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Sample records for kaolins bentonites palyg

  1. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the kaolin industry is provided. In 2000, production of kaolin was estimated to be 8.87 Mt, which is less than the amount produced in 1999. Domestic sales of kaolin decreased in 2000, with sales of kaolin for paper filler applications continuing to drop.

  2. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1998 Industrial Minerals Review. Activities in the kaolin industry in 1999 are reviewed. U.S. production of kaolin in 1999 was estimated to be 10.7 million st, an increase of 0.3 million st from the previous year. The paper industry is the largest user of kaolin, accounting for 59 percent of domestic sales. Company activities, announcements, and plans of interest to the kaolin industry are outlined.

  3. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The article reports on the market performance of kaolin in the U.S. in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. There was a decline in the domestic sales of kaolin from 6.74 measurement ton (Mt) to 5.2 Mt. Companies in the country engaged in kaolin production include Advanced Primary Minerals Corp., Applied Minerals Inc., and Daleco Resources Corp. The decline in world production of kaolin from 2008 to 2009 is also noted.

  4. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global kaolin industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that Georgia is the top producing state in the U.S., with a 94% share in total production. The other top producers include South Carolina, North Carolina and Florida. Kaolin is used in the manufacture of such products as electrical porcelain, pottery and sanitaryware.

  5. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, 22 companies mined kaolin in nine US states. Production in Georgia declined to 6.19 Mt down from 6.78 Mt in 2004. Despite the decline, Georgia remained the leading producer state followed by Alabama, South Carolina, Arkansas, Texas, Nevada, California, North Carolina and Florida. In the next year or two, domestic and export sales of kaolin for paper application are not expected to change significantly.

  6. Modeling the influence of ethanol on the adsorption and desorption of selected BTEX compounds on bentonite and kaolin.

    PubMed

    Garoma, Temesgen; Skidmore, Lacy

    2011-01-01

    The influence of ethanol on the adsorption capacity and desorption kinetics of benzene and toluene on bentonite and kaolin through modeling and experimental study was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of both soils for the target compounds decreased as ethanol content increased. As ethanol content increased from 0 to 50%, the adsorption capacity for benzene and toluene on bentonite decreased from 3.6 to 0.54 microg(n+1)/(L(n) x g) (by 85%) and 1.91 to 0.01 microg(n+1)/(L(n) x g) (by 99.5%), respectively. For benzene and toluene adsorption on kaolin, the adsorption capacity decreased by 86.5% (from 0.26 to 0.04 microg(n+1)/(L(n) x g) and 98.2% (from 0.13 to 0.002 microg(n+1)/(L(n) x g)), respectively, as ethanol content increased from 0 to 50%. In addition, the desorption rate of benzene and toluene from bentonite decreased by about one order of magnitude as the ethanol increased from 0 to 25% and 0 to 50%, respectively. It can be inferred that ethanol could affect the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes that rely on adsorption to soils as a containment technique for benzene and toluene by retarding the adsorption to soils and remobilizing compounds that had already been adsorbed to soils.

  7. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Part of the 2006 industrial minerals review. U.S. kaolin production was an estimated 7.74 Mt in 2006, with 7.1 Mt produced by Georgia. Imports increased from 262 kt in 2005 to about 303 kt in 2006, whereas exports decreased from 3.58 Mt in 2005 to 3.54 Mt in 2006. Inexpensive Brazilian imports and a lackluster domestic paper market are expected to cause a slight reduction in kaolin sales to the U.S. paper industry.

  8. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen companies mined kaolin in nine states in 2011. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was estimated to be 5.48 Mt (6.04 million st) valued at $822 million, an increase from 5.42 Mt (5.97 million st) valued at $788 million in 2010. Production in Georgia, the top producing state, increased to an estimated 5.1 Mt (5.62 million st) valued at $790 million in 2011 from 5.05 Mt (5.57 million st) valued at $757 million in 2010. Georgia accounted for 93 percent of U.S. production tonnage and nearly the entire domestic water-washed, delaminated and pigment-grade calcined kaolin production.

  9. Kaolin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen companies mined kaolin in eight states in 2012. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was estimated to be 5.88 Mt (6.48 million st) valued at $841 million, an increase from 5.77 Mt (6.36 million st) valued at $817 million in 2011. Production in Georgia, the top producing state, increased to an estimated 5.45 Mt (6.01 million st) valued at $804 million in 2012 from 5.34 Mt (5.89 million st) valued at $781 million in 2011. Georgia accounted for 93 percent of U.S. production tonnage and nearly the entire domestic water-washed, delaminated and pigment-grade calcined kaolin production.

  10. Rheology Modifiers Applied to Kaolin-Bentonite Slurries for SRNL WTP Pulse Jets Tank Pilot Work in Support of RPP at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAM, DANIEL

    2005-02-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to find and characterize the impact of rheological modifiers to a clay (Kaolin-Bentonite) slurry having 23.1 total wt percent solids, 1.165 g/ml, and Bingham Plastic yield stress of 13 Pa and plastic viscosity of 24 mPa-sec. The primary objective was to find rheological modifiers when blended with this clay slurry that would provide a vane yield stress of 300 Pa when the slurry was undisturbed for 24 hours. A secondary objective was to find a modifier that after shearing would produce a Bingham Plastic yield stress of 30 Pa and plastic viscosity of 30 mPa-sec. Two parallel paths were chosen with one examining a variety of organic/inorganic modifiers and another using just the inorganic modifier Laponite (R). The addition of organic modifiers hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose at a target 0.50 wt percent dramatically increased the vane yield stress over the range 311 - 724 Pa, and also increased the Bingham plastic yield stress and plastic viscosities over the range 33-112 Pa and 27-166 mPa-sec, respectively. The organic modifiers also showed elastic behavior, yielding a very unpredictable up flow curve. The 0.50 wt percent addition of inorganic modifiers magnesium aluminum silicate and hydrate magnesium aluminum silicate only increased the vane yield stress to 36-46 Pa and had little impact on the Bingham Plastic parameters. A range of an inorganic (2-4 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and combination of a range of an inorganic (2-3 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and organic (0.03-0.05 wt percent sodium carboxymethylcellulose) modifiers were then tested. These results showed that the target vane yield stress could be obtained but the Bingham Plastic yield stress and plastic viscosity were 3 times too high. Reducing the organic modifier weight percent by a few hundredths, the Bingham Plastic yield stress could be obtained, but then the vane yield stress

  11. Waste behavior during horizontal extrusion: Effect of waste strength for bentonite and kaolin/ludox simulants and strength estimates for wastes from Hanford waste tanks 241-SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, and S-102

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Aikin, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs and six of the DSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns. Understanding the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of these gases will help to resolve the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The strength of the waste plays a central role in the mechanisms of both bubble retention and bubble release. While recent in-situ measurements from the ball rheometer have provided results for five of the DSTs, waste strength measurements are typically not available for any of the SSTs or for the DSTs that have not been characterized with the ball rheometer. The overall purpose of this study is to develop a method to obtain strength estimates for actual wastes from observations of the wastes` behavior during extrusion from core samplers. The first objective of the study was to quantify waste behavior during horizontal extrusion by documenting the extrusion behavior of simulants with known strengths; the second was to estimate the strength of actual waste based on these simulant standards. Results showed a reproducible extrusion behavior for bentonite clay and kaolin/Ludox{reg_sign} simulants over strengths ranging from 30 to 6,500 Pa. The extrusion behavior was documented with both video recordings and still images. Based on these visual standards, strength estimates were made for wastes from DSTs 241-SY-103, 241-AW-101, and 241-AN-103 and SST 241-S-102.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin

  13. Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jai-Young; Oh, Byung-Taek; Choi, Sang-Il

    2007-08-01

    Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified bentonite, which is used as a secondary containment barrier for underground storage tanks. The sorption capacity and hydraulic conductivity of both the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin were investigated and showed distribution coefficients in the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene ranging between 45.7 and 583.7 and 57.0 and 525.1, respectively. The hydraulic conductivities were 2.53 x 10(-8) and 5.62 x 10(-8) cm/s for the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin, respectively. These results suggest that HDTMA-modified low-grade kaolin could be used as a hydraulic barrier against advection migration of petroleum contaminants. Simulation of the one-dimensional transport of benzene through a liner made of either one of the compounds was also performed. These results also showed that HDTMA-modified kaolin more effectively retards the transport of benzene.

  14. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  15. Kaolin clotting time.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kottayam

    2013-01-01

    The kaolin clotting time (KCT) is a sensitive test used in the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants (LA) (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). It is essentially an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test with no added phospholipid. Kaolin acts as the activator in the KCT. In the absence of additional phospholipid reagent, the quality of the test sample is extremely important since the generation of thrombin completely depends on the presence of residual cell membranes and plasma lipids (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). Since the test contains no exogenous phospholipid, a confirmatory test using excess phospholipid is required to confirm the presence of lupus anticoagulant in the sample (Court, Br J Biomed Sci 54:287-298, 1997).

  16. Zeolite membranes from kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Karle, B.G.; Brinker, C.J. |; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1996-07-01

    Zeolite films are sought as components of molecular sieve membranes. Different routes used to prepare zeolite composite membranes include growing zeolite layers from gels on porous supports, depositing oriented zeolites on supports, and dispersing zeolites in polymeric membranes. In most cases, it is very difficult to control and avoid the formation of cracks and/or pinholes. The approach to membrane synthesis is based on hydrothermally converting films of layered aluminosilicates into zeolite films. The authors have demonstrated this concept by preparing zeolite A membranes on alumina supports from kaolin films. The authors have optimized the process parameters not only for desired bulk properties, but also for preparing thin (ca. 5 {micro}m), continuous zeolite A films. Scanning electron microscopy shows highly intergrown zeolite A crystals over most of the surface area of the membrane, but gas permeation experiments indicate existence of mesoporous defects and/or intercrystalline gaps. It has been demonstrated that the thickness of the final zeolite A membrane can be controlled by limiting the amount of precursor kaolin present in the membrane.

  17. Energetics of kaolin polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Ligny, D. de; Navrotsky, A.

    1999-04-01

    The enthalpy of formation of kaolin polymorphs at 298 K has been determined by drop-solution calorimetry into molten lead borate at 975 K. Corrections have been made for impurities in the samples. The standard enthalpy of formation from the elements is: kaolinite {minus}4120.2 {+-} 6.6 kJ/mol, dickite {minus}4107.6 {+-} 5.7 kJ/mol, nacrite {minus}4104.0 {+-} 7.6 kJ/mol, and halloysite {minus}4097.5 {+-} 5.6 kJ/mol. Using entropy data from the literature, the standard free energy of formation from the elements at 298 K is /{minus}3799.4 {+-} 6.4 kJ/mol for kaolinite, {minus}3785.1 {+-} 5.6 kJ/mol for dickite, and {minus}3776.8 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol for halloysite. The effect of crystallinity (Hinckley index ranging from 1.6 to 0.4) on the enthalpy of formation of kaolinite is smaller than 5 kJ/mol, the experimental error. The relative stability of the polymorphs probably does not change significantly with pressure and temperature over their range of occurrence. Thus the geological occurrence of halloysite, nacrite, and dickite, which are metastable phases, must be interpreted in terms of kinetics or as the result of a specific synthesis path, rather than as resulting from changes in the thermodynamically stable phase assemblage.

  18. Kaolin dust concentrations and pneumoconiosis at a kaolin mine.

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, E B; Chaudhary, B A; Pearson, M G; Morgan, W K

    1984-01-01

    Kaolin is removed from underground seams in the mining area to a processing area, where it is sliced, dried, and pulverised to make the finished product. A study was undertaken to determine the dust concentrations in various work areas and to assess the prevalence of radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities in 65 workers at a Georgia kaolin mine. Respirable dust concentrations were higher in the processing area than in the mine or maintenance areas for all determinations from 1977 to 1981. The mean respirable dust level in the processing area in 1981 was 1.74 mg/m3 and 0.14 mg/m3 in the mine area. Five workers, all of whom had worked at the processing area, had radiographic evidence of kaolin pneumoconiosis. The mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 of the entire group were within the normal range. When the spirometric values were expressed as a percentage of the predicted values, the FVC and FEV1 were significantly lower in the workers with kaolinosis than in other workers in the processing area. The FVC and FEV1 also declined significantly with increasing years of work in the processing area. The FEV1/FVC%, however, was not significantly altered either by the presence of kaolinosis or by an increasing number of years of work, indicating that the impairment was restrictive and hence likely to be a consequence of dust inhalation rather than smoking. In this study the highest dust concentrations occurred in the processing area, and kaolin pneumoconiosis was limited to those who had worked there. Kaolin exposure appeared to have a small but significant effect on ventilatory capacity in those with kaolin pneumoconiosis and in workers with a longer exposure. There was no association between the radiographic appearances of kaolinosis and cigarette smoking or between the presence of radiographic abnormalities and reduced arterial blood gas tensions. Images PMID:6463912

  19. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  20. Kaolin pneumoconiosis. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenas, D.J.; Gale, P.N.

    1983-12-01

    A 35-year-old man who had been occupationally exposed to aerosolized kaolin for 17 years in a Georgia processing plant had diffuse reticulonodular pulmonary infiltrates and an upper lobe mass. Exploratory thoracotomy, performed to evaluate the nature of the mass, revealed an 8 X 12 X 10-cm conglomerate pneumoconiotic lesion containing large amounts of kaolinite. Coincident deposition of silica in the tissue was not demonstrable by either analytic scanning electron microscopy or x-ray diffraction. The case illustrates the effect of chronic kaolin exposure on the human lung and emphasizes the need for periodic evaluation of exposed workers.

  1. Comparative tests for evaluating permeability changes of a compacted bentonite/sand mixture during shear

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, T.; Zhang, M.; Mitani, Y.

    1997-12-31

    A compacted mixture of Kunigeru VI bentonite and D-sand is being considered for use as an engineered barrier in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities in Japan. An important issue is the maintenance of the retardation property of the mixture during shear that might be induced in such barriers by earthquakes and/or gradual tectonic deformations occurring over the design life of the facility. Comparative tests on a bentonite-sand mixture and kaolin-sand mixture were conducted by means of a recently-developed coupled shear and permeability testing apparatus under temperature controlled condition. The specific storage of bentonite-sand specimen during shear is also systematically evaluated with the new analytical theory for the constant flow permeability test. The present study reveals that (1) temperature control is preferred for measuring the permeability of extremely-low permeability materials with the constant-flow pump method; (2) both the permeability and specific storage of the mixture of Kunigeru VI bentonite and D-sand were not significantly influenced by shear strains up to 3% whereas the permeability of the kaolin-sand mixture increased almost linearly with the increment of shear strain; (3) the swelling of bentonite in the mixture under low confining stress decreases both the permeability and specific storage of bentonite-sand mixture; and (4) the constant flow permeability test method, with the newly derived theoretical analysis, promises to become a very effective means of investigating, rapidly and systematically, the permeability and specific storage of extremely-low permeability materials with relatively-low hydraulic gradients.

  2. Bentonite, Bandaids, and Borborygmi

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynda B.; Haydel, Shelley E.; Ferrell, Ray E.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of eating clay for gastrointestinal ailments and applying clay topically as bandaids for skin infections is as old as mankind. Bentonites in particular have been used in traditional medicines, where their function has been established empirically. With modern techniques for nanoscale investigations, we are now exploring the interactions of clay minerals and human pathogens to learn the lessons that Mother Nature has used for healing. The vast surface area and chemical variability of hydrothermally altered bentonites may provide a natural pharmacy of antibacterial agents. PMID:20607126

  3. Compatibility of bentonite and DNAPLs

    SciTech Connect

    McCaulou, D.R.; Huling, S.G.

    1999-10-01

    The compatibility of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double ring, falling head permeameters. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the bentonite clay was measured under three experimental conditions: (1) water soluble constituents of the DNAPLs were used to hydrate and permeate the bentonite; (2) bentonite pellets were submersed in DNAPL prior to hydration and permeation with water; and (3) DNAPLs were pooled on water-hydrated bentonite. Further, the effect of hydraulic head on water-hydrated bentonite permeated with TCE and the effects of TCE exposure time to mixtures of bentonite grout and sand were measured.

  4. Refractories from kaolins of the Angrenskoe deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Khodzhaev, T.K.; Valishev, R.S.; Karklit, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    Samples of kaolin from the Angrenskoe deposit have been investigated by specialists from the Tashkent Stromproekt Research Institute and the St. Petersburg Institute of Refractories. Semiindustrial batches of articles from Angrenskoe kaolin were produced by the experimental technological department of the St. Petersburg Institute of Refractories. It was established that the experimental articles meet the requirements of GOST 390 - 83 for chamotte articles of grades ShA and ShB. Angrenskoe kaolins can be a raw material for the production of chamotte and semiacid refractories for various purposes.

  5. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter, less contaminated with extraneous minerals, and less plastic... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... different minerals, kaolinite, dickite, and nacrite, classified as kaolin. Kaolinite or china clay is whiter...) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this regulation do not exist...

  9. Severe hypokalaemia from kaolin and morphine abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, B.; Cowell, R.; Rees, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 34 year old man, registered disabled as a result of muscle weakness, was admitted to hospital because of increasing weakness. He had profound hypokalaemia and admitted to taking up to 1400 ml of kaolin and morphine mixture daily. After considerable potassium replacement muscle power recovered completely. The hypokalaemia is likely to have been caused by the combination of liquorice extract and sodium bicarbonate in kaolin and morphine. PMID:3658872

  10. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  11. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  12. Interrelationship of Kaolin, Alkaline Liquid Ratio and Strength of Kaolin Geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Shamala; Hussin, Kamarudin; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Binhussain, Mohammed; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Geopolymer is an incredible alternative green cementitious material which has ceramic-like properties, but does not require calcining that leads to reduction in processing energy usage. The purpose of this research is to study the correlation between kaolin: liquid ratio with the performance of kaolin geopolymer. Kaolin, a prominent raw geopolymer material was used to prepare enhanced geopolymer paste by mixing with alkaline activator solution. Interrelationship of kaolin to alkaline liquid ratio with hardness and flexural strength was the focus of this work. Therefore kaolin geopolymer paste with varying solid to liquid ratio ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 was prepared. Geopolymer paste was coated on low grade wood substrate prior to Vickers hardness and flexural strength. X-ray diffraction was conducted on geopolymer paste itself after 7 days to analyze the change in phase identification at early age. Kaolin geopolymer coating on wood with solid/liquid(S/L) ratio of 0.7 shows the most promising hardness and flexural strength of 15.3 Hv and 94.73MPa. X-ray diffraction test showed high existence of kaolinite on higher S/L ratio where as sodalite was observed in S/L ratio of 0.7. Microstructural studies also compliments our finding which further proves the positive dependency of S/L ratio and kaolin geopolymer strength.

  13. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase onto kaolin.

    PubMed

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Jovanović, Jelena R; Stefanović, Andrea B; Djokić, Veljko R; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2016-03-01

    Kaolin showed as a very perspective carrier for the enzyme immobilization and it was used for the adsorption of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The effects of the enzyme concentration and pH on the immobilization efficiency were studied in the reaction with pyrogallol and anthraquinone dye C.I. Acid Violet 109 (AV 109). In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and analysis by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were performed for kaolin, thermally activated kaolin and the immobilized enzyme. It has been shown that 0.1 IU of HRP-kaolin decolorized 87 % of dye solution, under the optimal conditions (pH 5.0, temperature 24 °C, dye concentration 40 mg/L and 0.2 mM of H2O2) within 40 min. The immobilized HRP decolorization follows the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end inhibition by the dye. The biocatalyst retained 35 ± 0.9 % of the initial activity after seven cycles of reuse in the decolorization reaction of AV 109 under optimal conditions in a batch reactor. The obtained kinetic parameters and reusability study confirmed improvement in performances of k-HRP compared to free, indicating that k-HRP has a great potential for environmental purposes.

  14. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, M.H.; Daniel, D.E.; Eykholt, G.R.

    1997-05-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of calcium and sodium bentonites was investigated for sand-bentonite mixtures, a thin bentonite layer simulating a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and bentonite-cement mixtures simulating backfill for a vertical cutoff wall. The permeant liquids were tap water and distilled water containing 0.25 M calcium chloride. In general, the hydraulic performance of calcium bentonite was not significantly better than the performance of sodium bentonite for either the clay-amended sand or the GCL application, and was substantially worse than the performance of sodium bentonite in the bentonite-cement mixture. A drained angle of internal friction of 21{degree} was measured for calcium bentonite, compared to 10{degree} for sodium bentonite. Except for a larger drained shear strength, no advantage of calcium bentonite over sodium bentonite could be identified from the results of this study.

  15. [Removal of red tide organisms by organo-modified bentonite].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuesong; Xu, Zirong; Xia, Meisheng; Ye, Ying; Hu, Caihong

    2004-01-01

    A series of organo-bentonites were synthesized by exchanging cation surfactants such as cyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium to remove red tide organisms Skeletonema costatum. The results showed that the removal rate of Skeletonema costatum by the bentonites was in the order of cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > iron pillared bentonite > cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified sodium bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified > sodium bentonite. The removal rate of Skeletonema costatum was related to the length of alkyl chains and the amount of cation surfactants exchanged on bentonites.

  16. Electrokinetic removal of caesium from kaolin.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrani, S S; Roberts, E P L

    2005-06-30

    Soil, in the form of kaolin and a sample of natural soil from an industrial site, was artificially contaminated with caesium and subjected to electrokinetic treatment. The effect of catholyte pH control on the process was investigated using different acids to control the catholyte pH. During treatment the in situ pH distribution, the current flow, and the potential distribution were monitored. At the end of the treatment the pore fluid conductivity and the caesium concentration distribution was measured. The results of these experiments showed that for caesium contamination, catholyte pH control is essential in order to create a suitable environment throughout the soil to enable contaminant removal. It was found that the type of acid used to control the catholyte pH affected the rate of caesium removal (nitric, sulphuric, acetic and citric acids were tested). All of the acids tested were effective, but the highest caesium extraction was achieved when nitric acid was used to control the catholyte pH. The relatively high adsorption capacity of the soil for caesium was found to significantly reduce the rate of removal. After 240 h of treatment at 1 Vcm(-1) (using sulphuric acid to control the catholyte pH), less than 80% of the caesium was removed from a 30 cm long sample of kaolin. Electrokinetic treatment of the industrial soil sample was slower than for the kaolin, but a significant extraction rate for caesium was achieved.

  17. Synthesis of New Kaolin Molecular Sieves from Kaolin and Its Adsorption of NH4+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jin; Sun, Peide; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Wanggang

    2010-11-01

    New kaolin molecular sieves are hydrothermally synthesized from kaolin (for simplicity, hereafter denoted as KMS). The as-prepared KMS can be applied in the treatment of ammonia-containing wastewater by efficient adsorption of NH4+. The time of activation, the temperatures of calcination, the times of centrifugation and other experimental conditions which would affect the activity of the KMS were studied in depth. Experiments results indicate that when the the kaolin was activated at 90° C for 4 h, followed by calcination at 250° C, the maximum activity of NH4+ adsorption can be achieved. When the initial NH4+ concentration is 100 mg/L, 50% NH4+ can be removed via adsorption by 0.5 g/L KMS which is analogous to the commercial Nanochem zeolites obtained from Austria Nanochem Pty Ltd.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1155 - Bentonite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bentonite. 184.1155 Section 184.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... hydrated aluminum silicate. Bentonite contains varying quantities of iron, alkalies, and alkaline earths in...

  19. Determination of porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Lehikoinen, J.; Muurinen, A.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the interaction between groundwater and compacted sodium bentonite (Volclay MX-80). The solutions used were the fresh and saline groundwater simulants. The experiments were carried out in aerobic and anaerobic conditions at elevated temperature. Of main interest in the present study were the chemical changes in the reacting solution, bentonite porewater, and bentonite itself. The results for major cations display a principal difference between the interactions with fresh and saline solutions, while the differences between aerobic and anaerobic conditions within each solution case seem to be minor. The experimental results for the bentonite-water equilibria were interpreted in terms of a multi-site surface complexation model and the computer program HYDRAQL. The apparent diffusivities for sodium and sulfate in bentonite samples sandwiched between two filter plates were also determined.

  20. Effect of a Modified Kaolin Treatment on Serum Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Sakae; Kono, Reisaku

    1972-01-01

    After kaolin treatment of fetal rabbit serum, 7S antibody titers were reduced more than 19S titers. This reduction was less when the kaolin treatment was performed at pH 9.0 than when it was performed at pH 7.3. A modification of the kaolin treatment of sera for use in the hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titration, in which the hemagglutination reaction is performed at a neutral pH, is recommended. The advantage of the modified method is that adsorption of immunoglobulins to kaolin is minimized when serum is treated at a lower dilution with pH 9.0 kaolin, followed by reduction of the pH of the supernatant fluid to neutrality with a „serum adjusting diluent.” When the serum was diluted with physiological saline before kaolin treatment, a great decrease in serum immunoglobulin concentrations occurred. This decrease was found to be less in the modified kaolin treatment than in the conventional pH 7.3 kaolin treatment. PMID:4622816

  1. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  2. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  3. Heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles and kaolin clays in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Dong, Ya-nan; Zhu, Miao; Li, Xiang; Keller, Arturo A; Wang, Tao; Li, Fengting

    2015-09-01

    The increasing and wide use of nanoparticles (NPs), including TiO2 and Ag NPs, have raised concerns due to their potential toxicity and environmental impacts. Kaolin is a very common mineral in aquatic systems, and there is a very high probability that nanoparticles (NPs) will interact with these clay minerals. We studied the effect of kaolin particles on the aggregation of NPs under different conditions, including the role of pH, ionic strength (IS), and humic acid (HA). We show that kaolin reduces the energy barrier and the Critical Coagulation Concentration (CCC) at pH 4. At pH 8, even though the energy barrier of the system without kaolin increases, kaolin promotes NP aggregation via heteroaggregation. When IS is equal to or greater than the CCC, on the one hand HA promotes aggregation of TiO2 NPs, but on the other hand HA decreases the rate of Ag NP aggregation because the existence of a surface coating may limit the adsorption of HA on these Ag NPs. In addition, the presence of HA increases the energy barrier and the CCC of the binary system (kaolin + NPs). Thus, the complex interactions of clay, NPs, IS, pH, and HA concentration determine the colloidal stability of the NPs. We find that kaolin is a potential coagulant for removal of NPs that behave like Ag and TiO2.

  4. Enhanced oil-mineral aggregation with modified bentonite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Yanbo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zwicker, Thomas; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The application of modified-bentonite-enhanced oil dispersion in water and oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation was studied in the laboratory. The effect of modification on the surface properties of bentonite was characterized. The hydrophobicity and surface electric properties of bentonite were significantly improved by attaching cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to its surface. The results showed that surface properties of bentonite played an important role in OMA formation. Spherical droplets of OMAs were formed with natural bentonite and elongated solid OMAs and flake OMAs were formed with modified bentonite as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of shaking time, oil concentration and mineral content were also studied. It was suggested that oil concentration and mineral content were critical factors and OMA formed rapidly with both types of bentonite. Modified bentonite had better performance on OMA formation than hydrophilic natural bentonite.

  5. Saltwater and hard water bentonite mud

    SciTech Connect

    Pabley, A. S.

    1985-02-19

    A seawater/saltwater or hard water bentonite mud for use in drilling, and process for preparing same, comprising sequentially adding to seawater, to saltwater of a chloride concentration up to saturation, or hard water: a caustic agent; a filtration control agent; and bentonite. The resultant drilling mud meets API standards for viscosity and water loss, and is stable after aging and at tempertures in excess of 100/sup 0/ c. In another embodiment, the additives are premixed as dry ingredients and hydrated with seawater, saltwater or hard water. Unlike other bentonite drilling muds, the muds of this invention require no fresh water in their preparation, which makes them particularly useful at off-shore and remote on-shore drilling locations. The muds of this invention using bentonite further require less clay than known saltwater muds made with attapulgite, and provides superior filtration control, viscosity and stability.

  6. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME BENTONITES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi

    A high-level radioactive waste disposal facility might be built in a coastal area in Japan from the viewpoint of feasible transportation of waste. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of seawater on a bentonite-based buffer. This study investigated the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of three common sodium-types of bentonite and one calcium-type bentonite by the laboratory experiments. From the results of laboratory experiment, this study discussed the influence of seawater on hydraulic conductivity of bentonites from the viewpoints of kinds of bentonite such as exchangeable-cation type and montmorillonite content and dry density of bentonite-based buffer.

  7. Effect of bentonites on fluorometric selenium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, O.E.; Herr, A.A.; Palmer, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Bentonites in feeds cause error in the analysis for Se by the AOAC (3.097-3.101) fluorometric method for Se in plants. The error apparently results from the binding of the piazselenol by insoluble residue from the bentonite. This effect is avoided by diluting digests to volume after reduction with HCl, centrifuging or allowing to stand, and analyzing a portion of the clear supernatant liquid. Insoluble residues present after digestion of plant materials do not appear to cause a similar error.

  8. Role of bentonite clays on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ufer, Kristian; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención

    2016-04-01

    Bentonites, naturally occurring clays, are produced industrially because of their adsorbent capacity but little is known about their effects on human health. This manuscript reports on the effect of bentonites on cell growth behaviour. Bentonites collected from India (Bent-India), Hungary (Bent-Hungary), Argentina (Bent-Argentina), and Indonesia (Bent-Indonesia) were studied. All four bentonites were screened in-vitro against two human cancer cell lines [U251 (central nervous system, glioblastoma) and SKLU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma)] supplied by the National Cancer Institute (USA). Bentonites induced growth inhibition in the presence of U251 cells, and growth increment in the presence of SKLU-1 cells, showing that interactions between bentonite and cell surfaces were highly specific. The proliferation response for U251 cells was explained because clay surfaces controlled the levels of metabolic growth components, thereby inhibiting the development of high-grade gliomas, particularly primary glioblastomas. On the other hand, the proliferation response for SKLU-1 was explained by an exacerbated growth favoured by swelling, and concomitant accumulation of solutes, and their hydration and transformation via clay-surface mediated reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Refractory Behaviors of Magnetite-Kaolin Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Taiwo, O. O.; Eke, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the suitability of using kaolin-magnetite-plastic clay to produce refractory bricks has been experimentally explored. Thirty bricks of different compositions were produced and fired at 1200°C. The density, shrinkage moisture content, loss on ignition, porosity and permeability of the bricks were examined. Results show that the bricks remained stable during firing and thus possess good insulating characteristics. The highest (2.23 g/cm3) and lowest (2.00 g/cm3) bulk densities obtained in this study are higher than the highest bulk density reported for Al dross-filled refractories (1.23 g/cm3). The bricks also possessed very low effective moisture content (10-23%) and very high compression modulus (16-100 MPa) desirable in insulating refractory bricks with high resistance to abrasion.

  10. Kaolin calciner waste heat and feed recovery system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, C.S.; Hudson, J.R.

    1988-01-05

    In the method for producing a calcined kaolin pigment product, by feeding an aqueous slurry of kaolin to a spray drier which is provided with heated gases from a combustor, feeding the dried kaolin product from the spray drier to a calciner; and recovering the calcined product; the improvement is described enabling recovery of heat energy and calciner dust from the calciner, comprising: cycling the hot exhaust gases and entrained calciner dust from the calciner back to the spray drier by joining the exhaust gases and calciner dust with the heated combustor gases being provided to the calciner; and collecting the calciner dust from the drier and providing same together with the dried kaolin product as feed to the calciner.

  11. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  12. Experimental study of colloid filtration by compacted bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    1997-12-31

    In this study, the transport behavior of colloids through compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures was investigated. Colloidal gold was used to simulate mobile colloids because it was well characterized and its dispersivity was controlled. The bentonite used was a sodium bentonite. The sand-bentonite mixtures were prepared by mixing up to 50 wt.% silica sand with the bentonite. The bentonite and the sand-bentonite mixtures were compacted to dry densities of 1,000 and 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} and then saturated with distilled water. The sand-bentonite mixture was also saturated with synthetic sea-water. Column experiments were performed to investigate colloidal transport. Further, colloidal particles stabilities in high ionic strength water such as bentonite porewater or saline groundwater were interpreted based on the repulsion potential from the double layer force and the attraction potential from the van der Waals force. The results indicated that the colloidal particles were effectively filtered by both the compacted bentonite and the sand-bentonite mixtures. This study indicated that the effect of colloids on radionuclide transport in compacted bentonite is negligible for the safety assessment of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  13. On the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J.

    1973-01-01

    The attempt is described to verify a recent report that kaolin adsorbs D- and L-phenylalanine enantiomers to different extents from aqueous solutions at both pH 5.8 and pH 2. No evidence whatsoever could be found for the differential adsorption of D- versus L-phenylalanine by kaolin from either pH 6 or pH 2 solutions.

  14. On the asymmetric adsorption of phenylalanine enantiomers by kaolin.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Flores, J.

    1973-01-01

    The attempt is described to verify a recent report that kaolin adsorbs D- and L-phenylalanine enantiomers to different extents from aqueous solutions at both pH 5.8 and pH 2. No evidence whatsoever could be found for the differential adsorption of D- versus L-phenylalanine by kaolin from either pH 6 or pH 2 solutions.

  15. Shear Strength of Stabilized Kaolin Soil Using Liquid Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Fazlina, M. I. S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Hakimi, M. N. A.; Riduan, Y.; Faizal, P.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the suitability of polymer in soil stabilization by examining its strength to withstand compressive strength. Throughout this research study, manufactured polymer was used as a chemical liquid soil stabilizer. The liquid polymer was diluted using a proposed dilution factor of 1 : 3 (1 part polymer: 3 parts distilled water) to preserve the workability of the polymer in kaolin mixture. A mold with a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 100 mm was prepared. Kaolin soil was mixed with different percentages of polymer from 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of the mass of the kaolin clay sample. Kaolin mixtures were tested after a curing period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days respectively. The physical properties were determined by conducting a moisture content test and Atterberg limit test which comprise of liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the soil shear strength were identified through an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test. Stabilized kaolin soil showed the highest compressive strength value when it was mixed with 35% of polymer compared to other percentages that marked an increment in strength which are 45.72% (3 days), 67.57% (7 days), 81.73% (14 days) and 77.84% (28 days). Hence, the most effective percentage of liquid polymer which should be used to increase the strength of kaolin soil is 35%.

  16. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1981-12-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature.

  17. The effect of ratio chitosan-bentonite and processing time on the characterization of chitosan-bentonite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitri, E.; Budhyantoro, A.

    2017-07-01

    Chitosan/bentonite composite was synthesized to modify and enhance its characteristics to adsorp both anionic and cationic substances. The influence of several factors on synthesis of the chitosan/bentonite composite were investigated. The study focused on obtaining the best operating conditions that would produce homogenous chitosan/bentonite composite. The effect of weight ratio of bentonite to chitosan, reaction times and pre-treatment were investigated. The composite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The optimum chitosan/bentonite composite was obtained at weight ratio of bentonite to chitosan 1 : 2 and 12 hours reaction. On these conditions, more chitosan can interact with the matrix of bentonite to form chitosan - bentonite composite.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Ceramizable Kaolin/VMQ and Kaolin/ZB/VMQ Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Qin, Y.; Pei, Y.; Huang, Z. X.

    Ceramizable silicone-based composite was prepared by using methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ) as matrix, calcined Kaolin and zinc borate (ZB) as additives. This composition can form interpenetrating network structures after crosslinking, and then improve heat-resistant properties by firing in air. The results of different formulations were investigated by FTIR. TG-DTG SEM and XRD. It showed that when the temperature above 600°C. the fillers and silicon rubber started to transform from organic to inorganic and internal microstructure became denser.

  19. Enhancement of the bentonite sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Mockovciaková, Annamária; Orolínová, Zuzana; Skvarla, Jirí

    2010-08-15

    The almost monomineral fraction of bentonite rock-montmorillonite was modified by magnetic particles to enhance its sorption properties. The method of clay modification consists in the precipitation of magnetic nanoparticles, often used in preparing of ferrofluids, on the surface of clay. The influence of the synthesis temperature (20 and 85 degrees C) and the weight ratio of bentonite/iron oxides (1:1 and 5:1) on the composite materials properties were investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by the X-ray diffraction method and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Changes in the surface and pore properties of the magnetic composites were studied by the low nitrogen adsorption method and the electrokinetic measurements. The natural bentonite and magnetic composites were used in sorption experiments. The sorption of toxic metals (zinc, cadmium and nickel) from the model solutions was well described by the linearized Langmuir and Freundlich sorption model. The results show that the magnetic bentonite is better sorbent than the unmodified bentonite if the initial concentration of studied metals is very low. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

  1. Evaluation of geothermal drilling fluids using a commercial bentonite and a bentonite/saponite mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Ridpath, B.E.

    1987-02-01

    High temperature properties of two clay fluids, based on commercially available bentonite and a bentonite-saponite mixture, are evaluated at the temperature range 300-600/sup 0/F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Bentonite fluids exhibit an anomolous viscosity increase in the temperature range 250-400/sup 0/F. This anomolous viscosity is further enhanced by the salts and hydroxide of sodium leading to the gelation of the fluid. Salts and hydroxide of calcium at 1% concentrations are very detrimental to the viscosity, gel strength, and wall-building (filtration) properties of the fluids at all temperatures. Salts of potassium provide a good control over the high temperature gelation of the bentonite fluids but they result in high fluid losses. High and low molecular weight polymers (sodium polyacrylates), and lignite and lignosulfonates at neutral pH range are proved to be valuable mud additives for the high temperature behavior of the bentonite fluids. They maintain the pH of the fluid close to the neutral and thus inhibit the mineral reactions of the smectites in bentonites at high temperatures. These mineral reactions predominate in the alkaline conditions of the fluids in the presence of hydroxides of Na, Ca, and K. Consequently, a large portion of smectites dissolves and new silicate phases precipitate at and above 400/sup 0/F in these fluids. The fluids based on a (1:1) mixture of bentonite and saponite display a high initial viscosity (up to 250/sup 0/F) instead of the viscosity maxima between 150-400/sup 0/F of the bentonite fluids. Therefore, the addition of saponite to the bentonite fluid can provide a balanced viscosity at all the temperatures.

  2. Partial thromboplastin time test with kaolin

    PubMed Central

    Matchett, Myrtle O.; Ingram, G. I. C.

    1965-01-01

    The partial thromboplastin time test provides a convenient and sensitive screening procedure for deficiencies of thromboplastic factors, especially factors VIII and IX. The test is carried out after preincubating the plasma for 10 minutes with kaolin, and Inosithin is used as a platelet substitute. The `normal range' of the test has been estimated in terms of the differences encountered between random normal plasmas tested in pairs, because individual patients are usually tested against single control subjects. A patient's partial thromboplastin time should be regarded as abnormal if it is more than six seconds longer than the control time. In the diagnosis of haemophilia, patients' plasmas with concentrations of factor VIII as low as about 20% might be regarded as being within the range of normal, if the selected control subject's factor VIII happened to lie near the lower end of the normal range. When mild haemophilia is suspected, discrimination may be improved by diluting both the patient's and the control plasmas 1 in 20 in haemophilic plasma. With the test modified in this way the clotting time is prolonged, though the range of differences among normal subjects is unaltered, and plasmas with factor VIII concentrations below about 30%, i.e., in undiluted plasma, would be unlikely to be regarded as normal. The partial thromboplastin time may be similarly modified as a screening test for factor IX deficiency. Some clinical examples are reported. PMID:14318702

  3. Prevalence of Pneumoconiosis in Cornish Kaolin Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sheers, Geoffrey

    1964-01-01

    In 1961, 553 Cornish china clay workers had been exposed to kaolin dust for periods exceeding five years, and evidence of kaolinosis was seen in 48 (9%). No kaolinosis was found in men who had been exposed for less than five years. Workers in the more heavily exposed jobs of milling, bagging, and loading showed a prevalence rising from 6% in those with between five and 15 years' exposure to 23% in those exposed for more than 15 years. Men who had been intermittently and less heavily exposed in the older, out-dated drying plants needed 25 years' exposure before reaching the highest prevalence of 17%. Massive fibrosis has been observed in two cases in the industry and also in two men who have left the industry. Six men needed anti-tuberculous chemotherapy, but none had a positive sputum. Preventive measures now include pre-employment chest examination, but the problems of dust control have not yet been satisfactorily solved. Images PMID:14180481

  4. Isothermal Dilatometric Study of Sintering in Kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondruška, Ján; Trník, Anton; Keppert, Martin; Medved', Igor; Vozár, Libor

    2014-10-01

    Solid-state sintering for kaolin samples was studied by dilatometric measurements in the isothermal regime in the temperature range from 600 °C to 1100 °C. The relative expansion was measured for a period of 10h. For the temperatures up to 850 °C, we observed only a small shrinkage (less than 0.5 %), most of which took place within the first 3h of the measurements. For the temperatures above 850 °C, a significant shrinkage occurred for the whole measured time interval and reached up to 2.7 %. Anomalous behavior—a decrease in the shrinkage with the temperature—was observed in the range from 700 °C to 850 °C. The dilatometric measurements are supplemented by porosity distribution measurements. The standard spherical-grains microscopic model was applied to determine that for the initial stages of the sintering process, grain boundary diffusion was the dominant mechanism at lower temperatures (600 °C to 850 °C), whereas lattice diffusion was dominant at higher temperatures (900 °C, 1050 °C, and 1100 °C).

  5. Shear modulus of kaolin containing methane bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, S.M. ); Wheeler, S.J. . Dept. of Engineering Science); Bennell, J.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Measurements of undrained shear moduli are reported from a program of laboratory tests on reconstituted kaolin samples containing relatively large bubbles of methane gas. The experimental program included low-frequency torsional stress-strain loops and torsional resonant column tests, providing values of shear moduli for shear-strain similitudes from 0.0004% to 0.1%. At all values of strain amplitude, the reduction of shear moduli caused by the presence of gas bubbles was greater than predicted by a theoretical elastic expression. This pattern of behavior was attributed to te formation of local yield zones around the gas-bubble cavities during consolidation prior to shear testing (a phenomenon that would also occur in-situ within offshore sediments). The results of the research program suggest that reductions in shear moduli of up to 50% could be caused by relatively small volumes of gas bubbles, occupying just a few percent of the total soil volume. This would have considerable significance for the displacements of offshore foundations constructed on sediments containing undissolved gas.

  6. Diffusion of uranium in compacted sodium bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Muurinen, A.; Ollila, K.; Lehikoinen, J.

    1993-12-31

    In this study the diffusion of uranium dissolved from uranium oxide fuel was studied experimentally in compacted sodium bentonite (Wyoming bentonite MX-80). The parameters varied in the study were the density of bentonite, the salt content of the solution and the redox conditions. In the studies with non-saline water of total dissolved solids about 300 ppm, uranium was both in aerobic and anaerobic experiments as anionic complexes and followed the anionic diffusion mechanism. Anion exclusion decreased effective diffusion coefficients, especially in more dense samples. In the studies with saline water of total dissolves solids about 35000 ppm, uranium appeared in the aerobic experiments probably as cationic complexes and followed the cationic diffusion mechanism. Uranium in the saline, anaerobic experiment was probably U(OH){sub 4} and followed the diffusion mechanism of neutral species.

  7. Bentonite debris flows in northern alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Reynolds, R C; Brown, J

    1969-04-11

    Seasonal freezing and thawing and the extreme cold of the arctic lead to the development of a variety of characteristic geomorphic features. A new one, bentonite debris flow channels, has been identified near Umiat, Alaska. These flows form when bentonite-rich Cretaceous Shales are exposed to Surface water on slopes of 5 to 30 degrees. The characteristic landform developed is a U-shaped channel 1 to 2 meters deep and from 8 to 10 meters in width. The channel shows a fluted floor and walls and is commonly flanked by a levee. The flow material is appa rently derived from the entire surface of the head portions of associated gullies. When this surface layer hydrates during snowmelt and runoff or during prolonged rain, the bentonite imbibes water and swells to a point at which its viscosity is lowered sufficiently to initiate creep or viscous flow.

  8. Hydrocephalus induced via intraventricular kaolin injection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shaolin, Z; Zhanxiang, W; Hao, X; Feifei, Z; Caiquan, H; Donghan, C; Jianfeng, B; Feng, L; Shanghang, S

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disease in humans, but a uniform and particularly effective hydrocephalic animal model amenable to proper appraisal and deep study has not yet been established. In this study, we attempted to construct a high-efficiency model of hydrocephalus via intraventricular kaolin injection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 30). Kaolin was injected into the lateral ventricle of experimental animals. Control rats underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of kaolin. All animals with kaolin injection into the lateral ventricle developed hydrocephalus according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results (success rate up to 100%). Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test demonstrated disturbed spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, there were significant differences between groups with respect to the histological changes in the periventricular tissue. Our results indicate that experimental hydrocephalus induced by lateral ventricle injection of kaolin in adult rats is feasible and may be widely used.

