hawaii's nine commercial harbors in response to a tsunami warning. A... close Hawaii's commercial harbors, collectively or individually, when a tsunami warning has been issued...

  6. 33 CFR 110.205 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chicago Harbor, Ill. 110.205... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.205 Chicago Harbor, Ill. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...) Anchorage D, Chicago Harbor Lock South. Beginning at a point 35.5 feet South (16 feet South of the South...

  7. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for recreational and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted.... Fore and aft moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor... moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for...

  8. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for recreational and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted.... Fore and aft moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor... moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for...

  9. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner harbor...

  10. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner harbor...

  11. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner harbor...

  12. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner harbor...

  13. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner harbor...

  14. 77 FR 73889 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8914--National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 Executive Order... National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... American people. In less than 2 hours, the bombs that rained on Pearl Harbor robbed thousands of men, women...

  15. OVERVIEW OF FACILITY NO. S 20 FROM THE HARBOR. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FACILITY NO. S 20 FROM THE HARBOR. NOTE THE AFDM BERTHING WHARF SECTION PROJECTING INTO THE HARBOR ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Floating Dry Dock Quay, Hurt Avenue at northwest side of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  17. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  18. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  19. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  20. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  1. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  2. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013). During the workshops NMFS will present information regarding harbor seal habitat usage and available...

  3. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... South of the South face of the former Naval Armory Dock, and 100 feet East of said bulkhead, that point... and bulkhead, 1,705 feet to a point that is 100 feet East of said harbor line and 150 feet East of...

  4. 33 CFR 162.155 - Sandusky and Huron Harbors, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandusky and Huron Harbors, Ohio. 162.155 Section 162.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Harbors, Ohio. (a) In Sandusky Harbor, no vessel greater than 40 feet in length may exceed 10 miles...

  5. 33 CFR 162.155 - Sandusky and Huron Harbors, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandusky and Huron Harbors, Ohio. 162.155 Section 162.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Harbors, Ohio. (a) In Sandusky Harbor, no vessel greater than 40 feet in length may exceed 10 miles...

  6. Decadal Changes In Benthic Community Measures In New York Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring in New York Harbor, NY, as part of the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program has spanned a decade, and includes habitat and water quality measures and sediment contaminant levels from four sub-basins (Upper NY Harbor, Lower NY Harbor, Newark Bay, and...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  12. 7. Photocopy of c 1837 map of Cleveland Harbor with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of c 1837 map of Cleveland Harbor with two plans for additonal harbor. This is the first map to show the Cleveland Breakwater. Original in the Corps' files, Buffalo District. - Cleveland Breakwater at Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  14. West Harbor, Ohio Recreational Navigation Improvement. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Quality 4.03 Water quality in the project aria would experience minor tem- porary degradation during construction and dredging operations due to...Unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20, if different from Report) j IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue...nemeey td Identify by block number) /The purpose of this project is to provide a channel from deep water in Lake Erie into West Harbor to safely and more

  15. Light, Compact Pumper for Harbor Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes development of new transportable water-pumping unit for fire-fighting. Compact, self-contained unit provides fire protection at coastal and inland ports and is lighter than standard firetruck pumper of same capacity. Used to fight fires in harbors, cities, forests, refineries, chemical plants, and offshore drilling platforms. Other possible applications include cleaning up oilspills, pumping out ships, and flood control pumping.

  16. Light, Compact Pumper for Harbor Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes development of new transportable water-pumping unit for fire-fighting. Compact, self-contained unit provides fire protection at coastal and inland ports and is lighter than standard firetruck pumper of same capacity. Used to fight fires in harbors, cities, forests, refineries, chemical plants, and offshore drilling platforms. Other possible applications include cleaning up oilspills, pumping out ships, and flood control pumping.

  17. Barbers Point Harbor, Hawaii, Jetty Modification Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    meter studies of the circulation patterns and flows in the channel, and (d) input from the sponsor, EPA , and harbor pilots. DISCLAIMER: The...tests and review study results. Participating in this meeting were Stanley Boc, HED, Dr. Wendy I. Wiltse, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ...U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), Capt. Dave Lyman, Hawaii Pilots Association, Capt. Thomas L. Heberle, Hawaii Pilots Association, and Capt

  18. A Guide for Marina and Harbor Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    recommend changes in the context and format, - 1o determine possible future uses or futurp =* -s. Ten small boat harbor and marinas were selected...managers were asked if there were ways to improve the guide by adding information, deleting information, or changing the format. None of the managers...felt that any of 37 the information should be deleted, some recommendations were made for format changes , and all of the managers had recommendations

  19. Upper-ocean currents around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.-D.; Tang, T. Y.; Yang, Y. J.; Ko, M. T.; Chuang, W.-S.

    2003-03-01

    Current velocity, measured by Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Sb-ADCP) during 1991-2000, was used to study the upper-ocean (<300 m) currents around Taiwan. The collected data were debugged, calibrated, grid, and averaged to compose a three-dimensional current-velocity distribution. The validity of the composite current velocity was supported by 12 sets of moored current-velocity time series. Qualitative agreement was obtained. The moored time series also indicated that the seasonal variation of current around Taiwan was generally weak except for the shallow-water regimes. The composite and moored currents revealed a branch of the Kuroshio that intruded steadily and persistently into the South China Sea. Part of the intruded Kuroshio flowed out of the South China Sea through the northern Luzon Strait and re-united with the main stream Kuroshio. The Kuroshio had two velocity maximum cores southeast of Taiwan, but gradually combined into one as the Kuroshio flowed north. The Kuroshio was deflected by the I-Lan Ridge east of Taiwan and the zonal-running shelf break northeast of Taiwan. At the shelf break, the Kuroshio split, with one branch intruding onto the shelf. West of the Luzon Strait, the Kuroshio intruded into the South China Sea. Some water flowed northward into the Taiwan Strait and re-joined the Kuroshio. Currents in the Taiwan Strait flowed primarily in a northward direction, except for the southward current near the coast of Mainland China. North of the Taiwan Strait, a branch of the northward flow followed the northern coast of Taiwan to join the Kuroshio. The composite current varied consistently from season to season. There was generally poor correlation between currents and local winds, especially in the deep-water regime. Remote forces were important in the currents around Taiwan.

  20. Taiwan’s Dilemma: China, the United States, and Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    between China & Taiwan was established through Hong Kong. Four years later the mainland-based Association for Relations across the Taiwan Straits...via Hong Kong, in 1989. China Telecom and Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom collaborated to provide telephone, mobile, & video services. Today...through Macao & Hong Kong. Since, Taiwan airlines have opened administrative & maintenance offices in China. In 2003, Beijing allowed direct flights

  1. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date... value in the antidumping duty investigation of PVA from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan:...

  2. Strong Ground Motion Simulation by Combining Stochastic Green's Function Method with Hybrid Slip Model for February 6, 2016 Meinong, Taiwan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. F.; Huang, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    A damage earthquake (Mw 6.53), which has struck the southern Taiwan, occurred in Meinong District of Kaohsiung City on February 6, 2016 (February 5 07:57:26.1 UTC). According to the relevant reports, many buildings collapsing during the seismic shakings were caused by local site effect in Tainan. To investigate the effect of shallow velocity structure on seismic ground motion, we calculate the broadband ground motions between 0.1-10 Hz by using the stochastic Green's function method. In this study, the velocity structures are established by integrating the crustal velocity structures (Ho, 1994) and the near-surface velocity structures (0-1500 m) estimated from the microtremor array data. About the source model, we adopt a hybrid k-squared slip model with an asperity covering 1/4 of the fault area. The shallow velocity structures can well improve the synthetic results including amplitudes and phases and the directivity pulses are successfully reproduced at many stations. They indicate that the possible reasons for the earthquake disasters in Tainan are associated with a combination of forward-directivity and soil amplification effects. Thus, it is feasible to do the 1-D broadband strong motion simulations at the area using the stochastic Green's function method with hybrid k-squared slip distribution.

  3. A dengue vector surveillance by human population-stratified ovitrap survey for Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) adult and egg collections in high dengue-risk areas of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huai-Hui; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lin, Cheo; Lu, Liang-Chen; Jian, Shu-Wan; Chang, Niann-Tai; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Liu, Ding-Ping; Lin, Li-Jen; Norris, Douglas E; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the primary dengue vector in southern Taiwan. This article is the first report on a large-scale surveillance program to study the spatial-temporal distribution of the local Ae. aegytpi population using ovitraps stratified according to the human population in high dengue-risk areas. The sampling program was conducted for 1 yr and was based on weekly collections of eggs and adults in Kaohsiung City. In total, 10,380 ovitraps were placed in 5,190 households. Paired ovitraps, one indoors and one outdoors were used per 400 people. Three treatments in these ovitraps (paddle-shaped wooden sticks, sticky plastic, or both) were assigned by stratified random sampling to two areas (i.e., metropolitan or rural, respectively). We found that the sticky plastic alone had a higher sensitivity for detecting the occurrence of indigenous dengue cases than other treatments with time lags of up to 14 wk. The wooden paddle alone detected the oviposition of Ae. aegypti throughout the year in this study area. Furthermore, significantly more Ae. aegypti females were collected indoors than outdoors. Therefore, our survey identified the whole year oviposition activity, spatial-temporal distribution of the local Ae. aegypti population and a 14 wk lag correlation with dengue incidence to plan an effectively proactive control.

  4. Detection and identification of occult HBV in blood donors in Taiwan using a commercial, multiplex, multi-dye nucleic acid amplification technology screening test.

    PubMed

    Lin, K T; Chang, C L; Tsai, M H; Lin, K S; Saldanha, J; Hung, C M

    2014-02-01

    The ability of a new generation commercial, multiplex, multi-dye test from Roche, the cobas TaqScreen MPX test, version 2.0, to detect and identify occult HBV infections was evaluated using routine donor samples from Kaohsiung Blood Bank, Taiwan. A total of 5973 samples were tested by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT); 5898 in pools of six, 66 in pools of less than six and nine samples individually. NAT-reactive samples were retested with alternative NAT tests, and follow-up samples from the donors were tested individually by NAT and for all the HBV serological markers. Eight NAT-only-reactive donors were identified, and follow-up samples were obtained from six of the donors. The results indicated that all eight donors had an occult HBV infection with viral loads <12 IU/ml. The cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX test, version 2.0, has an advantage over the current Roche blood screening test, the cobas TaqScreen MPX test, for screening donations in countries with a high prevalence of occult HBV infections since the uncertainty associated with identifying samples with very low viremia is removed by the ability of the test to identify the viral target in samples that are reactive with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test, version 2.0. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  6. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone. (a) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan within Burnham Park Harbor shoreward of a line across the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone. (a) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan within Burnham Park Harbor shoreward of a line across the...

  8. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone...

  9. Characterization of CADASIL among the Han Chinese in Taiwan: Distinct Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Wei-Ju; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Lee, I-Hui; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Wang, Yen-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Ming-Hung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is originally featured with a strong clustering of mutations in NOTCH3 exons 3-6 and leukoencephalopathy with frequent anterior temporal pole involvement. The present study aims at characterizing the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of CADASIL in Taiwan. One hundred and twelve patients with CADASIL from 95 families of Chinese descents in Taiwan were identified by Sanger sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of NOTCH3. Twenty different mutations in NOTCH3 were uncovered, including 3 novel ones, and R544C in exon 11 was the most common mutation, accounting for 70.5% of the pedigrees. Haplotype analyses were conducted in 14 families harboring NOTCH3 R544C mutation and demonstrated a common haplotype linked to NOTCH3 R544C at loci D19S929 and D19S411. Comparing with CADASIL in most Caucasian populations, CADASIL in Taiwan has several distinct features, including less frequent anterior temporal involvement, older age at symptom onset, higher incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, and rarer occurrence of migraine. Subgroup analyses revealed that the R544C mutation is associated with lower frequency of anterior temporal involvement, later age at onset and higher frequency of cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the present study broadens the spectrum of NOTCH3 mutations and provides additional insights for the clinical and molecular characteristics of CADASIL patients of Han-Chinese descents.

  10. Predominance of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes 017 and 078 among Toxigenic Clinical Isolates in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yuan-Pin; Huang, I-Hsiu; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Tsai, Bo-Yang; Liu, Hsiao-Chieh; Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate). Eleven of 14 isolates with Δ39 (C184T) deletion belonged to the ribotype 078 family, including ribotype 127 (6 isolates), ribotype 126 (4 isolates), and ribotype 078 (1 isolate). Among 8 patients with consecutive C. difficile isolates, these isolates from 6 (75%) patients were identical, irrespective of the presence or absence of diarrhea, suggestive of persistent fecal carriage or colonization. In conclusion in southern Taiwan, ribotype 017 isolates with a tcdA-/tcdB+ genotype were not uncommon and of C. difficile isolates with binary toxin, the ribotype 078 family was predominant. PMID:27861606

  11. Characterization of CADASIL among the Han Chinese in Taiwan: Distinct Genotypic and Phenotypic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Wei-Ju; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Lee, I-Hui; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Wang, Yen-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Ming-Hung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is originally featured with a strong clustering of mutations in NOTCH3 exons 3–6 and leukoencephalopathy with frequent anterior temporal pole involvement. The present study aims at characterizing the genotypic and phenotypic profiles of CADASIL in Taiwan. One hundred and twelve patients with CADASIL from 95 families of Chinese descents in Taiwan were identified by Sanger sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of NOTCH3. Twenty different mutations in NOTCH3 were uncovered, including 3 novel ones, and R544C in exon 11 was the most common mutation, accounting for 70.5% of the pedigrees. Haplotype analyses were conducted in 14 families harboring NOTCH3 R544C mutation and demonstrated a common haplotype linked to NOTCH3 R544C at loci D19S929 and D19S411. Comparing with CADASIL in most Caucasian populations, CADASIL in Taiwan has several distinct features, including less frequent anterior temporal involvement, older age at symptom onset, higher incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, and rarer occurrence of migraine. Subgroup analyses revealed that the R544C mutation is associated with lower frequency of anterior temporal involvement, later age at onset and higher frequency of cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, the present study broadens the spectrum of NOTCH3 mutations and provides additional insights for the clinical and molecular characteristics of CADASIL patients of Han-Chinese descents. PMID:26308724

  12. Satellite observations of oil spill in the waters adjacent to Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chung-Ru; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Liu, Shu-Chang; Su, Feng-Chun; Tsao, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Ming-Kung

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites are used to investigate oil spill from ship navigations in the water adjacent to Taiwan. A total number of 136 images taken from 1993 to 1997 are used in this study. On the 136 images, only 46 images showing the possibility of oil spill which are based on the position and the shape of the discharge, the path of the ship, the sea characteristics of the area, and the weather conditions. The result shows that oil spill occurs most frequently in spring and least in winter. The sea area off eastern Taiwan has a probability which far surpassed other areas, followed by the middle sea area, the northern sea area, and the southern sea area. Regarding the oil spills at different areas with the distance to the shore, the oil spills at the middle area, with an average distance of 50 km (28 nautical miles), is closer than those at other areas. The statistical analysis demonstrates that the oil spill around Taiwan mostly occurs over 44 km (24 nautical miles) away from shore. Therefore, it is obvious that the probability of oil spills occurring as a ship leaves or enters the harbor is not high. Instead, the majority of oil spills takes place from middle to long distance navigating fishing boats as well as from oil and cargo freighters navigating international waterways.

  13. Evaluation of sediment contamination in Pearl Harbor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grovhoug, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Pearl Harbor demonstrates remarkable resilience to natural and human-induced contaminant stresses. A review of more than fifty harbor-specific data sets reveals a complex contamination and recovery history. Siltation is a major contaminant pathway in Pearl Harbor. Dredging operations, which are necessary due to high siltation rates, reduce contaminant loading by periodically removing the upper harbor sediment layers. The response of test organisms during sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation studies showed negligible effects from sediment toxicity. The environmental quality at an offshore dredge disposal site for the harbor is not measurable affected. Urban runoff via storm drains and tributaries is an important nonpoint source of contaminant exposure to the Pearl Harbor ecosystem. Most contaminants experience extensive physical, chemical, and biological, modification after entering the harbor environment. Certain contaminants, including PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and silver, were reported at sufficiently elevated sediment concentrations to warrant environmental concern in some harbor regions and may warrant further evaluation. The overall sediment quality in Pearl Harbor, however, is less degraded than that of many U.S. mainland coastal harbors. Further detailed study of the abundance and distribution of important marine resources in Pearl Harbor is recommended.