  9. Intercalation of Europium (III) species into bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.; Echeverria, Y.; Torres, C.M. Sotomayor; Gonzalez, G.; Benavente, E. . E-mail: ebenaven@uchile.cl

    2006-06-15

    It is shown that the intercalation of [Europium(bipyridine){sub 2}]{sup 3+} into bentonite results in a new nanocomposite which preserves the emission properties of Europium (III). The exchange of sodium by europium in bentonite is correlated with the cation exchange capacity and molecular size. The intercalated complex exhibits luminescence where both the 2,2-bipyridine 'antenna' effect and the intensity maxima are comparable to the free complex suggesting that clay intercalated with rare earths may results in novel optical materials.

  10. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  11. Acid-base properties of bentonite rocks with different origins.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Noémi M; Kónya, József

    2006-03-01

    Five bentonite samples (35-47% montmorillonite) from a Sarmatian sediment series with bentonite sites around Sajóbábony (Hungary) is studied. Some of these samples were tuffogenic bentonite (sedimentary), the others were bentonitized tuff with volcano sedimentary origin. The acid-base properties of the edge sites were studied by potentiometric titrations and surface complexation modeling. It was found that the number and the ratio of silanol and aluminol sites as well as the intrinsic stability constants are different for the sedimentary bentonite and bentonitized tuff. The characteristic properties of the edges sites depend on the origins. The acid-base properties are compared to other commercial and standard bentonites.

  12. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md.; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  13. FT-IR and XRD analysis of natural Na-bentonite and Cu(II)-loaded Na-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Zhirong, Liu; Azhar Uddin, Md; Zhanxue, Sun

    2011-09-01

    Na-bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong adsorption capacity and complexation ability. In this work, surface area, total pore volume, mean pore diameter, TG, DTA, FT-IR and XRD were carried out in order to reveal the characteristics of natural Na-bentonite. XRD and FT-IR of natural Na-bentonite (China) and Cu-loaded Na-bentonite as a function of Na-bentonite dosage and temperature using batch technique were characterized in detail, respectively.

  14. Using Kaolin in Reduction of Arsenic in Rice Grains: Effect of Different Types of Kaolin, pH and Arsenic Complex.

    PubMed

    Arnamwong, Suteera; Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-04-01

    Kaolin was used as a soil amendment to study the effect of different types of kaolin, pH and arsenic complex on arsenic accumulation in rice grains from arsenic (As) contaminated soil. It was found that kaolin released soluble aluminium (Al) and silicon at a pH value of 3. As adsorption by crude kaolin was higher than by washed kaolin and treated kaolin due to the higher Al content found in crude kaolin. Furthermore, the addition of 5 % (w/w) crude kaolin in the solution of As-contaminated soil was able to reduce water-soluble As in the solution. In mesocosm experiments, As accumulation in rice grain was not found under the addition of kaolin conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy study found the crystallinity of Al-As complex in plant roots. This implies that while kaolin adsorbs As from As-contaminated soil, rice plants also simultaneously take up As and Al into their cells. This caused the decrease in As accumulation in rice grain.

  15. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-08-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE.

  16. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident.

  17. Pemirolast reduces cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Tatsushima, Yoko; Egashira, Nobuaki; Matsushita, Naohiro; Kurobe, Kentaro; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Yano, Takahisa; Oishi, Ryozo

    2011-07-01

    Emesis is the most feared side effect in patients who are undergoing cancer chemotherapy. In particular, cisplatin causes severe acute and delayed emesis. Although early vomiting is well controlled by 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists, delayed-phase vomiting is not sufficiently controlled. Substance P is thought to be involved in the development of emesis, and tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonists can inhibit delayed vomiting. We previously have reported that substance P is involved in the paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity reaction in rats, and anti-allergic agent pemirolast reduces these reactions via inhibition of substance P release. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pemirolast on cisplatin-induced kaolin intake, which is an index of nausea/vomiting in the rat. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced kaolin intake and reduced normal feed intake from days 1 to 5 after injection. Cisplatin-induced kaolin intake was significantly reduced by co-administration of ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) from days 1 to 5. Similarly, pemirolast (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and the tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist aprepitant (10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced cisplatin-induced kaolin intake on days 3 and 4. Moreover, pemirolast at the same dose significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced increase in the cerebrospinal fluid level of substance P in rats. These results suggest that substance P is involved in cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in rats, and pemirolast reduces kaolin intake by inhibition of substance P release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of kaolin and tissue factor activated thromboelastography in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Young, G; Zhang, R; Miller, R; Yassin, D; Nugent, D J

    2010-05-01

    A limitation of bypassing agent therapy for haemophilia patients with inhibitors is the absence of a laboratory assay, which predicts the clinical response to treatment. Recent investigations have demonstrated the potential for thromboelastography to assess the effects of bypassing agent therapy in this patient population. While tissue factor activation has been used in several prior studies, a recent multicentre study failed to demonstrate an expected concentration-response effect of rFVIIa and called into question the tissue factor activation methods that have been employed. A comparison of kaolin to two concentrations of tissue factor as the activation method for thromboelastography was investigated in patients with haemophilia. We performed kaolin and tissue factor activated thromboelastography on blood from inhibitor and non-inhibitor patients with and without addition of rFVIIa and rFVIII. The results demonstrate that kaolin leads to a longer R, K and angle than the higher dilution of tissue factor (1:17 000) at baseline (no factor) and after addition of rFVIIa for both the inhibitor and non-inhibitor patients. Kaolin led to a longer R and K in comparison to a low dilution of tissue factor (1:42 000) following the addition of rFVIIa in the inhibitor patients. The longer R and K allows for better discrimination of the effects of rFVIIa thus making kaolin the most sensitive activation method in this setting. Thus kaolin activated thromboelastography should be considered an effective, perhaps the most effective, activator when utilizing thromboelastography to assess the effects of rFVIIa in haemophilia patients with inhibitors.

  19. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, T.F.; Shackelford, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures containing 0, 5, 10, and 30% kaolin (by dry weight) is measured for matric suctions, {psi}{sub m} < {approximately} 6.0 m. The measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub m}) values are compared with predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub p}) values using the Brooks-Corey-Burdine and van Genuchten-Mualem relative hydraulic conductivity functions. In general, the accuracy of k{sub p} decreases with an increase in kaolin content or an increase in {psi}{sub m}. In addition, k{sub m} tends to be underpredicted for kaolin contents of 10 and 30% at relatively high suctions (1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m) and overpredicted for kaolin contents of 0 and 5% at relatively low suctions (0.1 m {le} {psi}{sub m} < 1.0 m). For a given kaolin content and {psi}{sub m}, k{sub p} based on the Brooks-Corey-Burdine function tends to be more accurate than k{sub m} based on the van Genuchten-Mualem function. Finally, for 1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m, k{sub p} based on analysis using the maximum volumetric water content ({theta}{sub m}) attained under steady-state flow conditions typically is more accurate than k{sub p} based on analysis using the saturated volumetric water content, {theta}{sub s}, where {theta}{sub m} {approximately} 84--90% of {theta}{sub s} in this study.

  20. Use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry for kaolin exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourlière, B.; Perrin, J.; Le Berre, P.; Pasquet, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was used to define targets with kaolin potential in the Armorican Massif of Brittany, France. This exploration method is based on the principle that kaolinite, an aluminosilicate clay mineral constituting kaolin, is formed by the hydrolysis of potash feldspar with the elimination of potassium. Therefore, potassium contrast between favourable host-rock such as a leucogranite and kaolin occurrence is likely a significant pathfinder. As the relationship between the potassium-40 recorded by an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and total potassium is constant, such data provide us a direct measurement of the potassium content of the ground flown over. Our study tested this by calculating, for each geological unit, the difference between the measured and average potassium content calculated for a given geological formation. The study was based on (i) a recent (1998) high-definition airborne geophysical survey over the Armorican Massif undertaken on behalf of the French Government, and (ii) new geological compilation maps covering the same region. Depleted zones, where the measured potassium is less than the average potassium content calculated target areas with high potential of containing kaolin, provided that the unit was originally rich in potash feldspar. By applying this method to the entire Armorican Massif, it was possible to identify 150 potassium-depleted zones, including 115 that were subjected to rapid field checks and 36 that contained kaolin (21 new discoveries). This method, which is both safe for the environment and easy to use, is therefore a good tool for rapidly defining targets with kaolin potential at a regional scale. The method may also have possibilities in exploring for other types of deposit characterised by an enrichment or depletion in U, K and/or Th.

  1. Bauxite and Kaolin Deposits of the Irwinton district, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Walter B.; Warren, Walter C.; Thompson, Raymond M.; Overstreet, Elizabeth F.

    1965-01-01

    The Irwinton district is in the central part of Georgia at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain province. The oldest rocks exposed in the district are crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. They are unconformably overlain by nonmarine sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous age, including gravel, micaceous sand, and lenses of kaolin. Bauxite has been found in a few of the kaolin lenses near the top of the sequence of these strata. During a long period prior to deposition of the over- lying marine beds of the Claiborne and Jackson Groups (middle and upper Eocene), the Upper Cretaceous strata were subjected to subaerial erosion. The bauxite deposits are considered to have formed during this period. They range in thickness from a few inches to more than 10 feet and occupy areas ranging from a few square feet to more than 5 acres. Most of the known bauxite deposits lie along the valleys of Commissioners Creek and Big Sandy Creek in Wilkinson County. The kaolin lenses are much larger than the bauxite deposits; some of the lenses underlie more than 200 acres and are more than 20 feet thick. Bauxite was discovered in the district in 1907 and was mined from 1910 to 1928. A few additional carloads of ore were shipped in 1941 and 1942, but no ore has been mined since that time. Reserves of high-grade bauxite are very small. Reserves of all grades of bauxite plus bauxitic clay may be about 400,000 long tons. The Irwinton district is the principal source of high-grade kaolin in the United States. The presence of kaolin here has been known since early colo- nial time, and it has been mined continuously since 1897. Production in 1959 was 1,940,279 short tons. The reserves of kaolin are very large but have never been adequately measured. Reserves of first and second grade kaolin may be 67 to 84 million short tons. Kaolin of lower grade is present in larger quantity.

  2. Kaolin Quality Prediction from Samples: A Bayesian Network Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, T.; Taboada, J.; Ordonez, C.; Matias, J. M.

    2009-08-13

    We describe the results of an expert system applied to the evaluation of samples of kaolin for industrial use in paper or ceramic manufacture. Different machine learning techniques - classification trees, support vector machines and Bayesian networks - were applied with the aim of evaluating and comparing their interpretability and prediction capacities. The predictive capacity of these models for the samples analyzed was highly satisfactory, both for ceramic quality and paper quality. However, Bayesian networks generally proved to be the most useful technique for our study, as this approach combines good predictive capacity with excellent interpretability of the kaolin quality structure, as it graphically represents relationships between variables and facilitates what-if analyses.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1155 - Bentonite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bentonite. 184.1155 Section 184.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1155 - Bentonite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bentonite. 184.1155 Section 184.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1155 - Bentonite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bentonite. 184.1155 Section 184.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1155 - Bentonite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bentonite. 184.1155 Section 184.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  7. Dioxins in primary kaolin and secondary kaolinitic clays.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Martin; Scheeder, Georg; Bernau, Sarah; Dohrmann, Reiner; Germann, Klaus

    2011-01-15

    Since 1996 dioxins have been repeatedly detected worldwide in Tertiary ball clays used as anticaking agent in the production of animal feed and a variety of other applications. The dioxins of these natural clays are very unlikely of anthropogenic source, but no model of dioxin enrichment has been established. A hypothetical model is presented which explains the highly variable dioxin loadings of the Tertiary kaolinitic clays by natural addition during clay-sedimentation. To prove this hypothesis, Tertiary primary nonsedimentary kaolin and sedimentary kaolinitic clays were collected at three profiles in Europe and analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry, organic carbon, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/F). Primary kaolin, kaolinitic, and lignitic clays contained almost no PCDFs. PCDD concentration differed markedly between primary kaolin (3-91 pg/g) and secondary kaolinitic clay (711-45935 pg/g), respectively, lignitic clays (13513-1191120 pg/g). The dioxin loading of secondary kaolinitic and lignitic clays is approximately 10 to a few thousand times higher than in the primary kaolin or recent environmental settings. The dioxin concentrations decrease from octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and exhibit the "natural formation pattern". No correlation between PCDD/F concentration and bulk composition of clays was found. These findings support the hypothesis of the enrichment of dioxin in clays during sedimentation.

  8. Fabrication of facing tiles for floors from kaolin ash composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sirazhiddinov, N.A.; Irkakhodzhaeva, A.P.; Kasimova, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Many enterprises in the ceramics industry are increasingly widely using different production wastes, fuel slag in particular, due to the limited ability to ensure standardized raw materials. We attempted to investigate the use of ash slag from the Angrensk Thermoelectric Power Plant (TEPP) in composites with kaolin - waste from coal concentration for the Angrensk coal pit.

  9. Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Lehikoinen, J.; Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A.; Olin, M.; Salonen, P.

    1996-08-01

    The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion.

  10. Bentonite Clay Adsorption Procedure for Concentrating Enteroviruses from Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    AD-A255 305 _ TECHNICAL REPORT 9203 BENTONITE CLAY ADSORPTION PROCEDURE FOR CONCENTRATING ENTEROVIRUSES FROM WATER STEPHEN A. SCHAUB D T IC GORDON W...Bentonite Clay Adsorption Procedure for Concentrating Enteroviruses from Water 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S.A. Schaub, G.W. Taylor, C.A. Sorber, and W.E...number) L/ A method of adsorbing enteroviruses to bentonite clay was developed for use as a concentration technique designed to sample low levels of

  11. Adsorption characteristics of brilliant green dye on kaolin.

    PubMed

    Nandi, B K; Goswami, A; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out to adsorb toxic brilliant green dye from aqueous medium using kaolin as an adsorbent. Characterization of kaolin is done by measuring: (i) particle size distribution using particle size analyzer, (ii) BET surface area using BET surface analyzer, and (iii) structural analysis using X-ray diffractometer. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, kaolin dose, stirring speed, pH and temperature were studied for the adsorption of brilliant green in batch mode. Adsorption experiments indicate that the extent of adsorption is strongly dependent on pH of solution. Free energy of adsorption (DeltaG0), enthalpy (DeltaH0) and entropy (DeltaS0) changes are calculated to know the nature of adsorption. The calculated values of DeltaG0 at 299K and 323K indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The estimated values of DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 both show the negative sign, which indicate that the adsorption process is exothermic and the dye molecules are organized on the kaolin surface in less randomly fashion than in solution. The adsorption kinetic has been described by first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle-diffusion models. It was observed that the rate of dye adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration range studied in the present case. Standard adsorption isotherms were used to fit the experimental equilibrium data. It was found that the adsorption of brilliant green on kaolin follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  12. [Flocculation of kaolin suspensions by chitosan grafted ternary polymerization flocculant].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-you; Li, Si-qing; Guo, Yan-ping; Cheng, Jian-hua

    2008-04-01

    Flocculation of kaolin suspensions using ternary polymerization flocculant (CAS) synthesized by chitosan (CTS), acrylamide and ethyl acrylate quaternary ammonium salt was investigated in lab-scale. It was found that CAS had more advantages such as higher flocculation efficiency, lesser dosage and wider pH flocculation range than CTS. CAS was insignificantly exposed to the properties of suspended particles, so preferable flocculation efficiency by it could be obtained both with distilled water and tap water kaolin suspensions. The optimal dosage for CAS was only one-tenth of that of CTS in neutral condition. Good flocculation performance was observed in the pH range of 2.0-11.0 at the dosage of 0.5 mg x L(-1) CAS, and the turbidity removal rates were about 95%. It was also shown that flocculation efficiency was very sensitive to the raw turbidity of kaolin suspensions. At less than 0.5 mg x L(-1) of CAS dose, the higher raw turbidity of the suspension contrarily yielded a lower removing rate. However, when the dosage of CAS was more than 0.5 mg x L(-1), the flocculation efficiency increased with increasing the raw turbidity of kaolin. When the dosage was more than 1.0 mg x L(-1), turbidity removal efficiencies exceeding 85% could be achieved in overall experimental turbidities from 10 to 160 NTU. iPDA-100 device was used to follow the particle aggregation process. And also zeta potential values of particles,floc sizes, shape analyses were presented. It is presumed that the flocculation induced by CAS is dominated by charge patch mechanism and bond bridging. The flocculation reactivity of kaolin suspensions exhibits a dynamic changing, which is simultaneously responsible for several kinds of driving forces.

  13. Suction characteristics of compacted zeolite-bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures.

    PubMed

    Durukan, Seda; Pulat, Hasan Firat; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2014-02-01

    Soil suction is one of the most important parameters describing soil moisture conditions for unsaturated soils used in landfill liners. However, few studies have been conducted on the suction characteristics of compacted zeolite-bentonite mixtures (ZBMs) and sand-bentonite mixtures (SBMs), which are proposed for use as liner materials. Nevertheless, zeolite is known for its microporous skeleton containing cages and tunnels and it has a great physical affiliation to water uptake. Zeolite and bentonite, in a mixture, are thought to be in competition for water uptake and this may alter the distribution of water content for each soil in the mixture. The present study investigated the suction properties of compacted ZBMs and SBMs for varying mixing ratios and compaction water contents. The soil suction measurement technique chosen was the filter-paper method. The suction characteristics of powdered, granular, and block zeolites, as well as 0, 10, and 20% bentonite in ZBMs and SBMs were measured and compared with each other. Contaminated compacted ZBMs are compared with those of uncontaminated compacted ones at the optimum water content for the 10% and 20% mixtures. The results show that suction capacity of zeolite increases with grain size. As bentonite content increases, both matric and total suction increase for both mixtures. ZBMs have higher matric suction values than SBMs, but not total suction values. Contaminated total suction values are found to be higher than those of uncontaminated samples due to an increase in dissolved ion concentration.

  14. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    SciTech Connect

    Sitompul, Johnner Setyawan, Daru Kim, Daniel Young Joon; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2016-04-19

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  15. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitompul, Johnner; Setyawan, Daru; Kim, Daniel Young Joon; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  16. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.

  17. Interaction between tylosin and bentonite clay from a pharmacokinetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Osselaere, Ann; Goossens, Joline; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between bentonite and tylosin was investigated in broiler chickens, based on pharmacokinetic characteristics obtained in vivo. Simultaneous oral administration of bentonite and tylosin significantly lowered plasma levels of tylosin and reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-inf)), maximal plasma concentration (C(max)), time to maximal plasma concentration (T(max)) and relative oral bioavailability. The results prove unambiguously the binding of tylosin by bentonite. Simultaneous administration of tylosin (in the drinking water or feed) and bentonite (mixed in the feed as a mycotoxin binder) should therefore be avoided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bromate adsorption using Fe-pillared bentonite.

    PubMed

    He, Shilong; Zhang, Dandan; Gu, Li; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Bromate is an emerging hazardous substance in drinking water. In this study, the removal ofbromate by Fe-pillared bentonite was investigated using various experimental parameters: contact time, initial concentration (Co), temperature, initial pH and competing anions. The adsorption ofbromate followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic better than it followed other kinetic models, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic study showed that equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Toth isotherm models. The Toth and Redlich-Peterson models better represented the bromate adsorption. Results also indicated that, other than the competing anions and solution pH, temperature was a key parameter affecting adsorption. It was ultimately concluded that Fe-pillared bentonite was effective at removing bromate from water.

  19. Effect of kaolin on fitness and behavior of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Sackett, T E; Buddle, C M; Vincent, C

    2005-10-01

    The mechanisms by which kaolin, a clay particle film formulation, affects the fitness and behavior of larvae of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), were investigated. Feeding experiments tested kaolin as a physical barrier versus a physiological toxin for larvae that consumed kaolin applied either to apple (Malus spp.) leaves or mixed in artificial diet. Behavioral experiments tested the effects of kaolin applied to apple leaves on neonate dispersal and leaf rolling by third and fourth instars. When larvae fed on apple leaves sprayed with kaolin, mortality and time to pupation of larvae increased significantly, whereas pupal mass significantly decreased. When larvae consumed kaolin mixed into an artificial diet, however, the effects on mortality, pupation time, and pupal mass were negligible. There may be minor physiological effects from consumption because male time to pupation was delayed for larvae fed diets containing the highest concentration of kaolin. In behavioral experiments, neonate larvae dispersed more quickly off plants covered with kaolin than control plants, and kaolin delayed the construction of leaf shelters by third and fourth instars. We showed that the effects of kaolin on C. rosaceana larvae are primarily physical, causing changes in dispersal and rolling behaviors and as a physical barrier to feeding.

  20. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    PubMed

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite.

  1. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  2. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by calcium alginate immobilized kaolin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Xia, Bing; Zhao, Quansheng; Liu, Fuqiang; Zhang, Pan; Du, Qiuju; Wang, Dechang; Li, Da; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi

    2011-01-01

    Kaolin has been widely used as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. However, the lower heavy metal adsorption capacity of kaolin limits its practical application. A novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate immobilized kaolin (kaolin/CA), was prepared using a sol-gel method. The effects of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on Cu2+ adsorption by kaolin/CA were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm was used to describe the experimental adsorption, the maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity of the kaolin/CA reached up to 53.63 mg/g. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  3. [Sorption and mechanism of surfactants on bentonite in combined pollution].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shu-Guang; Li, Ling-Jian; Shen, Xue-You

    2007-04-01

    Sorption of cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) on bentonite was studied. The influences of cation-exchange capacity (CEC), temperature and salinity on the sorption of CPC were also discussed. The results indicate that the sorption of CPC on Na-bentonite is greater than that of TX-100 and SDBS, and SDBS hardly shows any sorption. CPC is adsorbed to Na-bentonite through a combination of hydrophobic bonding and cation-exchange. While TX-100 is adsorbed to Na-bentonite via the formation of an adsorption layer of twain surfactant molecule and hydrogenolysis of silicon-oxygen surface of bentonite and TX-100. The amount of SDBS adsorbed on Ca-bentonite increases with increasing surfactant concentration, reaching a maximum at 1.5 critical micelle concentration (CMC), and then decreases with increasing surfactant loading. The mechanism of the retention appears to be formation of a sparingly soluble Ca-SDBS species, and dissolution in the micelle. The amount of CPC adsorbed on bentonite decreases with increasing temperature, and increases with increasing CEC. NaCl can enhance the sorption of CPC on bentonite.

  4. Uranium sorption on bentonite modified by octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Majdan, Marek; Pikus, Stanisław; Gajowiak, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Zięba, Emil

    2010-12-15

    The sorption of U(VI) on octadecyltrimethyl-bentonite was investigated at the pH values of the aqueous phase ranging from 3 to 10 and the concentrations of U(VI): 0.1-1 mmol/dm(3). The concentrations of alkylammonium cation in bentonite were increased from 21% to 150% of CEC (cation exchange capacity). It was determined that the sorption of U(VI) on modified bentonite, i.e. the distribution constant -K(d) decreases with the percent of mineral modification until it attains a minimum at 76% of CEC and then increases again. The effective sorption of U(VI) was found to be in the pH range: 6-10 for the modified bentonite and was explained as the consequence of U(VI) anionic hydroxy complexes sorption. Both FT-IR and XRD spectra of the modified bentonite were analyzed and provided arguments for the existence of surfactant cations in the form of monolayer and bilayer in the interlamellar space of bentonite. In turn the luminescence spectra of bentonite suspensions, i.e. their character at different values of pH, proved the existence of hydroxide-like planar polymeric U(VI) species in the bentonite phase at pH 9.

  5. Mechanical properties of crushed salt/bentonite blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstle, W.H.; Jones, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    A preliminary mechanical testing program has been conducted on crushed salt/bentonite blocks. These blocks are pototypes of blocks that may eventually be used to build engineered seals in drifts at the WIPP site. Three types of blocks were tested: pure crushed salt, crushed salt with bentonite binder, and pure bentonite. Simple uniaxial compression tests were performed. Axial displacement and lateral displacements were measured as a function of applied axial load. The ultimate strength, initial elastic moduli, and mode of failure were determined from these tests. The ultimate uniaxial strength of the pure bentonite blocks were found to be about 6.8 MPa. The ultimate uniaxial strength of pure salt blocks were found to be about 3.2 MPa. The blocks composed of both salt and bentonite had a strength somewhere between these two values. Surprisingly, the bentonite blocks, while stronger than the pure salt blocks, were less stiff. The mode of failure in all cases was through longitudinal splitting cracking. Also, ultrasonic velocities in the blocks were measured. The results of these tests indicate a high degree of anisotropy in the bentonite and salt/bentonite blocks, while the pure salt blocks appear to be isotropic.

  6. Large-scale superconducting separator for Kaolin processing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.J, Jr. ); Selvaggi, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Currently, high gradient magnetic separators (HGMSs) are used almost exclusively by the clay processing industry, particularly in producing an extremely white kaolin for the paper, coatings and rubber industries where a bright additive is desirable. As mined, the clay is a light cream color-not white. Many of these impurities can be removed chemically using a reducing agent such as sodium hydrosulfite in low pH, sulfuric acid, and alum. High purity, however, can be obtained by removing trace amounts of paramagnetic particles (100% finer than 2 {mu}m). This is accomplished by separating these particles from 28 wt% kaolin in a water slurry retaining them on magnetic wool, which is then periodically regenerated.

  7. Refractory Characteristics of Aluminum Dross-Kaolin Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Dada, M. O.

    2014-11-01

    The suitability of using aluminum dross waste and kaolin to produce refractory bricks is experimentally studied. Thirty brick samples of different blends are produced, dried at 30°C, dried further at 110°C, and fired at 1200°C. The firing temperature point, bulk density, apparent porosity, thermal conductivity, thermal shock, loss on ignition, permeability, shatter index, and shrinkage of the bricks blends are determined. The results show that some blend samples have good refractory characteristics with mixing ratio 4:1:2 (representing weight in grams of aluminum dross, plastic clay, and kaolin, respectively). The evaluations of studied properties reveal the possibility for aluminum dross waste to be used as matrix in refractory bricks.

  8. Kaolin Quality Prediction from Samples: A Bayesian Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, T.; Matías, J. M.; Taboada, J.; Ordóñez, C.

    2009-08-01

    We describe the results of an expert system applied to the evaluation of samples of kaolin for industrial use in paper or ceramic manufacture. Different machine learning techniques—classification trees, support vector machines and Bayesian networks—were applied with the aim of evaluating and comparing their interpretability and prediction capacities. The predictive capacity of these models for the samples analyzed was highly satisfactory, both for ceramic quality and paper quality. However, Bayesian networks generally proved to be the most useful technique for our study, as this approach combines good predictive capacity with excellent interpretability of the kaolin quality structure, as it graphically represents relationships between variables and facilitates what-if analyses.

  9. Rheological study of clay-kaolin aqueous suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapasin, R.; Lucchini, F.

    1984-01-01

    Rheological characteristics of clay-kaolin aqueous suspensions were studied by a rotational viscometer to correlate their behavior with the properties of ceramic slips for casting containing quartz, feldspars, and other nonplastic materials. In particular, the effects of the different amounts of dry materials and deflocculant (mixture 1:1 of Na2CO3 and Na2SiO3) and of temperatures on the shear-time-dependent properties of suspensions were examined.

  10. IgG purification by bentonite-acrylamide-histidine microcomposite.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Birnur

    2012-04-01

    In this work, a new microcomposite composed of bentonite, acrylamide and histidine, as a pseudospecific ligand, was synthesized by bulk polymerization. The aim of this study was to improve IgG adsorption capacity of bentonite by incorporating histidine. The surface areas of the bentonite and bentonite-acrylamide-histidine microcomposites were 33.4 and 1.42 m(2)/g, respectively. The amount of histidine was found to be 50 μmol/g bentonite via elemental analysis. Adsorption capacity was at the value of 100mg/g from aqueous solution while adsorption capacity was 108 mg/g from human plasma with a purity of 90%. IgG biomolecules were able to be adsorbed and desorbed five times by using the same microcomposites without significant loss in their adsorption capacity.

  11. Nutrient transformations during composting of pig manure with bentonite.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Guangjie; Qin, Rui; Li, Xiaolong; Xiao, Ran

    2012-10-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of different amounts of bentonite on nutrients transformation during pig manure composting process. The results showed that bentonite had no significant effects on compost temperature and pH changes. While, EC, moisture, OM, TN and NO(3)(-)-N were notably influenced by BT addition. The adding of BT could facilitate OM degradation, increase TKN content and decrease the C/N ratio. Increasing the proportion of bentonite in pig manure compost to reduce extractable heavy metal content is feasible. However, potherb mustard seed GI decreased with the proportion of added bentonite increasing. The results suggest that a proportion of less than 2.5% bentonite is recommended for addition to pig manure compost, and examining the additive ratio in a comprehensive waste composting project is a worthwhile direction for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of sulfuric acid concentration of bentonite and calcination time of pillared bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara, Ady; Wijaya, Karna; Trisunaryati, Wega; Mudasir

    2016-04-01

    An activation of natural clay has been developed. Activation was applied by refluxing the natural bentonite in variation of the sulfuric acid concentration and calcination time of pillared bentonite (PLC). Calcination was applied using oven in microwave 2,45 GHz. Determination of acidity was applied by measuring the amount of adsorbed ammonia and pyridine. Morphological, functional groups and chrystanility characterizations were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD. Porosity was analyzed using SSA. The results showed that the greater of the concentration of sulfuric acid and calcination time was, the greater the acidity of bentonite as well as the pore diameter were. FTIR spectra showed no fundamental changes in the structure of the natural bentonite, SEM, and TEM images were showing an increase in space or field due to pillarization while the XRD patterns showed a shift to a lower peak. Optimization was obtained at a concentration of 2 M of sulfuric acid and calcination time of 20 minutes, keggin ion of 2.2 and suspension of 10 mmol, respectively each amounted to 11.7490 mmol/gram of ammonia and 2.4437 mmol/gram of pyridine with 154.6391 m2/gram for surface area, 0.130470 m3/gram of pore volume and 3.37484 nm of pore diameter.

  13. Remediation of distilleries wastewater using chitosan immobilized Bentonite and Bentonite based organoclays.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, F I; Tawfik, F M; Eshaq, Gh; Hefni, H H H; ElMetwally, A E

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic nanocomposite, namely chitosan immobilized Bentonite (CIB) with chitosan content of 5% was synthesized in an acetic acid solution (2%). Organically modified CIB and Bentonite (mbent.) were prepared by intercalating cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant at doses equivalent to 1.5 and 3 times the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of clay. The prepared samples were characterized using FTIR, XRD and SEM to explore the interlayer structure and morphology of the resultant nanocomposites. The remediation of distilleries (vinasse) wastewater process was carried out using different adsorbents including CIB, modified CIB (mCIB), Bentonite (bent.), modified Bentonite (mbent.) and chitosan at different contact time. The results showed that the packing density of surfactant used in the synthesis of organoclays strongly affects the sorption capacity of the clay mineral and also showed that (mCIB)3 was found to be the most effective sorbent in the purification of distilleries wastewater with 83% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and 78% color removal.

  14. Reduction of ochratoxin a levels in red wine by bentonite, modified bentonites, and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kurtbay, Hayriye Mine; Bekçi, Zehra; Merdivan, Melek; Yurdakoç, Kadir

    2008-04-09

    Adsorption method may play an important role to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) from wine by bentonite (B), nonylammonium bentonite (NB), dodecylammonium bentonite (DB), KSF-montmorillonite (KSF), and chitosan bead (CB). The optimum conditions of OTA adsorption from synthetic solutions were revealed at room temperature and pH 3.5. The adsorption equilibria of B and NB were almost established within 120 and 240 min, respectively. DB, KSF, and CB had about 90 min of equilibration time. The adsorption efficiency carried out in the synthetic OTA solution did not change remarkably when the amounts of adsorbents were 25 mg for bentonite, DB, and KSF and 100 mg for NB and CB. Furthermore, 25 mg of adsorbents was used at all adsorption studies in synthetic solution. The adsorption isotherm was fitted with mostly a Freundlich equation with respect to the correlation coefficients. The adsorption data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich equations having Kf values ranging from 0.011 to 9.5 with respect to correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.900-0.977). DB and KSF have the highest adsorption capacity for OTA in synthetic solutions. In wine, the removal of OTA was succeeded at a percentage of 60-100 by KSF and CB. Furthermore, the highest adsorption capacity of OTA for red wine was obtained by using 250 mg of KSF, which caused less damage to the nature of wine and also low adsorption of polyphenols and anthcyans.

  15. Room-temperature luminescence from kaolin induced by organic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Kloepping, R.; Pollack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several new, room-temperature luminescent phenomena, resulting from the interaction of kaolin and various amino compounds, have been observed. The emission of light from kaolin pastes (treated with quinoline, pyridine, hydrazine, monoethanolamine, n-butylamine, and piperidine) was shown to decay monotonically over a period of hours to days. More light was released by a given amino compound after it was dried and purified. Hydrazine, in addition to the monotonically decaying photon release, produces delayed pulses of light with peak emission wavelength of 365 nm which last between several hours and several days. These photon bursts are acutely sensitive to the initial dryness of the hydrazine, both in the number of bursts and the integrated photon output. The amount of light and the capacity of the kaolin to produce the delayed burst appeared to be strongly dependent on preliminary heating and on gamma-irradiation, analogous to the dehydration-induced light pulse previously reported from the Ames Research Center. A small, delayed burst of photons occurred when piperidine and n-butylamine were removed by evaporation into an H2SO4 reservoir.

  16. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. PMID:28774098

  17. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-12-02

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  18. High piezoelectric properties of cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huang Hsing; Yang, Ruei-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    To obtain high piezoelectric properties, PZT/cement composites with kaolin were fabricated and polarized by 1.5kV/mm electric field for 40 min, where lead zirconate titanate (PZT) inclusion with 50% by volume was used. After the polarization, piezoelectric properties of the composite were measured daily till 100 days. Results indicated that relative dielectric constant (ɛr) and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) increase with aging day, and approach to asymptotic values after 70 days. Temperature treatment to the composite is a dominate factor to enhance piezoelectric properties. The d33 and ɛr values of PZT/cement composites treated at the ambient temperature (23℃) were 57pC/N and 275 at the 70th aging day respectively, and then reached 106pC/N and 455 in turn with 150℃ treatment. The composite contains 4% kaolin having the highest value of d33=111pC/N and ɛr=500 at 90 days because the porosity is the less than the others. Cement piezoelectric composites containing kaolin own the higher d33 and ɛr value, compared with the other reported composites with 50% PZT. The porosity, the electromechanical coupling factor and impedance-frequency spectra of the cement piezoelectric composites were also discussed.

  19. Thermally reduced kaolin-graphene oxide nanocomposites for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renyun; Alecrim, Viviane; Hummelgård, Magnus; Andres, Britta; Forsberg, Sven; Andersson, Mattias; Olin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Highly sensitive graphene-based gas sensors can be made using large-area single layer graphene, but the cost of large-area pure graphene is high, making the simpler reduced graphene oxide (rGO) an attractive alternative. To use rGO for gas sensing, however, require a high active surface area and slightly different approach is needed. Here, we report on a simple method to produce kaolin-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites and an application of this nanocomposite as a gas sensor. The nanocomposite was made by binding the GO flakes to kaolin with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The GO flakes in the nanocomposite were contacting neighboring GO flakes as observed by electron microscopy. After thermal annealing, the nanocomposite become conductive as showed by sheet resistance measurements. Based on the conductance changes of the nanocomposite films, electrical gas sensing devices were made for detecting NH3 and HNO3. These devices had a higher sensitivity than thermally annealed multilayer GO films. This kaolin-GO nanocomposite might be useful in applications that require a low-cost material with large conductive surface area including the demonstrated gas sensors.

  20. Room-temperature luminescence from kaolin induced by organic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Kloepping, R.; Pollack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several new, room-temperature luminescent phenomena, resulting from the interaction of kaolin and various amino compounds, have been observed. The emission of light from kaolin pastes (treated with quinoline, pyridine, hydrazine, monoethanolamine, n-butylamine, and piperidine) was shown to decay monotonically over a period of hours to days. More light was released by a given amino compound after it was dried and purified. Hydrazine, in addition to the monotonically decaying photon release, produces delayed pulses of light with peak emission wavelength of 365 nm which last between several hours and several days. These photon bursts are acutely sensitive to the initial dryness of the hydrazine, both in the number of bursts and the integrated photon output. The amount of light and the capacity of the kaolin to produce the delayed burst appeared to be strongly dependent on preliminary heating and on gamma-irradiation, analogous to the dehydration-induced light pulse previously reported from the Ames Research Center. A small, delayed burst of photons occurred when piperidine and n-butylamine were removed by evaporation into an H2SO4 reservoir.

  1. Bacterial cellulose-kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M.; Alam, Parvez

    2013-12-01

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure-property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin-cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials.

  2. Surface modification of calcined kaolin with toluene diisocyanate based on high energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbing; Chen, Hongling; Lin, Jinbin; Ji, Yan

    2013-11-01

    The surface of calcined kaolin particle was modified with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by using high energy ball milling. The prepared hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, MAS NMR, thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), static water contact angle (CA), apparent viscosity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FT-IR and MAS NMR spectra demonstrated that TDI molecules were chemically anchored to kaolin surface after modification. The results of thermal analysis showed that the maximum grafting ratio reached up to 446.61% when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.5:1.0, and CA measurements revealed that the resultant hybrids exhibited strong hydrophobicity (148.82°). Apparent viscosity and TEM were employed to examine the dispersion properties of blank and modified kaolin particles in poly (dimenthylsiloxane) matrix. The results illustrated that the dispersion stability depended strongly on the grafting ratio of TDI, neither too low nor too high achieved uniform and stable dispersion, and the favorable grafting ratio was obtained when the mass ratio of TDI/kaolin was 0.2:1.0. Further modification of TDI/kaolin (mass ration of TDI/kaolin, 1.0:1.0) particles with bis(aminopropyl)-terminated-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (APS) was also investigated. TEM evidenced that the dispersion properties of the obtained TDI/APS/kaolin particles were remarkably improved in octamethyl cyclotetrasiloxane compared with the original TDI/kaolin particles.

  3. Effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxic potency of kaolin.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Totsuka, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Kaolin is white clay mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4, and many varieties of kaolins having different crystal structures are utilized in industrial, cosmetic and medical fields. To evaluate the effect of physicochemical character differences on the genotoxicity of kaolin, two types of kaolin, kaolin-S with smooth, sphere-shaped crystals, and kaolin-P with clusters of thin pseudohexagonal plates, were used in the study. ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with the kaolins (0.05 and 0.2 mg/mouse), and comet assay was performed on their lungs. Both kaolins showed DNA damage in the lungs of the mice, however the DNA damaging potency was much higher with kaolin-P than that with kaolin-S. In order to clarify the mechanisms for the different genotoxic potency, we examined the incorporation rate and ROS generation of these two types of kaolin in alveolar epithelial A549 and macrophage-like RAW264 cells, using flow cytometric (FCM) analysis. Kaolin-P showed a higher incorporation rate into the mammalian cells and ROS generation than that of kaolin-S. Especially, RAW264 cells aggressively incorporated kaolins, and generated ROS, whereas almost no ROS generation was observed in A549 cells. In addition, inflammatory cytokines were quantified, using the ELISA method, to understand further genotoxic potency differences of kaolins. Concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the media were increased by exposure to both kaolins, but in the case of kaolin-P, these inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated. Based on these findings, differences of genotoxic potency may contribute to incorporation rates into immune cells. Furthermore, it is likely that immune cells and epithelial cells might closely interact with each other for the appearance of genotoxocity in vivo. In order to clarify the interaction between epithelial and immune cells, A549 and RAW264 were co-cultured and RAW264 cells only were exposed to

  4. Adsorption of aniline, phenol, and chlorophenols on pure and modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, A.; Gür, A.; Ceylan, H.

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, pure bentonite and bentonite modified by HNO3, EDTA, and HDTMA are adsorbents. The changes on the surfaces of bentonite samples are studied by IR spectroscopy. The adsorption of aniline, phenol, and phenol derivatives on these adsorbents is examined by means of gas chromatography. As the result of these examinations, it is seen that the adsorption capacities of clay-organic complexes (bentonite-EDTA and bentonite-HDTMA) are higher than those of bentonite-HNO3 and pure bentonite.

  5. Interaction processes at the concrete-bentonite interface after 13 years of FEBEX-Plug operation. Part II: Bentonite contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Raúl; Torres, Elena; Ruiz, Ana I.; Cuevas, Jaime; Alonso, María Cruz; García Calvo, José Luis; Rodríguez, Enrique; Turrero, María Jesús

    2017-06-01

    The in situ FEBEX experiment performed at the URL in Grimsel (Swizerland) was dismantled after 18 years of operation. Interface samples between bentonite and a shotcreted concrete plug that was constructed in a second operational phase have been studied after 13 years of interaction. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of samples have been performed by XRD, SEM-EDX, TG and FTIR techniques in addition to determinations of major ions by chemical analysis of aqueous extracts, δ18O and δ13C stable isotopes both in concrete paste and bentonite, and exchangeable cations in bentonite. Low mineralogical alteration impact was observed in bentonite that is only affected by a few millimeters. A large accumulation of Mg was observed at the bentonite side of the interface precipitating as silicates in various forms. In addition, heterogeneous carbonation was observed at the interface, but mostly affecting the concrete side. Migration of aqueous species occurred, being the most relevant the diffusion of chloride and sulfate from bentonite to concrete, in agreement with Part I of this study. Chloride advanced more into the concrete, while sulfates reacted to form ettringite, which has an evident alteration impact at the very interface (<0.5 mm rim) within the concrete. The ionic mobility has also redistributed the exchangeable cations in bentonite, increasing the content in Ca2+ and Na+, compensated by a decrease in Mg2+. The results presented in this paper complement those presented in Part I, focusing on the alteration of concrete by the bentonite and the granite groundwater.

  6. Enhanced shear strength of sodium bentonite using frictional additives

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, K.E.; Bowders, J.J.; Gilbert, R.B.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important obstacles to using geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) in landfill cover systems is the low shear strength provided by the bentonitic portion of the GCL. In this study, the authors propose that granular, frictional materials might be added to the bentonite to form an admixture that would have greater shear strength than the bentonite alone while still raining low hydraulic conductivity. Bentonite was mixed with two separate granular additives, expanded shale and recycled to form mixtures consisting of 20-70% bentonite by weight. In direct shear tests at normal stresses of 34.5-103.5 kPa, effective friction angles were measured as 45{degrees} for the expanded 36{degrees} for the recycled glass, and 7{degrees} for the hydrated granular bentonite. The strength of the expanded shale mixtures increased nearly linearly as the percentage shale in the mixture increased, to 44{degrees} for a bentonite mixture with 80% shale. The addition of recycled glass showed little effect on the shear strength of the mixtures of glass and bentonite. Hydraulic conductivity measurements for both types of mixtures indicated a linear increase with log(k) as the amount of granular additive increased. For applications involving geosynthetic clay liners for cover systems, a mixture of 40% expanded shale and 60% bentonite is recommended, although further testing must be done. The 40/60 mixture satisfies the hydraulic equivalency requirement, with k = 5.1X10{sup -9} cm/sec, while increasing the shear strength parameters of the bentonitic mixture to {phi}{prime} = 17{degrees} and c{prime} = 0.

  7. A general framework for ion equilibrium calculations in compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgersson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    An approach for treating chemical equilibrium between compacted bentonite and aqueous solutions is presented. The treatment is based on conceptualizing bentonite as a homogeneous mixture of water and montmorillonite, and assumes Gibbs-Donnan membrane equilibrium across interfaces to external solutions. An equation for calculating the electrostatic potential difference between bentonite and external solution (Donnan potential) is derived and solved analytically for some simple systems. The solutions are furthermore analyzed in order to illuminate the general mechanisms of ion equilibrium and their relation to measurable quantities. A method is suggested for estimating interlayer activity coefficients based on the notion of an interlayer ionic strength. Using this method, several applications of the framework are presented, giving a set of quantitative predictions which may be relatively simply tested experimentally, e.g.: (1) the relative amount of anions entering the bentonite depends approximately on the square-root of the external concentration for a 1:2 salt (e.g. CaCl2). For a 1:1 salt (e.g. NaCl) the dependence is approximately linear, and for a 1:2 salt (e.g. Na2SO4) the dependence is approximately quadratic. (2) Bentonite contains substantially more nitrate as compared to chloride if equilibrated with the two salt solutions at equal external concentration. (3) Potassium bentonite generally contains more anions as compared to sodium bentonite if equilibrated at the same external concentration. (4) The anion concentration ratio in two bentonite samples of different cations (but with the same density and cation exchange capacity) resembles the ion exchange selectivity coefficient for that specific cation pair. The results show that an adequate treatment of chemical equilibrium between interlayers and bulk solutions are essential when modeling compacted bentonite, and that activity corrections generally are required for relevant ion equilibrium calculations. It

  8. Engineering Properties of Bentonite Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Dutta, Rakesh Kumar; Mohanty, Bijayananda

    2014-12-01

    Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the California bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The results reveal that the dry unit weight and optimum moisture content of bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The percentage of swell increased and the free swell index decreased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum to the bentonite + 8 % lime mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum as well as an increase in the curing period up to 14 days. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased, whereas the plasticity index remained constant with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The California bearing ratio, modulus of subgrade reaction, and secant modulus increased for the bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. The coefficient of the consolidation of the bentonite increased with the addition of 8 % lime and no change with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum.