  14. [Nursing manpower and solutions in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Teng, Su-Wen

    2014-04-01

    The shortage of nursing manpower is a long-term problem worldwide that affects Taiwan despite this country's internationally admired achievements in terms of its healthcare and national health insurance systems. This article reviews discussions related to the nursing shortage issue published by the World Health Organization, International Council of Nurses, and Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare. Next, an overview is given of the nursing workforce profile, causal factors behind the nursing shortage, and demand for and supply of nursing manpower. Finally, problems, resolutions, and expected outcomes for the nursing shortage in Taiwan are analyzed.

  15. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  16. A study on work stress, stress coping strategies and health promoting lifestyle among district hospital nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Shieunt-Han; Tsai, Chao-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    To determine work stress, and stress-coping strategies, and to analyze their the relationships in order to improve health-promoting lifestyle of nurses in Taiwan. Three hundred eighty-five nurses who had work experience for more than 6 mo, were selected from four district hospitals in Kaohsiung and Ping Tung. We used a stratified cluster random sampling method for the selection. The nurses answered a self-report questionnaire, which was categorized into four sections: personal background data, work stress, stress-coping strategies, and health-promoting lifestyle. The findings indicate work stress and the health promoting lifestyle of nurses are at a higher level, with stress-coping strategies being at a medium level. Work stress and stress-coping strategies were significantly and positively correlated. Professional relationships, managerial role, personal responsibility, and recognition of work stress and the responsibilities of a health-promoting lifestyle were negatively correlated. Managerial role, personal responsibility, and organizational atmosphere of work stress as well as realization, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Recognition of work stress and stress management, items of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Health responsibility, and self-actualization, items of health-promoting lifestyle, as well as stress-coping strategies were negatively correlated. Nutrition, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, and the support stress-coping strategy was negatively correlated. Nurses have greater work pressure and better work stress-coping strategies, but worse health responsibility and realization of a health-promoting lifestyle. We suggest hospitals build good relationships and appropriately increase employment of nurses through a good work atmosphere to achieve nurses' realization of a health-promoting lifestyle.

  17. Modern sedimentary environments in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Rendigs, R. R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of sidescan-sonar records supplemented by available bathymetric, sedimentary, subbottom, and bottom-current data reveal the distributions of the following three categories of sedimentary environments within the glaciated, topographically complex Boston Harbor estuary in Massachusetts. 1) Environments of erosion appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated strong reflections or as uniform patterns of strong reflectivity. These patterns define outcrops of bedrock or till and coarse lag deposits that are being scoured and winnowed by tidal- and wave-induced currents. Erosional areas are located primarily along mainland and insular shores, within large channels that have strong tidal currents, atop submerged ridges and knolls, and across much of the harbor entrance. 2) Environments of deposition are depicted on the sidescan-sonar records as smooth, featureless surfaces that have low to moderate reflectivity. Depositional environments are found predominantly over shallow subtidal flats and in broad bathymetric lows where tidal currents are weak. Sediments within depositional areas are organic-rich sandy and clayey silts that are accumulating at rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.11 g/cm 2 /yr or 4000 to 46,100 metric tons/yr. The cumulative mass of modern mud in harbor depocenters is 24.3 million metric tons. 3) Environments of sediment reworking constitute areas affected by a combination of erosional and depositional processes. They are characterized on the sonographs by mosaics of light and dark patches produced by relatively subtle and gradational changes in reflectivity. Reworked sediments have diverse grain sizes that overlap and are transitional between those of the other two sedimentary environments, and they are indicative of highly variable bottom currents.

  18. Wild snakes harbor West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, C R; Hughes, D F; Meshaka, W E; Coleman, C; Henning, J D

    2016-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has a complex eco-epidemiology with birds acting as reservoirs and hosts for the virus. Less well understood is the role of reptiles, especially in wild populations. The goal of our study was to determine whether a wild population of snakes in Pennsylvania harbored WNV. Six species of snakes were orally sampled in the summer of 2013 and were tested for the presence of WNV viral RNA using RT-PCR. Two Eastern Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis tested positive for viral RNA (2/123, 1.62%). These results indicate a possible role for snakes in the complex transmission cycle of WNV.

  19. A Dataset of Deep-Sea Fishes Surveyed by Research Vessels in the Waters around Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Lee, Mao-Yin; Chen, Lee-Sea; Lin, Hen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of deep-sea fish fauna is hampered by a lack of data due to the difficulty and high cost incurred in its surveys and collections. Taiwan is situated along the edge of the Eurasia fig, at the junction of three Large Marine Ecosystems or Ecoregions of the East China Sea, South China Sea and the Philippines. As nearly two-thirds of its surrounding marine ecosystems are deep-sea environments, Taiwan is expected to hold a rich diversity of deep-sea fish. However, in the past, no research vessels were employed to collect fish data on site. Only specimens, caught by bottom trawl fishing in the waters hundreds of meters deep and missing precise locality information, were collected from Dasi and Donggang fishing harbors. Began in 2001, with the support of National Science Council, research vessels were made available to take on the task of systematically collecting deep-sea fish specimens and occurrence records in the waters surrounding Taiwan. By the end of 2006, a total of 3,653 specimens, belonging to 26 orders, 88 families, 198 genera and 366 species, were collected in addition to data such as sampling site geographical coordinates and water depth, and fish body length and weight. The information, all accessible from the “Database of Taiwan’s Deep-Sea Fauna and Its Distribution (http://deepsea.biodiv.tw/)” as part of the “Fish Database of Taiwan,” can benefit the study of temporal and spatial changes in distribution and abundance of fish fauna in the context of global deep-sea biodiversity. PMID:25610339

  20. Collaboration with Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Through this partnership, U.S. and Taiwan environmental authorities have developed a strong capacity to reduce pollution and manage the environment through joint projects, innovate research, and knowledge exchange.

  1. Status of radioactive waste management in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.

    1993-12-31

    Taiwan started to generate nuclear power in 1977. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy generated radwaste. The major radwaste generators are nuclear power plants of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). The other generators are the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), industry, medicine, agriculture, and education. Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subsidiary of Atomic Energy Council (AEC), is the regulatory body of radwaste in Taiwan. Radwaste management projects in Taiwan include: (1) construction of a Volume Reduction Center (VRC); (2) construction of a low-level radwaste transport ship; (3) construction of low-level waste final disposal facility; (4) construction of a spent fuel interim storage facility; (5) construction of spent fuel disposal facility. In the near future, final disposal of low-level waste is the most important work of both Taipower and RWA. Both organizations will put much more effort into this work.

  2. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image.

  3. Opportunity, Choice, and Burglary Victimization in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya

    2015-07-01

    This study examined burglary victimization in Taiwan with an application of the structure-choice model that included four theoretical dimensions: proximity to crime, exposure to crime, target attractiveness, and guardianship. Drawing on the 2000 Taiwan Areas Criminal Victimization Survey, the results of the current study showed a moderate effect of the opportunity model on Taiwan's burglary victimization. Also, this study found both consistent and conflicting findings in the current data. The null effect of motorcycles (including scooters) that represented the concept of target attractiveness in relation to burglary risk reflected a difference in population density and transportation needs between Taiwan and the West. Clearly, the role of social context needs to be understood when studies apply a Western model to a non-Western context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. BRC waste management in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.D.S.

    1993-12-31

    The nuclear safety authority recently in its regulations proclaimed individual and collective dose limits. Accordingly, the guidelines for implementing the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) concept has been developed by the Radwaste Administration. Recognizing the significance of implementing the BRC concept, the RWA completed a study on evaluation of the BRC implementation in Taiwan, in which the types and amounts of potential BRC waste were tabulated and costs for the disposal of LLRW and BRC wastes were also compared. The public acceptability of the BRC concept appears to be low in the wake of events which recently occurred at home and abroad. To dispose of BRC wastes on-site is believed to be a less conflicting alternative.

  5. Occupational health research in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Yeh, Wen-Yu; Su, Teh-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Ho, Jiune-Jye; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2004-04-01

    This article gave a brief introduction of population, labor force, general status of occupational safety and health in Taiwan. Statistics of occupational injuries and health disorders, laws and regulations relevant to occupational health were also covered. Research activities driven by universities, research institutes, society/association were provided. Two multi-lateral collaborative research examples were presented: an intoxication outbreak-initiated CS2 study and an information-demand-motivated 2-methoxy-ethanol study. Industrial hygienists, engineers, epidemiologists, and occupational physicians from both universities and research institutes, governmental agencies, and from non-profit R&D organizations and academic associations were involved in these researches, presenting a promise that integrated collaboration of inter-disciplinary specialty cooperated with governmental participation could benefit not only academic achievement, governmental policy-makeup, but also to the employees themselves.