  9. Pore space modification in bentonites subjected to low hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Svandova, Jana; Krizova, Vera

    2010-05-01

    Bentonites are chief candidates for engineering barriers in nuclear waste repositories. These smectite-rich rocks are generally considered to be of excellent sorption properties due to the large specific surface area. Extremely low permeability due to swelling after being hydrated is another favourable property. In our experiment, we focused on the effect of long term (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months) of hydration by using different types of "synthetic" ground water (enriched in potassium and/or magnesium) and real ground water. The experiments were conducted on two types of bentonites (Fe-montmorillonite rich bentonite from Rokle deposit and FEBEX bentonite from Spain) under normal laboratory and elevated (95°C) temperature. After the experiments, the detailed analyses of mineralogical changes and pore space were conducted. Although no mineralogical changes were recorded, the treated material exhibited substantial changes in pore space, respectively specific surface area. Each of the studied material shows distinct response: the Rokle bentonite experienced drop in the specific surface area of mesopores over 33 % (but the micropores remained unchanged), the FEBEX bentonite shows similar changes but namely for the micropores. These can be probably explained by presence of specific species of smectites in each of the studied bentonites.

  10. Experimental investigation of sodium bentonite stability in Hanford basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.

    1983-02-01

    Sodium bentonite is a candidate material for the waste package backfill component in a repository in basalt at the Hanford Site. Preliminary hydrothermal experiments have been conducted under near-field geochemical conditions expected to occur in the reference repository location in Grande Ronde Basalt. Experiments have been conducted in the basalt/groundwater, bentonite/groundwater, and basalt/bentonite/groundwater systems. The experiments have been conducted at 300/sup 0/C using a simulated Grande Ronde groundwater, reference Umtanum basalt, and sodium bentonite. Key data generated by the experiments include experimental solution analyses as a function of time and preliminary solids analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Solution trends of the major aqueous species were similar in the three systems and are characterized by: (1) the gradual reduction of the pH value from approx.9.75 to a steady-state value of approx.6, (2) an initial rapid increase followed by a gradual decreasein silica concentration, and (3) a slight or negligible increase in sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations. In the bentonite/groundwater experiment, small amounts (<1%) of an albite reaction product were observed. Conserversely, the formation of illite, a common bentonite alteration product, was not observed. These results indicate tjhat sodium bentonite will remain sufficiently stablee at 300/sup 0/C under hydrothermal conditions in basalt to permit its use as a backfill material.

  11. Experimental studies on the interaction of groundwater with bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Y.; Shibata, M.; Yui, M.; Ishikawa, H.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions of sodium bentonite with distilled water and two types of synthetic groundwater were studied by batch experiments. In the experiments, clay and pure minerals were reacted at room temperature under aerobic and anaerobic condition as a function of time and liquid/solid ratio. The clay and pure minerals used in the experiments were Kunigel-V1 (crude Na-bentonite), Kunipia F (purified Na-bentonite), purified Na-smectite (purified from Kunipia F), calcite and pyrite as accessory minerals. The chemical composition in the liquid phase was analyzed through centrifugation and ultrafiltration. Alteration of the distribution of exchangeable cation in the bentonite was analyzed by NH{sub 4}Ac and XRD. The results indicated that the interaction between bentonite (Kunigel-V1) and groundwater under aerobic condition was described by ion exchange reaction of smectite, dissolution of calcite and oxidation of pyrite. From these experimental studies, the model of the interaction of groundwater with bentonite proposed by Wanner was modified. The comparison between calculation and experimental results showed good agreement and indicated that this model could be adopted to predict porewater chemistry of bentonite for performance assessment of geological isolation system of high level waste.

  12. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....

  13. High residue amounts of kaolin further increase photosynthesis and fruit color in 'Empire' apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kaolin (Surround WP, NovaSource, Phoenix, AZ, USA) is commonly used to reduce sunburn damage in fruit crops and to reduce heat stress on foliage. It is typically applied at rates of 3% to 6%, resulting in leaf and fruit residue levels of 1-3 g/m2. Crop modeling of the effect of kaolin on leaf/cano...

  14. Effect of surface modified kaolin on properties of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ni; Zhang, Zuo-Cai; Ma, Ning; Liu, Huan-Li; Zhan, Xue-Qing; Li, Bing; Gao, Wei; Tsai, Fang-Chang; Jiang, Tao; Chang, Chang-Jung; Chiang, Tai-Chin; Shi, Dean

    To achieve reinforcement of mechanical and thermal performances of polypropylene (PP) product, this work aimed at fabrication of surface modified kaolin (M-kaolin) filled polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) composites with varying contents of fillers and investigation of their mechanical and thermal properties. And the prepared PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fracture analysis by SEM showed M-kaolin particles were well dispersed in the PP-g-MAH matrix. Mechanical behaviors were determined by tensile strength, tensile strain at break and impact strength analysis. Impact strength of PP-g-MAH/2 wt% M-kaolin composites was improved up to 30% comparing with unfilled composites. Thermostability had been found enhanced when M-kaolin added. The results revealed PP-g-MAH/M-kaolin composites showed the optimal thermal and mechanical properties when 2 wt% of M-kaolin was added.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1180 Section 180.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Kaolin, when used on crops (apples, apricots, bananas, beans, cane berries, citrus fruits, corn, cotton...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1180 Section 180.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Kaolin, when used on crops (apples, apricots, bananas, beans, cane berries, citrus fruits, corn, cotton...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1180 Section 180.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Kaolin, when used on crops (apples, apricots, bananas, beans, cane berries, citrus fruits, corn, cotton...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1180 Section 180.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Kaolin, when used on crops (apples, apricots, bananas, beans, cane berries, citrus fruits, corn, cotton...

  19. Effect of multivalent salts -- calcium and aluminum -- on the flocculation of kaolin suspension with anionic polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.; Di, P. . Dept. of Mineral Processing Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The effects of calcium and aluminum ions on the interaction behavior of anionic polyacrylamide (anionic PAM or HPAM) and kaolin are important in determining the efficient flocculation of kaolin. While kaolin surfaces are negatively charged in media such as water, they exhibit the positive surface charge characteristic at pH below 3.2 in the solution of calcium cation, and at pH below 9.2 in the solution of aluminum cation. The. experimental results show that both calcium and aluminum ions suppress the kaolin flocculation process. The results are analyzed and explained by molecular orbital theory, solution chemistry, infrared spectra, and electronic probe examination of kaolin treated with and without anionic PAM. Analysis results indicate that the specific adsorption of Ca[sup 2+], Al[sup 3+] and their hydroxo complexes on anionic PAM causes the loss of anionic character in the low pH range and leads to a low flocculation efficiency. In the high pH range, the poor kaolin flocculation can be attributed to precipitation of calcium and aluminum hydroxides on active functional groups, which inhibits the hydrogen bonding between anionic PAM and kaolin surfaces. At neutral pH values, the trivalent aluminum ion has more significant adverse effect on the kaolin flocculation than the divalent calcium ion.

  20. Effects of kaolin particle film on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) behaviour and performance.

    PubMed

    Barker, J E; Holaschke, M; Fulton, A; Evans, K A; Powell, G

    2007-10-01

    The emergence of resistance mechanisms to, and revocation of, many insecticides used in the control of the polyphagus aphid pest, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), has increased the pressure to develop novel approaches for the control of the pest in many crops. Kaolin-based particle films provide a physical barrier against insect pests and show considerable potential for controlling M. persicae. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to investigate the mode of action of kaolin against aphids. The material appeared to have no direct effect on M. persicae; spraying adult aphids with aqueous kaolin suspension had no significant impact on their subsequent survival or reproduction on untreated plants. Similarly, when aphids were placed on kaolin-treated host-plants (Brassica oleracea), their performance (survival, growth rate and reproduction) was not significantly different from aphids on untreated plants. However, when M. persicae were given a choice between kaolin-treated and untreated (or water solvent-treated) leaf areas, both adults and nymphs exhibited a significant preference for non-kaolin-treated host-plant material. Rejection of kaolin-treated plant material occurred very rapidly (within 20 min) and this behavioural effect may be related to the efficacy of kaolin in controlling aphids under field conditions.

  1. Defining an exposure-response relationship for suspended kaolin clay particulates and aquatic organisms: work toward defining a water quality guideline for suspended solids.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andrew K; Palmer, Carolyn G

    2015-04-01

    Water quality guidelines for suspended solids generally rely on the percentage departure from reference condition, an approach that has been criticized. Attempts to develop a biological effects-base guideline have, however, been confounded by low data availability. Furthermore, the high biological response variability to suspended solids exposure suggests that organisms are responding not only to exposure concentration and duration but also to other mechanisms of effect associated with suspended particles (e.g., size, shape, and geochemical composition). An alternative option is to develop more situation and site specific guidelines by generating biological effects data to suspended particles of a particular geochemistry and restricted size range. With this in mind, aquatic organism responses to kaolin clay particle exposure were collated from the literature and incorporated into 2 exposure-response relationship approaches. The species sensitivity distribution approach produced a hazardous concentration affecting 5% of species estimate of 58 mg/L for mortality responses, and 36 mg/L for sublethal data. The severity-of-ill-effect approach produced similar estimates for lethal and sublethal data. These results suggest that aquatic organisms are slightly more tolerant of kaolin clay particles than particles from barite or bentonite clays, based on results from previous studies on these clay types. This type of information can enable better estimates of the risk faced by aquatic organisms exposed to suspended solids. For example, when the sediments of a particular water body are dominated by a particular type of clay particle, then the most appropriate exposure-response relationship can be applied. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Paleoenvironment and age of kaolin deposits in the Andersonville district, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cofer, Harland E.; Frederiksen, Norman O.

    1982-01-01

    The kaolin deposits of the Andersonville district of Georgia are thick and relatively pure; they grade laterally and vertically into sandy kaolin and sand. The sedimentological and mineralogical character of the clay and the enclosing sand suggests deposition in a marine shallow-water to estuarine environment. Palynomorph and invertebrate fossil assemblages from strata adjacent to the kaolin beds support the suggested depositional environment of the kaolin and the subsequent subaerial formation of bauxite. Movement on the Andersonville and related faults probably influenced basinal topography and served to maintain a restricted circulation in the basin. Sporomorph biostratigraphy limits the accumulation of kaolin and the formation of bauxite deposits to early Wilcox (late Paleocene) time.

  3. Modified Ponorogo bentonite for the removal of ampicillin from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rahardjo, Andi Kurniawan; Susanto, Maria Josephine Jeannette; Kurniawan, Alfin; Indraswati, Nani; Ismadji, Suryadi

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of ampicillin onto natural and organo-bentonite was studied. Organo-bentonite was obtained by modifying the natural bentonite obtained from Ponorogo, Indonesia, using CTAB surfactant by microwave heating. The temperature dependent form of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth equations was employed to correlate equilibrium data. Based on the evaluation of the physical meaning of fitted isotherm parameters of each model, it is clear that Toth equation can represent the equilibrium data better than other models. The adsorption performance of natural and organo-bentonite for the removal of ampicillin from pharmaceutical company wastewater was also studied. In real wastewater, both adsorbents could not completely remove the ampicillin due to the sorption competition with other substances which also present in the wastewater.

  4. Bentonite borehole plug flow testing with five water types

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudette, M.V.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-04-01

    The hydraulic conductivity has been determined of plugs constructed with commercial precompressed bentonite pellets. Bentonite has been hydrated and tested with waters of five different chemical compositions, including one groundwater (Ogallala aquifer, Texas). The groundwater contained a significant amount of solids: waters prepared in the laboratory did not. Prepared waters used for testing included distilled water, a high (1000 ppM) and a low (45 ppM) calcium solution, and a 39 ppM sodium water. Uncompacted plugs were constructed by dropping bentonite tablets into waterfilled cylinders, or by mixing powdered bentonite with preselected water volumes in order to obtain controlled initial water contents. The hydraulic conductivity of all plugs tested with all waters would result in a classification of practically impervious, by conventional soil mechanics standards. Variations of several orders of magnitude of the hydraulic conductivity are observed.

  5. Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; Żymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

    2011-10-01

    The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

  6. Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact.

  7. Diffusion behavior for Se and Zr in sodium-bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    Apparent diffusion coefficients for Se and Zr in bentonite were measured by in-diffusion method at room temperature using water-saturated sodium-bentonite, Kunigel V1{reg_sign} containing 50wt% Na-smectite as a major mineral was used as the bentonite material. The experiments were carried out in the dry density range of 400--1,800 kg/m{sup 3}. Bentonite samples were immersed with distilled water and saturated before the experiments. The experiments for Se were carried out under N{sub 2} atmospheric condition (O{sub 2}: 2.5ppm). Those for Zr were carried out under aerobic condition. The apparent diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing density of the bentonite. Since dominant species of Se in the pore water is predicted to be SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, Se may be retarded by anion-exclusion because of negative charge on the surface of the bentonite and little sorption. The dominant species of Zr in the porewater is predicted to be Zr(OH){sub 5}{sup {minus}} or HZrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Distribution coefficient measured for Zr on the bentonite was about 1.0 m{sup 3}/kg from batch experiments. Therefore, the retardation may be caused by combination of the sorption and the anion-exclusion. A modeling for the diffusion mechanisms in the bentonite were discussed based on an electric double layer theory. Comparison between the apparent diffusion coefficients predicted by the model and the measured ones shows a good agreement.

  8. Contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes.

    PubMed

    Deka, Abhijit; Sekharan, Sreedeep

    2017-01-01

    It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes. The study reported here determined the contaminant retention characteristics of different fly ashes, bentonite and selected fly ash-bentonite mixes for Pb(2+) using 24 h batch tests. The tests were conducted by varying the initial concentrations of metal ions under uncontrolled pH conditions. The efficiency of the removal of Pb(2+) by the different types of fly ash and fly ash-bentonite mixes was studied. The influence of multiple sources of fly ash on the retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes was investigated.

  9. Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

    1999-07-01

    In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are

  10. Loss of Rubella Antibody from Immune Globulin Treated with Kaolin

    PubMed Central

    Cabasso, V. J.; Louie, R. E.; Hok, K. A.; Robinson, C. T.; Davis, P. C.; Miner, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Sera and immune globulin (IG) preparations are customarily treated with kaolin before titration of their rubella hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody in order to rid them of nonspecific inhibitors of hemagglutination. The treatment was shown in this investigation to have no adverse effect on the antibody level of the sera but was found to remove considerable amounts of gamma-globulin from IG preparations. Evidence of this removal was obtained by serological tests, by spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration and by disc electrophoresis. In contrast to kaolin, heparin-manganese chloride (MnCl2) treatment of IG preparations had essentially no effect on the level of antibody globulin by all the criteria used. Heparin-MnCl2-treated IG lots were in these respects similar, if not identical, to their untreated counterparts. Since nonspecific inhibitors associated with the β-lipoprotein fraction of serum are removed by the method employed to fractionate the IG samples, it seems unnecessary to treat the latter in any way for the HI test. No difficulty was encountered in this investigation with several untreated IG lots. Images PMID:4190525

  11. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Daniel J; Rush, John E; deLaforcade, Armelle M; Shaw, Scott P

    2012-06-01

    To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats. 30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination. All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration. All 4 thromboelastography variables had < 5% mean intra-assay variability. Mean values were as follows: reaction time, 4.3 minutes; clotting time, 1.6 minutes; α angle, 66.5°; and maximum amplitude, 56.4 mm. Compared with nonsedated cats, cats that required sedation had a significantly shorter clotting time and greater α angle, whereas reaction time and maximum amplitude were not significantly different. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.

  12. Evaluation of the Dustiness of Different Kaolin Samples.

    PubMed

    López-Lilao, Ana; Bruzi, Marine; Sanfélix, Vicenta; Gozalbo, Ana; Mallol, Gustavo; Monfort, Eliseo

    2015-01-01

    Several samples of kaolin with different mean particle size were prepared and tested using the continuous drop method, one of the reference test methods according to standard EN 15051:2006 "Workplace atmospheres - Measurement of the dustiness of bulk materials - Requirements and reference test methods." On the other hand, with a view to relating the dustiness of the materials to their properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, and Hausner ratio of these samples were determined. This article presents a characterization of these samples and an assessment of the influence of some material parameters on dustiness. The results show that dustiness may significantly be affected by mean particle size, specific surface area, and Hausner ratio. Moreover, it is highlighted that a detailed study of the influence of fine particles content on the dustiness was carried out. This information is deemed essential for establishing the most efficient preventive and/or corrective measures to reduce the generation of fugitive emissions of particulate matter during kaolin processing, both into the outside atmosphere (air pollution) and inside the facilities (occupational health).

  13. Effect of Curing Profile on Kaolin-based Geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Bakri, A. M. Mustafa Al; Binhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Nizar, I. Khairul; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    Depending on the processing conditions, geopolymers can exhibit a wide variety of properties and characteristics. Curing profile serves as a crucial parameter in synthesis of geopolymers. In this paper, the influence of curing temperature and curing time on the properties of kaolin-based geopolymer was studied. The samples were separated into several curing conditions; including curing at ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C for 1 day, and up to 3 days. The compressive strength and SEM analysis of geopolymer products were evaluated. Results showed that curing condition has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of kaolin-based geopolymer. Generally, curing at ambient temperature was not feasible, while increase in temperature favored the strength development. In addition, prolonged curing time improved the geopolymerization process, and led to higher strength gain. However, curing at high temperature for a long period of time caused failure of the sample at a later age.

  14. Fracture behavior of kaolin-reinforced high density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherhold, R.C.; Mouzakis, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    The addition of the low-cost mineral filler kaolin to high-density polyethylene (HDPE) creates a composite with both improved stiffness and toughness properties. This study focuses on two aspects of the toughness of these composites: the fracture toughness increment produced by work at the fracture surface and the directionality induced by the injection molding fabrication process. The Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) method gives results which show that a higher volume fraction of kaolin produces more surface work, consistent with earlier work using Compact Tension (CT) tests. The EWF method also demonstrates that a lower volume fraction can produce a higher overall plastic work and apparent toughness. A heat treatment that removes the orientation of the matrix but not that of the particles was applied to study the effect of matrix crystallinity. The results indicate that the matrix supramolecular structure (crystallinity and skin-core effect) is responsible for the directionality of toughness, and that a heat treatment can be used to produce high toughness behavior in both major directions.

  15. Kaolin-correctable prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Briselli, M F; Ellman, L

    1980-11-01

    Seven patients who had normal prothrombin times but prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) are described. The prolonged aPTT, obtained with micronized silica as the contact activating agent in a semi-automated optical end-point system, a nonautomated optical end-point system, and a conductivity end-point system, corrected to normal when kaolin was used as the contact activating agent. Abnormal results were also obtained with celite and ellagic acid as contact activating agents. The activities of various clotting factors were within normal limits in all cases where they were assayed. The thromboplastin dilution test was uniformly negative, and mixtures of one patient's plasma with that of another patient failed to correct the abnormal aPTT. No patients had a personal or family history of bleeding, and all underwent surgery without bleeding difficulties. This pattern of a prolonged aPTT that corrects to normal when kaolin is used as the contact activator appears to represent a previously unrecognized laboratory phenomenon.

  16. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films reinforced with nano kaolin.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Shima; Alias, Abd Karim; Ariffin, Fazilah; Mahmud, Shahrom; Najafi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effects of nano-kaolin incorporation into semolina films on the physical, mechanical, thermal, barrier and antimicrobial properties of the resulting bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. The properties included crystal structure (by X-ray diffraction), mechanical resistance, color, Fourier transform infrared spectra, decomposition temperature, water-vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (OP), and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Kaolin was incorporated into biofilms at various amounts (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 %, w/w total solid). All films were plasticized with 50 % (w/w total solid) combination of sorbitol/glycerol at 3:1 ratio. The incorporation of nanokaolin into semolina films decreased OP and WVP. The moisture content and water solubility of the films were found to decrease by nanokaolin reinforcement, and mechanical properties of films were improved by increasing nanokaolin concentration. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased from 3.41 to 5.44 MPa and from 63.12 to 136.18, respectively, and elongation-at-break decreased. The films did not exhibit UV absorption. In conclusion, nanokaolin incorporation enhanced the barrier and mechanical properties of semolina films, indicating the potential application of these bio-nanocomposites in food-product packaging.

  17. Chitosan/kaolin composite porous microspheres with high hemostatic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xun; Tang, Zonghao; Pan, Meng; Wang, Zhengchao; Yang, Hongqin; Liu, Haiqing

    2017-12-01

    The hemostatic performance of chitosan was greatly improved by blending it with kaolin to fabricate porous composite microspheres (CSMS-K) through inverse emulsion method combining with thermally induced phase separation. The CSMS-K had high amount of interior and surface pores. The synergetic hemostatic competence of chitosan and kaolin components made the hemostatic efficacy of CSMS-K superior to chitosan porous microspheres (CSMS). The hemostatic time of CSMS-K3 in the rat tail amputation and liver laceration models was down to respective 120 and 99s from 183 and 134s of CSMS, and the blood loss of CSMS-K3 was respectively 65% and 36% of that of CSMS in the rat tail amputation and liver laceration models. The whole blood clotting kinetics proved that CSMS-K3 formed larger blood clots than CSMS and Celox within a same time period. Our results suggested that the CSMS-K is a potential quick pro-coagulant agent for traumatic hemorrhaging control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bentonite-derived high-temperature structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delixiati, Ailipati

    This thesis provides new information that is relevant to the science and applications of hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite, which are emerging high-temperature structural materials. The hot pressing involves no binder. The hardness, coefficient of friction, wear resistance and scratch resistance are greater for hot-pressed bentonite than hot-pressed organobentonite. This means that the resistance to strain-induced damage is superior for hot-pressed bentonite. Hot-pressed organobentonite exhibits a degree of lubricity. The modulus is higher for hot-pressed organobentonite than hot-pressed bentonite. The energy dissipation, deformability and degree of reversibility of the deformation are similar for hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite. The values of the modulus and hardness of hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite are lower than those of alumina, but are higher than those of polycrystalline graphite. The energy dissipation and deformability of hot-pressed bentonite or hot-pressed organobentonite are higher than those of alumina, but are lower than those of polycrystalline graphite. The values of the coefficient of friction of hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite are higher than those of Inconel and stainless steel, and are much higher than that of polycrystalline graphite. The wear resistance of hot-pressed bentonite is similar to that of Inconel and stainless steel. The wear resistance of hot-pressed organobentonite is inferior to these, but is superior to that of polycrystalline graphite. The temperature rise upon friction/wear for hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite is lower than that of Inconel, but is similar to those of stainless steel and is higher than that of polycrystalline graphite. The through-thickness relative dielectric constant is essentially equal (9) for hot-pressed bentonite and hot-pressed organobentonite. Both through-thickness and in-plane resistivities are

  19. Adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole from aqueous solution by organo-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ping; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Ping; Tang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Hongfu

    2013-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto organo-bentonite was investigated. Natural bentonite from Gaozhou in Guangdong Province, China was collected. Organo-bentonite was prepared by intercalation of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide into the natural bentonite. The physicochemical properties of the prepared organo-bentonite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that montmorillonite is the main component of the natural bentonite. The basal spacing of the natural bentonite is 1.47 nm, which increased to 1.98 nm on intercalation with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. Moreover, both the surface area and pore volume increased with intercalation. Clear CH2 stretching (3000-2800 cm(-1)) and scissoring (1480-1450 cm(-1)) modes of the intercalated surfactants were observed for organo-bentonite. Compared with the pseudo first-order kinetic model, the pseudo second-order kinetic model is more suitable to describe the adsorption kinetics of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto organo-bentonite. The adsorption capacity of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto organo-bentonite increased with increasing initial concentration of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The adsorption isotherm of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto organo-bentonite fits well with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of organo-bentonite for 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was 33.61 mg/g, indicating that organo-bentonite is a promising adsorbent for 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

  20. Modification of bentonite with cationic surfactant for the enhanced retention of bisphenol A from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Jin, Fenglai; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yunxiao; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Dawei

    2015-06-01

    Bentonite was modified with cationic surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) as landfill liner to retard the transportation of bisphenol A (BPA) for the first time. The modification was confirmed to form a lateral bi-layer in the interlayer space of bentonite by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The introduction of HTAB into the internal position of bentonite led to an increased interlayer space of bentonite from 15.0 to 20.9 Å and a higher sorption affinity for BPA (10.449 mg/g of HTAB-bentonite and 3.413 mg/g of raw bentonite). According to the Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity of the HTAB-bentonite was found to be 0.410 mg/g. The sorption capacity of raw bentonite and HTAB-bentonite both decreased at alkaline conditions. Although the hydraulic conductivity of HTAB-bentonite was higher than that of raw bentonite, results of laboratory permeability and column tests indicated that HTAB-bentonite obviously extended the BPA breakthrough time by 43.4 %. The properties of the HTAB-bentonite revealed its notable advantages as components of landfill liners material to retain BPA in leachate.

  1. Formation of physically stable amorphous phase of ibuprofen by solid state milling with kaolin.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Subrata; Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Swain, Kalpana; De, Pintu K; Saha, Arindam; Ghoshal, Gaurisankar; Mondal, Arijit

    2008-02-01

    Ibuprofen was milled in the solid state with kaolin (hydrated aluminium silicate) in different ratio to examine the extent of transformation from crystalline to amorphous state. The physical stability of the resultant drug was also investigated. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and birefringence by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies indicated almost complete amorphization of the drug on ball milling with kaolin at 1:2 ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data showed a reduction in the absorbance of the free and the hydrogen-bonded acid carbonyl peak of carboxylic acid group accompanied by a corresponding increase in the absorbance of the carboxylate peak, indicating an acid-base reaction between the carboxylic acid containing ibuprofen and kaolin on milling. The extent of amorphization and reduction in the carbonyl peak and increase in carboxylate peak was a function of kaolin concentration in the milled powder. On storage of milled powder (at 40 degrees C and 75% RH for 10 weeks), XRD and birefringence of SEM study showed the absence of reversion to the crystalline state and FTIR data revealed continued reduction of carbonyl peak, whereas, ibuprofen converted from its crystalline acid form to amorphous salt form on milling with kaolin. Kaolin-bound state of ibuprofen was physically stable during storage. In-vitro dissolution studies revealed that percent release of ibuprofen from the kaolin co-milled powder is in the order: 1:2>1:1>1:0.5>1:0.1>milled alone ibuprofen>crystalline ibuprofen.

  2. Effects of kaolin on Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in laboratory and nursery experiments.

    PubMed

    Lo Verde, G; Rizzo, R; Barraco, G; Lombardo, A

    2011-02-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated that clays provide satisfactory control of some agricultural insect pests, the effect of clays on gall wasps that damage forest trees has not been previously reported. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the clay kaolin in the laboratory and in the field in reducing the damage caused by the eulophid Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) on seedlings of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L'Hér.) species. In the laboratory, kaolin + wetting agent significantly reduced the percentage of infested leaves and the number of galls per leaf. In the nursery, gall number per leaf was not correlated with leaf area with kaolin + wetting agent but was related to leaf area for all other treatments (wetting agent alone, imidacloprid, and untreated control). In the nursery, gall number per leaf was lower with kaolin + wetting agent and with imidacloprid than with the other two treatments. Overall, kaolin effectively reduced eulophid infestations, and its effect was more persistent than that of imidacloprid. Although application of kaolin might not be feasible on large forested areas, kaolin could represent a valuable control method in nurseries, where the repeated application with more toxic chemicals can result in high concentrations of residual pesticides in the soil.

  3. A comparison of kaolin-activated versus nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography in native and citrated blood.

    PubMed

    Thalheimer, Ulrich; Triantos, Christos K; Samonakis, Dimitrios N; Zambruni, Andrea; Senzolo, Marco; Leandro, Gioacchino; Patch, David; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2008-09-01

    Thromboelastography can be performed with native or citrated blood (a surrogate to native blood in healthy controls, surgical and cirrhotic patients). Activators such as kaolin are increasingly used to reduce the time to trace generation. To compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography with nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography of native and citrated blood in patients with liver disease, patients undergoing treatment with warfarin or low-molecular weight heparin and healthy volunteers. We studied thromboelastography parameters in 21 healthy volunteers (group 1) and 50 patients, including 20 patients with liver cirrhosis with a nonbiliary aetiology (group 2), 10 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis (group 3), 10 patients on warfarin treatment (group 4) and 10 patients with enoxaparin prophylaxis (group 5). Thromboelastography was performed using four methods: native blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated) and citrated blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated). For all thromboelastography parameters, correlation was poor (Spearman correlation coefficient < 0.70) between nonkaolin-activated and kaolin-activated thromboelastography, for both citrated and native blood. In healthy volunteers, in patients with liver disease and in those receiving anticoagulant treatment, there was a poor correlation between nonkaolin-activated and kaolin-activated thromboelastography. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography needs further validation before routine clinical use in these settings, and the specific methodology must be considered in comparing published studies.

  4. Experience Using Kaolin-Impregnated Sponge to Minimize Perioperative Bleeding in Norwood Operation.

    PubMed

    Shinkawa, Takeshi; Holloway, Jessica; Tang, Xinyu; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Imamura, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    A kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge (QuikClot) is reported to reduce intraoperative blood loss in trauma and noncardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess if this sponge was effective for hemostasis during Norwood operation. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing Norwood operation in infancy between 2011 and 2016 at our institution. Of 31 identified Norwood operations, a kaolin-impregnated sponge was used intraoperatively in 15 (48%) patients. The preoperative profiles and cardiopulmonary bypass status were similar between the operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge. The comparison on each operative outcome between operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge showed that the intraoperative platelets, cryoprecipitate, and factor VII dosage were significantly less in the operations with kaolin-impregnated sponge (55 mL, 10 mL, 0 µg/kg vs 72 mL, 15 mL, 45 µg/kg; P = .03, .021, .019), as well as the incidence of perioperative bleeding complications (second cardiopulmonary bypass for hemostasis or postoperative mediastinal exploration, 0% vs 31%, P = .043). A logistic regression model showed that the nonuse of kaolin-impregnated sponge and longer aortic cross clamp time were associated with perioperative bleeding complication in univariable model ( P = .02 and .005). Use of kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge was associated with reduced blood product use and perioperative bleeding complications in Norwood operation at a single institution.

  5. Evaluation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin particle films for peach crop, arthropod and disease management.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Norman; Belding, Robert D; Shearer, Peter W; Frecon, Jerome L; Tietjen, William H

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic kaolin particle film treatments to peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch) trees were evaluated for crop and pest management capabilities in six studies from 1997 to 2000. Unsprayed control and standard treatments, the latter consisting of a commercial pesticide program, were included for comparison. Treatments in initial studies were applied via handgun, which resulted in a uniform and heavy deposit of kaolin after the first application. In contrast, treatments in subsequent studies used airblast equipment, which provided a uniform but less dense coverage, even after multiple applications. Results showed that both formulations of kaolin provided control of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)) and Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) that was comparable with or better than the standard pesticide program. Effective management of late season catfacing insects (tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) and stinkbugs Acrosternum hilare (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), and E tristigmus (Say)) and leafrollers (undetermined species) was also observed, although kaolin applications significantly increased phytophagous mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)) levels. In contrast to arthropod management, kaolin failed to control either peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum (Von Thumen)) or rusty spot (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell and Ev) ES Salmon) in any of the 4 years of the study. However, hydrophobic kaolin provided effective brown rot (Monilinia fructicola (G Winter) Honey) control when applied via handgun, and partial control when applied via airblast; hydrophilic kaolin failed to provide any control. These results suggest that hydrophobicity and deposit density may be important factors for effective disease management. The application of kaolin significantly delayed fruit maturation, increased fruit size and increased soluble solids relative to the standard. This effect

  6. The use of trace elements to determine provenance relations among different types of Georgia kaolins

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the proposition that different types of commercial kaolin district were derived from different source rocks. This analysis was made by comparing the cobalt, lanthanum, scandium and thorium concentrations of commercial kaolins to in situ kaolins derived from igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southeastern Piedmont provence. These elements are effective provenance indicators of fine grained sedimentary rocks because acidic (i.e., felsic) source rocks contain high levels of thorium and lanthanum; whereas, basic (i.e., basic) source rocks contain high levels of scandium and cobalt. Also, these elements are relatively immobile under surface weathering conditions. The -2 micrometer fraction of in situ kaolins derived from granite and gneiss adjacent to the kaolin belt contains relatively high concentrations of thorium (25.5-86.6 ppm) and lanthanum (46.0-256 ppm) and low concentrations of cobalt (7.5-25.2 ppm) and scandium (13.8-28.3 ppm). In contrast, in situ kaolins derived from intermediate metavolcanic rocks contain relatively low abundances of thorium (5.6-20.7 ppm) and lanthanum (17.5-122 ppm) and high concentrations of cobalt (18.6-55.5 ppm) and scandium (13.8-48.9 ppm). After consideration of factors that cause chemical fractionation of trace elements in low temperature environments the following provenance relationships are indicated: (1) the Cretaceous (soft) kaolins of Middle Georgia and South Carolina are derived from granite and gneiss, (2) the east Georgia and South Carolina Tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from a mixture of approximately 70% metavolcanic rocks and 30% granite/gneiss source rocks, and (3) the Middle Georgia tertiary (hard) kaolins are derived from predominantly metavolcanic source rocks with distinct zones dominated by detritus from granite/gneiss sources. The differences in source material are controlled by the availability of source material exposed to alteration and erosion during the different time periods.

  7. Geology and resources of the Andersonville, Georgia, kaolin and bauxite district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cofer, Harland E.; Manker, John Phillip

    1983-01-01

    The kaolin and kaolin-rich sediments of the Andersonville district were deposited in an estuary environment with restricted circulation and little tidal or longshore current influence. Micaceous kaolinitic clays were deposited during late Paleocene time on broad, shallow water flats between deeper water distributary channels in the estuarine system. During the cycle of deposition, kaolinitic sediments were temporarily exposed to weathering leading to bauxitization and further kaolinization. Subsequently, subaerial and/or subaqueous erosion planed off and redeposited some of the weathering products as organic-rich clays and silts, berthierine-bearing clays, and rarely as colluvial bauxite and sedimentary bauxitic clays. Upon resubmergence, gibbsite-rich, porous bauxite, and bauxitic clays were exposed to silica-saturated water of the estuary. Gibbsite reacted with silica to form kaolinite and resulted in the formation of the transitional (bauxitic) clays overlying the bauxite. Kaolinitic sediments transported by streams again spread over the altered and redeposited material. At the close of the kaolin depositional period movement along the Andersonville Fault Zone and related faults changed the basinal configuration, and the area of the uplifted (southern) block of the fault was exposed to weathering and bauxitization for a limited period of time. General submergence again occurred and much of the district was covered by marine and brackish water, ending the period of commercial kaolin deposition. The kaolin and bauxite deposits in the Andersonville district form a broad belt 15 kilometers wide and 22 kilometers long trending in a northwest-southeastward direction. Most of the kaolin and bauxite of commercial value occur within a narrow 10-kilometer-wide zone in the belt. The reserves of kaolin suitable for refractory and chemical use are approximately 290 million tonnes. Paramarginal resources of sandy kaolin suitable for refractory, chemical, or aluminum

  8. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    PubMed

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease.

  9. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial.

  10. Modeling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, H.

    1987-12-01

    Based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater, a model has been developed that represents a means of extrapolation from laboratory data to the conditions in compacted bentonite. The basic reactions between sodium bentonite and groundwater are described by an ion exchange model for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The model also assumes equilibrium with calcite and quartz. The calculations are carried out for two types of granitic groundwater: the Swiss reference groundwater (ionic strength I = 0.24 M) and the standard Swedish groundwater (I = 0.0044 M). It is calculated that the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite will have a pH of 9.7 and a carbonate activity of 8 x 10/sup -4/ M if the dry bentonite is saturated with Swiss reference groundwater; it will have a pH near 10.2 and )CO/sub 3//sup 2-/) = 8 x 10/sup -3/ M for standard Swedish groundwater. The long-term situation, which is important for nuclear waste disposal, is modeled by the assumption that the near field of a radioactive waste repository behaves like a mixing tank. It is calculated that sodium bentonite will be slowly converted to calcium bentonite over a long period. The model is used to calculate short- and long-term maximum solubilities of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and technetium in the near-field pore water of a potential Swiss nuclear waste repository. The redox potential in the near field is assumed to be controlled by the corrosion products of the iron canister.

  11. The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Choo Thye; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

  12. Physical and Permeability Characteristic of Recycle Glass-Kaolin Ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Sahar, M. R.; Safwan, A. P; Noorhidayah, C. M.

    2010-07-07

    A series of Recycle Glass-Kaolin ceramic has successful been made by solid state reaction and their physical and permeability characteristic has been studied. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterize the effect of OH group in the sample. It is found that the bulk density is in the range of 1.785gcm{sup -3} to 2.2817gcm{sup -3} while the impact energy is 1.785gcm{sup -3} to 2.2817gcm{sup -3} depending on the cullet content. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient is found to be 5.208x10{sup -4}cms{sup -1} to 1.812x10{sup -4}cms{sup -1} which is in the reducing trend. The IR Spectroscopy shows that the OH group decrease, the permeability decreases.

  13. Porewater chemistry in compacted re-saturated MX-80 bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Michael H.; Baeyens, Bart

    2003-03-01

    Bentonites of various types are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Being able to understand the chemistry of the porewater in compacted bentonite is very important since it is critical to predicting radionuclide solubilities and to the synthesis of sorption data bases, and hence to repository safety studies. In this paper, porewater compositions in compacted bentonites are calculated, taking into consideration such factors as montmorillonite swelling, semi-permeable membrane effects, very low "free water" volumes, and the highly effective buffering characteristics of the exchangeable cations and the amphoteric edge sites. The former buffer the cation concentrations and the latter fix the pH in the porewater of a re-saturated bentonite. The above considerations are used in conjunction with previously measured physico-chemical characterisation data on MX-80 powder to calculate porewater compositions in compacted bentonites. For the MX-80 material specified, the porewaters calculated for initial dry densities between 1200 and 1600 kg m -3 had relatively high ionic strengths (I ˜0.3 M), similar cation concentrations and a pH equal to 8.0. The porewaters changed from being Na 2SO 4-rich at 1200 kg m -3 to a NaCl/Na 2SO 4 type water at 1600 kg m -3.

  14. [Sorption characteristics of surfactant onto bentonite using microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Wu; Zhu, Li-Zhong; Cai, Wei-Jian

    2007-11-01

    The sorption curve of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) onto bentonite by microwave irradiation was studied. The effects of microwave reaction time and CPC concentration on interlayer spacing and organic carbon content of organobentonite were tested, respectively. Thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption of CPC onto bentonite by microwave irradiation were studied. The saturated adsorption amount of CPC to bentonite with microwave irradiation time from 90 s to 120 s was equal to that of conventional sorption, up to 0.001 63 mol x g(-1). On the condition of microwave irradiation time with 2 min and concentration of CPC with 1.20 mmol x L(-1), the interlayer spacing was attained to 2.44 nm at the best, and organic carbon content was 23.45%. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the typical layer morphological structure of bentonite was not devastated by microwave. Contrast to conventional sorption, sorption of CPC onto bentonite was greatly influenced by microwave, velocity constant of sorption reaction was increased 107.6 times, and free energy of sorption reaction system was decreased.

  15. Bentonite-amended soil special study. Phase 1 evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This special study was conducted to assess the viability of soil with a high percentage of bentonite added as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. To achieve maximum concentration limits (MCLs) at several UMTRA Project sites, covers with a very low permeability are needed. If alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are the appropriate site groundwater compliance strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to demonstrate, among other things, that the infiltration to the disposal cell is as low as reasonably achievable, and hence that the cover has a very low permeability. When the study discussed here was begun, the lowest permeability element available was CLAYMAX{sub R}, a manufactured liner material constructed of natural material (bentonite clay) between two geosynthetics.The strength of soil-bentonite mixes was measured to see if they could be placed on sideslopes and not pose stability problems. Also evaluated were the hydraulic conductivities of soil-bentonite mixes. If the strengths and permeabilities of soils with a high percentage of bentonite are favorable, the soils may be used as infiltration barriers in current cover designs without changing pile geometries. The scope of work for this study called for a literature review and a two-phased laboratory testing program. This report presents the results of the literature review and the first phase of the testing program.

  16. Porosity investigation of compacted bentonite using XRD profile modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmboe, Michael; Wold, Susanna; Jonsson, Mats

    2012-02-01

    Many countries intend to use compacted bentonite as a barrier in their deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In order to describe and predict hydraulic conductivity or radionuclide transport through the bentonite barrier, fundamental understanding of the microstructure of compacted bentonite is needed. This study examined the interlayer swelling and overall microstructure of Wyoming Bentonite MX-80 and the corresponding homo-ionic Na + and Ca 2 + forms, using XRD with samples saturated under confined swelling conditions and free swelling conditions. For the samples saturated under confined conditions, the interparticle, or so-called free or external porosity was estimated by comparing the experimental interlayer distances obtained from one-dimensional XRD profile fitting against the maximum interlayer distances possible for the corresponding water content. The results showed that interlayer porosity dominated total porosity, irrespective of water content, and that the interparticle porosity was lower than previously reported in the literature. At compactions relevant for the saturated bentonite barrier (1.4-1.8 g/cm 3), the interparticle porosity was estimated to ≤ 3%.

  17. Facile Selective and Diverse Fabrication of Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic-Superhydrophilic and Superamphiphobic Materials from Kaolin.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mengnan; Ma, Xuerui; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Liu, Shanshan; Yao, Yali; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-01-11

    As the starting material, kaolin is selectively and diversely fabricated to the superhydrophobic, superoleophobic-superhydrophilic, and superamphiphobic materials, respectively. The wettability of the kaolin surface can be selectively controlled and regulated to different superwetting states by choosing the corresponding modification reagent. The procedure is facile to operate, and no special technique or equipment is required. In addition, the procedure is cost-effective and time-saving and the obtained super-repellent properties are very stable. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrates different changes of kaolin particles surfaces which are responsible for the different super-repellency. The scanning electron microscopy displays geometric micro- and nanometer structures of the obtained three kinds of super-repellent materials. The results show that kaolin has good applications in many kinds of superwetting materials. The method demonstrated in this paper provides a new strategy for regulating and controlling the wettability of solid surfaces selectively, diversely, and comprehensively.

  18. A novel electrochemical alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Jun

    2008-04-01

    A novel liquid phase alkylation of aniline with methanol over Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin assisted with a pair of porous carbon electrode in slurry-bed reactor under constant current intensity, room temperature and atmospheric pressure was reported. The Zn/Cu salts modified kaolin catalysts were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometer (IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the transition metals were completely supported on kaolin's structure and formed a pored one. The effect parameters, such as initial pH, electrolysis time, metal ratio with kaolin and salts composition in this electrochemical catalytic system, were studied. The procedure was inspected by ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-vis), and the product distribution was detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, a possible reaction mechanism was also proposed.

  19. Distribution, characteristics, and worldwide inventory of dioxins in kaolin ball clays.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Minomo, Kotaro; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2011-09-01

    Distribution, characteristics, and global inventory of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs] and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls) in kaolin clays collected from 10 countries were investigated. Dioxins were found in all kaolin clay samples analyzed, at total concentrations ranging from 1.2 pg/g (Brazil) to 520,000 pg/g (USA). Dioxin concentrations in kaolin clays from a few countries (e.g., Brazil and UK) were lower than those reported for background soils in Japan. Dioxin profiles in kaolin clays were characterized by the domination of the congener octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and the concentrations of other congeners decreased in the order of reduction in the levels of chlorination. Furthermore, specific distribution of congeners, with predominant proportions of 1,4,6,9-substituted PCDDs within each homologue group, was found in most clay samples. The ratios of concentrations of PCDD to PCDF and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD to 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD indicated differences in the profiles found for anthropogenic sources (including pentachlorophenol) and kaolin clays. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in kaolin clays, except for American ball clays, did not exceed the environmental criteria set by the Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins in Japan. Based on the average concentrations measured in our study, inventories of PCDD/Fs from the production/usage of ball clays on a global scale were estimated to be 650 kg/yr; the corresponding value on a TEQ basis is 2400 g-TEQ/yr. More than 480 kg of OCDD is estimated to be released annually from the production of kaolin clays worldwide, suggesting that kaolin clays can be a major contributor for additional source of dioxins, especially OCDD, in the environment.

  20. The effect of activated dimethicone, other antacid constituents, and kaolin on the absorption of propranolol.

    PubMed

    McElnay, J C; D'Arcy, P F; Leonard, J K

    1982-05-15

    A study was made of the effect of 6 commonly used gastrointestinal preparations on the absorption of propranolol using an in vitro experimental model. The constituents examined were activated dimethicone, aluminium hydroxide gel, bismuth carbonate, kaolin, magnesium carbonate, and magnesium trisilicate. A slight decreased propranolol absorption was given by kaolin (-13.0%), the other components showed smaller effects ranging from -6.8% to +6.6%. None of the results were statistically significantly different from control absorption values.

  1. Diffusion, sorption, and retardation processes of anions in bentonite and organo-bentonites for multibarrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schampera, Birgit; Dultz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The low permeability, high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and plasticity of bentonites favor their use in multibarrier systems of waste deposits [1]. Bentonites have a high CEC but their ability to sorb anions is very low. There is, however, need for retardation of anions and organic pollutants in many applications. Bentonites, modified with certain organic cations, have the capacity to sorb anions and non-polar organic compounds in addition to cations. Investigations on organically modified clays address a wide variety of applications including immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils, waste water treatment and in situ placement for the protection of ground water [2]. Many experiments on anion and cation sorption of organo-clays were conducted in the batch mode which does not reflect solid-liquid ratios and material densities in barrier systems. Diffusion experiments on compacted clays allow the evaluation of transport processes and sorption of pollutants at conditions relevant for repositories. For organo-clays only few diffusion studies are published e.g. [3] measured the diffusion of tritium and [4] the diffusion of H2O in bentonite and organo-bentonites. The organic cation hexadecylpyridinium (HDPy) was added to Wyoming bentonite (MX-80) in amounts corresponding to 2-400 % of the CEC. The uptake of organic cations was determined by the C-content, XRD and IR-spectroscopy. Wettability was analyzed by the contact angle. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of clays were characterized. Diffusion experiments were carried out in situ in a cell attached to the ATR-unit of a FTIR-spectrometer. For H2O-diffusion the compacted organo-clays are saturated first with D2O, afterwards H2O is supplied to the surface at the top of the clay platelet. Anion-diffusion was conducted with NO3--solution instead of H2O only having characteristic IR band positions at 1350 cm-1. Three different concentrations (0.25M, 0.5M and 1M) were used. Additional batch

  2. Bentonite for ciprofloxacin removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Genç, Nevim; Can Dogan, Esra; Yurtsever, Meral

    2013-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) is the second generation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics whose residues are found in wastewater and surface water. CIP has high aqueous solubility under different pH conditions and high stability in the soil system. In this study, bentonite was used as a potential sorbent for the removal of CIP from aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed, ionic strength and initial concentration of CIP in aqueous solution on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The optimum contact time, pH, agitation speed and adsorbent dosage were found to be 30 min, 4.5 pH, 150 rpm and 2.5 g L(-1), respectively. When the ionic strength was increased from 5 to 50 mM, the adsorption of CIP decreased from 97.8 to 93.4%. The isotherm adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir model, Kl and qe were found to be 0.27 L mg(-1) and 147.06 mg g(-1), and the data fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics, whereby k was found to be 2.19 g mg(-1) h(-1).

  3. Evaluation of Acid Treatment on Brown Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C. G. Bastos; Justo, V. F.; Matos, C. M.; Valenzuela, M. G. S.; Volzone, C.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F. R.

    For industrial use, the smectite clays are usually treated with inorganic acid of high concentration at temperatures under boiling point, which provide the bentonités bleaching power. In the present paper, a sample of brown smectite from Paraiba, Brazil, was submitted to treatment under moderate conditions (90°C, reaction times of 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24hours in close reactor, concentration of the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 1.5M, clay/acid solution ratio of 1g/10mL), aiming to reduce impurities, responsible for the color of the clay, without causing significant changes in their structure. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), stereomicroscopy, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed a bleaching in samples with time of 12h to 18h. With the DRX was possible to monitor the peak intensity of the clay structure and the sample with 12 hours of treatment was not significantly altered its crystalline structure, maintaining the peak clay at d(001). The most pronounced changes in the bleaching occurred within the first 12 hours of acid treatment. Thus, clay can be used in products with high added value.

  4. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity.

  5. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  6. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods.

  7. Silurian K-bentonites of the Dnestr Basin, Podolia, Ukraine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    The Dnestr Basin of Podolia, Ukraine, is an epicratonic basin consisting of neritic carbonate and calcareous mudstone facies including a nearly complete Silurian sequence ranging from late Llandovery to late Pridoli in age. The Silurian section has served as a standard for regional and interregional studies as a consequence of its well-documented macro- and microfaunal assemblages. Approximately 24 mid- to Late Silurian K-bentonites are present in this succession, and their lateral persistence has aided in establishing regional correlations. The K-bentonites range from 1 to 40 cm in thickness and occur in the Bagovitsa (late Wenlock), Malinovtsy (Ludlow) and Skala (Pridoli) Formations. Discrimination diagrams based on immobile trace elements together with rare earth element data suggest the K-bentonites had a volcanic origin in a collision margin setting related to subduction. Thickness and stratigraphic distribution considerations are consistent with a source area in the Rheic Ocean.

  8. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Model of Bentonite Hydration and Swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancilova, Ilona; Hokr, Milan

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of coupled hydro-mechanical processes at the buffer and host rock interface (bentonite and granite) in the context of the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Granite, as one of the barriers, includes fractures which are the source for hydration of bentonite and its subsequent swelling. It affects the mechanical behaviour and possibly the stability of the whole system. A non-linear solution for the stress-deformation problem with swelling was developed. This solution is coupled with the non-linear diffusion problem (for unsaturated flow). The swelling is defined using a coefficient dependent on water content according to literature data, with the effective Young's modulus decreasing close to zero corresponding to the plastic state. Results confirm the expected non-uniform saturation, swelling, and stresses in bentonite and small contribution to a fracture displacement.

  9. Acid activation of bentonites and polymer-clay nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Komadel, P.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Slovak Academy of Sciences

    2009-04-01

    Modified bentonites are of widespread technological importance. Common modifications include acid activation and organic treatment. Acid activation has been used for decades to prepare bleaching earths for adsorbing impurities from edible and industrial oils. Organic treatment has sparked an explosive interest in a class of materials called polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNs). The most commonly used clay mineral in PCNs is montmorillonite, which is the main constituent of bentonite. PCN materials are used for structural reinforcement and mechanical strength, for gas permeability barriers, as flame retardants, and to minimize surface erosion (ablation). Other specialty applications include use as conducting nanocomposites and bionanocomposites.

  10. Strength and Compaction Analysis of Sand-Bentonite-Coal Ash Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobti, Jaskiran; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the strength and compaction characteristics of sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes prepared by varying percentages of sand, bentonite and coal ash to be used in cutoff walls and as a liner or cover material in landfills. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of sand-bentonite mixes and sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes were determined by conducting the standard proctor test. Also, the strength and stiffness characteristics of soil mixes were furnished using unconfined compressive strength test. The results of the study reveal influence of varying percentages of coal ash and bentonite on the compaction characteristics of the sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes. Also, validation of a statistical analysis of the correlations between maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and Specific Gravity (G) was done using the experimental results. The experimental results obtained for sand-bentonite, sand-bentonite-ash and coal ash-bentonite mixes very well satisfied the statistical relations between MDD, OMC and G with a maximum error in the estimate of MDD being within ±1 kN/m3. The coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.95 to 0.967 in case of sand-bentonite-ash mixes. However, for sand-bentonite mixes, the R2 values are low and varied from 0.48 to 0.56.

  11. [FTIR research on new kind of tapioca starch/bentonite composite casting binder].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Chen, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Yu-Ying

    2009-02-01

    Tapioca starch was used as the main material and self-developed organic-bentonite used as the modifier to make tapioca starch/bentonite composite binder by melting and solution intercalation technologies. The binder was characterized by means of FTIR, XRD and mechanical performance test. The results showed that the interlamellar spacing of improved organic bentonite was larger than that of organic bentonite and Na-bentonite, and the more the interlayer spacing of bentonite, the more advantageous the binder to the intercalation reaction between starch and bentonite, leading to higher dry tensile strength. The nanometer composite binder also features high bond strength, good humidity resistance, low costs and simple process, and is environment-friendly.

  12. Numerical simulation of alteration of sodium bentonite by diffusion of ionic groundwater components

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-12-01

    Experiments measuring the movement of trace amounts of radionuclides through compacted bentonite have typically used unaltered bentonite. Models based on experiments such as these may not lead to accurate predictions of the migration through altered or partially altered bentonite of radionuclides that undergo ion exchange. To address this problem, we have modified an existing transport code to include ion exchange and aqueous complexation reactions. The code is thus able to simulate the diffusion of major ionic groundwater components through bentonite and reactions between the bentonite and groundwater. Numerical simulations have been made to investigate the conversion of sodium bentonite to calcium bentonite for a reference groundwater characteristic of deep granitic formations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate as disintegrant in microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets elaborated by extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of a coprecipitate of chitosan and kaolin as disintegrant in the pellets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) (as a model of poorly water-soluble drug) produced by extrusion-spheronization was evaluated in this study. The effectiveness of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate to increase the dissolution rate was compared with that of kaolin and chitosan. A possible synergy effect was also evaluated between the coprecipitate, kaolin or chitosan and sorbitol, added to the pellets as a very water-soluble diluent. The chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate, the kaolin or the chitosan allowed pellets to be obtained of adequate size, roundness, mechanical strength and flow properties. Furthermore, the incorporation of chitosan-kaolin coprecipitate or chitosan significantly increased the dissolution rate of HCT independently of the sorbitol content. The effects on the dissolution of HCT derived from the incorporation of coprecipitate to the pellets can be attributed to its content of chitosan. However, the addition of kaolin into the pellets did not significantly affect the HCT dissolution process. The pellets incorporating coprecipitated chitosan-kaolin or chitosan and the maximum proportion of sorbitol (50%) led to the highest HCT dissolution rate and experienced a rapid and complete disintegration in the dissolution medium.

  14. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm2)/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s−1), kaolin accelerated onset of fibrin formation by ~100 sec when compared to collagen alone (250 sec vs. 350 sec), with little effect on platelet deposition. Even with kaolin present, arterial wall shear rate (1000 s−1) delayed and suppressed fibrin formation compared to venous wall shear rate. A comparison of surfaces for extrinsic activation (tissue factor TF/collagen) versus contact activation (kaolin/collagen) that each generated equal platelet deposition at 100 s−1 revealed: (1) TF surfaces promoted much faster fibrin onset (at 100 sec) and more endpoint fibrin at 600 sec at either 100 s−1 or 1000 s−1, and (2) kaolin and TF surfaces had a similar sensitivity for reduced fibrin deposition at 1000 s−1 (compared to fibrin formed at 100 s−1) despite differing coagulation triggers. Anti-platelet drugs inhibiting P2Y1, P2Y12, cyclooxygenase-1 or activating IP-receptor or guanylate cyclase reduced platelet and fibrin deposition on kaolin/collagen. Since FXIIa or FXIa inhibition may offer safe antithrombotic therapy, especially for biomaterial thrombosis, these defined collagen/kaolin surfaces may prove useful in drug screening tests or in clinical diagnostic assays of blood under flow conditions. PMID:25303860

  15. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L

    2014-12-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm(2))/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s(-1)), kaolin accelerated onset of fibrin formation by ~100 sec when compared to collagen alone (250 sec vs. 350 sec), with little effect on platelet deposition. Even with kaolin present, arterial wall shear rate (1000 s(-1)) delayed and suppressed fibrin formation compared to venous wall shear rate. A comparison of surfaces for extrinsic activation (tissue factor TF/collagen) versus contact activation (kaolin/collagen) that each generated equal platelet deposition at 100 s(-1) revealed: (1) TF surfaces promoted much faster fibrin onset (at 100 sec) and more endpoint fibrin at 600 sec at either 100 s(-1) or 1000 s(-1), and (2) kaolin and TF surfaces had a similar sensitivity for reduced fibrin deposition at 1000 s(-1) (compared to fibrin formed at 100 s(-1)) despite differing coagulation triggers. Anti-platelet drugs inhibiting P2Y1, P2Y12, cyclooxygenase-1 or activating IP-receptor or guanylate cyclase reduced platelet and fibrin deposition on kaolin/collagen. Since FXIIa or FXIa inhibition may offer safe antithrombotic therapy, especially for biomaterial thrombosis, these defined collagen/kaolin surfaces may prove useful in drug screening tests or in clinical diagnostic assays of blood under flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peripheral neurokinin-1 receptors contribute to kaolin-induced acute monoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Livia L; Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Yshii, Lidia M; Mesquita, Filiphe P N; Soares, Antonio G; Lima, Carla; Schenka, André; Grant, Andrew; Fernandes, Elizabeth; Muscará, Marcelo N; Costa, Soraia K P

    2015-01-01

    intra-articular co-injection of kaolin with carrageenan (CGN) in rodents is widely used as an experimental model of arthritis. However, the ability of kaolin to cause arthritis and related immune responses when administered alone is unclear. We evaluated the contribution of prostanoids and sensory C-fibres (and their neuropeptide substance P) to kaolin-induced inflammation in the rat knee. Wistar rats, 8-10 weeks old, received an intra-articular injection of kaolin (1-10 μg/joint) or saline into the knee joint. Knee inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines, pain behaviour and secondary tactile allodynia were assessed over 5 h, when synovial leukocyte counts, histopathological changes and proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated. The intra-articular injection of kaolin caused a dose- and time-dependent knee swelling and impairment of motion that were associated with secondary tactile allodynia, elevated concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, leukocyte infiltration, and histopathological changes in the ipsilateral hindpaw. The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist SR140333 or neonatal treatment with capsaicin markedly reduced the inflammatory parameters, cytokines and allodynia but failed to significantly inhibit the impaired motion. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin partially inhibited knee oedema and allodynia but did not affect the leukocyte influx, myeloperoxidase activity or impaired motion in the kaolin-injected rat. We show the first evidence that intra-articular injection of kaolin without CGN produced severe acute monoarthritis. This was highly dependent on substance P (released from C-fibres) and NK1 receptor activation, which stimulated local production of proinflammatory cytokines. This model may be of critical importance for mechanistic studies and screening new anti-inflammatory/analgesic drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Tranexamic acid induces kaolin intake stimulating a pathway involving tachykinin neurokinin 1 receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hitoshi; Kawarai-Shimamura, Asako; Kuwagata, Makiko; Orito, Kensuke

    2014-01-15

    Tranexamic acid suppresses post-partum haemorrhage and idiopathic menorrhagia through its anti-fibrinolytic action. Although it is clinically useful, it is associated with high risks of side effects such as emesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying tranexamic acid-induced emesis is very important to explore appropriate anti-emetic drugs for the prevention and/or suppression of emesis. In this study, we examined the receptors involved in tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats, which reflects the drug's clinical emetogenic potential in humans. Further, we examined the brain regions activated by administration of tranexamic acid and elucidated pivotal pathways of tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. We examined the effects of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, domperidone, a dopamine 2 receptor antagonist, and aprepitant, a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, on tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake in rats. Then, we determined the brain regions that showed increased numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Finally, we examined the effects of an antagonist(s) that reduced tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake on the increase in c-Fos immunoreactive cells. Aprepitant significantly decreased tranexamic acid-induced kaolin intake. However, neither ondansetron nor domperidone decreased kaolin intake. Tranexamic acid significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactive cells by approximately 5.5-fold and 22-fold in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract, respectively. Aprepitant decreased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in both areas. Tranexamic acid induced kaolin intake possibly via stimulation of tachykinin NK1 receptors in rats. The tachykinin NK1 receptor could be targeted to prevent and/or suppress emesis in patients receiving tranexamic acid.

  18. [Forming mechanism of humic acid-kaolin complexes and the adsorption of trichloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-jing; He, Jiang-tao; Su, Si-hui

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between soil organic components and mineral components was explored in this study. Humic acid and kaolin were used for the preparation of organic-mineral complexes with different contents of organic matter, for experimental study of the adsorption of trichloroethylene. The results showed that the adsorption of trichlorethylene fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The existence of interaction between humic acid and kaolin was indicated by the significant difference between the actual value and the theoretically overlaid value of the adsorption capacity. With various characterizations, such as FTIR and surface area & pore analysis, the mechanism of interaction between humic acid and kaolin was suggested as follows. When their contents were low, humic acid molecules firstly loaded on the surface binding sites of kaolin. Then with the content increased, as O/M( organic-mineral mass ratio) was 0.02-0.04, some surface pores of kaolin were filled by part of the molecules. After reaching a relatively stable stage, as O/M was 0.04-0.08, humic molecules continued to load on the surface of kaolin and formed the first humic molecule-layer. With humic acid content continued increasing, as O/M was 0.08-0.10, more humic molecules attached to kaolin surface through the interaction with the first layer of molecules and then formed the second layer. O/M was 0.10-0.16 as the whole second layer stage, meanwhile the first layer was compressed. Then when O/M was 0.16-0.4, there were still some humic loadings onto the second layer as the third layer, and further compressed the inner humic acid layers. Besides, some humic acid molecules or aggregates might go on attaching to form as further outer layer.

  19. Sodium Bentonite-Based Fire Retardant Coatings Containing Starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sodium bentonite (SB) gel and foam coatings were tested for their ability to suppress the rate of heat increase at the surface of commercial lap siding. Starch was added to some treatments to determine whether it stabilized the coating and prevented vertical slumping. A commercial fire protection ge...

  20. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  1. Sorption of 226Ra from waste effluents using Syrian bentonite.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, L; Al Masri, M S; Budeir, Y; Al Chayah, O

    2010-12-14

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using a batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of a new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were evidenced by XRD characterizations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite showed the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were studied using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominant processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with the Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium coprecipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro components, likely present in waste streams, was investigated by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. Sodium was found to be the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This showed the influential effect ofpH compared with other parameters.

  2. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Dilip; Rayalu, Sadhana; Kawade, Raju; Meshram, Siddharth; Subrt, J; Labhsetwar, Nitin

    2010-08-15

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mgg(-1) at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L(-1), which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed ( approximately 97%) using 1M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.

  3. Effect of bentonite on the fertility of an ordinary chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, E. V.; Khovanskii, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of bentonite clay on the main fertility parameters of an ordinary chernozem has been revealed. The maximum contents of nutrients in the soil have been obtained after the application of bentonite at rates of 7.5 t/ha for nitrate nitrogen and mobile potassium and 10.0 t/ha for available phosphorus. At the application of bentonite at rates of 10.0-15.0 t/ha, the content of agronomically valuable soil aggregates resistant to mechanical impact has increased by 2.7%, while that of water-stable aggregates has increased by 6.8%. The portion of water-stable microaggregates has increased, which has decreased the degree of dispersion. Because of the increased content of fine-silt and clay particles, the portion of physical clay in the soil has increased by 3.13%, and the portion of physical sand has decreased. The optimum application rate of bentonite (7.5 t/ha) has been found, which ensures an increase in the yield of sorghum by 16.3%. Its effect was insignificantly lower than that of mineral fertilizers.

  4. Synthesis of glass ceramics from kaolin and dolomite mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudchicha, Mohamed Reda; Rubio, Fausto; Achour, Slimane

    2017-02-01

    Cordierite- and anorthite-based binary glass ceramics of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system were synthesized by mixing local and abundant raw minerals (kaolin and doloma by mass ratio of 82/18). A kinetics study reveals that the activation energy of crystallization ( E a) calculated by the methods of Kissinger and Marotta are 438 kJ·mol-1 and 459 kJ·mol-1, respectively. The Avrami parameter ( n) is estimated to be approximately equal to 1, corresponding to the surface crystallization mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the anorthite and cordierite crystals are precipitated from the parent glass as major phases. Anorthite crystals first form at 850°C, whereas the μ-cordierite phase appears after heat treatment at 950°C. Thereafter, the cordierite allotropically transforms to α-cordierite at 1000°C. Complete densification is achieved at 950°C; however, the density slightly decreases at higher temperatures, reaching a stable value of 2.63 kg·m-3 between 1000°C and 1100°C. The highest Vickers hardness of 6 GPa is also obtained at 950°C. However, a substantial decrease in hardness is recorded at 1000°C; at higher sintering temperatures, it slightly increases with increasing temperature as the α-cordierite crystallizes.

  5. Activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Swelling behavior is an important criterion in achieving the low-permeability sealing function of buffer material. A potential buffer material may be used for radioactive waste repository in Taiwan is a locally available clayey material known as Zhisin clay, which has been identified as a Ca-bentonite. Due to its Ca-based origin, Zhisin was found to exhibit swelling capacity much lower than that of Na-bentonite. To enhance the swelling potential of Zhisin clay, a cation exchange process by addition of Na2CO3 powder was introduced in this paper. The addition of Na2CO3 reagent to Zhisin clay, in a liquid phase, caused the precipitation of CaCO3 and thereby induced a replacement of Ca2+ ions by Na+ ions on the surface of bentonite. Characterization test conducted on Zhisin clay includes chemical analysis, cation exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry (TG). Free-swelling test apparatus was developed according to International Society of Rock Mechanics recommendations. A series of free-swelling tests were conducted on untreated and activated specimens to characterize the effect of activation on the swelling capacity of Zhisin clay. Efforts were made to determine an optimum dosage for the activation, and to evaluate the aging effect. Also, the activated material was evaluated for its stability in various hydrothermal conditions for potential applications as buffer material in a repository. Experimental results show that Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is superior in swelling potential to untreated Zhisin clay. Also, there exists an optimum amount of activator in terms of improvements in the swelling capacity. A distinct time-swell relationship was discovered for activated Zhisin clay. The corresponding mechanism refers to exchange of cations and breakdown of quasi-crystal, which results in ion exchange hysteresis of Ca-bentonite. Due to the ion exchange hysteresis, activated bentonite shows a post-rise time-swell relationship different than the sigmoid

  6. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  7. Effects of the injection grout Silica sol on bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmboe, Michael; Wold, Susanna; Petterson, Torbjörn

    Silica sol, i.e., colloidal SiO 2, may be used as a low-pH injection grout for very fine fractures in the construction of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in Sweden and in Finland. If the bentonite barrier encounters SiO 2-colloid particles under conditions favorable for aggregation, there is concern that it will modify the bentonite barrier at the bentonite/bedrock interface. In this study qualitative experiments were performed with mixed dispersions of SiO 2-colloids and bentonite or homo-ionic Na/Ca-montmorillonite. Samples were prepared at different colloid concentrations and treated under various conditions such as low and high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl), as well as dehydration and redispersing. Free swelling and settling experiments were performed in order to qualitatively compare the conditions in which SiO 2-colloids affect the bulk/macro properties of bentonite. In order to study specific SiO 2-colloid/montmorillonite interactions and preferred type of initial aggregation, dilute dispersions of homo-ionic montmorillonite dispersions mixed with varying concentrations of SiO 2-colloids were prepared and selected samples were characterized by PCS, SEM/EDS, AFM and PXRD. The results from this study show that bentonite and montmorillonite particles can be modified by SiO 2-colloids when mixed in comparable amounts, due to dehydration or high ionic strength. Some indications for increased colloidal stability for the SiO 2-colloid modified clay particles were also found. From the AFM investigation it was found that initial attachment of the SiO 2-colloids in Na + dominated samples seemed to occur on the edges of the montmorillonite layers. In Ca 2+ dominated samples not subjected to excess NaCl, SiO 2-colloid sorption onto the faces of the montmorillonite layers was also found. In all, contact between the bentonite barrier and ungelled Silica sol should preferably be avoided.

  8. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), on tomato under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Linian; Trumble, John T; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-07-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate the repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerelli on tomato plants that had been sprayed with kaolin particle film on the upper surface only, on the lower surface only and on both leaf surfaces. In no-choice tests in the laboratory, the numbers of adults on leaves were not different between the kaolin particle film and the water control, regardless of which leaf surface(s) were treated, but numbers of eggs were lower on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on those treated with water. In choice tests on plants treated with water/plants treated with kaolin particle film at ratios of 1:1, 6:3 or 8:1, fewer adults and eggs were found on the leaves treated with kaolin particle film than on leaves treated with water. Under field conditions, in caged no-choice or choice tests, fewer adults, eggs and nymphs were found on plants treated with kaolin particle film than on plants treated with water. In an uncaged test under field conditions, plants sprayed with kaolin particle film had fewer psyllids than those sprayed with water. Even though potato psyllid adults could land on plants treated with kaolin particle film when no choice was given, fewer eggs were laid. When given a choice, the psyllids avoided plants treated with kaolin particle film under laboratory and field conditions. Kaolin particle film treatment may be a useful alternative for management of potato psyllids under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Provenance of sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt: Evidences from the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    This work reports, for the first time, the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes of the clay fractions (<2 μm) from sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt of different ages (Carboniferous and lower Cretaceous), localities (Sinai, Red Sea and Aswan), lithologies (flint and plastic) and clay minerals composition (pure kaolinite and mixture of kaolinite, illite and chlorite) to determine their source area compositions and examine the effect of provenance on their isotopic compositions. Measured (present day) and age-corrected Pb isotopes data (100 and 300 My for the Cretaceous and Carboniferous deposits, respectively) are more or less homogeneous in all deposits regardless of their ages, localities, and compositions. This, therefore, suggests that the Pb isotopes cannot be used as a tracer for source area compositions of these kaolin deposits. On the other hand, the studied kaolin deposits show variations in their measured and age-corrected Sr and Nd isotopes regarding to their ages and compositions. The Carboniferous illite-rich kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas, Sinai have higher measured and age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr ratios (average of 0.715742 and 0.711156 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the non-illitic Carboniferous deposit at Abu Natash area (average of 0.70772 and 0.70769 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) and the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.70827 and 0.70821 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). The Carboniferous kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas also have lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios (average of 0.51206 and 0.51180 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the Carboniferous Abu Natash deposit (average of 0.51253 and 0.51231 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) as well as the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.51248 and 0.51239 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). Initial εNd values are negative in the Carboniferous kaolin deposits

  10. Sequential use of bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Márquez, Gracia; Carpintero, Juan Carlos; Beltrán, Fernando J; Alvarez, Pedro

    2008-12-24

    The sequential use of low-cost adsorbent bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater has been studied. Three commercial sodium-bentonites (MB-M, MB-G, and MB-P) and one calcium-bentonite (Bengel) were characterized and used in this study. These clay materials were useful to totally remove turbidity (90-100%) and, to a lesser extent, color, polyphenols (PPh), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODS) from winery wastewater. Both surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite had a positive impact on treatment efficiency. The effect of pH on turbidity removal by bentonites was studied in the 3.5-12 pH range. The bentonites were capable of greatly removing turbidity from winery wastewater at pH 3.5-5.5, but removal efficiency decreased with pH increase beyond this range. Settling characteristics (i.e., sludge volume index (SVI) and settling rate) of bentonites were also studied. Best settling properties were observed for bentonite doses around 0.5 g/L. The reuse of bentonite for winery wastewater treatment was found not to be advisable as the turbidity and PPh removal efficiencies decreased with successive uses. The resulting wastewater after bentonite treatment was exposed to solar radiation at oxic conditions in the presence of Fe(III) and Fe(III)/H2O2 catalysts. Significant reductions of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), and PPh were achieved by these solar photocatalytic processes.

  11. Surfactant-modified bentonite clays: preparation, characterization, and atrazine removal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Singh, Neera

    2015-03-01

    Bentonite clay was modified using quaternary ammonium cations, viz. phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) [100 % of cation exchange capacity of clay], and stearylkonium (SK) [100 % (SK-I) and 250 % (SK-II) of cation exchange capacity of clay]. The organoclays were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atrazine adsorption on modified clays was studied using a batch method. Bentonite clay was a poor adsorbent of atrazine as 9.4 % adsorption was observed at 1 μg mL(-1) atrazine concentration. Modification of clay by PTMA cation did not improve atrazine adsorption capacity. However, atrazine adsorption in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-bentonites varied between 49 and 72.4 % and data fitted well to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R > 0.96). Adsorption of atrazine in organoclays was nonlinear and slope (1/n) values were <1. The product of Freundlich adsorption constants, K f(1/n) in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-I-bentonites was 239.2, 302.4, and 256.6, respectively, while increasing the SK cation loading in the clay (SK-II) decreased atrazine adsorption [K f(1/n) - 196.4]. Desorption of atrazine from organoclays showed hysteresis and TOMA- and SK-I-bentonites were the best organoclays to retain the adsorbed atrazine. Organoclays showed better atrazine removal from wastewater than an aqueous solution. The synthesized organoclays may find application in soil and water decontamination and as a carrier for atrazine-controlled released formulations.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  13. Several textural properties of compacted and cation-exchanged bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Hernandez, G.; Duplay, J.; Géraud, Y.; Martinez, L.

    2006-08-01

    One of the principal applications for bentonite is in drilling muds. Moreover it is widely used as a suspending and stabilizing agent, and as an adsorbent or clarifying agent, in many industries. Recently the bentonites have been proposed as engineered barriers for radioactive waste repository because these materials are supposed to build up a better impermeable zone around wastes by swelling. For these reasons, a textural characterization of bentonites in the laboratory is very important. The aim in this study was to estimate several textural properties of compacted and cation-exchanged bentonite by using Hg-porosimetry, N2-adsorption, water vapour adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and environmental scanning electron microscopy-digital images analysis measurements. For that, bulk samples were mechanically compressed at atmospheric conditions by using a uniaxial system at four different pressures (21, 35, 49, and 63 MPa) in order to obtain four physical densities. On the other hand, the bulk samples of bentonite were treated separately with four concentrated solutions (1N concentration) of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides in order to obtain a homoionic interlayer cation in the clay phase. The results showed that the macro-porosity (porous size>50 nm) and eventually the mesoporosity (porous size 2 50 nm) are affected by the uniaxial compaction. In this case, a transformation of the shape of the macro-pores network from tube to crack was observed. On the other hand, the swelling potential and water content are governed by the relative humidity and by the nature of interlayer cation.

  14. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of humic acid on physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs by particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Runsheng; Zhang, Xihui; Xiao, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2011-07-01

    The physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs including floc size, strength, regrowth, fractal structure and settling velocity were investigated by in situ particle image velocimetry technique at different humic acid concentration. Jar-test experimental results showed that the adsorbed humic acid had a significant influence on the coagulation process for alum and ferric chloride. Kaolin flocs formed with the ferric chloride were larger and stronger than those for alum at same humic acid concentration. Floc strength and regrowth were estimated by strength factor and recovery factor at different humic acid concentration. It was found that the increased humic acid concentration had a slight influence on the strength of kaolin flocs and resulted in much worse floc regrowth. In addition, the floc regrowth after breakage depended on the shear history and coagulants under investigation. The changes in fractal structure recorded continuously by in situ particle image velocimetry technique during the growth-breakage-regrowth processes provided a supporting information that the kaolin flocs exhibited a multilevel structure. It was proved that the increased humic acid concentration resulted in decrease in mass fractal dimension of kaolin flocs and consequently worse sedimentation performance through free-settling and microbalance techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-04-15

    The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activation and without activation. Then the results were analysed and compared between the non-activated and the kaolin-activated method. All blood samples became more hypercoagulable with the time elapsing, both in non-activated and kaolin-activated samples and differences between both groups were found statistically and clinically significant after only 0 minutes. The non-activated citrated method seems to be reliable and suitable for thrombelastography in non-emergency cases (planned surgical procedures) when we have time to wait 15-30 minutes to get results. In urgent situations a rapid thrombelastography test should be preferred. Although the kaolin-activated method can also be used, results must be interpreted with caution.

  17. The effect of kaolin on the combustion of demolition wood under well-controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Roger A; Todorovic, Dusan; Skreiberg, Oyvind; Becidan, Michael; Backman, Rainer; Goile, Franziska; Skreiberg, Alexandra; Sørum, Lars

    2012-07-01

    In an attempt to look at means for reduction of corrosion in boilers, combustion experiments are performed on demolition wood with kaolin as additive. The experiments were performed in a multi-fuel reactor with continuous feed of pellets and by applying staged air combustion. A total characterization of the elemental composition of the fuel, the bottom ash and some particle size stages of fly ash was performed. This was done in order to follow the fate of some of the problematic compounds in demolition wood as a function of kaolin addition and other combustion-related parameters. In particular chlorine and potassium distribution between the gas phase, the bottom ash and the fly ash is reported as a function of increased kaolin addition, reactor temperature and air staging. Kaolin addition of 5 and 10% were found to give the least aerosol load in the fly ash. In addition, the chlorine concentration in aerosol particles was at its lowest levels for the same addition of kaolin, although the difference between 5 and 10% addition was minimal. The reactor temperature was found to have a minimal effect on both the fly ash and bottom ash properties.

  18. Effects of kaolin particle films on the life span of an orb-weaver spider.

    PubMed

    Benhadi-Marín, Jacinto; Pereira, José Alberto; Santos, Sónia A P

    2016-02-01

    Araniella cucurbitina (Araneae: Araneidae) is a widespread orb-weaver spider commonly found in agroecosystems. Mineral particle films such as kaolin, due to their protective or anti-feeding action, can represent an alternative to pesticides, especially in organic farming systems, but little is known about its effects on A. cucurbitina. Therefore, we tested the effect of kaolin sprays on the life span of A. cucurbitina under laboratory conditions. Four treatments were tested encompassing different exposure routes. Thus, kaolin sprays were applied on (i) the surface, (ii) the prey (fly), (iii) the spider and (iv) both spider & prey. A control group was tested with water in each treatment. Results showed that sprays of kaolin significantly affected the survival of A. curcubitina when applications were done on the surface and on both spider & prey registering a reduction of 48% and 56%, respectively. Spiders in control obtained higher probability of reaching alive at the end of the assay than those treated with kaolin. Differences observed can be explained by the feeding behavior of the species and may depend on the consumption of the web by the spider and the ratio spider/fly for body size.

  19. Understanding the THMC evolution of bentonite barrier — modeling an in situ test for bentonite backfilled engineered barrier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The most common buffer material for engineered barrier system (EBS) is compacted bentonite, which features low permeability and high retardation of radionuclide transport. The safety functions of EBS bentonite include limiting transport in the near field; damping the shear movement of the host rock; preventing the sinking of canisters, limiting pressure on the canister and rock, and reducing microbial activity. To assess whether EBS bentonite can maintain these favorable features when undergoing heating from the waste package and hydration from the host rock, we need a thorough understanding of the thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical evolution of bentonite under disposal conditions. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test was dismantled after 18 years' heating and hydration. The comprehensive THMC data obtained in the test provide a unique opportunity to validate coupled THMC models and deepen our understanding of the THMC evolution in bentonite. In this presentation, coupled THMC models were developed for the in situ test. Water content data obtained after dismantling and relative humidity data measured real time showed that the hydration of bentonite is slower than predicted by the typical Darcy flow model. Including Non-Darcian flow into the model however leads a significant underestimation of the relative humidity data. The reason could be that the calibration of relative permeability (and retention curve) already encompasses the nonlinear relationship between gradient and flux for bentonite, which would obviate the consideration of Non-Darcian flow in the model. THMC models that take into account the porosity and permeability changes due to mechanical processes match reasonably well all the THM data. However, they did not provide a desirable fit of the measured Cl concentration profile, further calibration of porosity/permeability changes over the course of hydration and swelling and considering thermal osmosis eventually

  20. Coupled thermo-hydro-chemical models of swelling bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samper, Javier; Mon, Alba; Zheng, Liange; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Pisani, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological repositories is based on the multibarrier concept of retention of the waste by a combination of engineered and geological barriers. The engineered barrier system (EBS) includes the solid conditioned waste-form, the waste container, the buffer made of materials such as clay, grout or crushed rock that separate the waste package from the host rock and the tunnel linings and supports. The geological barrier supports the engineered system and provides stability over the long term during which time radioactive decay reduces the levels of radioactivity. The strong interplays among thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration, thermal and solute transport stages of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository call for coupled THMC models for the metallic overpack, the unsaturated compacted bentonite and the concrete liner. Conceptual and numerical coupled THMC models of the EBS have been developed, which have been implemented in INVERSE-FADES-CORE. Chemical reactions are coupled to the hydrodynamic processes through chemical osmosis (C-H coupling) while bentonite swelling affects solute transport via changes in bentonite porosity changes (M-H coupling). Here we present THMC models of heating and hydration laboratory experiments performed by CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) on compacted FEBEX bentonite and numerical models for the long-term evolution of the EBS for 1 Ma. The changes in porosity caused by swelling are more important than those produced by the chemical reactions during the early evolution of the EBS (t < 100 years). For longer times, however, the changes in porosity induced by the dissolution/precipitation reactions are more relevant due to: 1) The effect of iron mineral phases (corrosion products) released by the corrosion of the carbon steel canister; and 2) The hyper alkaline plume produced by the concrete liner. Numerical results show that

  1. Pica as an adaptive response: Kaolin consumption helps rats recover from chemotherapy-induced illness

    PubMed Central

    De Jonghe, Bart C.; Lawler, Maureen P.; Horn, Charles C.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Clay consumption can occur during illness but there has been little work to understand why. To investigate whether consuming clay confers an advantage to the sick animal, we compared the recovery from illness of adult male rats with or without access to kaolin. Illness was induced by injection of 6 mg/kg, ip, cisplatin, a toxic chemotherapy agent, and recovery was assessed by changes in daily food intake, water intake, and body weight. Relative to saline-injected controls, cisplatin-injected rats reduced food and water intake and lost weight. However, those with access to kaolin ate more food and lost less body weight than did those without access to kaolin. Thus, clay consumption appeared beneficial in that it either protected the rats from illness or enhanced recovery and might prove useful as an adjunct therapy for other animals, including humans, experiencing visceral malaise. PMID:19419663

  2. An inhibitor to rubella hemagglutination present in bovine albumin preparations: its removal by treatment with kaolin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J B; Ellins, M L; Tasios, C

    1977-07-18

    Certain commercial preparations of bovine albumin, fraction V, show inhibitory activity in the rubella hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. This does not appear to be due to albumin per se, but instead to a contaminant (or contaminants) with the properties of a lipoprotein. All inhibitory activity can be removed from albumin preparations by treatment with kaolin, gel filtration, or flotation ultracentrifugation. We have found that, even when there was no inhibition of HA titers, kaolin treatment of the albumins prior to their incorporation into the test diluent resulted in more clearly defined agglutination patterns. Reasons for and against including albumin in the test diluent are discussed. It is concluded that, although not essential, it is a worthwhile additive. Our data suggest, however, that each batch of albumin used for this purpose should be checked for the presence of inhibitor, and that treatment with kaolin might be considered as a routine step prior to its incorporation into the test diluent.

  3. Impact factors and thermodynamic characteristics of aquatic humic acid loaded onto kaolin.

    PubMed

    Qinyan, Yue; Ying, Li; Baoyu, Gao

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of humic acid (HA) on kaolin particles was studied at various conditions of initial solution pH, ionic strength and solid-to-liquid ratio. The resulting affinity of interactions between humic acid and kaolin was attributed to the surface coordination of HA in ambient suspensions of mineral particles and the strong electrostatic force at low pH. Addition of inorganic salt can also influence the adsorption behavior by affecting the HA molecular structure, the clay particle zeta potential and so on. Equilibrium data were well fitted by the Freundlich model and implied the occurrence of multilayer adsorption in the process. In addition, the enthalpy dependent of system temperature was 79.17 kJ/mol, which proved that the mechanism of HA adsorption onto kaolin was comprehensive, including electrostatic attraction, ligand complexation and hydrogen bonding.

  4. Influence of Illite and Kaolin on Chromium(VI) Reduction by Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Yeqing; Kim, Chulsung; Deng, Baolin; Thorton, Edward C.

    2004-03-29

    Use of hydrogen sulfide for reductive chromate immobilization requires us to understand how the minerals in the subsurface environment will affect the reaction. In this study, we examined the effects of illite and kaolin on the reduction of Cr(VI) by hydrogen sulfide under the anaerobic condition at pH ranging from 7.67 to 9.07. The results showed that extremely low concentration of iron dissolved from illite could greatly accelerate the rate of Cr(VI) reduction. An electron cycling process between Fe(II)/Fe(III) was believed to be responsible for the catalysis. The effect of iron could be completely blocked by phenanthroline that formed a strong complex with Fe(II). Elemental sulfur produced as a reaction product was also able to catalyze the reaction in the heterogeneous system. In the kaolin suspension, however, the effect of elemental sulfur could be completely eliminated because of the adsorption of elemental sulfur by kaolin.

  5. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral.

  6. The role of kaolin particles in the performance of a carbamate-based biocide for water bacterial control.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Olivia; Vieira, Maria João; Melo, Luis F

    2002-01-01

    The influence of kaolin particles on the activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and on the efficacy of a carbamate-based biocide was investigated. The results indicated that kaolin particles stimulated the activity of the bacteria for all buffered pH values studied (5, 7, and 9); this effect being more evident for the tests carried out at pH 5 and 9. The presence of the clay in P. fluorescens suspensions decreased the efficiency of disinfection of the carbamate. The results also showed that kaolin was very effective in removing carbamate from the culture media. Therefore, the biocide concentration in the solution decreased, and consequently its availability to the bacteria was reduced. The results could be explained by the interaction between kaolin particles and carbamate and by the changes in the configuration of kaolin aggregates, depending on the pH value.

  7. Molecular aggregates of Merocyanine 540 in aqueous suspensions containing natural and CTAB-modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz

    2015-03-01

    The molecular interactions of MC-540 (Merocyanine 540) in clay suspensions containing natural bentonite and CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)-modified bentonite were examined by using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Strong affinity of clays for dye adsorption caused the strong interaction of MC-540 molecules with bentonite particles in aqueous dispersion. The interaction of dye with natural bentonite and CTAB-modified bentonite particles in aqueous dispersion caused significant changes in the photophysical properties of MC-540 when they were compared to those in pure water. Spectral data revealed that monomer, H-dimer and H-aggregate of MC-540 in the clay aqueous dispersions were formed depending on dye concentration. Moreover, H-aggregates of dye were predominantly formed in the CTAB-modified bentonite aqueous suspension. The presence of H-aggregates strongly decreased the fluorescence lifetime of MC-540.

  8. Sorption of wastewater containing reactive red X-3B on inorgano-organo pillared bentonite*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiu-Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Bentonite is a kind of natural clay with good exchanging ability. By exchanging its interlamellar cations with various soluble cations, such as quaternary ammonium cations and inorganic metal ions, the properties of natural bentonite can be greatly improved. In this study, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA), CaCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3 were used as organic and inorganic pillared materials respectively to produce several kinds of Ca-, Mg-, Fe-, Al-organo pillared bentonites. Sorption of reactive red X-3B on them was studied to determine their potential application as sorbents in wastewater treatment. The results showed that these pillared bentonites had much improved sorption properties, and that the dye solutions’ pH value had some effect on the performance of these inorgano-organo pillared bentonites. Isotherms of reactive X-3B on these pillared bentonites suggested a Langmuir-type sorption mechanism. PMID:16532535

  9. The use of bentonite to remove dark colour in repeatingly used palm oil.

    PubMed

    Meesuk, Ladda; Vorasith, Niramon

    2006-01-01

    Acid-activated bentonite was used as a bleaching agent to remove the dark color in repeatingly used palm oil. Two bentonite samples with different colors were used. It was found that the paler one gave better bleaching results. The optimum condition needed 5 h to reflux bentonite with sulfuric acid; pH of the bentonite suspension was 3, bleaching temperature was 80-85 degrees C and bleaching time was 30 min. The experiments also showed that bentonite could adsorb impurities and toxic compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene in palm oil. Chemical and physical properties of the bentonite samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particle size and specific surface area were also studied.

  10. Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.

    2015-03-01

    Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.