  6. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...) Zone for the drilling, blasting, and dredging operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor... navigable waters during the drilling, blasting and dredging operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of... vicinity of the drilling, dredging and blasting operations being conducted. For the safety concerns...

  7. Ecological simulation model of Los Angeles Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, James N.; Kremer, Patricia

    1983-05-01

    A quasi-steady state numerical ecosystem model was designed to help evaluate the potential impact of various scenarios of effluent treatment and of a landfill on the distribution of phytoplankton and inorganic nutrients in Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors Formulations included (a) tidal circulation, (b) phytoplankton growth and oxygen production as a function of temperature, light, and nutrients, (c) grazing by zooplankton, (d) respiration and nutrient regeneration by the benthos, (e) biochemical oxidation of organics, and (f) nitrification Phytoplankton nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and oxygen were the state variables, which were simulated with diel and spatial variability for a range of seasonal conditions. Physical circulation was indicated to be a primary factor governing the distribution of state variables, and the landfill resulted in significant alterations. Simulated phytoplankton stocks approximated the upper range of reported concentrations, indicating a satisfactory prediction of bloom conditions. The model indicated that while light may usually regulate maximum phytoplankton levels, under bloom conditions nutrient limitation may also be important Most of the outer Los Angeles Harbor was affected by the effluent, as shown by comparison to the case with zero input Simulations for secondary versus primary treatment converged a short distance from the outfall in response to high BOD oxidation rates. In general, total phytoplankton crop was not greatly affected by the change from primary to secondary treatment, and predation on phytoplankton was small

  8. Sediment characteristics and provenance of the Taiwan Shoal in the southern Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, W. S.; Lin, A. T.; Kuo, L. W.; Lee, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Taiwan Shoal in the southern Taiwan Strait exhibits a lobe-shaped shallow water area, with a depth less than around 40 m and an area approximately of 13,000 km2. The Shoal consists of relict sediments remnant from deltaic deposits during the last glacial period and associated with the paleo-Min River. We collected seafloor sediments in and around the Taiwan Shoal to study the sediment characteristics and provenance of the Shoal as well as Taiwanese river sediments to characterize sediment sourced from southern Taiwan. Our results help to understand possible sediment delivery pathways in a source-to-sink context from the southern Taiwan Strait to the northern South China Sea. The method of X-ray diffraction is used to identify mineral compositions for muds and mineral compositions are examined under polarized microscope for sands. Zircon grains are separated from heavy minerals for U-Pb dating in order to understand the sediment source terranes. Sediments of the Taiwan Shoal are mostly tawny-colored, medium to coarse-grained sands with abundant shell fragments and shallow-water benthic foraminifera. Sediments to the south of the Taiwan Shoal and in the outer shelf consist of dark brown-colored and fine-grained sands with rare shell fragments. Siliciclastic compositions of the Taiwan Shoal sediments are mostly quartz. The second abundant composition is rock fragments with more occurrences near the Chinese coastline and the Penghu archipelago. Slate fragments are found to occur near Taiwan, especially in the Penghu Channel area. Clay minerals from the Penghu Channels and south of the Taiwan Shoal are dominated by illite and chlorite with minor smectite and kaolinite. The sediment colors and mineral species are very different for the sediments of the Taiwan Shoal and outer shelf, revealing that these two areas featuring different oceanographic processes and sediment provenance.

  9. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude ≈ 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island. PMID:11016964

  10. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2000-10-10

    14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude approximately 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island.

  11. Naja atra snakebite in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan-Chiao; Liu, Po-Yu; Chiang, Liao-Chun; Lai, Chih-Sheng; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Ho, Cheng-Hsuan; Wang, Te-Huo; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2017-08-23

    Naja atra snakebite is uncommon in Taiwan and causes distinct effects on its victims. Although the Taiwan government produces its own specific antivenom, little information on the management of N. atra snakebite is available. We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients admitted to two medical centers. Of these, 45 were identified as definite cases of N. atra snakebite, 86 as suspected cases, and 52 as clinical cases. Demographic data, symptomatology, and management were compared between these case groups. Symptomatology and management were similar in the three groups. Among the 183 patients, 10 (5.5%) were asymptomatic and nine (4.9%) had transient and partial ptosis or body weakness. The principal effects were local tissue swelling and pain in 173 patients (94.5%), followed by clinically suspected wound infection in 148 (80.9%), skin necrosis in 120 (65.6%), necrotizing soft tissue infection in 77 (42.1%), fever in 59 (32.2%), and gastrointestinal effects in 53 (29%). The median total dose of specific antivenom needed to treat N. atra envenoming was 10 vials. In the envenomed patients, debridement was required in 74 patients (42.8%), fasciotomy/fasciectomy in 46 (26.6%), and finger or toe amputation in seven (4%). The first operation was performed at a median of 3.5 days after the bite. Based on these typical manifestations, clinical diagnosis of N. atra snakebites may be feasible and practical. In contrast to other snakes of Elapidae family, N. atra bite did not cause serious neurological effects. Early surgical consultation should be obtained because half of the patients underwent surgery due to infectious complications. Acute compartment syndrome was the surgical indication in rare cases; however, overestimation of the incidence may have occurred. This syndrome should be confirmed by serial intracompartmental pressure monitoring instead of only physical examination, and a sufficient dose of antivenom should be given prior to surgical decompression.

  12. Early Austronesians: into and out of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-03-06

    A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ~6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ~8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ~6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ~4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania.

  13. Women scientists in Taiwan: an update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel Floyd

    2010-06-01

    This paper reflects upon issues of gender and science in Taiwan. Its starting point is the first academic paper on the subject published in Taiwan in 1996 by Fu and Wang, and then it draws upon the biographical accounts of 20 women scientists. We emphasize the importance of focusing on the specific contexts of the history of science and women in Taiwan. Partly as a result of Taiwan's colonial past and women's limited access to education, women scientists did not emerge in Taiwan until the second half of the 20(th) century when higher education became available to women. The gender issues with which women scientists in Taiwan have had to cope include the ways in which women have been excluded or included, their marital and career status, the local and global politics of scientific knowledge, and negotiating social networks. These issues have remained largely the same since the Fu and Wang study, but they have certainly gained wider attention and understanding, and greater articulation, both within academia and society. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-01-01

    A Taiwan origin for the expansion of the Austronesian languages and their speakers is well supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. However, human genetic evidence is more controversial. Until now, there had been no ancient skeletal evidence of a potential Austronesian-speaking ancestor prior to the Taiwan Neolithic ∼6,000 years ago, and genetic studies have largely ignored the role of genetic diversity within Taiwan as well as the origins of Formosans. We address these issues via analysis of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of an ∼8,000-year-old skeleton from Liang Island (located between China and Taiwan) and 550 mtDNA genome sequences from 8 aboriginal (highland) Formosan and 4 other Taiwanese groups. We show that the Liangdao Man mtDNA sequence is closest to Formosans, provides a link to southern China, and has the most ancestral haplogroup E sequence found among extant Austronesian speakers. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis allows us to reconstruct a history of early Austronesians arriving in Taiwan in the north ∼6,000 years ago, spreading rapidly to the south, and leaving Taiwan ∼4,000 years ago to spread throughout Island Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Oceania. PMID:24607387

  15. Distribution and accumulation of organotin species in seawater, sediments and organisms collected from a Taiwan mariculture area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lian; Wang, Jih-Terng; Chung, Kuo-Nan; Leu, Ming-Yih; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution and accumulation of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in seawater, sediments and selected organisms from a cage mariculture area in southern Taiwan, Hsiao Liouchiou Island. Our results show that ΣOTs were found in concentrations as high as 196 ng/L in seawater collected from the sites in Pai-Sa harbor, and up 1040 ng/g dry wt. in sediments dredged from sites within Da-Fu harbor. Also, ΣOTs concentrations of 859 ng/g dry wt. were observed in the liver of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) from mariculture cages. As most published studies have focused on the acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of organotins in mussels, the effects of organotins on cobia and other marine fauna are still poorly understood. This study highlights the significance of ΣBTs accumulation in cobia, as well as in the sediments and seawater surrounding their culture facilities.