  11. Comparison of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples for thrombelastographic analysis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Flint, Sarah K; Wood, R Darren; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Kruth, Stephen A; Bersenas, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis is a test of global hemostasis in veterinary medicine; however, there have been limited comparisons of analysis of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in TEG variables between citrated native and kaolin-activated whole blood samples and to establish reference intervals for both sample types. Citrated whole blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy dogs. Thirty minutes after collection, TEG analysis was performed simultaneously on samples with and without kaolin-activation. Reaction time (R), clotting time (K), angle (α), maximum amplitude (MA), global clot strength (G), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (LY30) were recorded, and the concordance correlation coefficient (ρ(c)) was calculated for each sample type. Significant differences between results obtained for kaolin-activated and native samples were obtained for R (mean difference -1.3 minute, P = .0009), K (-0.7 minute, P = .0003), α (+5.1º, P = .002), MA (+2.4 mm, P = .002), and G (+568 dyn/cm(2), P = .0009). LY30 was not different between methods. There was substantial agreement between methods for G (ρ(c) = .69) and MA (ρ(c) = .65), moderate agreement for R (ρ(c) = .45) and α (ρ(c) = .44), fair agreement for K (ρ(c) = .29), and slight agreement for LY30 (ρ(c) = .04). The TEG variables were significantly altered by kaolin activation; however, some agreement between sample types suggests a consistent bias. In citrated whole blood activated with kaolin, clot formation time is shortened and the amplitude of the tracing is increased, resulting in a TEG tracing that appears to indicate relative hypercoagulability compared with that obtained using native citrated whole blood samples. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Correlation Between Chromophore Impurity Content and Fired Colour Data of Kaolin Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Parvesh; Misra, S. N.; Sharma, T.

    Different kaolin clay specimen exhibit varying colours after firing depending upon the relative presence of different mineral impurities, physical state of mineral constituents etc. Spectrophotometers used for determining colour values generate many sets of colour data. Interpretation of such colour values is a subjective matter. Increase in darkness, yellowness etc as a consequence of increase in chromophore impurity content in kaolin clay have been shown. However, the inverse of above ie; gradual change in colour values along with gradual change in chromophore impurity content over a realistic range has not been studied. Whether the colour data of kaolin clay after firing can be taken up as a function of impurity content needs to be investigated. Thus, to identify the correlation between kaolin clay impurity content and it's fired colour data the present investigation examined the hypotheses i) The colour development after firing of kaolin clay is an indicator of chromophore impurity content present therein and ii) All the colour variables (L, a, b, ISO2470, redness) constituting a colour data set of pressed kaolin clay specimen after firing will vary in similar manner such that to represent variation in impurity content. The study indicated that the colour values obtained by spectrophotometry of clay specimens after firing represent the chromophore impurity present therein in a less reliable manner. To relatively estimate the quantity of chromophore impurity present in a clay sample from its fired colour, the sample should be mixed with 50% by weight of potash feldspar, pressed in to tablet suitable for colour measurement and fired at or above 1220°C to vitrify. After that the ‘L’, ‘a’ and ‘ISO2470’ values obtained truly represent the chromophore present therein.

  13. Influence of bentonite particles on representative gram negative and gram positive bacterial deposition in porous media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2012-11-06

    The significance of clay particles on the transport and deposition kinetics of bacteria in irregular quartz sand was examined by direct comparison of both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with clay particles in bacteria suspension versus those without clay particles. Two representative cell types, Gram-negative strain E. coli DH5α and Gram-positive strain Bacillus subtilis were utilized to systematically determine the influence of clay particles (bentonite) on cell transport behavior. Packed column experiments for both cell types were conducted in both NaCl (5 and 25 mM ionic strengths) and CaCl(2) (5 mM ionic strength) solutions at pH 6.0. The breakthrough plateaus with bentonite in solutions (30 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1)) were lower than those without bentonite for both cell types under all examined conditions, indicating that bentonite in solutions decreased cell transport in porous media regardless of cell types (Gram-negative or Gram-positive) and solution chemistry (ionic strength and ion valence). The enhanced cell deposition with bentonite particles was mainly observed at segments near to column inlet, retained profiles for both cell types with bentonite particles were therefore steeper relative to those without bentonite. The increased cell deposition with bentonite observed in NaCl solutions was attributed to the codeposition of bacteria with bentonite particles whereas, in addition to codeposition of bacteria with bentonite, the bacteria-bentonite-bacteria cluster formed in suspensions also contributed to the increased deposition of bacteria with bentonite in CaCl(2) solution.

  14. Influence of Bentonite Particles on the Transport and Deposition Behavior of Bacteria in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiyan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2013-04-01

    The influence of clay particles on the transport and deposition behavior of bacteria in irregular quartz sand was examined by direct comparison of both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with clay particles in bacteria suspension versus those without clay particles. Two representative cell types, Gram-negative strain E.coli DH5α and Gram-positive strain Bacillus subtilis were utilized to systematically determine the influence of clay particles (bentonite) on cell transport behavior. Packed column experiments for both cell types were conducted in both NaCl (5 and 25 mM ionic strengths) and CaCl2 (5 mM ionic strength) solutions at pH 6.0. The breakthrough plateaus with bentonite in solutions (30 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1) were lower than those without bentonite for both cell types under all examined conditions, indicating that bentonite in solutions decreased cell transport in porous media regardless of cell types (Gram-negative or Gram-positive) and solution chemistry (ionic strength and ion valence). The enhanced cell deposition with bentonite particles was mainly observed at segments near to column inlet, retained profiles for both cell types with bentonite particles therefore were steeper relative to those without bentonite. The increased cell deposition with bentonite observed in NaCl solutions was mainly attributed to the co-deposition of bacteria with bentonite particles whereas, in addition to co-deposition of bacteria with bentonite, the bacteria-bentonite-bacteria cluster formed in suspensions also contributed to the increased deposition of bacteria with bentonite in CaCl2 solution.

  15. Differences in lung function and prevalence of pneumoconiosis between two kaolin plants.

    PubMed Central

    Baser, M E; Kennedy, T P; Dodson, R; Rawlings, W; Rao, N V; Hoidal, J R

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the origin of differences in previously published pulmonary function studies of workers in kaolin plants in Georgia, spirometric and radiographic data collected in a cross sectional survey of two large plants were analysed. As compared with workers in plant 2, workers in plant 1 had a 2.7-fold greater prevalence of pneumoconiosis and a mean 0.361 decrement in adjusted forced vital capacity. Our previous finding that exposure to kaolin was not associated with a decrement in lung function may have resulted from failure to consider differences between the plants. PMID:2590641

  16. Pisolitic flint kaolin from Kalabsha, Egypt: A laterite-derived facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Gilg, H. Albert

    2011-05-01

    Nodular, pisolitic, and plastic kaolins from Kalabsha area, Egypt were investigated for their textural, mineralogical, and geochemical compositions to examine their source and origin. The three kaolins are composed of kaolinite, quartz, anatase, and traces of hematite and rutile. Clay fractions have relatively high Nb (56-189 ppm) and Zr (480-1260 ppm) contents. Heavy minerals from the sand fractions are composed of zircon, high Cr rutile, and leucoxene. Detrital quartz occurs as either monocrystalline or polycrystalline grains with worm-like corrosion features. Two types of quartz were distinguished based on their cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis; bright and dark luminescence quartz. Rare earth elements (REEs) patterns show enrichment of light REEs relative to heavy REEs ((La/Yb) N = 1.6-10) and negative Eu anomaly (Eu*/Eu = 0.6-0.7). Nodular and pisolitic kaolins show distinct positive Ce anomaly (Ce*/Ce = 1.2-3.4) and a variable LREE depletion. The pisolitic kaolin is considered here as flint kaolin based on its unique characteristics such as hardness, massiveness, conchoidal fracture, high density, very fine-grained nature, resistance to slacking in water, high crystallinity, and homogeneous compositions. Abundance of high Cr rutile, polycrystalline, and dark luminescent quartz suggest a contribution of medium to high grade metamorphic mafic rocks to the source of Kalabsha kaolins, while presence of zircon, bright luminescence monocrystalline quartz, and REEs pattern indicate a contribution of granitic rocks. The unusual high Nb contents attest to a contribution of alkaline rocks in the source area of the deposits. Lithostratigraphic succession, pisolitic texture, corroded quartz, depletion of many trace elements including LREE, distinct positive Ce anomaly, unusual grain size distribution, and compositional homogeneity suggest a lateritic precursor of the pisolitic flint kaolin. The lateritic precursor sediments have been deferrated and resilicified in the

  17. Characterization of organo-modified bentonite sorbents: The effect of modification conditions on adsorption performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolo, María E.; Pettinari, Gisela R.; Musso, Telma B.; Sánchez-Izquierdo, María P.; Fernández, Laura G.

    2014-11-01

    The organic modification of a natural bentonite was evaluated using two methods: exchanging the interlayer cations by hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and grafting with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) and γ-methacryloyloxy propyl trimethoxysilane (TMSPMA) on montmorillonite surface. The physicochemical characterization of all materials was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques. HDTMA cations and organosilanes were intercalated into the interlayer space of montmorillonite, as deduced from the increase of the basal spacing. IR spectroscopy, TGA and BET area give evidence of successful organic modification. The studies show a decrease in the IR absorption band intensity at 3465 cm-1 with surfactant modification, and also a decrease of mass loss due to adsorbed water observed in two samples: the organoclay and functionalized bentonites, which are evidences of a lower interlayer hydrophilicity. The efficiency of aniline removal onto natural bentonite, organobentonite and functionalized bentonites from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Aniline sorption on natural bentonite was studied using batch experiments, XRD and IR spectroscopy. The hydrophobic surface of organobentonite and functionalized bentonites increased the retention capacity for nonionic organic substances such as aniline on bentonites. The sorption properties of modified bentonite, through different modification methods, enhanced the potential industrial applications of bentonites in water decontamination.

  18. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH < 6.5 because of the strong complexation, and inhibits U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  19. Spectral characteristics of the bentonite loaded with benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdan, Marek; Maryuk, Oksana; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Pikus, Stanisław; Kwiatkowski, Ryszard

    2008-02-01

    The spectral characterization, including the FTIR, DRIFT (diffusive reflectance), SWAXS (small and wide angle X-ray scattering) spectra comparison of the sodium bentonite modified by BDMODA-Cl (benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride), HDTMA-Br (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide), DDA-Br (dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide) is presented in the paper. The FTIR spectra show the shift of C-H stretching vibrations: νsym(CH2), νasym(CH2) of surfactants methylene chains toward lower frequencies (from 2855 to 2851 cm -1 for νsym(CH2) and from 2927 to 2918 cm -1 for νansym(CH2) with the surfactant concentration in bentonite phase. The bending vibrations δH-O-H in water molecules change their positions in the direction of higher frequencies (from 1634 to 1647 cm -1) with the surfactant concentration for bentonite-BDMODA and bentonite-DDA contrary to bentonite-HDTMA, where the constant position δH-O-H is explained as the consequence of the lower concentration of the hydrogen bonded water in bentonite-HDTMA phase when compared with the remaining forms of bentonite. The DRIFT spectra reveal dramatic shift of the νSi-O stretching vibration toward higher frequencies upon intercalation of the sodium bentonite with the surfactant cations. The SWAXS spectra and SEM images of the bentonite are the evidence of somewhat different sorption mechanism of DDA-Br when compared with the BDMODA-Cl and HDTMA-Br, including remarkable external surface sorption contribution in the overall sorption.

  20. Water migration through compacted bentonite backfills for containment of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H.; Hodges, F.N.; Kuhn, W.L.; Myers, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Tests carried out with compacted sodium and calcium bentonites at room temperature indicate that bentonite backfills will effectively control water movement near a high-level nuclear waste package. Saturation tests indicate that water will rapidly diffuse into a dry bentonite backfill, reaching saturation in times on the order of tens of years. The apparent diffusion coefficient for sodium bentonite (about5 wt% initial water content) compacted to 2.1 g/cm/sup 3/ is 1.7 x 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2//sec. However, the hydraulic conductivities of saturated bentonites are low, ranging from approximately 10/sup -11/ cm/sec to 10/sup -13/ cm/sec over a density range of 1.5 g/cm/sup 3/ to 2.2 g/cm/sup 3/. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted bentonites are at least several orders of magnitude lower than those of candidate-host silicate rocks, indicating that most flowing groundwater contacting a bentonite backfill would be diverted around the backfill rather than flowing through it. In addition, because of the very low hydraulic conductivities of bentonite backfills, the rate of chemical transport between the containerized waste and the surrounding host rock will be effectively controlled by diffusion through the backfill. The formation of a diffusion barrier by the backfill will significantly reduce the long-term rate of radionuclide release from the waste package, an advantage distinct from the delay in release resulting from the sorptive properties of a bentonite backfill.

  1. Pre- and post-shunting observations in adult sheep with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine host-shunt interactions in sheep with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Methods Forty-two sheep (29–40 kg) were utilized for this study. In 20 animals, various kaolin doses were injected into the cisterna magna including 10 and 50 mg/kg as well as 2–4 ml of a 25% kaolin suspension. Based on animal health and hydrocephalus development, 3 ml of a 25% kaolin suspension was chosen. In 16 animals, kaolin was administered and 6–8 days later, the animals received a custom made ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In 8 animals ventricular CSF pressures were measured with a water manometer before kaolin administration and 7–8 days later. The sheep were allowed to survive for up to 9–12 weeks post-kaolin or until clinical status required euthanasia. Brains were assessed for morphological and histological changes. Ventricle/cerebrum cross sectional area ratios (V/C) were calculated from photographs of the sliced coronal planes immediately anterior to the interventricular foramina. Results Intraventricular pressures increased from 12.4±1.1 cm H2O to 41.3±3.5 cm H2O following kaolin injection (p < 0.0001, n = 8). In all animals, we observed kaolin on the basal surface of the brain and mild (V/C 0.03-0.10) to moderate (V/C >0.10) ventricular expansion. The animals lost weight between kaolin administration and shunting (33.7±1.2 kg versus 31.0±1.7 kg) with weights after shunting remaining stable up to sacrifice (31.6±2.2 kg). Of 16 shunted animals, 5 did well and were sacrificed 9–12 weeks post-kaolin. In the remainder, the study was terminated at various times due to deteriorating health. Hydrocephalus was associated with thinning of the corpus callosum, but no obvious loss of myelin staining, along with reactive astroglial (glial fibrillary acidic immunoreactive) and microglial (Iba1 immunoreactive) changes in the white matter. Ventricular shunts revealed choroid plexus ingrowth in 5/16, brain

  2. Physiological Effects of Kaolin Applications in Well-irrigated and Water-stressed Walnut and Almond Trees

    PubMed Central

    ROSATI, A.; METCALF, S. G.; BUCHNER, R. P.; FULTON, A. E.; LAMPINEN, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Kaolin applications have been used to mitigate the negative effects of water and heat stress on plant physiology and productivity with variable results, ranging from increased to decreased yields and photosynthetic rates. The mechanisms of action of kaolin applications are not clear: although the increased albedo reduces leaf temperature and the consequent heat stress, it also reduces the light available for photosynthesis, possibly offsetting benefits of lower temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate which of these effects are prevalent and under which conditions. • Methods A 6 % kaolin suspension was applied on well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut (Juglans regia) and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees. Water status (i.e. stem water potential, Ψs), gas exchange (i.e. light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate, Amax; stomatal conductance, gs), leaf temperature (Tl) and physiological relationships in treated and control trees were then measured and compared. • Key Results In both species, kaolin did not affect the daily course of Ψs whereas it reduced Amax by 1–4 μmol CO2 m–2 s–1 throughout the day in all combinations of species and irrigation treatments. Kaolin did not reduce gs in any situation. Consequently, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was always greater in treated trees than in controls, suggesting that the reduction of Amax with kaolin was not due to stomatal limitations. Kaolin reduced leaf temperature (Tl) by about 1–3 °C and leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (VPDl) by about 0·1–0·7 kPa. Amax was lower at all values of gs, Tl and VPDl in kaolin-treated trees. Kaolin affected the photosynthetic response to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in almond leaves: kaolin-coated leaves had similar dark respiration rates and light-saturated photosynthesis, but a higher light compensation point and lower apparent quantum yield, while the photosynthetic light-response curve saturated at

  3. Physiological effects of kaolin applications in well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut and almond trees.

    PubMed

    Rosati, A; Metcalf, S G; Buchner, R P; Fulton, A E; Lampinen, B D

    2006-07-01

    Kaolin applications have been used to mitigate the negative effects of water and heat stress on plant physiology and productivity with variable results, ranging from increased to decreased yields and photosynthetic rates. The mechanisms of action of kaolin applications are not clear: although the increased albedo reduces leaf temperature and the consequent heat stress, it also reduces the light available for photosynthesis, possibly offsetting benefits of lower temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate which of these effects are prevalent and under which conditions. A 6% kaolin suspension was applied on well-irrigated and water-stressed walnut (Juglans regia) and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees. Water status (i.e. stem water potential, psi(s)), gas exchange (i.e. light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate, Amax; stomatal conductance, g(s)), leaf temperature (T(l)) and physiological relationships in treated and control trees were then measured and compared. In both species, kaolin did not affect the daily course of psi(s) whereas it reduced Amax by 1-4 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) throughout the day in all combinations of species and irrigation treatments. Kaolin did not reduce g(s) in any situation. Consequently, intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) was always greater in treated trees than in controls, suggesting that the reduction of Amax with kaolin was not due to stomatal limitations. Kaolin reduced leaf temperature (T(l)) by about 1-3 degrees C and leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (VPD(l)) by about 0.1-0.7 kPa. Amax was lower at all values of g(s), T(l) and VPD(l) in kaolin-treated trees. Kaolin affected the photosynthetic response to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in almond leaves: kaolin-coated leaves had similar dark respiration rates and light-saturated photosynthesis, but a higher light compensation point and lower apparent quantum yield, while the photosynthetic light-response curve saturated at higher PAR. When these

  4. HMSPP nanocomposite and Brazilian bentonite properties after gamma radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermino, D. M.; Parra, D. F.; Oliani, W. L.; Lugao, A. B.; Díaz, F. R. V.

    2013-03-01

    This work concerns the study of the mechanical and thermal behavior of the nanocomposite high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba (PB), which is known as "chocolate" and is used in concentrations of 5% and 10% by weight, in comparison to the American Cloisite 20A clay nanocomposites. An agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft (PP-g-AM) was added at a 3% concentration, and the clay was dispersed using the melt intercalation technique using a twin-screw extruder. The specimens were prepared by the injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  5. Hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Franklin, Pamela M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    Varying weight percentages of an Ottawa sand, benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-clay), Wyoming bentonite (Na-clay), and water were mixed uniformly and compacted to simulate sand-and-clay liners for waste-disposal facilities. The hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil cores were measured in triplicate. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent BTEA-clay were about of 10-4 cm/s. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent Na-clay and of cores containing 88 percent sand, 8 percent Na-clay, and 4 percent BTEA-clay were about 10-8 cm/s.

  6. A facile method to modify bentonite nanoclay with silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywardena, Sujani B. Y.; Perera, Srimala; Nalin de Silva, K. M.; Tissera, Nadeeka P.

    2017-07-01

    Immobilization of smectite clay onto a desirable surface has received much attention, since its nanospace can be utilized for many applications in material science. Here, we present an efficient method to functionalize surface of bentonite nanoclay (BNC) through the grafting of 3-aminotriethoxysilane (APTES). Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of organic chains and amine groups in modified nanoclay. XRD analysis confirmed grafting of APTES on the surface of bentonite nanoclay without intercalation. The accomplishment of the surface modification was quantitatively proved by TGA analysis. Modified BNC can covalently couple with different material surfaces, allowing its nanospace to be utilized for intercalation of cations, bio-molecules, and polymeric materials, to be used in advanced military aerospace, pharmaceuticals, and many other commercial applications.

  7. Diffusion of water in bentonite clay: Neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. K.; Prabhudesai, S. A.; Dessai, R. Raut; Erwin Desa, J. A.; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion of water confined in natural bentonite clay is studied using the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. X-ray diffraction shows a well-defined crystalline structure of the clay with an interlayer spacing of 13 Å. The QENS experiment has been carried out on hydrated as well as dehydrated clay at 300 K. Significant quasi-elastic broadening was observed in case of hydrated bentonite clay whereas dehydrated clay did not show any broadening over the instrument resolution. Analysis of QENS data reveals that diffusion of water occurs through jump diffusion characterized by random distribution of jump lengths. Diffusion of water in clay is found to be hindered vis a vis bulk water.

  8. [Adsorption Properties of Fluorine onto Fulvic Acid-Bentonite Complex].

    PubMed

    Fang, Dun; Tian, Hua-jing; Ye, Xin; He, Ci-li; Dan, You-meng; Wei, Shi-yong

    2016-03-15

    Fulvic Acid-Bentonite (FA-BENT) complex was prepared using coprecipitation method, and basic properties of the complex and sorption properties of fluorine at different environmental conditions were studied. XRD results showed that the d₀₀₁ spacing of FA- BENT complex had no obvious change compared with the raw bentonite, although the diffraction peak intensity of smectite in FA-BENT complex reduced, and indicated that FA mainly existed as a coating on the external surface of bentonite. Some functional groups (such as C==O, −OH, etc. ) of FA were observed in FA-BENT FTIR spectra, thus suggesting ligand exchange-surface complexation between FA and bentonite. Higher initial pH values of the reaction system were in favor of the adsorption of fluorine onto FA-BENT, while the equilibrium capacity decreased with the increase of pH at initial pH ≥ 4.50. The adsorption of fluorine onto FA-BENT was also affected by ionic strength, and the main reason might be the "polarity" effect. The adsorption of fluorine onto FA-BENT followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was controlled by chemical process ( R² = 0.999 2). Compared with the Freundlich model, Langmuir model was apparently of a higher goodness of fit (R² > 0.994 9) for absorption of fluorine onto FA-BENT. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process of fluorine was an spontaneously endothermic reaction, and was an entropy-driven process (ΔH 32.57 kJ · mol⁻¹, ΔS 112.31 J · (mol · K)⁻¹, ΔG −0.65- −1.76 kJ · mol⁻¹).

  9. Investigation of ammonium adsorption on Algerian natural bentonite.

    PubMed

    Angar, Yassmina; Djelali, Nacer-Eddine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima

    2017-04-01

    Adsorption of several chemical contaminants onto clay minerals is the most recommended technique applied in the wastewater treatment field, owing to its low economic cost, efficiency, and low power consumption. In this context, natural bentonite particles with 80-μm diameter were investigated for the ammonium adsorption in aqueous solution using an incubator that kept the constant temperature and stirring speed at 200 RPM. The study of different experimental parameters effect on the adsorption process revealed that the raw bentonite have adsorbed approximately 53.36 % of the initial ammonium concentration at pH 7 and temperature of 30 °C. This percentage has been improved by increasing the adsorbent dosage in solution, which could reach up to 81.2 % at 40 g/L of bentonite with an initial ammonium concentration of 10 mg-NH4(+)/L. Moreover, experimental data modeling allowed us to conclude that the adsorption isotherm obeys to both models of Langmuir and Freundlich.

  10. Biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida on bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ramachandranpillai; Nair, Govindapillai Krishnan; Mini, Mangattumuruppel; Joseph, Leo; Saseendranath, Mapranath Raghavan; John, Koshy

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are structural communities of bacterial cells enshrined in a self produced polymeric matrix. The studies on biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida have become imperative since it is a respiratory pathogen and its biofilm mode could possibly be one of its virulence factors for survival inside a host. The present study describes a biofilm assay for P. multocida on inert hydrophilic material called bentonite clay. The potential of the organism to form in vitro biofilm was assessed by growing the organism under nutrient restriction along with the inert substrate bentonite clay, which will provide a surface for attachment. For quantification of biofilm, plate count by the spread plate method was employed. Capsule production of the attached bacteria was demonstrated by light microscopic examination following Maneval staining and capsular polysaccharide estimation was done using standard procedures. The biofilm formation peaked on the third day of incubation (1.54 ×10(6) cfu/g of bentonite clay) while the planktonic cells were found to be at a maximum on day one post inoculation (8.10 ×10(8) cfu/ml of the broth). Maneval staining of late logarithmic phase biofilm cultures revealed large aggregates of bacterial cells, bacteria appearing as chains or as a meshwork. The capsular polysaccharide estimation of biofilm cells revealed a 3.25 times increase over the planktonic bacteria. The biofilm cells cultured on solid media also produced some exclusive colony morphotypes.

  11. Removal of rhodamine B using iron-pillared bentonite.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Fang; Ma, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Wei-De; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Yan-Ning; Wan, Hong-Fu

    2011-02-28

    The iron-pillared bentonite (Fe-Ben) was prepared by ion-exchange using the natural bentonite (GZ-Ben) from Gaozhou, China, at room temperature without calcination. Both Fe-Ben and GZ-Ben were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the d(001) value and surface area of the bentonite material increased after iron pillaring. Fe-Ben adsorbed much more Rhodamine B (RhB) than GZ-Ben, which can be ascribed to the special surface properties and large surface area of Fe-Ben. The optimum pH value for the adsorption of RhB on Fe-Ben is 5.0. The adsorption of RhB onto Fe-Ben can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm of RhB onto Fe-Ben matches well with the Langmuir model.

  12. Retardation capacity of organophilic bentonite for anionic fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, B.; Bors, J.; Dultz, St.

    2001-02-01

    Sorption and diffusivity of iodide and pertechnetate (I - and TcO 4-) on MX-80 bentonite with different hexadecylpyridinium (HDPy +) loadings were studied using equilibrium solutions of different ionic strengths. In HDPy +-modified bentonite, iodide and pertechnetate ions exhibited increasing sorption (characterized by the distribution ratio, Rd), while Cs + and Sr 2+ showed decreasing sorption with increasing organophilicity. In case of medium-loading levels, the simultaneous sorption of anions (I - and TcO 4-) and cations (Cs + and Sr 2+) was observed. Sorption of ions was influenced by the composition of the electrolytes employed. It decreased gradually with increasing ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions. The experiments revealed the general tendency that the diffusivity ( Da [cm 2·s -1]) for iodide and pertechnetate decreases with increasing organophilicity and increases with increasing ionic strength of the equilibrium solutions, confirming the results of the sorption experiments. Additionally, some mineralogical and chemical investigations, like IR spectral analysis of the organo-bentonite samples and exchange behavior of HDPy +, were performed. On the basis of these analyses, it was concluded that the alkylammonium ions are sorbed as (1) HDPy + cations, (2) HDPyCl molecules and (3) micelles with decreasing binding intensities in this order.

  13. Retardation capacity of organophilic bentonite for anionic fission products.

    PubMed

    Riebe, B; Bors, J; Dultz, S

    2001-02-01

    Sorption and diffusivity of iodide and pertechnetate (I- and TcO4-) on MX-80 bentonite with different hexadecylpyridinium (HDPy+) loadings were studied using equilibrium solutions of different ionic strengths. In HDPy(+)-modified bentonite, iodide and pertechnetate ions exhibited increasing sorption (characterized by the distribution ratio, Rd), while Cs+ and Sr2+ showed decreasing sorption with increasing organophilicity. In case of medium-loading levels, the simultaneous sorption of anions (I- and TcO4-) and cations (Cs+ and Sr2+) was observed. Sorption of ions was influenced by the composition of the electrolytes employed. It decreased gradually with increasing ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions. The experiments revealed the general tendency that the diffusivity (Da [cm2.s-1]) for iodide and pertechnetate decreases with increasing organophilicity and increases with increasing ionic strength of the equilibrium solutions, confirming the results of the sorption experiments. Additionally, some mineralogical and chemical investigations, like IR spectral analysis of the organo-bentonite samples and exchange behavior of HDPy+, were performed. On the basis of these analyses, it was concluded that the alkylammonium ions are sorbed as (1) HDPy+ cations, (2) HDPyCl molecules and (3) micelles with decreasing binding intensities in this order.

  14. Efficacy and Mode of Action of Kaolin in the Control of Empoasca vitis and Zygina rhamni (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Tacoli, Federico; Pavan, Francesco; Cargnus, Elena; Tilatti, Elisabetta; Pozzebon, Alberto; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5-6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E. vitis second generation (preventive criterion), and in the other two vineyards, it was applied to the whole canopy at the peak of the E. vitis third generation (curative criterion). Both the preventive and curative kaolin applications caused a significant decrease in the populations of E. vitis and Z. rhamni nymphs. The effect of the preventive applications was persistent and was associated with reduced E. vitis leaf symptoms. Kaolin did not influence the activity of Anagrus spp. Bunch-zone leaf removal did not affect leafhopper populations. Laboratory experiments showed that inhibition of feeding was the main mode of action through which kaolin affected nymph populations. Based on these outcomes, kaolin could be a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides in controlling grapevine leafhoppers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sorption kinetics and isotherm modelling of imidacloprid on bentonite and organobentonites.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shailesh K; Shakil, Najam A; Dutta, Anirban; Kumar, Jitendra; Saini, Mukesh K

    2017-02-22

    Bentonite was modified by quaternary ammonium cations viz. cetytrimethylammonium (CTA), cetylpyridinium (CP), rioctylmethylammonium (TOM) and pcholine (PTC) at 100% cation exchange capacity of bentonite and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, CHNS elemental analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sorption of imidacloprid on organobentonites/bentonite was studied by batch method. Normal bentonite could adsorb imidacloprid only upto 19.31-22.18% while all organobentonites except PTC bentonite (PTCB), enhanced its adsorption by three to four times. Highest adsorption was observed in case of TOM bentonite (TOMB) (76.94-83.16%). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. For normal bentonite data were best fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetic, while for organobentonites fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetics. Sorption data were analysed using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Data were well fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Product of Freundlich adsorption constant and heterogeneity parameter (Kf.1/n) was in following order: TOMB (301.87) > CTA bentonite (CTAB) (152.12) > CP bentonite (CPB) (92.58) > bentonite (27.25). Desorption study confirmed hysteresis and concentration dependence. The present study showed that the organobentonite could be a good sorbent for removal of imidacloprid from natural water sample also. Percentage adsorption and Distribution coefficient (mL g(-1)) value of different adsorbent was in following order: TOMB (74.85% and 297.54) > CTAB (55.78% and 126.15) > CPB (45.81% and 84.55) > bentonite (10.65% and 11.92).

  16. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  17. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant alleviates heat stress in deficit-irrigated Malbec

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the interaction effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit on leaf and berry surface temperature, light reflectance, gas exchange characteristics, berry composition and yield of Malbec vines under field conditions over three growing seasons to test the hypothesis that the...

  18. Changes caused by hydrocephalus, induced by kaolin, in the corpus callosum of adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Edvaldo José Rodrigues; Lachat, João José; Lopes, Luiza Silva; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the ventricular enlargement and myelination of the corpus callosum in adult dogs after four and eight weeks of kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus. 36 dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 - without hydrocephalus, 2 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the fourth week, and 3 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the eighth week. Ventricular ratios and volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance images, and myelination of the corpus callosum were histologically evaluated using solocromo-cianin stain. Radiological hydrocephalus was observed in 93.75% and overall mortality was 38.4%. Ventricular volumes and ratios were higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 and similar when measures in the fourth and eighth weeks were compared in the group 3. Indices of luminescence in the knee and in the splenium of the corpus callosum were higher in group 2 than in group 1 indicating that there was loss of myelin in group 2, and similar in groups 1 and 3, showing a tendency to remyelination after 8 weeks. The corpus callosum of dogs with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus responds with demyelination of the knee and splenium by the fourth week with a tendency to remyelination by the eighth week.

  19. Wine Grape Response to Foliar Kaolin Particle Film under Differential Deficit Irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deficit irrigation improves grape quality for wine production. However, under arid production regions with high solar radiation, water stress may render the vine more susceptible to solar injury and inhibit fruit ripening. This is the first year of a multiyear study to examine the impact of kaolin...

  20. Characterization of juvenile and young adult mice following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luiza da Silva; Slobodian, Ili; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2009-09-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological problem in humans, usually caused by an impairment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption. A reliable induced model of chronic hydrocephalus in mice would be useful to test hypotheses using genetic mutants. Our goal was to characterize behavioral and histological changes in juvenile and young adult mice with kaolin (aluminum silicate)-induced hydrocephalus. Seven-day old and 7-8 week old mice received injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Behavior was assessed repeatedly. Seven or 14 days following kaolin, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. In hydrocephalic mice, body weight was significantly lower than in age-matched saline-injected sham controls and the gait and posture score were impaired. Juvenile mice developed severe ventriculomegaly and had reduced corpus callosum thickness with gross white matter destruction by 14 days. Reactive astroglial change in white matter and cortex and reduced cellular proliferation in the subependymal zone were also apparent. Young adult mice developed only moderate ventricular enlargement without overt white matter destruction, although there was corpus callosum atrophy and mild astroglial reaction in white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content was significantly higher in juvenile and young adult hydrocephalic mice at 7 and 14 days, but myelin basic protein content was not significantly altered. In conclusion, hydrocephalus induced by percutaneous injection of kaolin in juvenile and young adult mice is feasible. The associated periventricular alterations are essentially the same as those reported in rats of comparable ages.

  1. Potential of Kaolin-based Particle Film Barriers for Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week ...

  2. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties of ZnO/kaoline nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dědková, Kateřina; Janíková, Barbora; Matějová, Kateřina; Peikertová, Pavlína; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Holešinský, Jan; Kukutschová, Jana

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes laboratory preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity testing of ZnO/kaoline composites. ZnO/kaoline composites with 50 wt.% of ZnO were laboratory prepared, dried at 105 °C and calcined at 500 °C. XRPD analysis revealed that thermal treatment caused the phase transformation of Zn containing precursor into ZnO. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for characterization of morphology of the prepared samples. A standard microdilution test was used for evaluation of antibacterial activity using four common human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Daylight was used for induction photocatalytically based antibacterial activity. Second possible explanation of antibacterial activity of ZnO/kaoline could be the presence of biologically available forms of zinc. During the antibacterial activity assays the ZnO/kaoline composites exhibited antibacterial activity, where differences in an onset of the antibacterial activity and activity against bacterial strains were observed. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, where the lowest value of minimum inhibitory concentration was determined equal to 0.41 mg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1180 Section 180.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  4. Properties and characterization of porous material prepared by hydrothermal treatment of kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Malla, P.B.; Arrington-Webb, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    A kaolin was hydrothermally treated with various amounts of NAOH and KOH at 150 C for 15 min to chemically aggregate the kaolin plates in a structured configuration. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicated that kaolin was the only crystalline phase present. Chemical analyses showed that about 0.25--1.1% Na{sub 2}O and 1.2--5.0% K{sub 2}O were trapped in the solid phase depending on the reaction conditions. Mercury porosimetry indicated a highly porous nature with pore volumes of 0.3--1.4 ml/g and median pore sizes of 0.06--0.3 {mu}m. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the aggregation was achieved by surface modification and random association (edge to edge and face to edge, face to face) of the particles. Measurement of light scattering coefficient of the coating showed an increase of {approximately}350% in scattering compared to that of the precursor kaolin. These materials are useful in imparting highly pacifying properties to paper and paint. They are also potentially useful as catalysts, catalyst supports, and in other applications which demand a high light scattering ability and macroporous nature.

  5. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  6. Fire performance of fiber board coated with nano kaolin-clay film

    Treesearch

    Zhijia Liu; John F. Hunt; Zhiyong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Fiberboard is a common interior material used both in China and the United States of America. The increase in demand for interior materials has raised concerns regarding combustibility of the materials. The pyrolysis characteristics of fiber, phenolic resin (PF), and nano kaolin-clay (NK) were investigated using thermogravimetry. The fire performances of samples coated...

  7. Generation and stability of bentonite colloids at the bentonite/granite interface of a deep geological radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Turrero, Maria Jesús

    2003-03-01

    The possible mechanisms of colloid generation at the near field/far field interface of a radioactive repository have been investigated by means of novel column experiments simulating the granite/bentonite boundary, both in dynamic and in quasi-static water flow conditions. It has been shown that solid particles and colloids can be detached from the bulk and mobilised by the water flow. The higher the flow rate, the higher the concentration of particles found in the water, according to an erosion process. However, the gel formation and the intrinsic tactoid structure of the clay play an important role in the submicron particle generation even in the compacted clay and in a confined system. In fact, once a bentonite gel is formed, in the regions where the clay is contacted with water, clay colloids can be formed even in quasi-static flow conditions. The potential relevance of these colloids in radionuclide transport has been studied by evaluating their stability in different chemical environments. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids was experimentally studied as a function of the ionic strength and pH, by means of time-resolved light scattering techniques. It has been shown that these colloids are very stable in low saline (approximately 1 x 10(-3) M) and alkaline (pH > or = 8) waters.

  8. Infrared detection of the mineralogical aspects that influence the processing of calcined kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenheide, Stefan; Guatame-Garcia, Adriana; Buxton, Mike; van der Werff, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Calcined kaolin is an industrial minerals product used in the production of paper, paint, rubber and other specialty applications. It is produced from kaolinite through a series of refinement steps and final calcination at temperatures of above 900°C, with the aim of generating a whiter and more abrasive material. The raw kaolin ore is a mixture of clay minerals, quartz and feldspars, where kaolinite is the main constituent. The optimal kaolin ores to feed the processing plant should ideally have high kaolinite abundance, be free in Fe-bearing mineralogy (to avoid influence in the colour of the product), and the kaolinite itself should be of high crystallinity (to ensure the correct abrasiveness after calcination). This work presents a case study from the kaolin deposits in the St. Austell Granite (South-West England), which are known for their high quality and world-class size. In this area, the kaolin is of primary-hydrothermal origin, with mineral associations that are related to the genetic history. The eventual depletion of the high-quality reserves is bringing now the attention to the lower grade zones, where the amount of impurities increases. As a consequence, it is critical to developing strategies that ensure the supply of high-quality ore to the processing plant. For this, it is necessary to acquire a thorough knowledge of the ore, including relative abundance of the minerals and their textural relationships. Hyperspectral images in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) ranges were collected from drill cores and run-off-mine (ROM) samples, obtained from one of the kaolin pits in the St. Austell area, where the kaolin quality is known to be lower than in the rest of the deposit. A series of mineral maps were generated to assess the distribution, texture and abundance of the Fe-bearing mineralogy and the other kaolin-associated minerals, as well as the variations in the crystallinity of kaolinite. The mineral maps enabled the

  9. Characterization of AlFe-pillared Unye bentonite: A study of the surface acidity and catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Bulent; Cubuk, Osman; Demir, Ersin; Coldur, Fatih; Catir, Mustafa; Topcu, Cihan; Tabak, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite has been prepared by incorporation of the iron mixed aluminium-polyoxocation into bentonite layers and characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, thermal analysis and surface area measurement techniques. The characteristic d001 basal spacing of raw bentonite increased with the pillaring process and reached to 18.05 Å. The siloxane layers of bentonite were perturbed and the positions of Si-O stretching vibrations were altered by pillaring process. However, these pillars in the interlayer gallery spacing enhanced the thermal stability of bentonite. The new micropores were formed by the pillaring process and the specific surface area of raw bentonite increased by ca. 2-fold for aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite. FTIR spectra and thermal analysis curves of pyridine adsorbed samples clearly show that the surface Lewis acidity of aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite is greater than that of raw bentonite. Raw and aluminium-iron-pillared bentonites have been utilized as solid catalysts for benzoylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride. The aluminium-iron-pillared bentonite catalyst showed promising catalytic activity whereas raw bentonite showed no catalytic activity in benzoylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride.

  10. Diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of thromboelastometry activated by kaolin versus a panel of specific reagents.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Christiansen, Kirsten; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Sørensen, Benny

    2011-08-01

    Thromboelastography/metry (TEG®; Haemoscope, Niles, IL/ROTEM®; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) is increasingly used to guide transfusion therapy. This study investigated the diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of using kaolin-activated whole blood compared with a panel of specific TEM®-reagents to distinguish: dilutional coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinolysis, and heparinization. Blood was drawn from 11 healthy volunteers. Dilutional coagulopathy was generated by 50% dilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 whereas thrombocytopenia (mean platelet count 20 ×10⁹/l) was induced using a validated model. Hyperfibrinolysis and heparin contamination were generated by tissue plasminogen activator 2 nM and unfractionated heparin 0.1U/ml, respectively. Coagulation tests were run on ROTEM® delta. Kaolin-activated whole blood showed no differences between dilutional coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia (mean clotting time 450 s vs. 516 s, α-angle 47.1° vs. 41.5°, maximum clot firmness 35.0 mm vs. 34.2 mm, all P values ≥0.14). Hyperfibrinolysis specifically disclosed an increased maximum lysis (median: 100%, all P values less than 0.001), and heparin induced a distinctly prolonged clotting time (2283 s, all P values less than 0.02). The coagulopathies were readily distinguishable using a panel of TEM-reagents. In particular, dilutional coagulopathy was separated from thrombocytopenia using FIBTEM (maximum clot firmness 1.9 mm vs. 11.2 mm, P < 0.001). The run time of analysis to achieve diagnostic data was shorter applying a panel of TEM-reagents. A transfusion algorithm based on kaolin suggested platelets in case of dilutional coagulopathy, whereas an algorithm applying TEM-reagents suggested fibrinogen. Monoanalysis with kaolin was unable to distinguish coagulopathies caused by dilution from that of thrombocytopenia. Algorithms based on the use of kaolin may lead to unnecessary transfusion with platelets, whereas the application of

  11. The activated clotting time in cardiac surgery: should Celite or kaolin be used?

    PubMed

    De Vries, Adrianus J; Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke Oude; Fernhout, Freek-Jan; Huet, Rolf C G; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2017-04-01

    Both kaolin- and Celite-activated clotting times (ACT) are used to guide anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether these methods lead to similar management procedures for anticoagulation in patients and are thus interchangeable in terms of bias, precision and variability. We randomized 97 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement to either kaolin- or Celite-guided anticoagulation. The ACT was measured simultaneously with the other method. We administered 300 IU/kg heparin to obtain initial ACT values greater than 400 s and additional heparin in each group using the minimum value of duplicate measurements according to a predefined protocol. The primary end point was the total heparin dose and the number of heparin supplements. The total heparin dose per patient in the 48 Celite-guided patients was 35 271 ± 12 406 IU with 51 supplements and in the 49 kaolin-guided patients, 35 997 ± 11 540 IU ( P  = 0.77) with 56 supplements ( P  = 0.53). Postoperative thrombin generation time, fibrinolytic response time, chest tube loss and transfusion requirements were not different between the two groups. However, the methods differed in individual patients with regard to supplemental heparin ( P  = 0.002). Bias between methods at baseline was +10.3%, Celite being higher, and changed to a value of -12.9% at 2 h bypass. The coefficient of variation at baseline for individual patients was 2.6 times larger with kaolin than with Celite ( P  < 0.001). Correlation between ACT values at baseline was only 45%. Kaolin- and Celite-guided management of anticoagulation is clinically not different, but the methods are not interchangeable. www.trialregister.nl identifier 1738.

  12. Inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to infect 200 million individuals in the globe, including approximately 10 million in Pakistan causing both acute and chronic hepatitis. The standard treatment against HCV is pegylated interferon therapy in combination with a nucleoside analogue ribavirin. In addition, several herbal extracts and phytochemicals derivatives are used traditionally in the treatment of liver diseases as well as HCV infection. The present study determines the inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines. Methods Huh-7 cell lines were used for the in vitro HCV replication by using HCV positive sera from different patients with known HCV genotypes and viral titer/load. Total RNA was extracted from these infected cells and was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The viral titer was compared with the control samples to determine the anti-HCV activity of kaolin derived compounds. Kaolin is a group of clay minerals, with the chemical composition Al2 Si2O5 (OH)4. Results The results showed promising effectiveness of local kaolin derived anti-HCV compounds by causing 28% to 77% decrease in the HCV titer, when applied to infected Huh-7 cell lines. This study provides the basis for future work on these compounds especially to determine the specific pathway and mechanism for inhibitory action in the replicon systems of viral hepatitis. Conclusions Kaolin mineral derivatives show promising inhibitory effects against HCV genotypes 3a and 1a infection, which suggests its possible use as complementary and alternative medicine for HCV viral infection. PMID:24742271

  13. Inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ali, Liaqat; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Ur Rehman, Irshad; Ali, Amjad; Iqbal, Syed Abbas; Kamel, Eyad Hassan

    2014-04-17

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to infect 200 million individuals in the globe, including approximately 10 million in Pakistan causing both acute and chronic hepatitis. The standard treatment against HCV is pegylated interferon therapy in combination with a nucleoside analogue ribavirin. In addition, several herbal extracts and phytochemicals derivatives are used traditionally in the treatment of liver diseases as well as HCV infection. The present study determines the inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines. Huh-7 cell lines were used for the in vitro HCV replication by using HCV positive sera from different patients with known HCV genotypes and viral titer/load. Total RNA was extracted from these infected cells and was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The viral titer was compared with the control samples to determine the anti-HCV activity of kaolin derived compounds. Kaolin is a group of clay minerals, with the chemical composition Al2 Si2O5 (OH)4. The results showed promising effectiveness of local kaolin derived anti-HCV compounds by causing 28% to 77% decrease in the HCV titer, when applied to infected Huh-7 cell lines. This study provides the basis for future work on these compounds especially to determine the specific pathway and mechanism for inhibitory action in the replicon systems of viral hepatitis. Kaolin mineral derivatives show promising inhibitory effects against HCV genotypes 3a and 1a infection, which suggests its possible use as complementary and alternative medicine for HCV viral infection.

  14. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  15. Impaired lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Nagra, G; Li, J; McAllister, J P; Miller, J; Wagshul, M; Johnston, M

    2008-05-01

    It has been assumed that the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus includes a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit. Because a significant portion of CSF absorption occurs into extracranial lymphatics located in the olfactory turbinates, the purpose of this study was to determine whether CSF transport was compromised at this location in a kaolin-induced communicating (extraventricular) hydrocephalus model in rats. Under 1-3% halothane anesthesia, kaolin (n = 10) or saline (n = 9) was introduced into the basal cisterns of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the development of hydrocephalus was assessed 1 wk later using MRI. After injection of human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) into a lateral ventricle, the tracer enrichment in the olfactory turbinates 30 min postinjection provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics. Lateral ventricular volumes in the kaolin group (0.073 +/- 0.014 ml) were significantly greater than those in the saline-injected animals (0.016 +/- 0.001 ml; P = 0.0014). The CSF tracer enrichment in the olfactory turbinates (expressed as percent injected/g tissue) in the kaolin rats averaged 0.99 +/- 0.39 and was significantly lower than that measured in the saline controls (5.86 +/- 0.32; P < 0.00001). The largest degree of ventriculomegaly was associated with the lowest levels of lymphatic CSF uptake with lateral ventricular expansion occurring only when almost all of the lymphatic CSF transport capacity had been compromised. We conclude that lymphatic CSF absorption is impaired in a kaolin-communicating hydrocephalus model and that the degree of this impediment may contribute to the severity of the induced disease.

  16. Use of modified hydroxy-aluminum bentonites for chromium(III) removal from solutions.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Beatriz Garrido, Liliana

    2008-09-01

    The retention of chromium(III) from a 2,000 ppm chromium basic sulfate and tannery waste solution at pH 4.5 using modified hydroxy-aluminum bentonites (OH-Al bentonites) as adsorbents was studied. OH-Al bentonite was prepared by mixing clay with a hydrolyzed commercial chlorohydroxy Al solution. The modified Al bentonites were obtained by (a) a treatment with 0.5M sodium chloride and (b) a treatment with a Na-hexametaphosphate solution (HMP) after adding sodium chloride. The effect of heating the adsorbents at 100, 500, 700 and 800 degrees C on Cr retention as a function of time was also analyzed. Cr retention by modified OH-Al bentonite with HMP increased with time (up to 100 mg Cr/g) where modified OH-Al bentonite was twice that of untreated bentonite. The relatively high uptake of metal from the salt solution by modified OH-Al bentonite treated at 800 degrees C, in which a complete interlayer collapse occurred, indicated the importance of the contribution of external surface sites to the retention capacity. The maximum Cr uptake from a water waste was 24 mg/g, due to interferences and different chromium species in the industrial solution.

  17. Malaysian alternative to international reference bentonite buffer in underground nuclear waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadza, Mohd Yuhyi Mohd; Azmi, Nor Syafiqah Mohd; Mustapha, Roslanzairi; Desa, Nor Dalilah; Samuding, Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    The performance of bentonite as buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository has been extensively being investigated all over the world. Over the years, almost exclusively, naturally occurring Wyoming sodium based bentonite (MX80) was tested as a reference buffer material. Other alternatives such as calcium and mixed based bentonites from all over the world were also examined for this specific application in respective countries. In Malaysia, the potential of naturally occurring bentonites have not clearly documented and may be considered for the application of buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository. In the context of underground radioactive waste storage, bentonite from Sabah volcanic formation, namely Andrassy bentonite was characterized in the laboratory and compared with MX80 and Deponit Ca-N bentonites. The geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, particle size distribution, specific gravity, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and swelling potential were carefully determined. In addition, the water retention characteristics were established using a chilled-mirror dew-point potentiometer. Test results indicated that the Andrassy bentonite may be selected as the key component in the country's future development of deep underground radioactive waste facilities.

  18. Bentonite modification with hexadecylpyridinium and aluminum polyoxy cations and its effectiveness in Se(IV) removal.

    PubMed

    Orucoglu, Esra; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2015-09-01

    Usage of bentonite as a buffer material is suggested in radioactive waste repositories. Although bentonites have higher sorption ability to cations, they cannot adsorp anions due to negative surface charge. Nowadays, ongoing researches focus on increasing anion adsorption ability of the bentonites with modification. Organic-pillared bentonite (OPBent) was produced by modification of sodium bentonite with aluminum polyoxy and hexadecylpyridinium cations in this study. Variation in structure after modification was demonstrated by using different characterization techniques. Se removal efficiency of OPBent is investigated by using (75)Se, since selenium (Se) is one of the important long lived fission products found in radioactive waste and has toxic anionic species in an aqueous environment. The effect of reaction time, solid/liquid ratio, pH and concentration on the adsorption performance were examined. Se speciation and its effect onto adsorption were also investigated by measuring Eh-pH values under certain experimental conditions. Additionally, importance of the amount of Al-polyoxy cations used in modification was investigated by comparing these results with the results of other organic-pillared bentonite produced in our previous research. Experimental results confirmed that both cations were successfully placed into the bentonite interlayer and significant change in the host structure leads to increase Se adsorption. Consequently, bentonite modification improves its Se adsorption ability and further investigations are needed related to the usage of this adsorbent in other remediation studies especially in sorption of other anionic pollutants.

  19. Efficacy of bentonite clay in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in piglets fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Thieu, Nguyen Quang; Ogle, Brian; Pettersson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of locally produced bentonite was evaluated with respect to ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxins (AF) in piglets fed AF contaminated diets. Forty eight piglets were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 0 g of bentonite and 0 microg AF/kg feed (control); 2) 4 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 4); 3) 5 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 5) and 4) 0 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AFA). Piglets in the AFA treatment had lower overall average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion efficiency, albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP) compared to the control diet, while mean serum leukocyte and enzyme activities (glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)) were significant increased. The inclusion of bentonite at 0.4% or 0.5% in the AF contaminated diet restored the lower performance, feed efficiency and abnormal blood profiles of the piglets given AF and no differences between 0.4 and 0.5% inclusion of bentonite. The findings in the present study provide critically needed confirmation that bentonite has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of AF.

  20. Removal of nitrate by zero-valent iron and pillared bentonite.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfa; Li, Yimin; Meng, Qingling

    2010-02-15

    The pillared bentonite prepared by intercalating poly(hydroxo Al(III)) cations into bentonite interlayers was used together with Fe(0) for removing nitrate in column experiments. The obvious synergetic effect on nitrate removal was exhibited through uniformly mixing the pillared bentonite with Fe(0). In such a mixing manner, the nitrate was 100% removed, and the removal efficiency was much higher than the simple summation of adsorption by the pillared bentonite and reduction by Fe(0). The influencing factors such as bentonite type, amount of the pillared bentonite and initial pH of nitrate solutions were investigated. In this uniform mixture, the pillared bentonite could adsorb nitrate ions, and facilitated the mass transfer of nitrate onto Fe(0) surface, then accelerated the nitrate reduction. The pillared bentonite could also act as the proton-donor, and helped to keep the complete nitrate removal for at least 10h even when the nitrate solution was fed at nearly neutral pH.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of poly(sodium acrylate)/ bentonite superabsorbent composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiming; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai

    2012-01-01

    Poly(sodium acrylate)/bentonite superabsorbent composite with water absorbency 1562 g·g-1 was synthesized by inverse suspension polymerization. The introduction of bentonite improves the water absorbency and facilitates the particle size even distribution of the composite. The network structure in the superabsorbent hydrogel is confirmed.

  2. Theory and calculation of water distribution in bentonite in a thermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1988-09-01

    Highly compacted bentonite is under consideration for use as a buffer material in geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. To assess the suitability of bentonite for this use, it is necessary to be able to predict the rate and spatial extent of water uptake and water distribution in highly compacted bentonite in the presence of thermal gradients. The ''Buffer Mass Test'' (BMT) was conducted by workers in Sweden as part of the Stripa Project. The BMT measured uptake and spatial distributions of water infiltrating annuli of compacted MX-80 sodium bentonite heated from within and surrounded by granite rock; the measurements provided a body of data very valuable for comparison to results of theoretical calculations. Results of experiments on adsorption of water by highly compacted MX-80 bentonite have been reported by workers in Switzerland. The experiments included measurements of heats of immersion and adsorption-desorption isotherms. These measurements provide the basis for prediction of water vapor pressures in equilibrium with bentonite having specified adsorbed water contents at various temperatures. The present work offers a phenomenological description of the processes influencing movement of water in compacted bentonite in the presence of a variable thermal field. The theory is applied to the bentonite buffer-water system in an assumed steady state of heat and mass transport, using critical data derived from the experimental work done in Switzerland. Results of the theory are compared to distributions of absorbed water in buffers observed in the Swedish BMT experiments. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  3. 40 CFR 436.220 - Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory. 436.220 Section 436.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bentonite...

  4. 40 CFR 436.220 - Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory. 436.220 Section 436.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bentonite...

  5. Corrosion of high-level radioactive waste iron-canisters in contact with bentonite.

    PubMed

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sanders, Daniel; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2015-03-21

    Several countries favor the encapsulation of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in iron or steel canisters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. In the present study the corrosion of iron in contact with different bentonites was investigated. The corrosion product was a 1:1 Fe layer silicate already described in literature (sometimes referred to as berthierine). Seven exposition test series (60 °C, 5 months) showed slightly less corrosion for the Na-bentonites compared to the Ca-bentonites. Two independent exposition tests with iron pellets and 38 different bentonites clearly proved the role of the layer charge density of the swelling clay minerals (smectites). Bentonites with high charged smectites are less corrosive than bentonites dominated by low charged ones. The type of counterion is additionally important because it determines the density of the gel and hence the solid/liquid ratio at the contact to the canister. The present study proves that the integrity of the multibarrier-system is seriously affected by the choice of the bentonite buffer encasing the metal canisters in most of the concepts. In some tests the formation of a patina was observed consisting of Fe-silicate. Up to now it is not clear why and how the patina formed. It, however, may be relevant as a corrosion inhibitor.

  6. Cytotoxicity and mechanical behavior of chitin-bentonite clay based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi; Hussain, Rizwan; Jamil, Tahir; Anjum, Sohail

    2011-12-01

    Chitin based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites (PUBNC) were prepared using chitin, Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay enriched in montmorillonite (MMT), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polycaprolactone polyol CAPA 231 (3000 g/mol(-1)). The prepolymers having different concentration of Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay were extended with 2 moles of chitin. The structures of the resulted polymers were determined by FT-IR technique. The effect of nanoclay contents on mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The mechanical properties of the synthesized materials were improved with increase in the Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents. Optimum mechanical properties were obtained from the PU bio-nanocomposite samples having 4% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay. The results revealed that the final PU bio-nanocomposite having 2% Delite HPS bentonite nanoclay contents is ideal contenders for surgical threads with on going investigations into their in vitro biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and mechanical properties.

  7. Microcapillary flow behavior of magnetic nanofluids in the presence of plate shaped bentonite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Mayur; Virpura, Hiral; Patel, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Plate shaped bentonite particles of size ˜600 nm and thickness ˜2 nm are dispersed in a magnetic nanofluid. Magnetic field dependent flow behavior of this composite suspension is studied using a horizontal microcapillary placed between the poles of an electromagnet. The plate shaped bentonite particle produces extra hindrance to the flow under the application of moderate magnetic field and produces an enhanced magnetoviscous effect. 75% volume concentration of bentonite produces eight times larger change in magnetic field dependent viscosity than does the pure magnetic nanofluid. Hindrance to the flow is due to the chain like structure of magnetic nanoparticles, tumbling and rotational motion of bentonite particles and interaction between magnetic and bentonite particles. The field-induced structures are also observed using an optical microscope. Results offer several advantages over the inverse MR effect as well as to study the motion of biological cells and tissues under the effect of magnetic field.

  8. Adsorption and hydraulic conductivity of landfill-leachate perfluorinated compounds in bentonite barrier mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Belinda; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are leached in landfills from a wide range of domestic and industrial products. Sodium bentonite, a common barrier material, was contacted with water and landfill leachate spiked with PFCs in batch adsorption tests to measure PFC adsorption. Leaching cell tests were also conducted in which water, landfill leachate and PFC-spiked leachate permeated through compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. It was found that the PFCs did not bind substantially to the bentonite. Hydraulic conductivities were not appreciably affected by the PFCs, showing that bentonite liners are not affected for the range of concentrations tested. The sand-bentonite mixture partially retained the PFCs, indicating limited effectiveness in containing PFC within landfills.

  9. Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution by enhanced chitosan/bentonite composite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Huang, Ruihua; Yang, Bingchao; Liu, Yanping

    2013-01-01

    In this work, enhanced chitosan/bentonite composite was prepared by treating chitosan/bentonite composite with concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). The adsorption of fluoride ions from aqueous solution onto the enhanced chitosan/bentonite composite was investigated. Adsorption studies were performed in a batch system, and the effects of various parameters, such as the pH value of the solution, adsorbent dosage and initial fluoride concentration, were evaluated. The optimum operating conditions for fluoride removal by the enhanced chitosan/bentonite composite were pH = 7 or so, and adsorbent dosage =1.2 g. Increasing initial fluoride concentration reduced the adsorption of fluoride onto the enhanced chitosan/bentonite composite. Furthermore, the presence of other co-anions weakened the adsorption of fluoride onto this adsorbent. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were well described by both the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 2.95 mg/g at 293 K.

  10. Coupled THMC models for bentonite in clay repository for nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Li, Y.; Anguiano, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Illitization, the transformation of smectite to illite, could compromise some beneficiary features of an engineered barrier system (EBS) that is composed primarily of bentonite and clay host rock. It is a major determining factor to establish the maximum design temperature of the repositories because it is believed that illitization could be greatly enhanced at temperatures higher than 100 oC and thus significantly lower the sorption and swelling capacity of bentonite and clay rock. However, existing experimental and modeling studies on the occurrence of illitization and related performance impacts are not conclusive, in part because the relevant couplings between the thermal, hydrological, chemical, and mechanical (THMC) processes have not been fully represented in the models. Here we present fully coupled THMC simulations of a generic nuclear waste repository in a clay formation with bentonite-backfilled EBS. Two scenarios were simulated for comparison: a case in which the temperature in the bentonite near the waste canister can reach about 200 oC and a case in which the temperature in the bentonite near the waste canister peaks at about 100 oC. The model simulations demonstrate that illitization is in general more significant at higher temperatures. We also compared the chemical changes and the resulting swelling stress change for two types of bentonite: Kunigel-VI and FEBEX bentonite. Higher temperatures also lead to much higher stress in the near field, caused by thermal pressurization and vapor pressure buildup in the EBS bentonite and clay host rock. Chemical changes lead to a reduction in swelling stress, which is more pronounced for Kunigel-VI bentonite than for FEBEX bentonite.

  11. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. ); Jercinovic, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Bentonite supplementation can improve performance and fermentation parameters of chronic lead-exposed lambs.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, S; Khadem, A A; Norouzian, M A

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental bentonite on performance, blood, and fermentation characteristics in Zandi lambs. In experiment 1, 20 Zandi male lambs (initial BW, 17.5 ± 1.6 kg and 110 ± 5 days old) were randomly assigned into four groups of five animals in each. The experimental treatments were (1) control (no Pb and bentonite), (2) 15 mg/kg DM Pb as Pb acetate and no bentonite, (3) 15 mg/kg DM Pb as Pb acetate and 1.5% bentonite, and (4) 15 mg/kg DM Pb as Pb acetate and 3% bentonite. The dietary treatments had no significant effect on dry matter intake of experimental lambs. Feed required per unit of weight gain was more (P < 0.05) in lead-exposed lambs in group 2 compared to the control and bentonite supplemented groups. Serum glucose, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, HDL, and LDL concentrations was similar among the treatments. In experiment 2, an in vitro gas production technique was used to evaluate the effects of bentonite supplementation on the gas production parameters of lead-polluted diets. The rate and amount of gas production was higher for bentonite supplemented groups (P < 0.01). Asymptotic gas production (b), metabolizable energy, and concentration of short chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for lead-polluted non-supplemented diet (group 2) as compared to the bentonite supplemented and control groups. It was concluded that bentonite supplementation favorably modified ruminal fermentation pattern and improved feed conversion ratio in growing lead-exposed lambs.

  13. Transport of Iodide Ion in Compacted Bentonite Containing Ag{sub 2}O - 12111

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Cheo Kyung

    2012-07-01

    Observations of the transport of iodide through compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as additive and that without additive were made. Compacted bentonite samples with densities of 1.41 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.60 g/cm{sup 3} were used in the experiment. The amount of Ag{sub 2}O added to the compacted bentonite was in the range of 0.0064 ∼ 0.0468 wt/wt%. Two diffusion solutions were used: one in which iodide ion was dissolved in demineralized water (pure iodide solution), and one in which iodide ion was dissolved in 0.1 M NaCl solution (0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution). Experimental results confirmed that iodide ion was transported by the diffusion process in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as well as in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The time-lag of diffusion of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O is larger than that in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The increase of the time-lag of diffusion was observed in pure iodide ion solution as well as in 0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution. The apparent diffusion coefficient of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O was smaller than in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The effective diffusion coefficient decreased as the amount of Ag{sub 2}O in the compacted bentonite increased. (authors)

  14. Modification of the Kaolin Serum Treatment Used in the Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test for California Arbovirus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P. R.; Allen, M. R.; Marcovici, M.

    1970-01-01

    Modification of the pH of kaolin-serum treatment produces hemagglutination-inhibition test results comparable with the plaque neutralization test in duck embryo tissue culture; the standard treatment does not. PMID:5437311

  15. Adsorption studies of ciprofloxacin: evaluation of magnesium trisilicate, kaolin and starch as alternatives for the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ofoefule, S I; Okonta, M

    1999-06-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to investigated the extend of adsorption of ciprofloxacin to kaolin, magnesium trislilicate and to a starch obtained from the tubers of Tacca involucrata (Tacca starch) and to explore the effect of varying pH on this adsorption. Activated charcoal, a standard adsorbent and antidote in the management of poisoning due to a variety of chemical agents was employed as a comparing standard. The results of the study indicate that kaolin and magnesium trisilicate adsorbed ciprofloxacin effectively while the adsorption of the drug on the starch was relatively low. Adsorption was dependent upon the quantity of the adsorbed used. Kaolin or magnesium trisilicate could serve as an effective antidotal alternative to activated charcoal in the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning. Except in cases of poisoning due to ciprofloxacin, the concurrent administration of the drug with kaolin or magnesium trisilicate may be contraindicated. Tacca starch, however, may not really be recommended for the management of ciprofloxacin poisoning.

  16. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+).

  17. Productivity, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of fattening Zandi lambs fed sodium bentonite supplemented total mixed rations.

    PubMed

    Khadem, A A; Soofizadeh, M; Afzalzadeh, A

    2007-10-15

    Thirty male Zandy lambs (25 +/- 0.50 kg BW, 10 lambs in each group) were randomly allocated in three (control, 2% bentonite and 4% bentonite) treatment groups. Lambs were fed Total Mixed Rations (TMRs) containing 75% Concentrate Mixture (CM) and 25% forage. Sodium bentonite was mixed with the CM part of TMRs before being mixed with the forage. The fattening period lasted 84 days and data were collected on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of lambs. Results showed that sheep fed bentonite added diets had relatively higher feed intake than the control group which ended to slightly higher weight change with a fairly appropriate feed conversion ratio in bentonite fed animals. Compared to the control group, a reasonably lower glucose and urea concentration and a higher total protein content was observed in the blood of sheep fed bentonite supplemented diets. The use of bentonite in diets did not affect the blood cholesterol contents of sheep. Slaughter weights, carcass dressing out percentages and carcass cuts were a bit higher in sheep of bentonite fed groups compared to those in control group. Sheep fed bentonite added diets produced carcasses with lower subcutaneous fat thicknesses and lower fat-tail percentages. Furthermore, feed cost was estimated to be lower for sheep in 2% bentonite group than that in other two groups. In conclusion, the use of two-percent sodium bentonite is suggested for diets of fattening lambs in Iranian feed markets.

  18. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  19. Water Migration and Swelling in Bentonite Quantified using Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, A.; DiStefano, V. H.; Perfect, E.; Hale, R. E.; Anovitz, L. M.; McFarlane, J.

    2016-12-01

    Permanent disposal of radioactive waste remains a critical challenge for the nation's energy future. All disposal system concepts include interfaces between engineered systems and natural materials requiring extensive characterization. Bentonite is often used to buffer subsurface disposal systems from geologic media containing ground water. Bentonite characterization experiments were carried out using the CG-1D neutron imaging beam line at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dry bentonite was packed into vertically-oriented aluminum cylinders. Water was ponded on the top surface of each packed cylinder. Images were acquired at 2 min intervals using dynamic neutron radiography. The detector consisted of stacked neutron sensitive microchannel plates above a quad Timepix readout with a 28 x 28 mm2 field of view. The spatial resolution of the detector was 55 μm. Raw neutron radiographs were imported into ImageJ and normalized with respect to the initial completely dry state. The wetting process was 1-dimensional, and vertical intensity profiles were computed by averaging pixel rows. The vertical distance between the clay-water interface and the wetting front could then be determined as a function of time. Depth of water infiltration increased linearly with the square root of time, yielding a sorptivity value of 0.75 (± 0.070) mm/min0.5. Swelling occurred in the form of upward movement of clay particles into the ponded water over time. The resulting low density assemblage was discernable by normalizing the raw profiles with respect to the intensity profile immediately after ponding. The packed clay-water interface was clearly visible in the normalized profiles, and swelling was quantified as the height of the low density assemblage above the original interface. Swelling occurred as a linear function of time, at a rate of 0.054 (± 0.020) mm/min. Further experiments of this type are planned under variable temperature and pressure regimes applicable to subsurface

  20. Microwave measurements of the water content of bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre, V.R.; Glenn, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of operation of microwave coaxial resonators is described. Sample preparation and the application of resonator techniques to the measurement of the permittivity (dielectric constant) of bentonite is discussed. The results indicate a fairly linear change in resonant frequency for saturation levels at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%. The results clearly demonstrate that this microwave technique is a viable method for measuring water content of soils. A discussion of additional applications of microwave methods for determining water content in materials is presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-09-01

    The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of kaolin-based particle film on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) oviposition in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Beresford L; Scharbach, Roger D

    2005-12-01

    A laboratory study conducted in 2003 determined the influence of a kaolin-based particle film (Surround WP Crop Protectant) on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem)) oviposition. Three concentrations (15, 30 and 60 g litre(-1) spray carrier) were applied to white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). When presented with different paired choices of oviposition surfaces, spruce budworms laid very few egg masses overall and showed no significant (P < 0.05) preference between kaolin-coated and untreated foliage. During no-choice tests, spruce budworms were significantly (P < 0.05) less inclined to oviposit on the 60 g kaolin litre(-1) treated foliage than on the controls, but no kaolin treatment completely inhibited spruce budworm oviposition. Egg mass size and percentage hatch were unaffected by the kaolin treatments, and overall the percentage of egg masses laid on foliage was inversely proportional to treatment concentration. It is unlikely that kaolin-based particle film would be practical for wide use in natural forests without significant adaptations to current pesticide application equipment and methods. However, the technique might be feasible in selected urban settings.

  3. Use of Kaolin-impregnated Gauze for Improvement of Intraoperative Hemostasis and Postoperative Wound Healing in Blepharoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Craig N.; Stacey, Andrew W.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Kaolin is a mineral shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage when combined with standard gauze and applied to wounds. This study investigates the application of kaolin to control intraoperative bleeding and promote wound healing in eyelid surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study recruited patients who underwent eyelid surgery. Following skin incision, kaolin-impregnated gauzewas placed in one eyelid wound bed and cotton gauze in the other, then removed. Distinct, individual areas of bleeding were recorded. Standardized photographs were obtained postoperatively on Day 1, 4, and 7. Photographs were graded for edema and ecchymosis by four blinded observers. Patients also completed a survey inquiring which side had more bruising, swelling, and pain at each return visit. Results: A total of 46 patients completed the study. The number of intraoperative bleeding sites for kaolin versus plain gauze was not significantly different (p=0.96). Photographic grading by blinded observers did not identify any statistically significant differences in postoperative edema at any time point between lids. There was a statistically significant difference for ecchymosis at postoperative Day 4 (p=0.009) and Day 7 (p=0.016). Patient surveys did not show any difference in perceived edema, ecchymosis, or pain between lids. Conclusion: Intraoperative hemostasis was not affected by the use of kaolin-impregnated gauze. The effectiveness of kaolin in wound healing showed improved ecchymosis at Days 4 and 7 when assessed by blinded observers. Patients did not notice any improvement in postoperative edema, ecchymosis, or pain. PMID:27386052

  4. Effect of pH on the flocculation behaviors of kaolin using a pH-sensitive copolymer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shulei; Gao, Lihui; Cao, Yijun; Gui, Xiahui; Li, Zhen

    pH-sensitive copolymers have been widely introduced to achieve rapid dewatering and consolidation of solids in mining and oil sands processing wastes. But no more attention has been given to the flocculation efficiency of solid suspensions as a function of pH using pH-sensitive copolymer. In this study, a pH-sensitive copolymer was synthesized and employed to investigate the flocculation behaviors of kaolin by focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). A titration test was introduced to characterize the copolymer conformation transition. The results demonstrated that at pH ranging from 3 to 6, with the pH increase, the zeta potential magnitude of kaolin particles increased, resulting in the repulsive forces between particles increasing. However, the hydrophobicity of kaolin increased as the pH increased. Thus, the hydrophobic forces could neutralize a part of the repulsive forces between particles and result in good and similar flocculation performances. At the pH greater than 6, the zeta potential magnitude of kaolin particles and copolymer molecules increased significantly, and the repulsive force between kaolin particles increased after copolymer addition due to the kaolin particles being more negatively charged, which resulted in poor flocculation efficiency and cloudy supernatant. It was concluded that the pH-sensitive copolymer could achieve both perfect flocculation efficiency and low moisture of filter cake at the isoelectric point of copolymer.

  5. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management.

  6. Use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-bentonite to remove organic contaminants of varying polar character from water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Ren, X.; Yu, S.

    1998-11-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB)-bentonite was produced by the exchange of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) cations for inorganic ions on the internal and external surfaces of bentonite. CTMAB-bentonite was used to remove organic contaminants of varying polar character from water. The properties and mechanisms for CTMAB-bentonite to sorb benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, nitrobenzene, aniline, phenol, and p-nitrophenol in water were investigated in some detail. Benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene sorption to CTMAB-bentonite was characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of the CTMA cations. Phenol and p-nitrophenol sorption to CTMAB-bentonite was caused primarily by adsorption with relatively strong solute uptake. Their isotherms were nonlinear. Nitrobenzene and aniline sorption to CTMAB-bentonite was weak, and the isotherms were approximately linear. Their sorption was caused by both partition and solute uptake. The sorption data were also evaluated in terms of the octanol-water partition coefficients of the organic compounds.

  7. Mechanisms of advanced oxidation processing on bentonite consumption reduction in foundry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Voigt, Robert C; Furness, J C

    2005-10-01

    Prior full-scale foundry data have shown that when an advanced oxidation (AO) process is employed in a green sand system, the foundry needs 20-35% less makeup bentonite clay than when AO is not employed. We herein sought to explore the mechanism of this enhancement and found that AO water displaced the carbon coating of pyrolyzed carbonaceous condensates that otherwise accumulated on the bentonite surface. This was discerned by surface elemental analysis. This AO treatment restored the clay's capacity to adsorb methylene blue (as a measure of its surface charge) and water vapor (as a reflection of its hydrophilic character). In full-scale foundries, these parameters have been tied to improved green compressive strength and mold performance. When baghouse dust from a full-scale foundry received ultrasonic treatment in the lab, 25-30% of the dust classified into the clay-size fraction, whereas only 7% classified this way without ultrasonics. Also, the ultrasonication caused a size reduction of the bentonite due to the delamination of bentonite particles. The average bentonite particle diameter decreased from 4.6 to 3 microm, while the light-scattering surface area increased over 50% after 20 min ultrasonication. This would greatly improve the bonding efficiency of the bentonite according to the classical clay bonding mechanism. As a combined result of these mechanisms, the reduced bentonite consumption in full-scale foundries could be accounted for.

  8. Production of modified bentonite via adsorbing lignocelluloses from spent liquor of NSSC process.

    PubMed

    Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the adsorption of lignocelluloses from spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semi chemical (NSSC) pulping process on bentonite was investigated. It was observed that 0.26g/g of lignin and 0.27g/g of hemicelluloses from SL were adsorbed on bentonite under the conditions of 50°C, 100rpm and 40g/gSL/bentonite after 3h of treatment. The adsorptions of lignin and hemicellulose were increased to 1.8g/g and 0.45g/g, respectively, via adding 15mg/g of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) in the system of SL/bentonite. The turbidity and COD removals were improved from 69% to 93% and from 25% to 38% by adding PDADMAC to the SL/bentonite system, respectively. The increase in the heating value of bentonite (from 0 to 15.4MJ/kg) confirmed the adsorption of lignocelluloses. The modified bentonite can be used as filler in corrugated medium paper production or as fuel.

  9. Simultaneous sorption of crystal violet and 2-naphthol to bentonite with different CECs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingming; Zhu, Runliang; Zhu, Jianxi; Ge, Fei; Yuan, Peng; He, Hongping; Ming, Chen

    2009-07-15

    This work was to examine the feasibility and efficiency to use bentonite for simultaneous removal of cationic dyes and hydrophobic organic carbons (HOCs) from water. The sorption capacities of crystal violet (CV) on two bentonites and one activated carbon were compared. Simultaneous sorption of CV and 2-naphthol on the two bentonites were tested, and the removal efficiencies of 2-naphthol by the simultaneous sorption method and by CV modified bentonite was also compared. The experimental results in this study showed that the bentonite is more effective in sorption of CV than the activated carbon. With the sorption of CV, bentonite surfaces were altered from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity, and thus 2-naphthol could be simultaneously removed. The aromatic effect between CV and 2-naphthol was supposed to be the primary driving force for the sorption of 2-naphthol. The simultaneous sorption method was shown to be more effective in the sorption of 2-naphthol than the CV modified bentonite. Results of this work could provide novel information for the treatment of wastewater containing both cationic dyes and HOCs.

  10. Lead retention mechanisms and hydraulic conductivity studies of various bentonites for geoenvironment applications.

    PubMed

    Nakano, A; Li, L Y; Ohtsubo, M; Mishra, A K; Higashi, T

    2008-05-01

    Four bentonites from various sources were exposed to batch adsorption testing, selective sequential extraction and consolidation tests to investigate their metal retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity for geoenvironmental application such as in clay barrier materials. The Japanese bentonites (JB1-JB3) contain approximately 2-4% of carbonate and trace amount of zeolite (JB2 and JB3), whereas the US bentonite has < 1% carbonate and no zeolite. The rank of smectite content in the bentonites are USB > JB1 > JB3 > JB2. The materials ranked as JB2 approximately JB3 > JB1 > USB, according to retention capacity, while after the removal of carbonate the retention capacity order was JB1 approximately JB2 approximately JB3 > USB. SSE results indicate that carbonate plays a major role at low Pb solution concentration and precipitate as PbCO3. Once the carbonate is exhausted, the clay composition dominates the sorption process. The hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite mixtures (basalt + 10% bentonite) using water was kUSB < kJB1 < kJB3 < kJB2, consistent with the smectite content and swelling power, with USB having the highest proportion of smectite. Among the Japanese bentonites studied, JB1 is the best candidate for barrier material, comparable to the widely used USB.

  11. Sorption mechanism of Pu, Am and Se on sodium-bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Yui, Mikazu; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    1994-12-31

    The distribution coefficients (Kd) were measured for Pu, Am and Se on sodium-bentonite in bentonite-equilibrated distilled water in a pH range 4 {approximately} 10. Sodium-bentonite includes sodium-montmorillonite and ferrous minerals such as pyrite. The experiments were carried out by using the batch method under aerobic conditions for Pu, Am and under anaerobic conditions for Se. The distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were in the range 10{sup 0} {approximately} 10{sup 2}m{sup 3}/kg on sodium-bentonite in the above pH range. The sorption of Pu and Am was modeled by ion exchange of these cationic aqueous species with interlayer cations of sodium-bentonite. The distribution coefficients of Se on sodium-bentonite were interpreted by using a surface complexation model. The model was based on the assumption that the sorption behavior was dominated by ferric-oxyhydroxide, goethite, coating on the surface of pyrite. Sorption behavior of Am in compacted bentonite were also discussed by using cation exchange model.

  12. Geochemical properties of bentonite pore water in high-level-waste repository condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1997-04-01

    The chemically favorable nature of bentonite pore water is clarified by the PHREEQE geochemical simulation code. Bentonite is viewed as a candidate buffer material for a high-level-waste repository, and bentonite`s pore water chemistry is expected to result in a reduced Eh and weak alkaline pH region. Pyrite (Fe{sub 2}S), initially contained in bentonite, alters to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and this redox couple reaction controls the oxidation reduction potential. A mild alkaline pH condition is produced mainly by an ion exchange reaction between the sodium in bentonite and the protons in the solution. A geochemical simulation of the ion exchange reactions and the pyrite-magnetite alteration suggests that a favorable chemical condition would exist during the waste glass dissolution and indicates that the Ph and the Eh values are {minus}7.5 to {minus}9.4 and {minus}450 to {minus}320 mV, respectively, when the granitic groundwater intrudes into the compacted bentonite in the repository.

  13. Modelling approaches for anion-exclusion in compacted Na-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournassat, C.; Appelo, C. A. J.

    2011-07-01

    The accessible porosity for Cl - in bentonite is smaller than the the total porosity due to anion repulsion (exclusion) by the surface of montmorillonite, the main mineral in bentonite. The accessible porosity is a function of the bentonite density and the salt concentration. Anion exclusion data were gathered from the literature, reprocessed in a coherent data set, and modelled using four different models. Very simple models, with or without anion access to the interlayer space, are successful in reproducing trends in anion exclusion in bentonite as a function of ionic strength in the external solution and montmorillonite bulk dry densities in the bentonite. However, a model that considers clay microstructure changes as a function of bentonite compaction and ionic strength is necessary to reproduce observed trends in the data for all experimental conditions within a single model. Our predictive model excludes anions from the interlayer space and relates the interlayer porosity to the ionic strength and the montmorillonite bulk dry density. This presentation offers a good fit for measured anion accessible porosities in bentonites over a wide range of conditions and is also in agreement with microscopic observations.

  14. Crude clove bud oil (CBO) quality improvement by bentonite adsorption process in flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiyanto, Dwiarso; Diaty, Dita; Allwar

    2017-03-01

    Improvement of the quality of crude clove bud oil (crude CBO) by bentonite adsorption process in flow system had been done. This research aimed to improve the quality of crude CBO based on SNI 06-4267-1996 and SNI 06-2387-2006. The parameters were colours, densities, refractives index, eugenol and trans-caryophillene contents and also the additional analysis parameter which were the analysis of Fe using bentonite and measurement of pH using universal paper. Adsorption was carried out in the optimation of bentonite. The weight variations of bentonite was 5, 10, 15 and 20 grams. From the surface area analysis, it showed that bentonite had surface area about 30,512 m2/g which was activated chemically using 0,5 M HCl and calcinated using furnace in temperature of 400 0C. The results showed that the analysis of colours, densities, recfractives index and test of pH were not different significantly. Meanwhile the adsorption of Fe metal using 20 gram bentonite be able to adsorp until 94,20%. The highest percentage of eugenol found in the variation of 5 gram which was about 13,52% and decreased trans-caryophillene in 9,64% of 15 gram bentonite.

  15. Experimental study of bentonite-soil mixtures as anti-seepage materials of constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Zifu; Zhao, Xin; Li, Haihan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, mixtures of different kinds of bentonite and soil were used and tested in order to find a cheap alternative to current anti-seepage materials for constructed wetlands. The anti-seepage layer of constructed wetlands was simulated in the experimental study and the permeability coefficient of the mixed materials was determined in order to evaluate the anti-seepage effect of mixtures. The main results are as follows: (i) The minimum mass ratio of bentonite to soil is 10%; (ii) Within a certain range, the more compact and higher the wet density is, then the better anti-seepage effect is (under the condition of certain moisture content). The permeability coefficient of the mixed materials exponentially increased with the increase of wet density; (iii) At the wet density of 1.83 g/cm(3), corresponding with the optimum compactness, the mixture of natural sodium bentonite produced in Wyoming, USA and soil from Cangzhou, Hebei province showed the best anti-seepage performance; (iv) The impermeability of the mixture with smaller particle sizes of bentonite was far better than that with the bigger particle sizes; (v) The hydration effect of bentonite changed the structure of the mixture materials into a special structure that is similar to that of pure bentonite. The particles of the mixture became expanded under SEM investigation and the mixture became more compact, which could have the same or similar effect as pure bentonite for anti-seepage.

  16. Effects of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride addition to bentonite in iron ore pelletization.

    PubMed

    Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Pişkin, Mehmet

    2006-10-01

    Pyrite ash is created as waste from the roasting of pyrite ores during the production of sulphuric acid. These processes generate great amounts of pyrite ash waste that is generally land filled. This creates serious environmental pollution due to the release of acids and toxic substances. Pyrite ash waste can be utilized in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed to process this waste and prevent environmental pollution. The essential parameters affecting the pelletization process of pyrite ash were studied using bentonite as a binder. Experiments were then carried out using bentonite and a mixture of bentonite with calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in order to make the bentonite more effective. The metallurgical properties of pyrite ash, bentonite, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, a mixture of these and sintered pellets were studied using X-ray analysis. The crushing strength tests were carried out to investigate the strength of pyrite ash waste pellets. The results of these analyses showed that pyrite ash can be agglomerated to pellets and used in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed. The crushing strength of the pellets containing calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in addition to bentonite was better than the strength of pellets prepared using only bentonite binder.

  17. Myelin Sheath Injury in Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: A Light and Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Ayannuga, Olugbenga A; Shokunbi, M Temitayo; Naicker, T A

    2016-01-01

    In hydrocephalus, the impairment of cognitive and motor functions is thought to be partly due to injury to the myelin sheath of axons in the central nervous system. The exact nature of this injury is not completely understood. We induced hydrocephalus in 3-week-old rats with an intracisternal injection of kaolin suspension (0.04 ml of 200 mg/ml) and examined paraffin and ultrathin sections of the subcortical white matter from coronal slices of the cerebrum obtained at the level of the optic chiasm after sacrifice at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Over time, there was a progression of injury to the myelin sheath consisting of attenuation, lamella separation and accumulation of myelin debris, focal degeneration, and the appearance of casts and loops. The results suggest that myelin injury in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus progresses with the duration and severity of ventriculomegaly. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in industrial kaolinized granite.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Mrđa, Dušan; Nikolov, Jovana; Kardos, Richárd; Krmar, Miodrag

    2017-03-01

    Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in 120 kaolinized granite samples imported in Serbia from the Motajica mine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, were measured. The (226)Ra concentration ranged from 61 to 319 Bq kg(-1), the (232)Th from 44 to 272 Bq kg(-1), and the (4)(0)K from 590 to 1470 Bq kg(-1). The frequency distribution of (4)(0)K concentrations was near-Gaussian, where those of (226)Ra and (232)Th were right-skewed. In 6 samples, the gamma index, I, was higher than 2, which exceeds the exemption dose criterion (0.3 mSv y(-1)). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective doses for workers in the ceramic industries in Serbia who worked with kaolinized granite were below levels of concern.

  19. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa.

  20. Surface properties of kaolin and illite suspensions in concentrated calcium hydroxide medium.

    PubMed

    Konan, Koffi Léon; Peyratout, Claire; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Agnès; Jacquet, Alain; Magnoux, Patrick; Ayrault, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    The adsorption behaviour of calcium hydroxide onto illite and kaolin clay minerals was investigated by monitoring with atomic emission spectroscopy and pH measurements the amounts of ions left in solution after exposing clay minerals to calcium hydroxide solutions of various concentrations. Both clay minerals can adsorb calcium and hydroxyl ions. Rather than just considering proton exchanges at the clay mineral surfaces, the adsorption is explained by an approach based on Lewis description of molecules. With this approach, a mechanism for calcium hydroxide adsorption not only at the edges of the clay particles but also onto the faces is proposed. In order to gain a better insight onto the active groups at the surface of the studied clay minerals, adsorption of pyridine and ammonia on illite and kaolin was followed by FTIR spectroscopy. These measurements gave the signature of edges, which are marginally involved in interactions with calcium ions.

  1. In vitro biologic toxicity of native and surface-modified silica and kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.; Vallyathan, V.; Keane, M.J.; Robinson, V.

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro study of the biologic responses of surface-modified and native silica and kaolin was made to provide comparative information on the suppression of cytotoxicity by pulmonary surfactant. The release of alveolar macrophage cytoplasmic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lysosomal enzymes ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase (..beta..-NAG) and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-GLUC) and sheep blood-cell hemolysis were monitored as indicators of cell membrane damage and cytotoxicity. Surface modification of silica and kaolin with dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) resulted in complete abrogation of cytotoxicity of both minerals. These findings indicate that surface modification of minerals with different adsorption properties by pulmonary surfactant generally lessens their prompt adverse effects.

  2. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhus, A.M.; Hoeiland, H.; Gjerde, M.I.; Ersland, E.K.

    1996-05-10

    The adsorption of surfactants on solid/liquid interfaces is a subject of great interest especially for enhanced oil recovery processes. The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures has been studied. The alcohols used were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-decanol containing 3.5 or 7 wt% water. In all cases the adsorption isotherms show a rather steep rise at low surfactant concentrations. Thereafter, there is a more or less continuous leveling off. The plateau adsorption of SDS on kaolin is found to increase with increasing chain length of the alcohol in the alcohol-water solvent. The adsorption properties are discussed in relation to the dielectric constant of the solvents; the aggregation properties of the surfactant in the bulk phase and the molecular packing of the surfactant in the adsorbed state are also considered.

  3. Biodegradability and swelling capacity of kaolin based chitosan-g-PHEMA nanocomposite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Rana, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibits excellent biological properties such as biodegradability, immunological and antibacterial activity. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the chemical modification of chitosan in order to widen its applications. The chemical modification of chitosan has been achieved via grafting of monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS) and kaolin was added to improve the mechanical strength of the newly developed nanocomposites hydrogel. The so prepared grafted nanocomposites hydrogel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA. The equilibrium water content (EWC) of the samples were measured at different pH ranges 6.5-8.0 and found optimum at pH 7.5 for biomedical applications. Further, the biodegradability of the samples was studied at different time intervals from 15 days to 1 year but, the kaolin based nanohydrogels exhibited good biodegradability.

  4. New organophilic kaolin clays based on single-point grafted 3-aminopropyl dimethylethoxysilane.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, A; Perrin, F-X; Teodorescu, M; Radu, A-L; Iordache, T-V; Florea, A-M; Donescu, D; Sarbu, A

    2015-10-14

    In this study, the organophilization procedure of kaolin rocks with a monofunctional ethoxysilane- 3 aminopropyl dimethyl ethoxysilane (APMS) is depicted for the first time. The two-step organophilization procedure, including dimethyl sulfoxide intercalation and APMS grafting onto the inner hydroxyl surface of kaolinite (the mineral) layers was tested for three sources of kaolin rocks (KR, KC and KD) with various morphologies and kaolinite compositions. The load of APMS in the kaolinite interlayer space was higher than that of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) due to the single-point grafting nature of the organophilization reaction. A higher long-distance order of kaolinite layers with low staking was obtained for the APMS, due to a more controllable organiphilization reaction. Last but not least, the solid state (29)Si-NMR tests confirmed the single-point grafting mechanism of APMS, corroborating monodentate fixation on the kaolinite hydroxyl facets, with no contribution to the bidentate or tridentate fixation as observed for APTS.