  16. Tide- and wind-driven flushing of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The flushing of Boston Harbor, a shallow, tidally dominated embayment with little fresh water input, is investigated using a depth-averaged model. The modeled tidal currents exhibit strong spatial variability and ebb/flood asymmetry due to complex topography and coastline geometry and were verified by shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements. At the inlets to the harbor, the asymmetry between flood and ebb gives rise to a net exchange of water, which acts over successive tidal cycles to flush the harbor. The flushing is examined by tracking water that starts out in Boston Harbor for 40 M2 tidal cycles. The tidal flushing is very efficient at mixing water in the vicinity of the inlets over several tidal cycles, but efficiency decreases with time as ``tidal mixing regions'' form on either side of the harbor inlets. When wind forcing is included, the wind-driven currents act to flush the tidal mixing regions, giving rise to more efficient flushing. The exception is when the wind is from the southwest, which confines the jet-like ebb flow from the harbor and therefore reduces the flushing efficiency. In general, flushing is shown to be a two-step process: (1) rapid exchange due to tides over a large region in the vicinity of the harbor inlets and (2) flushing of this region by wind-driven flow. The model also demonstrates that flushing is not uniform over the entire harbor but occurs rapidly in the deep tidal channels and slowly in the regions of weak tidal currents around the harbor periphery. Although the depth-averaged approach to flushing is appropriate over most of the harbor due to the harbor's shallow depth and broad depth distribution, the lack of bathymetric variability and the presence of locally important density driven currents in the Boston Inner Harbor indicates that flushing of this localized area must be approached with a three-dimensional model.

  17. A STUDY OF MARINE FOULING IN MONTEREY HARBOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PIERS, *FOULING, *HARBORS, *MARINE BIOLOGY, CALIFORNIA, PACIFIC OCEAN, NAVAL RESEARCH, CRUSTACEA, ANIMALS, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, TIME, DISTRIBUTION, SEA WATER, PLATYHELMINTHES , OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA.

  18. Pearl Harbor: strategy and principles of war. Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Isaman, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Analysis of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is presented to be used in developing programs of instruction for the Air Command and Staff College at the Air University. Chapter One provides a brief biographical sketch of Japanese Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. Chapter Two consists of the prelude to battle, a battle description, and aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Chapter Three describes the Japanese strategy process which lead to the attack on Pearl Harbor while Chapter Four presents an analysis of the Japanese application of the principles of war at Pearl Harbor. The paper concludes with a guided discussion format for instructional use.

  19. Submarine harbor navigation using image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubberud, Stephen C.; Kramer, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    The process of ingress and egress of a United States Navy submarine is a human-intensive process that takes numerous individuals to monitor locations and for hazards. Sailors pass vocal information to bridge where it is processed manually. There is interest in using video imaging of the periscope view to more automatically provide navigation within harbors and other points of ingress and egress. In this paper, video-based navigation is examined as a target-tracking problem. While some image-processing methods claim to provide range information, the moving platform problem and weather concerns, such as fog, reduce the effectiveness of these range estimates. The video-navigation problem then becomes an angle-only tracking problem. Angle-only tracking is known to be fraught with difficulties, due to the fact that the unobservable space is not the null space. When using a Kalman filter estimator to perform the tracking, significant errors arise which could endanger the submarine. This work analyzes the performance of the Kalman filter when angle-only measurements are used to provide the target tracks. This paper addresses estimation unobservability and the minimal set of requirements that are needed to address it in this complex but real-world problem. Three major issues are addressed: the knowledge of navigation beacons/landmarks' locations, the minimal number of these beacons needed to maintain the course, and update rates of the angles of the landmarks as the periscope rotates and landmarks become obscured due to blockage and weather. The goal is to address the problem of navigation to and from the docks, while maintaining the traversing of the harbor channel based on maritime rules relying solely on the image-based data. The minimal number of beacons will be considered. For this effort, the image correlation from frame to frame is assumed to be achieved perfectly. Variation in the update rates and the dropping of data due to rotation and obscuration is considered

  20. Mitochondrial genes at Cold Spring Harbor.

    PubMed

    Grivell, L A

    1981-12-01

    The flowering dogwood trees and green lawns of Cold Spring Harbor provided the setting for a meeting devoted to Mitochondrial Genes from May 13-17th, 1981. Dedicated to the memory of Boris Ephrussi, who pioneered mitochondrial genetics at a time when the only kinds of genetics were nuclear or unclear, the meeting showed that the study of mtDNA has had impact on many areas of molecular biology including the genetic code and decoding, tRNA function, mechanisms of splicing and molecular evolution. Curiously, as Herschel Roman pointed out in his opening address, Ephrussi took great pains to avoid any mention of mitochondrial DNA in connection with his observations on cytoplasmic inheritance, preferring instead to refer to 'cytoplasmic particles, endowed with genetic continuity' (Ephrussi 1953). This reticence was not shared by participants at the meeting, as the following, brief report will show.

  1. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Benthic Invertebrate Studies in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    invertebrates of the central California coast. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley. 716 p. Tegelberg, H. C. 1969. A new Pacific razor clam species, Siliqua...favors: Drs. Ron Thom and John Armstrong, U.S. Army Corps of EnFineers; Dr. David Armstrong, University of ashinrton; Diane Carter, Grays Harbor College...Harbor, ashinfton, 1980-El...................... 102 49. Clam abundance for subtidal stations by season, Cr ’s Harbor, !ashinrtcn, 1980-l

  2. Charlotte Harbor initiative: assessing the ecological health of southwest Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Richard H; Wetzel, Dana L; Estevez, Ernest D

    2004-04-01

    Charlotte Harbor is the largest and one of the least impacted estuaries on the southwest Florida coast, encompassing about 270 square miles (700 km2) with a watershed of 4400 square miles (11,400 km2). The Harbor is distinguished by extensive phosphate mining in its watershed and declining freshwater inflows, more protected submerged and intertidal areas than most Gulf ecosystems, and is part of the National Estuary Program. A hypoxic event occurs annually in the Harbor for possibly natural rather than anthropogenic reasons providing an opportunity for the study of hypoxic effects on the ecology of a large subtropical ecosystem. A 5-year, multimillion dollar study was begun in 2001 to enable scientists of Mote Marine Laboratory (MML, Sarasota, Florida) to collaborate on ecological characterization of the estuary and provide data necessary for resource managers to predict consequences of future population growth in the region. Initial studies were organized around themes of preservation, conservation and restoration while subsequent years of work are organized around a core program of physical, chemical and biological studies that track the ecological consequences of freshwater inflow, hypoxia and anthropogenic-derived contaminants. Along with MML, scientists in federal and state agencies along with a number of colleges and universities are cooperating in the project.

  3. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  4. Taper Angle Evolution in Taiwan Accretionary Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Chi, W.; Liu, C.

    2011-12-01

    Liwen Chena,b, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan The critical taper model, originally developed using onland Taiwan as an example, is governed by force balance of a horizontal compressional wedge. This model has been successfully applied to many mountainous regions around the world. Among them, Taiwan is located in an oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and the Chinese Passive margin. Previous critical taper angle studies of Taiwan are mainly focusing on utilizing land data. In this study we want to extend these studies to offshore region from the subduction zone to collision zone. Here we study the varying taper angles of the double-vergent wedge derived from 1,000 km of reflection seismic profiles in both the pro-wedge and retro-wedge locations. These profiles were collected in the last two decades. For the retro-wedge, the topography slope angle changes from 2 to 8.8 degrees; some of the steep slope suggests that some part of the retrowedge is currently in a super-critical angle state. Such dramatic changes in taper angle probably strongly affect regional sedimentary processes, including slumping, in addition to structural deformation. These complex processes might even help develop a mélange or re-open a closed basin. We are currently working on studying the taper angle evolution of the pro-wedge from subduction to arc-continent collision zone in the offshore region. Though further works are needed, our preliminary results show that the evolution of wedge angles and the geometry of the wedge are closely linked and inseparable. The structures of the subducting plate might have strong influence on the deformation style of the over-riding plate. It would be interesting to combine the angle variation with the structure interpretation of the accretionary wedge

  5. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergencies, vessels shall not anchor in New London Harbor or the approaches thereto outside the anchorages... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147 Section 110.147 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  11. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section 117.272 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section 117.272 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section 117.272 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the...

  14. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section 117.272 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the...

  15. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial marina... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.404 Commercial marina harbor limits. The landward limits of commercial marina... of harbors at commercial marinas will be designated by TVA on the basis of the size and extent...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial marina... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.404 Commercial marina harbor limits. The landward limits of commercial marina... of harbors at commercial marinas will be designated by TVA on the basis of the size and extent...

  18. 33 CFR 110.115 - Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.115 Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif. North of the Santa Barbara breakwater; seaward of the line of mean high water; and southwest of a line bearing...