  5. Interactions of corrosion products and bentonite: An extended multicomponent reactive transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chuanhe; Samper, Javier; Fritz, Bertrand; Clement, Alain; Montenegro, Luis

    Radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories envisages various engineered barriers such as carbon-steel canisters and compacted bentonite. Canister corrosion and the chemical interactions of corrosion products with bentonite are key reactions for the long term performance of a repository. Samper, Lu, and Montenegro (Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 2008; 33S: S306-S316) reported numerical models to simulate canister corrosion and the interactions of corrosion products with bentonite for the near field of a repository in granite. Here we present an updated version of their reactive transport model which accounts for: (1) Three types of sorption sites in the bentonite; (2) Kinetically-controlled canister corrosion, (3) Kinetically-controlled magnetite precipitation; and (4) The competition effect of Ni 2+ for sorbing sites. Accounting for kinetically-controlled canister corrosion leads to a significant reduction in the corrosion rate. Uncertainties in the surface complexation reactions play a minor role in the time evolution of the computed pH in the bentonite and the granite. Computed iron concentrations, however, are very sensitive to changes in the surface complexation reactions. The apparent distribution coefficient of Fe computed with the three-site model is 10 times larger than that obtained with a single-site model. The concentration of dissolved Fe computed with kinetic magnetite precipitation is smaller than that obtained with magnetite precipitation at local equilibrium. The largest difference in the concentration of dissolved Fe occurs after 3 × 10 4 years. The competition of Ni 2+ for sorption sites affects significantly the chemical evolution of the bentonite porewater. The sorption of Ni 2+ on bentonite releases protons and therefore the pH in the bentonite is smaller than that computed without Ni 2+ transport. The sorption of Ni 2+ leads to a decrease of the concentration of sorbed Fe and an increase of the concentration of dissolved

  6. [Effect of SDS on the adsorption of Cd2+ onto amphoteric modified bentonites].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Meng, Zhao-Fu; Yang, Ya-Ti; Yang, Shu-Ying; Li, Bin; Xu, Shao-e

    2014-07-01

    Under different modified ratios, temperatures, pH and ionic strengths, the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) on the adsorption of Cd2+ onto bentonites which modified with amphoteric modifier dodecyl dimethyl betaine (BS-12) was studied by batch experiments, and the adsorption mechanism was also discussed. Results showed that the adsorption of Cd2+ on amphoteric bentonites can be enhanced significantly by SDS combined modification, Cd2+ adsorption decreases in the order: BS + 150SDS (BS-12 + 150% SDS) > BS + 100SDS (BS-12 + 100% SDS) > BS +50SDS(BS-12 + 50% SDS) > BS + 25SDS (BS-12 + 25% SDS) > BS (BS-12) > CK (unmodified soil). The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Langmuir equation. The change of temperature effect from positive on CK and amphoteric bentonites to negative on BS + 150SDS bentonites is observed with an increase of SDS modified ratio. The pH has little influence on Cd2+ adsorption on bentonites. The adsorption of Cd2+ on bentonites decreases with ionic strength rise, but the effect of ionic strength can be reduced with an increase of SDS modified ratio also. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites was spontaneously controlled by entropy increment. When the SDS modified ratio is lower than 100% CEC, the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites is a process with characteristics of both enthalpy increment and entropy increment, while the SDS modified ratio is equal to or higher than 100% CEC, the adsorption of Cd2+ on modified bentonites becomes a process of enthalpy decrement and entropy increment.

  7. Review of Suction Water Content Relationship of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures Considering Temperature Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Abhishek; Zhi Lang, Lin; Baille, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the candidate sealing/ buffer material for landfills, hazardous and high level radioactive waste repository. The long term satisfactory performance of bentonite sand mixture in terms of load bearing function, sealing function and buffer function is governed by hydro-mechanical response of material under elevated temperature conditions. The suction-water content relationship is one of the key parameter, which govern the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixture. This paper presents brief review of suction water content relationships of bentonite-sand mixture considering temperature effects. Numerous parametric models or equations have been developed for representing the soil water characteristics curve i.e. SWCC for isothermal conditions. The most frequently used equations for representing the SWCC are the van Genuchten (1980) and Fredlund and Xing (1994) SWCC equations. Various researchers (Romero et al. 2000; Villar and Lloret, 2004; Tang and Cui, 2005; Agus, 2005; Arifin, 2008) have reported the temperature effect on the water retention behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures. The testing program, results and major conclusions made by above mentioned researchers were discussed in this paper. The changes in hydro-mechanical behavior due to elevated temperature are also discussed based on the suction components of soil which are influenced by temperature. As a general conclusion, total suction of the bentonite-sand mixtures is a function of mixture water content and mixture bentonite content or collectively a function of bentonite water content both at room temperature and at elevated temperature. At a constant temperature, different techniques for measuring suction results in different values of suction depending on accuracy of the sensor and calibration technique used as founded earlier by Agus (2005). The change in total suction due to change in temperature lower than 100 degree C is reversible

  8. Organic template free synthesis of ZSM-5 from calcinated Indonesian kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartati, Widati, Alfa Akustia; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Purwaningsih, Aning; Alfiani

    2017-09-01

    A pure ZSM-5 has been synthesized from calcinated kaolin without organic template. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption technique, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results showed that microporous ZSM-5 obtained by silica adding through three-step crystallization at 100-120-150 °C for 24 h respectively.

  9. Anxiety responses and neurochemical changes in a kaolin-induced rat model of hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Sup; Shim, Insop; Chang, Jin Woo

    2011-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a pathological enlargement of the ventricles of the brain, which can result from various diseases of the central nervous system. Patients with hydrocephalus frequently show motor abnormalities, such as abnormal gait and posture, as well as intellectual and emotional impairment. The present study was designed to investigate anxiety responses in rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. A total of 26 Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 0.1 ml of 20% kaolin solution into the cisterna magna; 12 rats were administered the same volume of saline in the same fashion and served as controls. Seven of the rats that were injected with kaolin and 6 of the rats injected with saline were killed 3 days after injection (Group 1); the remaining rats were killed 4 weeks after injection (Group 2) to evaluate effects related to acute and chronic hydrocephalus. The rats were tested in an elevated plus maze after induction of hydrocephalus by kaolin injection. After the animals were killed, brain sections were immunostained for cholecystokinin and neuropeptide Y. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area was evaluated by immunohistological staining. The rats with acute hydrocephalus showed decreased entry into and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as compared with the control rats. The hydrocephalic rats had significantly more cholecystokinin-immunoreactive neurons and fewer neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in their brains. In addition, hydrocephalus progress in this model was positively correlated with the anxiety response. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons were decreased significantly in the hydrocephalic rats as compared with the control rats. These results suggest that the rat model of hydrocephalus is characterized by increased anxiety response and is associated with the functional impairment of the

  10. Low-dose kaolin-induced feline hydrocephalus and feline ventriculostomy: an updated model

    PubMed Central

    Lollis, S. Scott; Hoopes, P. Jack; Kane, Susan; Paulsen, Keith; Weaver, John; Roberts, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Object Intracisternal injection of kaolin is a well-described model of feline hydrocephalus. Its principal disadvantage is a high rate of procedure-related morbidity and mortality. The authors describe a series of modifications to a commonly used protocol, intended to ameliorate animal welfare concerns without compromising the degree of ventricular enlargement. Methods In 11 adult cats, hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Kaolin doses were reduced to 10 mg, compared with historical doses of ~ 200 mg, and high-dose dexamethasone was used to reduce the severity of meningeal irritation. A control cohort of 6 additional animals received injections of isotonic saline into the cisterna magna. Results The mean ventricular volume increased from a baseline of 0.183 ± 0.068 ml to 1.43 ± 0.184 ml. Two animals were killed prior to completion of the study. Of the remaining animals, all were ambulatory by postinjection Day 1, and all had resumed normal oral intake by postinjection Day 3. Two animals required subcutaneous fluid supplementation. Ventriculostomy using anatomical landmarks was performed to ascertain intraventricular pressure. The mean intraventricular pressure after hydrocephalus was 15 cm H2O above the ear (range 11–20 cm H2O). Conclusions Reduction in kaolin dosage and the postoperative administration of high-dose corticosteroid therapy appear to reduce morbidity and mortality rates compared with historical experiences. Hydrocephalus is radiographically evident as soon as 3 days after injection, but it does not substantially interfere with feeding and basic self-care. To the extent that animal welfare concerns may have limited the use of this model in recent years, the procedures described in the present study may offer some guidance for its future use. PMID:19834994

  11. Evaluation of White Bentonite Modified by Acid Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C. G. Bastos; Fermino, D. M.; Fernandes, M. G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F. R.

    For industrial use, the smectite clays must be cleared of impurities, usually obtained by acid modification, using a high concentration solution of inorganic acid at temperatures under boiling point. In the present paper, a sample of white bentonite from Paraiba, Brazil, was modified by hydrochloric acid under moderate conditions (90°C, reaction times of 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24hours in close reactor, concentration of the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 1.5 M, acid solution/clay ratio of 1g/10mL). The purpose of these attacks is to reduce the concentration of impurities with minimal change in the clay minerals structure. The modified samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Stereomicroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Detector (EDS). Thus, this modified bentonite tends to be a good economic and environmental alternative in manufacturing of products with high added value such as cosmetics and polymer/clay nanocomposites.

  12. Coupled chemical and diffusion model for compacted bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Olin, M.; Lehikoinen, J.; Muurinen, A.

    1995-12-31

    A chemical equilibrium model has been developed for ion-exchange and to a limited extent for other reactions, such as precipitation or dissolution of calcite or gypsum, in compacted bentonite water systems. The model was successfully applied to some bentonite experiments, especially as far as monovalent ions were concerned. The fitted log-binding constants for the exchange of sodium for potassium, magnesium, and calcium were 0.27, 1.50, and 2.10, respectively. In addition, a coupled chemical and diffusion model has been developed to take account of diffusion in pore water, surface diffusion and ion-exchange.d the model was applied to the same experiments as the chemical equilibrium model, and its validation was found partly successful. The above values for binding constants were used also in the coupled model. The apparent (both for anions and cations) and surface diffusion (only for cations) constants yielding the best agreement between calculated and experimental data were 3.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s and 6.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. These values are questionable, however, as experimental results good enough for fitting are currently not available.

  13. Effects of humic acid on recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Runsheng; Zhang, Xihui; Xiao, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Particle surface characteristics, floc recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs were investigated using in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and microbalance with or without humic acid. Experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of kaolin particle surface after adsorption of humic acid was related with humic acid concentration and its acid-base buffering capacity. Adsorption of humic acid resulted in more negative electrophoresis on the particle surface. Coagulant dosages for particles to form flocs would increase with increasing humic concentration. PIV was used to evaluate floc structural fragmentation, floc surface erosion as well as recoverability after high shear. It was found that the floc size during the steady phase of growth was small, while the regrowing capability decreased in the presence of humic acid. The recoverability was closely related with floc breakage modes including floc structural fragmentation and floc surface erosion. The fractal dimensions of alum-kaolin flocs by mass-size method based on microbalance would decrease with increasing humic concentration. This study proved that humic acid had adverse influences on the performance of coagulation process.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of meloxicam in piglets subjected to a kaolin inflammation model.

    PubMed

    Fosse, T K; Spadavecchia, C; Horsberg, T E; Haga, H A; Ranheim, B

    2011-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of meloxicam were investigated in a placebo controlled study in 2-week-old piglets. Inflammation was induced by a subcutaneous injection of kaolin in the left metacarpus, and 16 h later, meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg) or saline was administered intramuscularly. The absorption half-life was relatively short (0.19 h) and the elimination half-life was 2.6 h. Mechanical nociceptive threshold testing was used to evaluate the analgesic effect, but no significant effect of the meloxicam treatment was found. The skin temperature of the inflamed area increased after the kaolin injection, but no significant decrease in temperature was found after administration of meloxicam. Only limited pyresis was observed after the kaolin injection, and no significant antipyretic effect of meloxicam was found. The results indicated that this dose of meloxicam had very limited anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in piglets. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Arthritic disease is more severe in older rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yeom, Mijung; Choi, Hyun Mi; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    This study examined in an arthritis animal model whether elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) is a more severe disease than younger onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced by injecting 5% kaolin/carrageenan into the left tibiotarsal ankles of 18-month-old and 4-week-old rats. Various parameters were measured to evaluate the arthritic progression of kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis in the rats. Immunohistochemical staining of arthritic joints was performed to determine the degree of inflammation in old and young rats. Measurements of ankle volume and thickness, arthritic index, number of squeaks, and the paw pressure test showed the 18-month-old rats had more severe disease than the young rats in a kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis model. The degree of inflammation and MMP-1 expression of arthritic joints in old rats was significantly higher than that of young rats based on histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunochemistry. More severe disease symptoms were found in old rats with EORA, but the molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms will be helpful to develop clinical protocols to efficiently treat patients with EORA, which is difficult to control with current protocols.

  16. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  17. Kaolin processing waste applied in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles and mullite bodies.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Farias, Felipe F; Oliveira, Maurício F; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2009-02-01

    In the last few years, mineral extraction and processing industries have been identified as sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The kaolin processing industry around the world generates large amounts of waste materials. The present study evaluated the suitability of kaolin processing waste as an alternative source of ceramic raw material for the production of ceramic tiles and dense mullite bodies. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. The fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that ceramic tile formulations containing up to 60% of waste could be used for the production of tiles with low water absorption (approximately 0.5%) and low sintering temperature (1150 degrees C). Mullite formulations with more than 40% of kaolin waste could be used in the production of bodies with high strength, of about 75 MPa, which can be used as refractory materials.

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance of natural and gamma-irradiated alunite and kaolin mineral powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksal, F.; Koseoglu, R.; Saka, I.; Basaran, E.; Sener, F.

    2004-06-01

    Natural alunite and kaolin minerals obtained from West Anatolia were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in natural and gamma-irradiated states at room temperature and at 113 K. The paramagnetic centres at ambient temperature in natural alunite were attributed to the (C) over dot H 2OH, (C) over dot O-3(-), (S) over dot O-2(-), (C) over dot O-2(-) and [AlO4 ](0) radicals. In natural kaolin, the paramagnetic centres were attributed to the (C) over dot O-3(-), (S) over dot O-2(-) (C) over dot O-2(-) and [AlO4](0) radicals. The gamma-irradiation does not produce any detectable effects on these radicals. At 113 K, the lines for (C) over dot H2OH could not be observed well, probably due to the anisotropic behaviour of the hyperfine interaction of the methylene protons, but the lines for [AlO4](0) centres were found to be perfectly observable at above 20 mW microwave power in both alunite and kaolin powders before and after gamma-irradiation. The EPR parameters of the observed paramagnetic centres were reported.

  19. Experimental study on mechanical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments using kaolin clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang-Hui; Song, Yong-Chen; Yu, Feng; Liu, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Jia-Fei

    2011-03-01

    A triaxial system is designed with a temperature range from -20 °C to 25 °C and a pressure range from 0 MPa to 30 MPa in order to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The mechanical properties of synthetic gas hydrate-bearing sediments (gas hydrate-kaolin clay mixture) were measured by using current experimental apparatus. The results indicate that: (1) the failure strength of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depends on the temperature. The sediment's strength increases with the decreases of temperature. (2) The maximum deviator stress increases linearly with the confining pressure at a low-pressure stage. However, it fluctuates at a high-pressure stage. (3) Maximum deviator stress increases with increasing strain rate, whereas the strain-stress curve has no tremendous change until the axial strain reaches approximately 0.5%. (4) The internal friction angles of gas hydrate-bearing sediments are not sensitive to kaolin volume ratio. The cohesion shows a high kaolin volume ratio dependency.

  20. Influence of relative humidity on heterogeneous kinetics of NO2 on kaolin and hematite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; Han, Chong; Ma, Jinzhu; Bao, Xiaolei; He, Hong

    2015-07-15

    In order to obtain reliable kinetic parameters, it is required to measure the reaction kinetics of important heterogeneous reactions at ambient relative humidity (RH). In this study, the uptake coefficients and HONO yields for the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on kaolin and hematite were measured at RH from 7% to 74% and at ambient pressure in the dark using a coated-wall flow tube reactor. The initial true uptake coefficient (γt,ini) of NO2 at RH 7% was measured to be (1.44 ± 0.10) × 10(-7) and (1.58 ± 0.13) × 10(-6) on kaolin and hematite, respectively, while it decreased notably on both minerals, accompanied by an increase of HONO yields, as RH increased. The average γt,ini at 32-74% RH was (4.42 ± 1.17) × 10(-8) and (2.83 ± 0.84) × 10(-7) on kaolin and hematite, respectively. The corresponding mean HONO yield was (36.0 ± 16.1)% and (75.9 ± 3.32)%, respectively.

  1. Influence of mixtures of kaolin particle film and synthetic insecticides on mortality of larval obliquebanded leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from resistant and susceptible populations.

    PubMed

    Smirle, Michael J; Lowery, D Thomas; Zurowski, Cheryl L

    2007-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine potential interactions between kaolin particle film and three insecticides on neonate larvae of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Kaolin did not significantly affect the toxicity of azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb to an insecticide-susceptible population when applied simultaneously with either insecticide in a 7-d leaf disk bioassay. Methoxyfenozide was slightly more toxic to the same leafroller population when coapplied with kaolin. When these bioassays were repeated on a multiresistant laboratory strain of C. rosaceana, mixtures of kaolin with either azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb were significantly more toxic than the insecticides alone, 3.1- and 7.7-fold more toxic for azinphosmethyl:kaolin and indoxacarb:kaolin, respectively. Mixtures of kaolin and methoxyfenozide did not differ in toxicity to the resistant leafroller population from the toxicity of methoxyfenozide alone. Kaolin alone had no effect on leafroller mortality over the 7-d duration of the bioassay. Although the toxicities of mixtures of kaolin with azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb are only moderately higher than those of the insecticides alone, they may be high enough to provide control of leafroller populations that have become difficult to manage due to the development of insecticide resistance.

  2. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    During the Late Ordovician, explosive volcanic eruptions led to the deposition of worldwide bentonites. Some of the largest of these eruptions took place in the Sandbian and produced the Milbrig and Deicke K-bentonites of North America and the Kinnekulle K-bentonite of Scandinavia. We have studied the classic locality of Hagemann and Spjeldnæs (1955) - one of the most complete sections of Ordovician bentonites in Europe. The bentonites are present in the Arnestad Formation comprising dark shale with carbonate nodule beds grading into an increasingly more carbonate rich environment. Through a 50-meter interval we have identified 33 bentonites of which 10 have not previously been reported from this locality. The bentonites have an average thickness of 4.9 cm with a few exceptions such as the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (35 cm) and the Grimstorp B (13 cm). We have measured magnetic susceptibility of two 2-3 meter intervals with a sampling distance of 5 cm, using a handheld magnetic susceptibility meter in the field. These data show significant periodicity peaks that correlate well with Milankovitch cycles and are suggested to represent astronomically forced changes in sediment supply. This study further presents high-precision U-Pb zircon ages of five bentonites from the section, including the Kinnekulle K-bentonite and Grimstorp B. These two beds were previously dated by Svensen et al. (2015) from a locality south of Oslo. Our new data improves the precision of the ages of these two key beds, and constrain the duration of the entire interval and thus the onset and termination of the late Ordovician volcanic system that deposited these tephras. We conclude that the Oslo section provides a high-resolution age model to understand one of the most intense volcanic periods of the Paleozoic by combining radiometric and cyclostratigraphic data. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemann, F. and Spjeldnæs, N. (1955). "The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway. 6. Notes on bentonites (K-bentonites

  3. The adsorption of caesium—137 on bentonites from the Carpathian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, N. M.; Kónya, J.; Földvári, M.; Kovács-Pálffy, P.

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of cesium was studied on the surface of bentonite rocks from the Carpathian basin. The adsorbed quantity at carrier-free concentration was measured using 137Cs, the adsorption capacity of bentonites for cesium ions was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The relation of the cesium adsorption and mineral composition as well as the structural modifications of crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction spectrometry and thermoanalysis. The results show that the adsorbed quantity of cesium primarily depends on the montmorillonite content of bentonites.

  4. Study of the acidic properties of ZrO2-pillared bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Ahmad; Priyono; Wijaya, Karna; Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-02-01

    Research on pillared clays prepared from purified bentonite of Boyolali Central Jawa, Indonesia, and polycation Zr at various concentration and calcination temperature had been done. Effect of acidity characteristic and structure of resulting materials were studied. The nature of acidic site of the material was identified on the basis of FTIRspectra of pyridine adsorbed on ZrO2- pillared bentonite catalysts. Analysis showed that increasing calcination temperature was followed by decreasing acidity and increasing ZrO2 content in the pillared bentonite accompanied by the increase of its acidity. FTIR spectra showed there was an intensity increase of the characteristic band of 1635 cm-1that indicates a Bronsted acid.

  5. Synthesis of chitin-bentonite clay based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Mahboob, Shahid; Hassan, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2010-08-01

    Chitin based polyurethane bio-nanocomposites (PUBNC) were prepared by emulsion polymerization. A mixture of polymer and bentonite clay enriched in montmorillonite (MMT) was formed in emulsion polymerization, in which MMT dispersed differently depending on interaction of MMT with polymer chains. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite clay enriched in montmorillonite was found 74meq/100g. The existence of the intercalated clay by PU in the hybrid was confirmed using optical microscope (OM) technique. Optical microscope (OM) photographs verified the well dispersed ordered intercalated assembles layers of bentonite in PU matrix. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence of ammonium ion-exchange properties of natural bentonite and application to ammonium detection.

    PubMed

    Zazoua, A; Kazane, I; Khedimallah, N; Dernane, C; Errachid, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium exchange with hybrid PVC-bentonite (mineral montmorillonite clay) thin film was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy, EDX, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of ammonium exchange on the charge transfer resistance of PVC-bentonite hybrid thin film was attributed to a modification of the intersheet distance and hydration of bentonite crystals. The obtained impedimetric ammonium sensor shows a linear range of detection from 10(-4)M to 1M and a detection limit around 10(-6)M. © 2013.

  7. Effect of bentonite on radiation induced dissolution of UO2 in an aqueous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro Fidalgo, Alexandre; Sundin, Sara; Jonsson, Mats

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the impact of bentonite on the process of radiation induced oxidative dissolution of UO2 in an aqueous system, the dissolution of U(VI) and consumption of H2O2 over time has been studied. In addition, γ-irradiation experiments were performed to study a more relevant and complex system, serving as a comparison with the previously stated system. In both cases, the experiments revealed that the presence of bentonite in water could either delay or prevent in part the release of uranium to the environment. The cause is mainly attributed to the scavenging of radiolytic oxidants rather than to the adsorption of uranium onto bentonite.

  8. Effect of the addition of bentonite on the anaerobic biodegradability of solid fatty wastes.

    PubMed

    Mouneimne, A H; Carrère, H; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P

    2004-04-01

    The biological degradation of solid fatty residues is limited by their low bioavailability. In this work, the effect of the day mineral bentonite on the degradation of hexane extractable matter and its conversion to volatile fatty acids was investigated. Our results showed that the best performance in the elimination of hexane extractable matter (73% +/- 2.5) and the production of volatile fatty acids (39% +/- 1.5) were observed in continuous experimental assays with a bentonite/greases ratio of 0.9. Isotherm studies showed that the sorption equilibria of oleate on bentonite and sludge could be described by the LANGMUIR model.

  9. A "liver" antigen associated with avian erythroblastosis: binding by bentonite and precipitation with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Darcel, C L

    1982-01-01

    The properties of a complement fixing antigen, EbAg, extracted from erythroblastosis-affected chicken livers are described. The antigen in extracts freed of structural protein is strongly bound by bentonite, but not by barium sulphate. Strongly alkaline solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate are required to release the antigen from bentonite. Acidification of the detergent solution precipitates the active solution precipitates the active protein. Extraction of heme from the acidified detergent precipitate by methyl-ethyl ketone further purifies the antigen. This acid detergent treatment eliminates the need to use bentonite as a purification step. PMID:6280825

  10. An evaluation of soluble cations and anions on the conductivity and rate of flocculation of kaolins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Deborah Lee

    1998-10-01

    The focus of this project was to learn how ionic concentrations and their contributions to electric conductivity influence the flocculation behavior of kaolin/water suspensions. Sodium silicate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate were used as chemical additives. The specific surface areas, particle size distributions, and methylene blue indices for two kaolins were measured. The SSA and MBI for these kaolins indicated that they possessed inherent differences in SSA and flocculation behaviors. Rheological studies were also performed. Testing included simultaneous gelation, deflocculation, and pH tests. Viscosity, pH, temperature, and chemical additive concentrations were monitored at each point. Testing was performed at 45/55 wt% solids. Effects of additions of various levels of deflocculant and flocculant to each of the kaolin/water suspensions were studied by making several suspensions from each kaolin. The concentrations of dispersant, and flocculant levels and types were varied to produce suspensions with different chemical additive "histories," but all with similar final apparent viscosities. Slurry filtrates were analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature, and ion concentrations of (Al3+, Fe2+,3+, Ca 2+, Mg+, Na+, SO4 2--, and Cl--). Plastic properties were calculated to determine how variations in suspension histories affected conductivities, pH, and detectable ion contents of the suspensions. These analyses were performed on starting slurries which were under-, completely-, and over-deflocculated before further additions of flocculants and deflocculant were added to tune the slurries to the final, constant, target viscosity. Results showed that rates of flocculation and conductivities increased as concentrations of ions increased. By increasing conductivity correlations with increases in flocculation occurs, which yields higher rates of buildup, or RBU [1]. This is the single most important slip control property in the whitewares industry. Shear

  11. Evaluation of a compacted bentonite/sand seal for underground waste repository isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, H.; Koçkar, M. K.; Aktürk, Ö.

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the performance of an optimum compacted bentonite/sand mixture seal for the isolation of underground waste repositories. Engineering geological tests such as compaction, flow, swelling, mechanical and shear strength tests have been conducted to select an optimum mixture and to recommend a stable bentonite/sand seal length-to-radius ratio ( L/ a) as far as the factor of safety ( F) is concerned. The results of the compaction permeameter tests led to a recommendation to select an optimum compacted bentonite/sand mixture possessing a bentonite content of about 20% to satisfy the minimum regulatory hydraulic conductivity requirement. Engineering geological analysis of the seal/rock mechanical interaction with regard to reduce the possibility of seal slip led to a recommendation to utilize a seal L/ a of at least 25.

  12. An optimum silica flour-bentonite mixture for an engineered barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.N.; Daffern, D.D.; Emer, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose of low-level and mixed wastes (MAR) by burial, it is necessary to design an impermeable closure, which limits water infiltration through the waste. Bentonite has very low permeability to water but can be subject to volume alterations. Over time, these alterations can lead to channeling and subsequent permeability increases. The fluid conductivity and bulk properties of silica flour and bentonite mixtures were tested to find a mixture that would retain the low conductivity of the bentonite while maintaining volumetric stability. Silica flour was chosen for its small grain size and spherical shape, and its similarity to silty soil. Test results indicate that a 90% silica flour and 10% bentonite mixture will provide the optimum properties for this application. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Features of the concentration dependences of the surface tension of water suspensions of bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The concentration dependence of the surface tension of water suspensions of bentonites is studied experimentally. Possible reasons for the emergence of the minima on isotherms of the surface tensions of dispersed systems are analyzed.

  14. Reduction of Silica from Hematite Ore Concentrate Pellets by Supplementing Bentonite Clay with Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Jacob Eugene Dale

    The replacement of bentonite as the standard iron ore binder is an important factor in the future of iron processing. Bentonite adds 0.7%-1.0% unwanted silica to the final iron product. Bentonite replacement requires an in-depth understanding of how alternative binders affect the agglomeration process. One such alternative binder is starch, which can be modified in a multitude of ways. It has been observed that the use of a highly soluble starch can greatly increase the dry compressive strength of a hematite concentrate pellet. By heating a starch solution or extruding a starch, its solubility can be altered. When using starch along with bentonite, a suitable pellet can be produced that can withstand all aspects of pellet handling. It was observed that at the highest solubility of starch there was a strength increase of approximately 15 lbf.

  15. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material.

    PubMed

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-01-01

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  16. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material

    SciTech Connect

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-07-01

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  17. Effect of bentonite modification on hardness and mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Denise Ester O.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Mangaccat, Winna Faye F.; Tigue, Maelyn Rose M.; Tipton, Monica T.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of sodium activation, ion-exchange with tertiary amine salt, surface treatment with non-ionic surfactant, and wet grinding of bentonite on hardness and mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites (NRN) was studied using full factorial design of experiment. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show increase in basal spacing d of bentonite due to modification, while attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirm the organic modification of bentonite. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the main effect of surface treatment increases the hardness and decreases the tensile modulus of the NRN. The surface treatment and wet grinding of bentonite decrease the tensile stresses at 100, 200 and 300% strain of NRN. Sodium activation and ion-exchange negatively affect the compressive properties, while surface treatment significantly improves the compressive properties of NRN.

  18. Effect of bentonite modification on hardness and mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Denise Ester O.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Mangaccat, Winna Faye F.; Tigue, Maelyn Rose M.; Tipton, Monica T.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of sodium activation, ion-exchange with tertiary amine salt, surface treatment with non-ionic surfactant, and wet grinding of bentonite on hardness and mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites (NRN) was studied using full factorial design of experiment. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show increase in basal spacing d of bentonite due to modification, while attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirm the organic modification of bentonite. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the main effect of surface treatment increases the hardness and decreases the tensile modulus of the NRN. The surface treatment and wet grinding of bentonite decrease the tensile stresses at 100, 200 and 300% strain of NRN. Sodium activation and ion-exchange negatively affect the compressive properties, while surface treatment significantly improves the compressive properties of NRN.

  19. Experimental studies of the interactions between anaerobically corroding iron and bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Liisa; Karnland, Ola; Oversby, Virginia M.; Rance, Andy P.; Smart, Nick R.; Snellman, Margit; Vähänen, Marjut; Werme, Lars O.

    In the horizontal emplacement concept (KBS-3H) for the disposal of radioactive waste, which is being developed in Sweden and Finland, copper canisters will be surrounded by bentonite buffer and placed in perforated steel containers in long horizontal boreholes in the crystalline bedrock, at a depth of ≈500 m. Under the chemical conditions in a deep repository, it is possible that the release of iron from the steel containers could influence the physico-chemical properties of the bentonite, for example, by exchange of the interlayer ions. In order to gain further insights into this process, an experimental study was undertaken, to investigate the mode of iron uptake into bentonite and the extent of changes induced in the basic physico-chemical properties of bentonite. The samples were taken from long-term anaerobic corrosion tests of carbon steel or cast iron in compacted bentonite (Na/Ca-bentonite: Volclay MX-80, ∼4% Fe 2O 3) in contact with a simple artificial groundwater at 30 °C or 50 °C. A range of analytical techniques was applied to samples of corrosion product on carbon steel and cast iron and to the bentonite surrounding the corroding specimens. Corrosion products and bentonite samples were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer transmission spectroscopy. In addition, the bentonite samples were analysed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), exchangeable cation analysis and cation exchange capacity (CEC) measurements. Hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure were also measured. From visual observation, the corrosion product formed on the carbon steel in bentonite was less voluminous than that formed on steel in artificial porewaters with no bentonite, although previous work showed that the corrosion

  20. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  1. Pyronin Y (basic xanthene dye)-bentonite composite: A spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabak, A.; Kaya, M.; Yilmaz, N.; Meral, K.; Onganer, Y.; Caglar, B.; Sungur, O.

    2014-02-01

    The expansion by 1.43 Angstrom of basal spacing and the shift to higher frequencies of in-plane ring vibrations of the Pyronin Y molecule at 1603 and 1527 cm-1 on the formation of Pyronin Y-bentonite composite exhibited that the dye cations might be oriented as a monolayer form in the interlamellar spacing with aromatic rings parallel to clay layers. Thermal analysis results of this composite compared to those of raw bentonite signified the different outer sphere water entities associated with the replacement of inorganic cations with organic dye cations and the gradual decomposition of the organic molecule in the interlamellar spacing. Thermo-Infrared spectra of Pyronin Y-bentonite sample up to high temperatures showed the thermal stability of the dye-clay composite as a result of the presence of π interactions. The pore structure characteristics of Pyronin Y-bentonite composite exhibited the increase in the number of mesopores during formation of the composite.

  2. Interaction of human adenoviruses and coliphages with kaolinite and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Maria I; Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Tselepi, Maria A; Kokkinos, Petros A; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros C; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-06-01

    Human adenoviruses (hAdVs) are pathogenic viruses responsible for public health problems worldwide. They have also been used as viral indicators in environmental systems. Coliphages (e.g., MS2, ΦX174) have also been studied as indicators of viral pollution in fecally contaminated water. Our objective was to evaluate the distribution of three viral fecal indicators (hAdVs, MS2, and ΦΧ174), between two different phyllosilicate clays (kaolinite and bentonite) and the aqueous phase. A series of static and dynamic experiments were conducted under two different temperatures (4, 25°C) for a time period of seven days. HAdV adsorption was examined in DNase I reaction buffer (pH=7.6, and ionic strength (IS)=1.4mM), whereas coliphage adsorption in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH=7, IS=2mM). Moreover, the effect of IS on hAdV adsorption under static conditions was evaluated. The adsorption of hAdV was assessed by real-time PCR and its infectivity was tested by cultivation methods. The coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 were assayed by the double-layer overlay method. The experimental results have shown that coliphage adsorption onto both kaolinite and bentonite was higher for the dynamic than the static experiments; whereas hAdV adsorption was lower under dynamic conditions. The adsorption of hAdV increased with decreasing temperature, contrary to the results obtained for the coliphages. This study examines the combined effect of temperature, agitation, clay type, and IS on hAdV adsorption onto clays. The results provide useful new information on the effective removal of viral fecal indicators (MS2, ΦX174 and hAdV) from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption onto kaolinite and bentonite. Factors enabling enteric viruses to penetrate soils, groundwater and travel long distances within aquifers are important public health issues. Because the observed adsorption behavior of surrogate coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 is substantially different to that of hAdV, neither MS2 nor

  3. Hydraulic permeability of bentonite-polymer composites for application in landfill technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, Hanna; Haase, Hanna; Schanz, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Bentonites are often used as barrier materials in landfill technology to prevent infiltration of leachates to the natural environment. Since decades, geoenvironmental engineering aims at improving the hydro-mechanical performance of landfill liners. Various studies on the permeability performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) show effects of non-standard liquids on behaviour of Na+-bentonite regarding its sealing capacity. With increasing concentration of chemical aggressive solutions the sealing capacity decreases (Shackelford et al. 2000). An opportunity to improve the hydraulic permeability of the bentonites is the addition of polymers. The changes in hydraulic permeability performance of polymer treated and untreated bentonites while adding chemical aggressive solutions were studied by several authors. Results obtained by Scalia et al. (2014) illustrate that an increase in permeability can be prevented by adding polymer to Na+-bentonite. On the other hand, Ashmawy et al. (2002) presented results on the incapability of several commercial bentonite-polymer-products. The objective of this study is to characterize the influence of polymer addition on hydraulic performance of Na+-bentonite systematically. Therefore, the influence of 1% polymer addition of cationic and anionic polyacrylamide on the swelling pressure and hydraulic permeability of MX 80 bentonite was investigated. Preparation of bentonite-polymer composites was conducted (1) in dry conditions and (2) using solution-intercalation method. Experiments on hydraulic permeability were carried out using distilled water as well as CaCl2-solution. References Ashmawy, A. K., El-Hajji, D., Sotelo, N. & Muhammad, N. (2002), `Hydraulic Performance of Untreated and Polymer-treated Bentonite in Inorganic Landfill Leachates', Clays and Clay Minerals 50(5), 546-552. Scalia, J., Benson, C., Bohnhoff, G., Edil, T. & Shackelford, C. (2014), 'Long-Term Hydraulic Conductivity of a Bentonite-Polymer Composite Permeated

  4. Thermodynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael; Lothenbach, Barbara; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    Compacted bentonite is typically foreseen as the main component of the engineered barrier system of high-level radioactive waste repositories. To derive Kd values and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides for performance assessment, it is critical to be able to describe the chemistry of the pore solution and to understand how it is influenced by different factors. The present paper presents a sensitivity analysis on the influence of important parameters on porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite. The principal parameters varied were the fractions of calcite, gypsum, and NaCl dissolving from bentonite, and pCO 2: Model calculations were done with the help of a surface chemical thermodynamic model that simultaneously treats solution/mineral equilibria as well as surface complexation and ion exchange reactions at the edge and siloxane surfaces of clay minerals. Some calculations were extended to take into account electric double layer effects in the porespace. The model results show that two powerful pH buffer systems are operative in compacted bentonite: Amphoteric edge SOH sites and the carbonate buffer system. If pCO 2 is imposed externally, the resulting porewater pH is mainly controlled by the carbonate buffer. If bentonite is treated as a closed system, the buffering action of the SOH sites becomes more important. In both cases, the dissolution of calcite and gypsum from the bentonite is important. The dissolution of impurities and the ion exchange reactions have an important influence in compacted bentonite, and porewater composition is relatively independent of groundwater composition. If the development of an electric double layer in the bentonite pores is considered, our results indicate that at higher dry densities (⩾1200 kg/m 3) the entire porespace may be occupied with (truncated) diffuse layers, leaving no space for free porewater.

  5. Co-composting of acid waste bentonites and their effects on soil properties and crop biomass.

    PubMed

    Soda, Wannipa; Noble, Andrew D; Suzuki, Shinji; Simmons, Robert; Sindhusen, La-Ait; Bhuthorndharaj, Suwannee

    2006-01-01

    Acid waste bentonite is a byproduct from vegetable oil bleaching that is acidic (pH < 3.0) and hydrophobic. These materials are currently disposed of in landfills and could potentially have a negative impact on the effective function of microbes that are intolerant of acidic conditions. A study was undertaken using three different sources of acid waste bentonites, namely soybean oil bentonite (SB), palm oil bentonite (PB), and rice bran oil bentonite (RB). These materials were co-composted with rice husk, rice husk ash, and chicken litter to eliminate their acid reactivity and hydrophobic nature. The organic carbon (OC) content, pH, exchangeable cations, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the acid-activated bentonites increased significantly after the co-composting phase. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of these materials as measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) decreased from >10 800 s to 16 to 80 s after composting. Furthermore, these composted materials showed positive impacts on soil physical attributes including specific surface area, bulk density, and available water content for crop growth. Highly significant increases in maize biomass (Zea mays L.) production over two consecutive cropping cycles was observed in treatments receiving co-composted bentonite. The study clearly demonstrates the potential for converting an environmentally hazardous material into a high-quality soil conditioner using readily available agricultural byproducts. It is envisaged that the application of these composted acid waste bentonites to degraded soils will increase productivity and on-farm income, thus contributing toward food security and poverty alleviation.

  6. Controlled release of carbofuran from an alginate-bentonite formulation: water release kinetics and soil mobility.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, M; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; González-Pradas, E; Martinez-López, F; Flores-Céspedes, F

    2000-03-01

    The insecticide-nematicide carbofuran was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled-release (CR) properties. The basic formulation [sodium alginate (1.61%)-carbofuran (0. 59%)-water] was modified by addition of sorbents. The effect on carbofuran release rate, caused by the incorporation of natural and acid-treated bentonite (0.5 and 1.0 M H(2)SO(4)) in alginate formulation, was studied by immersion of the granules in water under shaking. The time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, t(50), was longer for those formulations containing natural bentonite (6.1 h) or acid-treated bentonite (9.0 and 11.7 h for 0.5 and 1.0 M H(2)SO(4) treatments, respectively) than for the preparation without bentonite (4.7 h). It appears from the results that the release of carbofuran from the various formulations is controlled by a diffusion mechanism according to the n values obtained, which were close to 0.5 in all cases. The mobility of carbofuran from alginate-based CR formulations was investigated by using soil columns packed with a clay soil (53% clay and 0.08% organic matter). Two alginate-based CR formulations containing natural bentonite or acid-treated bentonite (0.5 M H(2)SO(4)) were compared to technical grade carbofuran. The use of alginate-based CR formulations resulted in a reduction of the leached amount of carbofuran compared with the total amount of pesticide leached using the technical product (50 and 75% for CR granules containing natural and acid-treated bentonite, respectively). Alginate-bentonite CR formulations might be efficient systems for reducing carbofuran leaching in clay soils, which would reduce the risk of groundwater pollution.

  7. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  8. Effects of kaolin application on light absorption and distribution, radiation use efficiency and photosynthesis of almond and walnut canopies.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G; Buchner, Richard P; Fulton, Allan E; Lampinen, Bruce D

    2007-02-01

    Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6.3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on inner-canopy leaves, resulted in an estimated

  9. Equilibrium, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and small wide angle X-ray scattering studies of chromates adsorption on modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdan, Marek; Maryuk, Oksana; Pikus, Stanisław; Olszewska, Elzbieta; Kwiatkowski, Ryszard; Skrzypek, Henryk

    2005-04-01

    The study presents a discussion about the adsorption mechanism of chromate anions on bentonite modified by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). The formation of alkylammonium chromates: HDTMAHCrO 4, (HDTMA) 2Cr 2O 7 and to the lesser extent (HDTMA) 2CrO 4 at the water-bentonite interface is examined based on the Scanning Electron Microscopy and surface tension measurements. The histograms of HDTMA/Cr(VI) molar ratio on the bentonite surface, found from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements, show that for the majority of points of bentonite surface the value of this ratio is in 1-2 range. FTIR spectra of modified bentonite samples show the change from gauche to trans conformation in the surfactant arrangement in the clay interlayer accompanying its concentration increase. In turn Small Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (SWAXS) patterns evidently suggest incorporation of chromate anions into the interlamellar space of bentonite structure.

  10. Potential protective effect of HSCAS and bentonite against dietary aflatoxicosis in rat: with special reference to chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Nada, S A; Farag, I M; Abbas, N F; Amra, H A

    1998-01-01

    Bentonite and hydrated sodium calcium aluminsilicate (HSCAS) were added at a level of 0.5% (w/w) to the diets containing 2.5 mg aflatoxins (AF) per kg diet and fed to male mature rats for 15 successive days. Aflatoxin alone significantly decreased feed intake and altered serum biochemical parameters of liver and kidney functions. Aflatoxin caused chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. Bentonite or HSCAS did not alter any of the parameters measured. The addition of bentonite or HSCAS to the AF-contaminated diet diminished most of the deleterious effects of the aflatoxin. Pathological examinations of liver and kidney proved that both bentonite and HSCAS were hepatonephroprotective agents against aflatoxicosis. The cytogenetic findings demonstrated that the addition of bentonite or HSCAS to AF-contaminated diet suppressed chromosomal aberrations. These findings indicated that bentonite and HSCAS could diminished many of the adverse effect of dietary AF in rats.

  11. Stability of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec deposit (south Slovakia) in an acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pentrák; Jana, Madejová; Slávka, Andrejkovičová; Peter, Uhlík; Peter, Komadel

    2012-12-01

    Comprehensive characterization of kaolin sand from the Vyšný Petrovec (VP) deposit in Slovakia by a variety of experimental methods was performed. The quantitative XRD analysis (RockJock software) revealed that the acid-untreated sample contained mainly kaolinite (~60 wt. %), a considerable amount of dioctahedral micas (~32 wt. %) and quartz (~ 7 wt. %). The Hinckley index (HI) and Aparicio-Galán-Ferrel index (AGFI) calculated from the 02l and 11l reflections showed medium-defect kaolinite to be present in the VP kaolin. The influence of the mineral composition of VP kaolin on its stability in 6 mol · dm-3 HCl at 95 °C was investigated. The solid reaction products were examined by chemical analysis; XRD and infrared spectroscopy in both middle (MIR) and near (NIR) regions. Considerably higher dissolution rate of Fe compared to Al indicated that Fe was bounded in a readily soluble phase rather than in kaolinite. While the MIR spectra confirmed the gradual release of the central atoms from the clay minerals layers and creation of amorphous silica upon acid treatment, the NIR spectra revealed the formation of Si-OH groups in the solid reaction product. Relatively high dissolution rate of VP kaolin resulted from the presence of small-grains of mediumdefect kaolinite and clay admixtures in VP kaolin sand.

  12. XRD and FTIR study of the effect of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on kaolin geopolymer ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, K.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics was study using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. UHMWPE is added to the optimum kaolin geopolymer ceramics that obtained by mechanical performance, phase and microstructure analysis with the concentration of NaOH, solid/liquid and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 12 M, 1.0 and 0.24 respectively. Kaolin geopolymer powders with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) were pressed into pellets followed by sintering at 1200 °C. At this temperature, the amorphous phase of geopolymer were fully crystallized. The results obtained by the XRD testing confirm that amorphous geopolymer transform to crystalline nepheline ceramics upon heating. The phase analysis for Kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE are similar to the kaolin geopolymer ceramics without UHMWPE indicates that the incorporation of a little amount of UHMWPE does not affect the structure feature of geopolymer. The increasing in intensity of nepheline peak contribute to high strength. The FTIR spectra showed the disappearance of water band after sinter at high temperature.