  19. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  20. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  1. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  2. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  3. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  5. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 110.132 - Rockland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rockland Harbor, Maine. 110.132... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.132 Rockland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. Beginning at a point bearing 158°, 1,075 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 252°, 2...

  9. 33 CFR 110.132 - Rockland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rockland Harbor, Maine. 110.132... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.132 Rockland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. Beginning at a point bearing 158°, 1,075 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 252°, 2...

  10. 33 CFR 110.132 - Rockland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rockland Harbor, Maine. 110.132... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.132 Rockland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. Beginning at a point bearing 158°, 1,075 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 252°, 2...

  11. 33 CFR 110.132 - Rockland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rockland Harbor, Maine. 110.132... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.132 Rockland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. Beginning at a point bearing 158°, 1,075 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 252°, 2...

  12. 33 CFR 110.132 - Rockland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rockland Harbor, Maine. 110.132... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.132 Rockland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. Beginning at a point bearing 158°, 1,075 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 252°, 2...

  13. 33 CFR 117.802 - New Rochelle Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Rochelle Harbor. 117.802 Section 117.802 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.802 New Rochelle Harbor. (a) The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.802 - New Rochelle Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New Rochelle Harbor. 117.802 Section 117.802 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.802 New Rochelle Harbor. (a) The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chicago Harbor, Ill. 110.83... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.83 Chicago Harbor, Ill. (a) Grant Park North-A. Beginning at a point 2,120 feet South of the intersection of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club...

  16. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the waters...

  17. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In the...

  18. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line and...

  19. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  20. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  1. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line and...

  2. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line and...

  3. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  4. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the waters...

  5. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In the...

  6. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the waters...

  7. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the waters...

  8. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In the...

  9. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  10. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the waters...

  11. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In the...

  12. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line and...

  13. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  14. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line and...

  15. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1375 - Grays Harbor, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grays Harbor, WA. 80.1375 Section 80.1375 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1375 Grays Harbor, WA. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1375 - Grays Harbor, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grays Harbor, WA. 80.1375 Section 80.1375 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1375 Grays Harbor, WA. A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  20. 78 FR 9730 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by Sally Snowman, 70th keeper of Boston Light... Jacobson, DFO, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, 408 Atlantic Avenue, Suite 228, Boston, MA...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  4. 78 FR 28619 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by author John Galluzzo, ``Peddocks Island, As Seen from Pemberton Point...

  5. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes discussion of 2016 celebration planning for the 300th Anniversary of Boston Light, 20th Anniversary of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (NRA), and...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI...

  16. 12 CFR 18.11 - Safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safe harbor provision. 18.11 Section 18.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.11 Safe harbor provision. The provisions of § 18.10(c)...

  17. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  20. 46 CFR 7.30 - New York Harbor, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New York Harbor, NY. 7.30 Section 7.30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.30 New York Harbor, NY. A line drawn from East Rockaway Inlet Breakwater Light to Ambrose Light...

  1. 46 CFR 7.30 - New York Harbor, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New York Harbor, NY. 7.30 Section 7.30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.30 New York Harbor, NY. A line drawn from East Rockaway Inlet Breakwater Light to Ambrose Light...

  2. 33 CFR 80.165 - New York Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New York Harbor. 80.165 Section 80.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.165 New York Harbor. A line drawn from East...

  3. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following bearings...

  4. 33 CFR 117.802 - New Rochelle Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Rochelle Harbor. 117.802... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.802 New Rochelle Harbor. (a) The draw of the Glen Island Bridge, mile 0.8, at New Rochelle, New York, shall open on signal, except as...

  5. 46 CFR 7.30 - New York Harbor, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false New York Harbor, NY. 7.30 Section 7.30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.30 New York Harbor, NY. A line drawn from East Rockaway Inlet Breakwater Light to Ambrose Light...

  6. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  7. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  8. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  17. 16. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, LOOKING OUT AT MAIN CHANNEL ENTRANCE, WITH FORD ISLAND ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 15. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. TYPICAL VIEW OF PEARL HARBOR FROM SIGNAL TOWER OFFICE, LOOKING OUT TOWARD ARIZONA MEMORIAL AND FORD ISLAND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn from...

  2. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120 Section 162.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 162.145 - Monroe Harbor, Mich.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monroe Harbor, Mich. 162.145 Section 162.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.145 Monroe Harbor, Mich. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120 Section 162.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 162.145 - Monroe Harbor, Mich.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monroe Harbor, Mich. 162.145 Section 162.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.145 Monroe Harbor, Mich. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake Michigan... City, Indiana; St. Joseph, South Haven, Saugatuck, Holland (Lake Macatawa), Grand Haven, Muskegon...

  7. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake Michigan... City, Indiana; St. Joseph, South Haven, Saugatuck, Holland (Lake Macatawa), Grand Haven, Muskegon...

  8. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake Michigan... City, Indiana; St. Joseph, South Haven, Saugatuck, Holland (Lake Macatawa), Grand Haven, Muskegon...

  9. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130 Section 80.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn...

  10. 46 CFR 7.65 - Charleston Harbor, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charleston Harbor, SC. 7.65 Section 7.65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.65 Charleston Harbor, SC. A line drawn from Charleston Light on Sullivans Island to latitude...

  11. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  12. 76 FR 26311 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance... concerning the Harbor Maintenance Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350). This request for comment is being made... keepers from the collection of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance...

  13. 76 FR 50489 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Harbor Maintenance Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350.../startup costs and operations and maintenance costs). The comments that are submitted will be summarized...

  14. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES § 578.7 Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding the...

  15. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  16. Cell Therapy Regulation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2017-03-13

    Cell therapy is not only a novel medical practice but also a medicinal product [cell therapy product (CTP)]. More and more CTPs are being approved for marketing globally because of the rapid development of biomedicine in cell culture, preservation, and preparation. However, regulation is the most important criterion for the development of CTPs. Regulations must be flexible to expedite the process of marketing for new CTPs. Recently, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) updated the related regulations such as regulation of development, current regulatory framework and process, and the application and evaluation processes. When the quality of CTPs has been improved significantly, their safety and efficacy are further ensured. The treatment protocol, a new design for adaptive licensing to current clinical practice, is a rapid process for patients with life-threatening diseases or serious conditions for which there are no suitable drugs, medical devices, or other therapeutic methods available. The hospital can submit the treatment protocol to apply for cell therapy as a medical practice, which may result in easier and faster cell therapy development, and personalized treatment for individual patients will evolve quickly.

  17. Blood parasites of Taiwan birds.

    PubMed

    Manwell, R D; Allen, C S; Kuntz, R E

    1976-11-01

    Blood films were examined from 1477 birds of Taiwan (193 species, 49 families). Haemoproteus Kruse was by far the commonest parasite, with Leucocytozoon Danilewski a not very close second. it is probable that some of the Haemoproteus infections represented new species, and 1 occurring in the Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica sonorivox Gould) seemed characteristic enough to justify recognition as such; the name Haemoproteus bambusicolae sp. n. is proposed for this organism. Malaria was found in 77 birds, the greatest number of infections occurring in the Bamboo Partridge. Most of them were caused by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, a pathogen of chickens, but a number were due to an undetermined species of Plasmodium. The Bamboo Partridge may be a reservoir host of the former. A few other identified species (P. rouxi Sergent & Sergent, P. hexamerium Huff, P. tenue Laveran & Mesnil) were seen, as well as some unidentified ones. Plasmodium tenue was seen in Garrulax canorus taewanus Swinhoe, a babbler: until now it was known only from the Pekin Robin (Leiothrix luteus Scopoli), also a babbler, in which we have found it extremely common. Sixty-four microfilarial infections were identified; they were especially frequent in the Button Quail (Turnix suscitator rostrata Swinhoe).

  18. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. The Epidemiology and Characteristics of Q fever and Co-infections with Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus or Leptospirosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Database Study.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-H; Sun, W; Lee, C-H; Lin, J-N; Liao, M-H; Liu, S-S; Chang, T-Y; Tsai, K-F; Chang, Y-C; Lin, H-H; Chen, Y-H

    2016-12-14

    Q fever (QF) is a worldwide zoonosis associated with outbreaks. Only a few nationwide studies regarding the surveillance and epidemiology of human QF have been reported. Although QF is endemic in Taiwan, a nationwide database investigation of the epidemiology and characteristics of QF and its associations with scrub typhus (ST), murine typhus (MT) and leptospirosis (LS) has never been reported. We analysed nationwide databases of suspected QF, ST, MT and LS cases from October 2007 to December 2014 obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. A total of 468 (4.2%) QF cases were identified among 11 109 suspected QF cases. QF cases were mainly distributed in the southern and Kaohsiung-Pingtung regions but rarely in the eastern region. Compared to non-QF cases, QF cases had significantly higher percentages of males (88.7 versus 66.2%) and high-risk occupations (farming, animal husbandry or veterinary medicine) (16.2 versus 10.5%). But the percentages of specific animal contact, including cattle (0.6 versus 0.8%) and goats (0.9 versus 1.0%), were low in both. The majority of suspected QF cases (89.4%) were simultaneously suspected with ST, MT or LS, and the combinations of suspected diseases differed between regions. The number of suspected QF cases from the eastern region decreased since 2009, which was not observed in other regions. A total of 1420 (12.8%) cases had confirmed diseases, including QF (453, 4.1%), QF+ST (7, 0.06%), QF+MT (4, 0.04%), QF+LS (4, 0.04%), MT (186, 1.7%), ST (545, 4.9%), ST+LS (11, 0.1%) and LS (210, 1.9%). Compared to cases of unknown disease, QF cases had larger percentages of high-risk occupations (16.2 versus 9.6%) but similar histories of animal contact (29.8 versus 25.1%). QF is an endemic disease in southern Taiwan. It is difficult to differentiate QF from ST, MT or LS only by high-risk occupations and history of animal contact, and co-infection of QF with these diseases should be considered.

  1. Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

    2000-04-28

    It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan.

  2. Local Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second commonest cancer in Taiwan. The national surveillance program can detect HCC in its early stages, and various curative modalities (including surgical resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, and local ablation) are employed for the treatment of small HCC. Local ablation therapies are currently advocated for early-stage HCC that is unresectable because of co-morbidities, the need to preserve liver function, or refusal of resection. Among the various local ablation therapies, the most commonly used modalities include percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); percutaneous acetic acid injection and microwave ablation are used less often. RFA is more commonly employed than other local ablative modalities in Taiwan because the technique is highly effective, minimally invasive, and requires fewer sessions. RFA is therefore advocated in Taiwan as the first-line curative therapy for unresectable HCC or even for resectable HCC. However, current RFA procedures are less effective against tumors that are in high-risk or difficult-to-ablate locations, are poorly visualized on ultrasonography (US), or are large. Recent advancements in RFA in Taiwan can resolve these issues by the creation of artificial ascites or pleural effusion, application of real-time virtual US assistance, use of combination therapy before RFA, or use of switching RF controllers with multiple electrodes. This review article provides updates on the clinical outcomes and advances in local ablative modalities (mostly RFA) for HCC in Taiwan. PMID:24159599

  3. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    side of the Taiwan Strait maintain that there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China.”2 The uninterrupted KMT dynasty on Taiwan finally...January 2002), and for Taiwan’s Defense Minister, Tang Yao-ming (March 2002), who attended a defense conference in Florida and while there met with

  4. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  5. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  6. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain that there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China.”3 The uninterrupted KMT dynasty on Taiwan...Taiwan’s Defense Minister, Tang Yao-ming (March 2002), who attended a defense conference in Florida and while there met with U.S. Deputy Secretary of

  7. Identification of Taiwan and China-like recombinant avian infectious bronchitis viruses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2009-03-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in poultry cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The emergence of viral variants complicates disease control. The IBV strains in Taiwan were clustered into two groups, Taiwan group I and Taiwan group II, based on the S1 gene. A variant was previously identified and showed a distinct S1 gene homology with other local strains. This study investigated the 3' 7.3 kb genome of eight Taiwan strains isolated from 1992 to 2007. The genes of interest were directly sequenced. Sequence analyses were performed to detect any recombination event among IBVs. The results demonstrated that all of the examined viruses maintained the typical IBV genome organization as 5'-S-3a-3b-E-M-5a-5b-N-UTR-3'. In the phylogenetic analyses, various genes from one strain were clustered into separate groups. Moreover, frequent recombination events were identified in the Simplot analyses among the Taiwan and China CK/CH/LDL/97I-type strains. Putative crossover sites were located in the S1, S2, 3b, M genes and the intergenic region between the M and 5a genes. All of the recombinants showed chimeric IBV genome arrangements originated from Taiwan and China-like parental strains. Field IBVs in Taiwan undergo genetic recombination and evolution.

  8. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen.

    PubMed

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N

    2015-08-14

    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Ras gene activation in gastric adenocarcinoma of Chinese patients in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, C.C.; Lee, W.Y.; Jin, Y.T.

    1994-09-01

    In order to assess the implication of mutational activation of members of the ras family of cellular proto-oncogenes in the development of gastric cancers in Chinese patients, a series of 55 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma in Taiwan was studied. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tumor tissue was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and then analyzed by dot blot hybridation assay with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes to detect mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of c-Ki-ras, c-Ha-ras, and c-N-ras. Twelve (12.8%) of the 55 carcinomas examined harbored a point mutation. Of the 12 mutations, 8 (66.6%) were detected in Ha-ras codon 12. Our result is consistent with reports from mainland China and Korea, but different from those of Japan and the United States. This difference is probably attributable to different eating and drinking habits.

  10. Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.

    2010-12-01

    Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.

  11. The Study of Aeromagnetic Surveys in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. T.; Tong, L. T.; Lin, W.; Chang, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    The airborne magnetic survey is a cost-effective method for regional geological investigation. Most of developed countries use aeromagnetic data as important fundamental information for resources development. The first aeromagnetic survey was conducted in the offshore areas of west and southern Taiwan in 1968 by U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office to help Taiwan finding oil. Later, in 2007, a helicopter-borne magnetic survey was proceed in east Taiwan for underground granite bodies. In order to improve better understanding of deep geological structures associated with the Holocene volcanism in Taiwan, we applied helicopter-borne magnetic technique in northern Taiwan include Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) and Kueishan island in 2013 and 2014 to obtain the distribution information of potential magma chamber as well as hydrothermal pathways along regional geological structures. The most important findings of the high-resolution aeromagnetic dataset since 1960's to 2014 acquired include: (1) the distribution of subsurface igneous rocks and the Curie point depth in Tatun Volcano Group, Keelung Volcano Group, and Kueishantao Volcano; (2) the widely distributed NE high-magnetic belts in northern Taiwan may be associated with NE fractures created by long-term subsidence in this area; (3) the high-magnetic belts in south of Lanyang River which is very different from the magnetic characteristics of the Central Range may imply paleo oceanic plate; (4) the NE high-magnetic belts in Penghu area formed by magma intrusion along NE fractures and the dense and high-magnetic anomalies may be associated with the Miocene basaltic lava overlying on the pre-Tertiary igneous dykes and are widely spread in northern Penghu area. The new aeromagnetic survey techniques help us to investigate the areas with steep terrain or covered by dense vegetation which was difficult to obtain reasonable geological understanding, and also provide an opportunity for us to apply the geothermal energy prospecting.

  12. Ruminant feces harbor diverse uncultured symbiotic actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-03-01

    To isolate actinobacteria from ruminant feces and elucidate their correlations with ruminants, the actinobacterial community in sheep (Ovis aries) and cattle (Bos taurus) feces was determined by cultivation and clone library methods. Most of actinobacteria isolated belonged to Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Micromonospora, and Cellulosimicrobium genera. The strains showed above 99 % similarity with the type strains, respectively. All the strains isolated could grow on media containing pectin, cellulose, or xylan as the sole carbon sources. However, most antibacterial and antifungal activities were found in Streptomyces species. Clone library analysis revealed that the genera Mycobacterium, Aeromicrobium, Rhodococcus, Cellulomonas were present in cattle and sheep feces. In contrast, the 16S rRNA genes showed less than 98 % similarity with the type strains. The analysis of actinobacterial community in ruminant feces by clone library and cultivation yielded a total of 10 actinobacterial genera and three uncultured actinobacterial taxa. The ruminant feces harbored diverse actinobacterial community. Ruminants may represent an underexplored reservoir of novel actinomycetes of potential interest for probiotics and drug discovery.

  13. [The Taiwan Nurses Association and professional diplomacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheuan

    2014-08-01

    The Taiwan Nurses Association (TWNA) is publishing a special centenary issue to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the association in 2014. For this issue, TWNA invited the author to write a review article that addresses the involvement of the TWNA in professional diplomacy and international exchange over the past century. The author reviews the history of both TWNA and the International Council of Nurses and introduces the contributions of the association in the field of professional diplomacy and the positive contributions of many Taiwan nursing leaders to global healthcare and society. The purpose of the paper is to convey the traditions and experiences of TWNA forward to the next generation.