  13. Stabilization of heavy metals in soil using two organo-bentonites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Xiaohong; Liu, Cun; McCall, Wesley; Lu, Jinlong

    2017-10-01

    Stabilization of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr and As in soil using tetramethylammonium (TMA) and dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTMA) modified bentonites (T-Bents and D-Bents) as amendments was investigated. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to quantify the metal mobility after soil treatment. The structural parameters of modified bentonites, including the BET surface area, basal spacing and zeta potential were obtained as a function of the TMA and DTMA loading at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200% of the bentonite's cation exchange capacity, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of the organo-bentonites fundamentally varied depending on the species and concentration of modifiers loaded on bentonite. T-Bents and D-Bents manifested distinct immobilization effectiveness towards various metals. In association with the organo-bentonite characteristics, the main interactive mechanisms for Cu, Zn and Cd proceeded via cation exchange, Hg proceeded via physical adsorption and partitioning, Cr and As proceeded via specific adsorption and electrostatic attraction, respectively. This study provided operational and mechanistic basis for optimizing the organic clay synthesis and selecting as the appropriate amendment for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface modification of a low cost bentonite for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Park, Dong-Wha; Ahn, Wha-Seung

    2013-10-01

    A low cost bentonite was modified with PEI (polyethylenimine) through a physical impregnation method. Bentonite in its natural state and after amine modification were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and investigated for CO2 capture using a thermogravimetric analysis unit connected to a flow panel. The effect of adsorption temperature, PEI loading and CO2 partial pressure on the CO2 capture performance of the PEI-modified bentonite was examined. A cyclic CO2 adsorption-desorption test was also carried out to assess the stability of PEI-modified bentonite as a CO2 adsorbent. Bentonite in its natural state showed negligible CO2 uptake. After amine modification, the CO2 uptake increased significantly due to CO2 capture by amine species introduced via chemisorption. The PEI-modified bentonites showed high CO2 capture selectivity over N2, and exhibited excellent stability in cyclic CO2 adsorption-desorption runs.

  15. [Emergent retention of organic liquid by modified bentonites: property and mechanism].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Wang; Lei, Le-Cheng

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the property and mechanism of modified bentonites synthesized by long chain quaternary ammonium compounds which would be used in the emergent retention of typical organic liquid (benzene, chlorobenzene, nitrobenzene and diesel) were investigated and a pilot-scale simulation experiment was conducted. The unit retention capacity of modified bentonites for organic liquid (2.83-9.01 g x g(-1)) was much higher than that of conventional retention agents (0.28-1.17 g x g(-1)). The property and amount of the surfactants used and viscosity of organic liquid had a significant influence on the retention capacity of modified bentonites for the organic liquid, for example, the bentonites modified by cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMAB) with an adding quantity of 100% CEC showed the highest efficiency in the retention of organic liquid. In the simulation experiment, organic liquid could be retained effectively within 30 min by emergent retention device with modified bentonites and the retention efficiency might reach positively up to 90%. Results indicated that modifications using surfactants could enhance the hydrophobicity and interlayer space of the modified bentonites and make their retention capacities for organic liquid improved.

  16. Obtainment and partial characterization of biodegradable gelatin films with tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Zarama, Maria A; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Research studies concerning the overall effect of the addition of plasticizers, cross-linking and strengthening agents in gelatin film-forming mixtures are very scarce. Also, there are no studies focused on the interactions among their individual components, or showing what sort of effects they might cause all together. A gelatin film obtained from a composite consisting of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol was evaluated. Nine gelatin films were manufactured by the casting method, using these materials, following a 2(3) factorial design with five replicates on the central point. The interactions among gelatin, tannic acid and bentonite caused a decrease in hydrogen bonds, while the polar groups of the gelatin chains were less exposed to interactions with water molecules. There was an increase in temperature and enthalpy of gelatin denaturation, due to increasing tannic acid and bentonite concentration. Tactoids were found in the gelatin films, caused mainly by bentonite polydispersion. A synergistic effect among tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol, which overall improved the measured gelatin film properties, was found. The best film formulation was that with 40, 150 and 250 g kg(-1) gelatin of tannic acid, bentonite and glycerol respectively, displaying a tensile strength of 38 MPa, an elongation at break of 136%, water vapor permeability of 1.28 × 10(-12) g (Pa s m)(-1) and solubility of 23.4%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. [Study on performance of double mineral base liner using modified bentonite as active material].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Tie-Jun; Ren, He-Jun; Zhou, Rui; Hua, Fei; Wang, Bing; Hou, Yin-Ting; Dai, Yun

    2009-06-15

    The absorbing capacity of clay,roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites of the pollutions in landfill leachate was compared through static experiment, and investigations were conducted into availability of controlling the permeating of landfill leachate and feasibility of removing the main pollutants in leachate on the double mineral base liners of clay/roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and clay/dual-cation organobentonites by using nice landfill leachate as the filter fluid. Experiment indicated that the adsorption equilibrium time of landfill leachate in clay, roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites was 24 h; the absorbing capacity of roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites was larger than that of clay. Simultaneous the penetration coefficients of the two liners were respective 1.31 x 10(-8) cm x s(-1) and 2.80 x 10(-8) cm x s(-1); Double mineral base liners of clay/roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C owned larger absorbing capacity of NH4+, however, double mineral base liners of clay/dual-cation organobentonites had strong absorbing capacity of organic pollutants and the attenuation rate of COD was 33.82% higher than the other. Conclusion was drawn that different types of modified bentonite should be chosen as "the active layer" according to different styles of landfill pollutants.

  18. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-04

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins.

  19. Occurrence and significance of Silurian K-bentonite beds at Arisaig, Nova Scotia, eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, Stig M.; Huff, W.D.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Melchin, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The most extensive succession of K-bentonite beds known in the Silurian of North America occurs at Arisaig on the northern coast of Nova Scotia. At least 40 ash beds are present in the Llandoverian Ross Brook Formation and at least four in the early Ludlovian McAdam Brook Formation. Most of the beds are thin (<5 cm), but one bed (the Smith Brook K-bentonite bed) in the late Llandoverian crenulata Zone and another (the McAdam Brook K-bentonite bed) in the early Ludlovian nilssoni Zone each reach a thickness of 20 cm. New graptolite collections provide critical information on the biostratigraphic position of the K-bentonite beds in the Ross Brook Formation. Geochemical data show that the Arisaig ash beds represent calc-alkaline magmas from plate margin, subduction-related volcanic vents. Differences in K-bentonite stratigraphie distribution, combined with paleogeographic considerations, suggest that the volcanoes were located much farther to the south in the Iapetus than the source volcanoes of the British - Baltoscandian Llandoverian K-bentonites.

  20. The Use of Modified Bentonite for Removal of Aromatic Organics from Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Gitipour; Bowers; Bodocsi

    1997-12-15

    This study investigates the clay-aromatic interactions with a view to the use of bentonite clay for binding benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX compounds) in contaminated soils. BTEX compounds are the most toxic aromatic constituents of gasoline present in many underground storage tanks. Modified (organophilic) and ordinary bentonites are used to remove these organics. The organophilic bentonites are prepared by replacing the exchangeable inorganic cations present in bentonite particles with a quaternary ammonium salt. Various clay-to-soil ratios were applied to determine the efficiency of the modified bentonite in enhancing the cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) of BTEX contaminated soils. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) tests were performed on soil samples to evaluate the leaching of the organics. In addition, X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted to assess the changes in the basal spacing of the clays as a result of their interaction with BTEX compounds. The findings of this study reveal that organophilic bentonite can act as a successful adsorbent for removing the aromatic organics from contaminated soil. Thus, this material is viable for enhancing the performance of cement-based S/S processes, as an adsorbent for petroleum spills, and for landfill liners and slurry walls. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  1. Effect on physical properties of laterite soil with difference percentage of sodium bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Nur Aisyah; Azmi, Nor Azizah Che; Mukri, Mazidah; Noor, Siti Nur Aishah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This research was carried out in an attempt to know the physical properties of laterite soil with the appearance of difference percentage of sodium bentonite. Lateritic soils usually develop in tropical and other regions with similar hot and humid climate, where heavy rainfall, warm temperature and well drainage lead to the formation of thick horizons of reddish lateritic soil profiles rich in iron and aluminium. When sodium predominates, a large amount of water can be absorbed in the interlayer, resulting in the remarkable swelling properties observed with hydrating sodium bentonite. There are some basic physical properties test conducted in this research which are Specific Gravity Test, pH Test, Sieve Analysis, Hydrometer Test, Shrinkage Limit and Atterberg Limit. The test will be conducted with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sodium bentonite. Each test will be repeated three times for the accuracy of the result. From the physical properties test the soil properties characteristic react with the sodium bentonite can be determine. Therefore the best percentage of sodium bentonite admixture can be determined for laterite soil. The outcomes of this study give positive results due to the potential of sodium bentonite to improve the laterite soil particle.

  2. [Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of sludge using calcium-bentonite as additive].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Lin, Cheng; Li, Lei; Ohki, T

    2007-05-01

    Cement-based S/S of sludge confronted the problems of consuming the large amount of cement and high pH leaching from solidified sludge. This research utilized calcium-bentonite as additive to assist cement-based S/S of sludge. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and leach test were conducted to assess its effect by measuring UCS of the solidified sludge, leaching ratio of heavy metal, COD and pH of leachate from the solidified sludge. The results show that compressive strength of the solidified sludge increases remarkably after adding calcium-bentonite, and when half of cement content of 0.4 (to sludge by weight) is replaced by bentonite, strength of the solidified sludge increases nearly 6 times. Furthermore, volume of the solidified sludge after adding bentonite changes small. With calcium-bentonite adding, leaching Zn, Pb and pH from the solidified sludge appears in a declining trend, zinc and lead leaching ratios decrease from 6.9% to 0.25%, 9.6% to 5% respectively and pH decreases from 12.3 to 12.1. Copper would be leached out as organics dissolve at high pH or natural drying conditions, which increases leaching ratio of copper from sludge. However, bentonite can reduce these bad influences and improve stability of copper stable in the solidified sludge.

  3. Anti-fouling effect of bentonite suspension in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Panpanit, S; Visvanathan, C; Muttamara, S

    2002-03-01

    The effect on membrane fouling resistance during ultrafilration of oil/water emulsion with the presence of bentonite suspension is experimentally evaluated. The fouling resistance was analyzed as a function of different membrane types and bentonite concentration. The total membrane fouling was categorized into reversible and irreversible, by adopting an appropriate chemical cleaning technique. The results revealed a 40% flux augmentation with the increase of bentonite concentration up to an optimum value of 300 mg l(-1) for cellulose acetate membrane. Further increase of bentonite concentration led to particle deposition on the membrane surface and reduced the flux. The polysulfone membrane did not show a similar flux improvement. This could be due to its high hydrophobicity. The absorption of oil/water emulsion on bentonite increased TOC removal rate from 65% to 80%, and this effect was the major cause of reduction in gel layer formation on the membrane surface. The extent of irreversible fouling of the hydrophilic cellulose acetate membrane was much smaller than that of the polysulfone membrane. These experiments demonstrated that, presence of bentonite could induce transformation of irreversible fouling caused by oil emulsion to reversible fouling, which could be periodically chemically cleaned.

  4. CO2 capture using zeolite 13X prepared from bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Park, Dong-Wha; Ahn, Wha-Seung

    2014-02-01

    Zeolite 13X was prepared using bentonite as the raw material by alkaline fusion followed by a hydrothermal treatment without adding any extra silica or alumina sources. The prepared zeolite 13X was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, N2-adsorption-desorption measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. The CO2 capture performance of the prepared zeolite 13X was examined under both static and flow conditions. The prepared zeolite 13X showed a high BET surface area of 688 m2/g with a high micropore volume (0.30 cm3/g), and exhibited high CO2 capture capacity (211 mg/g) and selectivity to N2 (CO2/N2 = 37) at 25 °C and 1 bar. In addition, the material showed fast adsorption kinetics, and stable CO2 adsorption-desorption recycling performance at both 25 and 200 °C.

  5. Contributions of polymers to bentonite and saponite fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Panfil, D.J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    Polymers have been used in drilling fluids for many years. However, the confusion surrounding the use of polymers in the oil field has severely limited their effectiveness. Many oilfield workers simply put all polymers in the same category without regard to the many differences that exist among them. Homopolymers and copolymers of acrylic acid and a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride are found to have profound effects on the rheological and filtration properties of clay-based fluids up to 300{degrees}F. These contributions of the polymers are greatly diminished when the clay/polymer fluids were autoclaved at 400{degrees}F. Thus, the effects of these polymers are expected to be negligible at and above 400{degrees}F. Homo- and co-polymers of acrylic acid with molecular weights below 5000 almost eliminate the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluids at temperatures between 250--450{degrees}F. A homopolymer of acrylic acid with a molecular weight of 60,000 and a co-polymer of styrene and maleic anhydride with very high molecular weight further enhances the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluid. The original viscosity profile of the saponite fluid is characterized with a high initial viscosity up to 200{degrees}F which is followed by a steep thinning at higher temperatures. The addition of homo- and co-polymer of acrylic acid causes a complete reversal in the fluid viscosity. They become thin at lower temperatures (up to 250{degrees}F) and experience a sudden viscosity rise at higher temperatures. All the above polymers greatly improve the filtration losses of the fluids at room temperatures as indicated by the API test. The filtration tests at high pressure and high temperatures were inconclusive due to the frequent blow-outs that occur during the tests.

  6. Sodium bentonite and monensin under chronic aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, A P; Texeira, M; Rosa, C A R; Miazzo, R D; Cavaglieri, L R; Magnoli, C E; Dalcero, A M; Chiacchiera, S M

    2011-02-01

    Clay feed additives have been increasingly incorporated into animal diets to prevent aflatoxicosis. Due to the nonselective nature of the binding interaction, many important components of the diets could also be made unavailable because of these feed additives. The anticoccidial monensin (MON) could also be sequestered by these clays. The use of sodium bentonite (Na-B) from a mine in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, was investigated as a sequestering agent to prevent the effects of 100 µg/kg of dietary aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In vitro studies demonstrated that the above Na-B was a good candidate to prevent aflatoxicosis. They also showed that MON competes with AFB(1) for the adsorption sites on the clay surface and effectively displaces the toxin when it is in low concentration. Even though the levels of MON in diets, approximately 55 mg/kg, are high enough to not be significantly changed as a consequence of the adsorption, they can further affect the ability of the clays to bind low levels of AFB(1). An in vivo experiment carried out with poultry showed that 100 µg/kg of AFB(1) does not significantly change productive or biochemical parameters. However, liver histopathology not only confirmed the ability of this particular Na-B to prevent aflatoxicosis but also the decrease of this capacity in the presence of 55 mg/kg of MON. This is the first report stressing this fact and further research should be performed to check if this behavior is a characteristic of the assayed Na-B or of this type of clay. On the other hand, the presence of MON should also be taken into account when assaying the potential AFB(1) binding ability of a given bentonite.

  7. Numerical simulation of cesium and strontium migration through sodium bentonite altered by cation exchange with groundwater components

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1988-10-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate how spatial and temporal changes in the ion exchange properties of bentonite affect the migration of cationic fission products from high-level waste. Simulations in which fission products compete for exchange sites with ions present in groundwater diffusing into the bentonite are compared to simulations in which the exchange properties of bentonite are constant. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Experimental assessment of non-treated bentonite as the buffer material of a radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Kang, C H; Whang, J

    2001-05-01

    The bentonite-based material being evaluated in several countries as potential barriers and seals for a nuclear waste disposal system is of mostly sodium type, whereas most bentonite available in Korea is known to be of calcium type. In order to investigate whether local Korean bentonite could be useful as a buffer or sealing material in an HLW repository system, raw bentonites sampled from the south-east area of Korea were examined in terms of their physicochemical properties such as surface area, CEC, swelling rate, and distribution coefficient. The diffusion behavior of some radionuclides of interest in compacted bentonite was also investigated. Considering that HLW generates decay heat over a long time, the thermal effect on the physicochemical properties of bentonite was also included. Four local samples were identified as Ca-bentonite through XRD and chemical analysis. Of the measured values of surface area, CEC and swelling rate of the local samples, Sample-A was found to have the greatest properties as the most likely candidate barrier material. The distribution coefficients of Cs-137, Sr-85, Co-60 and Am-241 for Sample-A sample were measured by the batch method. Sorption equilibrium was reached in around 8 to 10 days, but that of Sr was found to be reached earlier. Comparing the results of this study with the reference data, domestic bentonite was found to have a relatively high sorption ability. For the effect of varying concentration on sorption, the values of Kd peaked at 10(-9)-10(-7) mol/l of radionuclide concentration. In XRD analysis, the (001) peak of Sample-A was fully collapsed above 200 degrees C. The shoulder appearing at about 150 degrees C in the DSC curve was found to be evidence that Sample-A is predominated by Ca-montmorillonite. The loss of swelling capacity and CEC of Sample-A started at about 100 degrees C. The swelling data and the (001) peak intensity of the heat-treated sample showed that they were linearly interrelated. The measured

  9. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Luca; Belfiore, Nicola; Gaiotti, Federica; Lovat, Lorenzo; Sansone, Luigi; Poni, Stefano; Tomasi, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE) without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin) and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene), traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa) was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis rate (An) were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio). Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines) without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35%) in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05) and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1) than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already-demonstrated uses of

  11. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought

    PubMed Central

    Belfiore, Nicola; Gaiotti, Federica; Lovat, Lorenzo; Sansone, Luigi; Poni, Stefano; Tomasi, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE) without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin) and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene), traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa) was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis rate (An) were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio). Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines) without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35%) in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05) and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1) than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already-demonstrated uses of

  12. Chemotherapy-induced kaolin intake is increased by lesion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; De Jonghe, Bart C; Matyas, Kathleen; Norgren, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, stimulate nausea, vomiting, and behaviors indicative of malaise. Rats and mice do not possess a vomiting response, and, therefore, in these species, the ingestion of kaolin clay (a pica response) has been used as an index of malaise. In the rat, cisplatin-induced kaolin intake is inhibited by antiemetic treatments. In addition, cisplatin activates vagal afferent fibers in the gut, and kaolin intake induced by cisplatin is largely dependent on an intact vagus. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain pathways controlling pica. We investigated the role of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), a major visceral afferent link between the hindbrain and forebrain, in cisplatin-induced c-Fos expression and pica. Injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg ip) produced c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral (external) lPBN, a region receiving viscerosensory input. In rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lPBN lesions, cisplatin treatment substantially increased kaolin intake compared with controls ( approximately 30 g vs. approximately 5 g, respectively, over 24 h). Food intake was reduced by cisplatin treatment and by apomorphine, an emetic agent that acts centrally. Unlike cisplatin, however, apomorphine stimulated kaolin intake to a similar degree in both the lesioned and control rats, suggesting that lPBN damage neither produces nonspecific effects nor enhances malaise in general. These data suggest that lPBN-lesioned animals not only demonstrate pica after cisplatin treatment, but, in fact, show an exaggerated response that is greatly in excess of any treatment known to produce kaolin intake in rats.

  13. Chemotherapy-induced kaolin intake is increased by lesion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the rat

    PubMed Central

    De Jonghe, Bart C.; Matyas, Kathleen; Norgren, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, stimulate nausea, vomiting, and behaviors indicative of malaise. Rats and mice do not possess a vomiting response, and, therefore, in these species, the ingestion of kaolin clay (a pica response) has been used as an index of malaise. In the rat, cisplatin-induced kaolin intake is inhibited by antiemetic treatments. In addition, cisplatin activates vagal afferent fibers in the gut, and kaolin intake induced by cisplatin is largely dependent on an intact vagus. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain pathways controlling pica. We investigated the role of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), a major visceral afferent link between the hindbrain and forebrain, in cisplatin-induced c-Fos expression and pica. Injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg ip) produced c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral (external) lPBN, a region receiving viscerosensory input. In rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lPBN lesions, cisplatin treatment substantially increased kaolin intake compared with controls (∼30 g vs. ∼5 g, respectively, over 24 h). Food intake was reduced by cisplatin treatment and by apomorphine, an emetic agent that acts centrally. Unlike cisplatin, however, apomorphine stimulated kaolin intake to a similar degree in both the lesioned and control rats, suggesting that lPBN damage neither produces nonspecific effects nor enhances malaise in general. These data suggest that lPBN-lesioned animals not only demonstrate pica after cisplatin treatment, but, in fact, show an exaggerated response that is greatly in excess of any treatment known to produce kaolin intake in rats. PMID:19710391

  14. Rapid hemostasis at the femoral venous access site using a novel hemostatic pad containing kaolin after atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Sairaku, Akinori; Nakano, Yukiko; Oda, Noboru; Makita, Yuko; Kajihara, Kenta; Tokuyama, Takehito; Kihara, Yasuki

    2011-08-01

    Hemostasis at the femoral venous access site after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is often prolonged because of aggressive anticoagulation and the use of several large-sized sheaths. A newly developed hemostatic pad containing a natural mineral called kaolin causes blood to clot quickly. We evaluated the efficacy of this pad for hemostasis at the venous access site after AF ablation. Patients who were scheduled to undergo AF ablation were randomized to be treated with manual compression with (n = 59) or without kaolin-impregnated pads (n = 59) as hemostatic approaches at the femoral venous access site following sheath removal. Hemostasis time, rebleeding frequency, massive hematoma, device-related complications, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were compared between the two groups. Hemostasis time in the patients treated with kaolin-impregnated pads was significantly shorter than in those treated without (6.1 ± 2.3 vs. 14.5 ± 4.0 min; p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the use of kaolin-impregnated pads was the only independent variable reducing hemostasis time (β = -0.78; p < 0.0001). However, rebleeding rates of the two groups were similar (37% with vs. 46% without kaolin-impregnated pads; p = 0.35). Only one patient had a massive groin hematoma, and no patient had device-related complications or DVT. Kaolin-impregnated hemostatic pads safely and effectively decreased hemostasis time for the femoral venous access site in patients undergoing AF ablation. However, whether its use allows earlier postprocedural ambulation is difficult to predict.

  15. Activation of factor XII and prekallikrein with polysaccharide sulfates and sulfatides: comparison with kaolin-mediated activation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Sugo, T; Kato, H; Yoshida, K; Iwanaga, S

    1985-02-01

    The activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein by polysaccharide sulfates and sulfatides in the presence of high-molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen was studied, and compared with the kaolin-mediated activation reaction. Among a variety of artificially-sulfated polysaccharides and native polysaccharide sulfates, amylose sulfate (M.W.= 380,000 and sulfur content, 19.1%) and sulfatide were found to have the most efficient ability to trigger the activation of prekallikrein by Factor XII. The effects of these two kinds of negatively-charged surfaces on the following three activation reactions were compared; the activation of prekallikrein by Factor XII (reaction 1), the activation of Factor XII by kallikrein (reaction 2) and the activation of prekallikrein by Factor XIIa (reaction 3). All three reactions mediated by the selected surfaces were strongly accelerated by HMW kininogen and its derivatives, kinin-free protein and fragment 1.2-linked light chain, like the kaolin-mediated activation. However, this accelerating effect of HMW kininogen on the amylose sulfate- and sulfatide-mediated activations (reaction 1) was diminished after treatment with fluorescein iso-thiocyanate, whereas the effect on the kaolin-mediated activation was not influenced by fluorescein-labeling. In addition, reaction 2 mediated by amylose sulfate and sulfatide was extremely slow even in the presence of HMW kininogen, and the results also differed from those with kaolin. The sulfatide-mediated activation of reaction 1 was not inhibited by fragment 1.2 (His-rich fragment), which is released from HMW kininogen by the action of kallikrein, and is known to be a potent inhibitor of the kaolin-dependent activation. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for surface activation triggered by soluble amylose sulfate, sulfatide micelles and kaolin differ from each other as regards the molecular interaction with the contact factors.

  16. Zn(II) adsorption from synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater onto vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Cláudio Pereira; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; de Lima Ribeiro, Kamilla; de Souza Nascimento, Bruna; de Barros, Priscila Martins

    2009-03-15

    The adsorption of Zn(II) from both synthetic solution and kaolin industry wastewater by cattle manure vermicompost was studied. The adsorption process was dependent on the various operating variables, viz., solution pH, particle size of the vermicompost, mass of vermicompost/volume of the Zn(II) solution ratio, contact time and temperature. The optimum conditions for Zn adsorption were pH 6.0, particle size of < or = 250 microm, 1 g per 10 mL adsorbent dose, contact time of 4h and temperature of 25 degrees C. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fit well in the experimental data and their constants were evaluated, with R(2) values from 0.95 to 0.99. In synthetic solution, the maximum adsorption capacity of the vermicompost for Zn(2+) ions was 20.48 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C when the vermicompost dose was 1 g 10 mL(-1) and the initial adjusted pH was 2. The batch adsorption studies of Zn(II) on vermicompost using kaolin wastewater have shown the maximum adsorption capacity was 2.49 mg g(-1) at pH 2 (natural pH of the wastewater). The small values of the constant related to the energy of adsorption (from 0.07 to 0.163 L mg(-1)) indicated that Zn(2+) ions were binded strongly to vermicompost. The values of the separation factor, R(L), which has been used to predict affinity between adsorbate and adsorbent were between 0 and 1, indicating that sorption was very favorable for Zn(II) in synthetic solution and kaolin wastewater. The thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs free energy, was calculated for each system and the negative values obtained confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous. The DeltaG degrees values were -19.656 kJ mol(-1) and -16.849 kJ mol(-1) for Zn(II) adsorption on vermicompost in synthetic solution at pH 6 and 2, respectively, and -13.275 kJ mol(-1) in kaolin wastewater at pH 2.

  17. Shear Strength Correlations for Kaolin/Water Slurries: A Comparison of Recent Measurements with Historical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Russell, Renee L.

    2010-01-20

    This report documents testing funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation and performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with Fauske and Associates, LLC (FAI) to determine the behavior of vessel spanning bubbles. The shear strengths of four samples of kaolin/water mixtures obtained by PNNL from FAI were measured and are reported here. The measured shear strengths of these samples were then used to determine how the Rassat correlation fit these new measurements or if a new correlation was needed. These results were then compared with previously reported data.

  18. Fly ash/Kaolin based geopolymer green concretes and their mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, F.N.; Durgaprasad, J.; Singh, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    Geopolymer concrete mixes were cast using fly ash, kaolin, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate and aggregates. Portland cement concrete (M30) was used as a reference sample. The effect of silica fume, temperature (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C, 100 °C and 120 °C), sodium and potassium hydroxides and different superplasticizers on the compressive strength are reported [1]. Maximum strength was found at 100 °C and 14 M alkali solution [1]. PMID:26693505

  19. Fly ash/Kaolin based geopolymer green concretes and their mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Okoye, F N; Durgaprasad, J; Singh, N B

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer concrete mixes were cast using fly ash, kaolin, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate and aggregates. Portland cement concrete (M30) was used as a reference sample. The effect of silica fume, temperature (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C, 100 °C and 120 °C), sodium and potassium hydroxides and different superplasticizers on the compressive strength are reported [1]. Maximum strength was found at 100 °C and 14 M alkali solution [1].

  20. KAOLIN-INDUCED VENTRICULOMEGALY AT WEANING PRODUCES LONG-TERM LEARNING, MEMORY, AND MOTOR DEFICITS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael T.; Braun, Amanda A.; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn; McAllister, James P.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Mangano, Francesco T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Yuan, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Ventriculomegaly occurs when there is imbalance between creation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); even when treated, long-term behavioral changes occur. Kaolin injection in the cisterna magna of rats produces an obstruction of CSF outflow and models one type of hydrocephalus. Previous research with this model shows that neonatal onset has mixed effects on Morris water maze (MWM) and motoric performance; we hypothesized that this might be because the severity of ventricular enlargement was not taken into consideration. In the present experiment, rats were injected with kaolin or saline on postnatal day (P)21 and analyzed in subgroups based on Evan's ratios (ER) of the severity of ventricular enlargement at the end of testing to create 4 subgroups from least to most severe: ER0.4–0.5, ER0.51-0.6, ER0.61-0.7, and ER0.71-0.82, respectively. Locomotor activity (dry land and swimming), acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition (PPI), and MWM performance were tested starting on P28 (122 cm maze) and again on P42 (244 cm maze). Kaolin-treated animals weighed significantly less than controls at all times. Differences in locomotor activity were seen at P42 but not P28. On P28 there was an increase in PPI for all but the least severe kaolin-treated group, but no difference at P42 compared with controls. In the MWM at P28, all kaolin-treated groups had longer path lengths than controls, but comparable swim speeds. With the exception of the least severe group, probe trial performance was worse in the kaolin-treated animals. On P42, only the most severely affected kaolin-treated group showed deficits compared with control animals. This group showed no MWM learning and no memory for the platform position during probe trial testing. Swim speed was unaffected, indicating motor deficits were not responsible for impaired learning and memory. These findings indicate that kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly in rats interferes with cognition regardless of the final enlargement

  1. Effect of the sintering temperature on the structural and magnetic parameters of strontium ferrites doped with kaolin and barium borate

    SciTech Connect

    Pashchenko, V.P.; Kostyagina, O.A.; Lisitsyn, S.M.; Prokopenko, A.K.; Selivanova, L.Y.; Serebro, D.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies of the effect of the sintering temperature of strontium ferrites (doped with 1.2 mass % kaolin and barium borate) on their properties. The fine crystalline structure of anisotropic and demagnetized strontium ferrites doped with kaolin was studied with the help of the Moessbauer effect. Fe-57 nuclei, occupying 4f2 and 2a octahedral positions, respectively, in the hexagonal and spinel blocks, have the highest magnetic fields and quadrupole shifts. The effect of the sintering temperature on the physical properties of the ferrites studied is linked to changes in the microstructure and porosity of the samples.

  2. Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently reported a lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption deficit in a kaolin model of communicating hydrocephalus in rats with ventricular expansion correlating negatively with the magnitude of the impediment to lymphatic function. However, it is possible that CSF drainage was not significantly altered if absorption at other sites compensated for the lymphatic defect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the lymphatic absorption deficit on global CSF absorption (CSF outflow resistance). Methods Kaolin was injected into the basal cisterns of Sprague Dawley rats. The development of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In one group of animals at about 3 weeks after injection, the movement of intraventricularly injected iodinated human serum albumin (125I-HSA) into the olfactory turbinates provided an estimate of CSF transport through the cribriform plate into nasal lymphatics (n = 18). Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). In a second group at about 3.5 weeks after kaolin injection, intraventricular pressure was measured continuously during infusion of saline into the spinal subarachnoid space at various flow rates (n = 9). CSF outflow resistance was calculated as the slope of the steady-state pressure versus flow rate. Control animals for this group either received no injections (intact: n = 11) or received saline in place of kaolin (n = 8). Results Compared to saline injected controls, lateral ventricular volume in the kaolin group was significantly greater (0.087 ± 0.013 ml, n = 27 versus 0.015 ± 0.001 ml, n = 17) and lymphatic function was significantly less (2.14 ± 0.72% injected/g, n = 18 versus 6.38 ± 0.60% injected/g, n = 10). Additionally, the CSF outflow resistance was significantly greater in the kaolin group (0.46 ± 0.04 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 9) than in saline injected (0.28 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1.min, n = 8) or intact animals (0.18 ± 0.03 cm H2O.μL-1

  3. Kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly at weaning produces long-term learning, memory, and motor deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; McAllister, James P; Lindquist, Diana M; Mangano, Francesco T; Vorhees, Charles V; Yuan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Ventriculomegaly occurs when there is imbalance between creation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); even when treated, long-term behavioral changes occur. Kaolin injection in the cisterna magna of rats produces an obstruction of CSF outflow and models one type of hydrocephalus. Previous research with this model shows that neonatal onset has mixed effects on Morris water maze (MWM) and motoric performance; we hypothesized that this might be because the severity of ventricular enlargement was not taken into consideration. In the present experiment, rats were injected with kaolin or saline on postnatal day (P)21 and analyzed in subgroups based on Evan's ratios (ERs) of the severity of ventricular enlargement at the end of testing to create 4 subgroups from least to most severe: ER0.4-0.5, ER0.51-0.6, ER0.61-0.7, and ER0.71-0.82, respectively. Locomotor activity (dry land and swimming), acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition (PPI), and MWM performance were tested starting on P28 (122cm maze) and again on P42 (244cm maze). Kaolin-treated animals weighed significantly less than controls at all times. Differences in locomotor activity were seen at P42 but not P28. On P28 there was an increase in PPI for all but the least severe kaolin-treated group, but no difference at P42 compared with controls. In the MWM at P28, all kaolin-treated groups had longer path lengths than controls, but comparable swim speeds. With the exception of the least severe group, probe trial performance was worse in the kaolin-treated animals. On P42, only the most severely affected kaolin-treated group showed deficits compared with control animals. This group showed no MWM learning and no memory for the platform position during probe trial testing. Swim speed was unaffected, indicating motor deficits were not responsible for impaired learning and memory. These findings indicate that kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly in rats interferes with cognition regardless of the final enlargement of

  4. Strontium migration in a crystalline medium: effects of the presence of bentonite colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula; Mingarro, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    The effects of bentonite colloids on strontium migration in fractured crystalline medium were investigated. We analyzed first the transport behaviour of bentonite colloids alone at different flow rates; then we compared the transport behaviour of strontium as solute and of strontium previously adsorbed onto stable bentonite colloids at a water velocity of approximately 7.1·10 - 6 m/s-224 m/yr. Experiments with bentonite colloids alone showed that - at the lowest water flow rate used in our experiments (7.1·10 - 6 m/s) - approximately 70% of the initially injected colloids were retained in the fracture. Nevertheless, the mobile colloidal fraction, moved through the fracture without retardation, at any flow rate. Bentonite colloids deposited over the fracture surface were identified during post-mortem analyses. The breakthrough curve of strontium as a solute, presented a retardation factor, Rf ~ 6, in agreement with its sorption onto the granite fracture surface. The breakthrough curve of strontium in the presence of bentonite colloids was much more complex, suggesting additional contributions of colloids to strontium transport. A very small fraction of strontium adsorbed on mobile colloids moved un-retarded ( Rf = 1) and this fraction was much lower than the expected, considering the quantity of strontium initially adsorbed onto colloids (90%). This behaviour suggests the hypothesis of strontium sorption reversibility from colloids. On the other hand, bentonite colloids retained within the granite fracture played a major role, contributing to a slower strontium transport in comparison with strontium as a solute. This was shown by a clear peak in the breakthrough curve corresponding to a retardation factor of approximately 20.

  5. Decontamination of cesium, strontium, and cobalt from aqueous solutions by bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Khan, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sorption studies of cesium, strontium, and cobalt (Cs, Sr, and Co) on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration, and temperature, have been performed. The sorption data for all these metals have been interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamics parameters, such as heat of sorption {Delta}H{degrees}, free energy change {Delta}G{degrees}, and entropy change {Delta}S{degrees}, for the sorption of these metals on bentonite have been calculated. The value of {Delta}H{degrees} shows that the sorption of Cs was exothermic, while the sorption of Sr and Co on bentonite were endothermic in nature. The value of {Delta}G{degrees} for their sorption was negative, showing the spontaneity of the process. The maximum loading capacity of Cs, Sr, and Co were 75.5, 22, and 27.5 meq, respectively, for 100 g of bentonite. The mean free energy E of Cs, Sr, and Co sorption on bentonite was 14.5, 9, and 7.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The value of E indicates that ion exchange may be the predominant mode of sorption for these radionuclides. The desorption studies with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} and groundwater at low-metal loading on bentonite showed that about 95% of Cs, 85-90% of Sr, and 97% of Co were irreversibly sorbed. Bentonite could be effectively used for the decontamination of wastewater effluent containing low concentrations of radioactive nuclides of Cs, Sr, and Co. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Permeability and expansibility of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    Natural bentonite MX-80 differs from the purified and fully Na-exchanged bentonite in that it contains approximately 20.0% accessory minerals, in addition to the montmorillonite particles. Since the accessory minerals and montmorillonite particles have very different physical and chemical properties, natural bentonite MX-80 is found to expand much more slowly in distilled water, leading actually to a three-component system that has very different hydraulic properties from that of the fully Na-exchanged bentonite. To better understand and simulate the special features of expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water, the focus is put primarily on the development of a Kozeny-Carman-like equation for its hydraulic permeability in the same way as it was done for Na-exchanged bentonite. With this permeability model, the dynamic force balance model that was originally developed for colloidal expansion of montmorillonite in a two-component system is applied to the natural MX-80 system. Without making any changes to the model, however, two strategies are used to account for both physical and chemical effects of the accessory minerals. The “lumped” strategy assumes that the accessory minerals are stuck onto the montmorillonite particles in such a way that they behave just like one solid component. The “stepwise” strategy changes the pore water chemistry gradually from initially distilled water to eventually achievement of the equilibrium condition. These strategies are simple but proved to function well. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results indicates that the two-component dynamic force balance model works well in predicting the general features and the behavior of upward expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water in a vertical test tube.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  8. Na + and HTO diffusion in compacted bentonite: Effect of surface chemistry and related texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkior, T.; Gaucher, E. C.; Brouard, C.; Yahiaoui, S.; Thoby, D.; Clinard, Ch.; Ferrage, E.; Guyonnet, D.; Tournassat, C.; Coelho, D.

    2009-05-01

    SummaryIn underground repository concepts for radioactive waste, bentonite is studied as a reference swelling material to be used as an engineered barrier. Under the changing geochemical conditions prevailing within the barrier (saturation with the fluid coming from the host formation, diffusion of various chemical plumes caused by the degradation of some constituents of the barrier-system, etc.), the surface chemistry of the clay particles could evolve. This work aims to characterize the effects of these changes on (i) the microstructure of compacted bentonite samples and (ii) the diffusion properties of HTO and Na in these samples. For this purpose, bentonite sets were equilibrated with different solutions: NaCl, CaCl 2, CsCl solutions as well as an artificial clayey porewater solution. The microstructure of the different samples was characterized by HRTEM and XRD, in a water saturated state. In parallel, effective diffusion coefficients of both HTO and 22Na were measured for the different samples. The density of the bentonite in the diffusion tests and in the HRTEM observations was set at 1.6 Mg m -3. From the microstructural observations and the results of diffusion tests, it is deduced that one key parameter is the occurrence of a gel phase in the material, which is found to depend strongly on the bentonite set: the gel phase dominates in Na-bentonite, while it is lacking in Cs-bentonite. The HTO diffusion coefficients are found to be lower in the samples with high gel phase content. Sodium diffusion does not follow the same trend: when compared with HTO, Na diffuses faster when the gel phase content is high. The latter result could indicate that the "accelerated diffusion mechanism" of cations, already mentioned in the literature, is enhanced in clayey materials that contain a gel phase.

  9. Properties of bentonite clay as buffer material in high-level waste geological disposal. Part I: Chemical species contained in bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Muroi, M.; Inoue, A.; Aoki, M.; Takizawa, M.; Ishigure, K.; Fujita, N.

    1987-02-01

    Bentonite clay is one of the most promising candidates for use as buffer material in the geological disposal systems of high-level waste. However, very little has been reported on the ionic species contained in bentonite clay itself, especially the anion species. Chemical analyses of bentonite clay materials were carried out. It was found that the major anion species contained in the bentonite clay materials are SO/sub 4//sup 2-/, Cl/sup -/, and CO/sub 2/ species. The amounts of these differ among the clay samples depending on the origins and the processing of the clay materials. A clay material used in a series of our experiments was also analyzed for cation species contained, and adsorption experiments were carried out for the major ions contained in the clay materials. No adsorption of the anions on the clay particles was observed, and it was found that the adsorption of Na/sup +/ can be explained as the ion exchange equilibrium between Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/.

  10. Physical Properties of Kaolin/Sand Slurry Used During Submersible Mixer Pump Tests at TNX

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN, ERICHK.

    2004-08-18

    The purpose of this task is to characterize the physical properties of kaolin/sand slurry used to test the performance of a new submersible mixer pump which is undergoing performance testing at the TNT Waste Tank mockup facility. Three different sample locations, the SMP cooling water exit, the SMP fluid flow field, and SMP effective cleaning radius were used for sampling over the seven day test. The physical properties determinations for the kaolin/sand slurry samples include rheology, weight percent total solids (wt TS), density, and particle size distribution were requested, though not all these determinations were performed on all the samples. The physical properties determinations are described in more detail in section 1.0. Measurements were performed at Savannah River National Laboratory in accordance with the Technical Assistance Request (TAR)1. The data, average of two measurements, is shown in the table below. This data clearly shows that the SMP-CWE samples contained more so lids than those at other sample locations for a given sample day. The SMP-FFF and SMP-ECR were similar in solids content. The rheology of the samples is dependent on the wt solids concentration and are all within the bounds stated in the TAR.

  11. The effect of dabigatran on the kaolin-activated whole blood thromboelastogram.

    PubMed

    'Aho, A; Byrne, K

    2016-11-01

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor, which is increasingly likely to be encountered in patients presenting for surgery. This study examines whether there is a consistent effect of dabigatran on the thromboelastogram (TEG) and whether this correlates with the effects of dabigatran on traditional coagulation parameters. Twenty patients taking dabigatran had blood sampled for kaolin-activated whole blood TEG analysis and routine coagulation testing. There was a statistically significant correlation between thrombin clotting time (TCT) and R-time (R=0.77, P=0.0001) and between activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and R-time (R=0.68, P=0.0013), but not between TCT and alpha-angle (R= -0.4232, P=0.071). Despite the moderate to high correlation between the TEG R-time and the TCT and APTT, there appeared to be no consistent effect of dabigatran on the TEG. These findings suggest that use of kaolin-activated whole blood TEG does not add additional benefit to traditional coagulation tests when monitoring the effect of dabigatran.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of mangan oxide coated sand from Capkala kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destiarti, Lia; Wahyuni, Nelly; Prawatya, Yopa Eka; Sasri, Risya

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of mangan oxide coated sand from quartz sand fraction of Capkala kaolin has been conducted. There were two methods on synthesis of Mangan Oxide Coated Sand (MOCS) from Capkala Kaolin compared in this research. Characterization of MOCS was done by using Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM/EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The MOCS was tested to reduce phosphate in laundry waste. The result showed that the natural sand had bigger agregates and a relatively uniform structural orientation while both MOCS had heterogen structural orientation and manganese oxide formed in cluster. Manganese in first and second methods were 1,93% and 2,63%, respectively. The XRD spectrum showed clear reflections at 22,80°, 36,04°, 37,60° and a broad band at 26,62° (SiO2). Based on XRD spectrum, it can be concluded that mineral constituents of MOCS was verified corresponding to pyrolusite (MnO2). The former MOCS could reduce almost 60% while the later could reduce 70% phosphate in laundry waste.

  13. Beneficiation of a commercial kaolin from Mar de Espanha, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Chemistry and mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, P. G.; Fabris, J. D.; Mussel, W. N.; Murad, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Garg, V. K.

    2005-12-01

    Raw materials used to produce a commercial kaolin from Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the intermediate and final products after processing were studied to trace the fate of iron during industrial beneficiation. X-ray diffraction shows kaolinite to be the principal phyllosilicate in all samples. Sample treatments include size fractionation and a chemical treatment with sodium bisulfate, metallic zinc, and sulfuric acid, which remove all associated goethite and most hematite but do not significantly affect structural iron in the phyllosilicates. Scanning electron micrographs show that individual kaolinite grains are approximately 0.3 μm in size and have an almost hexagonal morphology in a compact arrangement. Tubular halloysite was also occasionally observed. Mössbauer spectra measured at 298° and 100 K evince the presence of hematite and paramagnetic trivalent iron in all samples, whereas goethite, which is abundant in raw and intermediate samples, is absent in the final kaolin. The industrial processing removes almost two-thirds of the total iron content (essentially iron oxides) of the raw material during size fractionation, so the intermediate sample contains 0.42% Fe 3+. The final marketable material contains 0.12% Fe 3+ in hematite (0.07%) and phyllosilicates (0.05%), rendering it suitable as paper filler.

  14. Potential of kaolin-based particle film barriers for Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltz, B.A.; Woodson, W.D.; Puterka, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week long no-choice feeding tests, significant mortality occurred only with M96-018-coated wood. When a choice was provided, M96-018 and Surround were consumed at higher rates than untreated wood. Surround WP did not differ from controls in either test. In the tunneling assay termites were given the option of crossing a kaolin-sand mixture to reach an alternate food source. After 3-weeks, rates of 1% and 5% M96-018 provided an effective barrier to Formosan termite tunneling, while termites were not stopped by rates as high as 20% Surround and Surround WP. Dust treatments of all three formulations caused significant increases in mortality within 24 h, with mortality rates ranging from 72.0 - 97.3% within 72 h of treatment. The particle films were most effective when moisture levels were low, suggesting that desiccation was the mechanism for mortality. All particle films showed potential for use in above ground applications while hydrophobic M06-018 has the most potential as a