  14. An outbreak of foodborne botulism in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chun-Kai; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Yu-Chi; Lee, Fang-Yi; Huang, Wei-Shih

    2009-01-01

    Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic disease caused by botulinum toxin. We report an outbreak of type B botulism in Taiwan in 2006. There were five cases involved in this outbreak. They present ileus and acute cranial nerve dysfunction including dysphagia and blurred vision. One of them had severe neurologic impairment and required mechanical ventilatory support. No patient received antitoxin administration because of delayed diagnosis. The food specimen revealed positive botulism toxin B. There were no fatalities. Consumption of fermented food was significantly associated with this outbreak. We also reviewed the characteristics of cases with botulism in Taiwan since 1985.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Fang, Min-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jin; Zu, Yu-Meng; Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Taiwan red pine Pinus taiwanensis Hayata chloroplast genome (cpDNA) is determined in this study. The genome is composed of 119,741 bp in length, containing a pair of very short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 495 bp, which was divided by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 65,670 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 53,080 bp in length. The cpDNA contained 115 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (73 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 37 tRNA genes (22 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbored a single intron, and one (rps12) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of the Taiwan red pine cpDNA is 61.5%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 62.2%, 60.6% and 63.6%, respectively. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis suggested that the genus Pinus, Picea, Abies and Larix were strongly supported as monophyletic, and the cpDNA of P. taiwanensis is closely related to that of P. thunbergii.

  16. Taiwan Biobank: a project aiming to aid Taiwan's transition into a biomedical island.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chien-Te; Lin, Jui-Chu; Lee, Chung-His

    2008-02-01

    Essentially, the term 'biobank' can be defined in different ways. Taking the UK Biobank's experience as the main example, the Taiwan Biobank aims to collect the DNA of a large group of people on the population base and track their health and lifestyle for at least 10 years. It is hoped that the information collected, regarding the mechanisms underlying how genes and environmental factors interact with each other to make us ill, will benefit the society in various ways, including the exploration of a new generation of treatments, support to preventive medicine discovery and also the possible benefits for the promotion of evolving public health-related industries in Taiwan. However, the involvement of large-scale population base gene data collection also triggered serious ethical, legal and social issues. In Taiwan, the challenge is even more serious than for any other biobanking experiences that have occurred previously. Among all the ethical, legal and social issues, the convergence of aboriginal people protection provided under Taiwan's Constitution imposes on the research team an obligation to create an innovative Ethical & Legal Governance Framework adaptable to the unique social background of Taiwan, including a workable public consultation/communication mechanism. In early 2005, the creation of the 'Taiwan Biobank' has been included as a part of Taiwan's strategic development in promoting the country as an island of biomedicine. In this report, the ideology, the goals and special features, government strategy, visions and, in particular, the ethical, legal and social issue planning of the Taiwan Biobank will be briefly introduced and reviewed.

  17. The offshore wind resources assessment application of floating LiDAR in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Wind and wave measurements of a Floating LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) Device (FLD) are performed on the site of Fuhai Offshore Wind Farm in the Taiwan Strait. The location of the deployment is situated 10 kilometers off-coast of Changhua County, and the anchored water depth is 25 meters. It is the very first time in Asia Pacific Region to use such device for tasks of offshore wind and wave measurement. Six range gate heights were set at 55m, 71m, 90m, 110m, 150m and 200m from the FLD sensor lens. Wind speeds and wind directions were measured by a remote sensing technology. Wave heights and periods were also measured by the buoy wave sensor. A validation campaign of NCKU WindSentinel has performed by a portable LiDAR (WINDCUBE v2) at Hsing-Da Harbor in the south of Taiwan from October 16th to 26th, 2013. The results showed good agreements with 10 minute averaged data of the wind speed and wind direction measured by the two LiDARs. NCKU WindSentinel data are planning comparisons with Fuhai's offshore fixed mast data when the meteorological mast is completed. The goal is to convince the wind energy community that FLD are a reliable and cost effective way of obtaining data for resource assessment. Until this moment, The FLD are observing and measuring the offshore wind farm's meteorological and oceanographic data. In September of 2014, a mild typhoon (Fung-Wong) passed through from east of Taiwan. NCKU WindSentinel continuously measured during typhoon period in the sea. The present preliminary measurements campaign presented the convenient and more cost effective option of the FLD, which may be a key tool for assessment of offshore wind resources in the near-future offshore wind farm developments.

  18. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  19. Language Skills and Status Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of language underlying the stratification process in Taiwan within the context of globalization. Specifically, I ask if one's language skills may serve as a key to getting ahead. The Taiwanese government has imposed Mandarin as the official language since 1945 and introduced English courses into compulsory…

  20. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  1. Development of University Counseling Profession in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-Hsing Claire; Hsieh, Hui-Hsing; Chen, Yien-Hua; Lai, Pi-hui

    2015-01-01

    This article was to elaborate the development of the university counseling profession in Taiwan through an intensive literature review. The university student body has been expanding radically in the last three decades, and the student population, as well as their problems, have become more diverse and complex. Thus, the importance of university…

  2. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  3. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  4. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  5. Gestalt Group Dreamwork Demonstrations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coven, Arnold B.

    2004-01-01

    The application of Gestalt dreamwork was explored with counselor education students and professors at two Taiwan universities. The literature indicates Asians are reluctant to disclose personal matters or to display emotions. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese participants readily enacted roles, were personally open, and expressed intense…

  6. Gestalt Group Dreamwork Demonstrations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coven, Arnold B.

    2004-01-01

    The application of Gestalt dreamwork was explored with counselor education students and professors at two Taiwan universities. The literature indicates Asians are reluctant to disclose personal matters or to display emotions. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese participants readily enacted roles, were personally open, and expressed intense…

  7. Sustainability of Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, H. Jenny; Chang, Tzu-chau

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale and context for recent national policy and funded initiatives to support sustainability developments within higher education in Taiwan, including practical and educational aspects. Concrete examples and specific outcomes are reviewed, to produce a profile across the higher education…

  8. An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn

    This study identified concerns of teachers in Taiwan and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…

  9. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  10. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  11. Improving the Textbook Adoption Process in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks were centrally selected in Taiwan until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…

  12. Development of University Counseling Profession in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-Hsing Claire; Hsieh, Hui-Hsing; Chen, Yien-Hua; Lai, Pi-hui

    2015-01-01

    This article was to elaborate the development of the university counseling profession in Taiwan through an intensive literature review. The university student body has been expanding radically in the last three decades, and the student population, as well as their problems, have become more diverse and complex. Thus, the importance of university…

  13. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  14. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  15. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  16. Isolation of bacteria with antibiotic resistance from household cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Chen, Wei-Chen; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2005-03-01

    Cockroaches may harbor and disseminate microorganisms to the environment. In this study, Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica were collected from 40 households in Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Cockroach infestation was found in 50% of the studied households and 226 cockroaches (123 P. americana and 103 B. germanica) collected by trapping. P. americana was more often found in the kitchen (70.7%) whereas B. germanica in the storage room (51.5%) and kitchen (36.9%). There was no significant difference between the percentages of P. americana (99.9%) and B. germanica (98.0%) carrying bacteria. A total of 25 species of bacteria was isolated from P. americana and only 21 from B. germanica. Antibiotic resistance was found in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus species isolated from the cockroaches. These findings suggest a potential role of cockroaches in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance in households.

  17. 33 CFR 110.79a - Neenah Harbor, Neenah, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Street/Oak Street Bridge crosses the south shoreline of the river; thence 254°, 162 feet; thence 146... of Second Street extended meets the north edge of the harbor, thence south to intersect the north...

  18. 33 CFR 110.79a - Neenah Harbor, Neenah, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Street/Oak Street Bridge crosses the south shoreline of the river; thence 254°, 162 feet; thence 146... of Second Street extended meets the north edge of the harbor, thence south to intersect the north...

  19. Renewable Energy and Storage Implementation in Naval Station Pearl Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    at Pearl Harbor. 14. SUBJECT TERMS microgrid, microturbine, renewable energy, photovoltaic generation, electrical storage, energy...PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION .............................................10 C. ELECTRICAL STORAGE SYSTEMS...OPERATIONS MODEL .......................................................26 D. ELECTRICITY PRICING

  20. Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control tower on right. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Warehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA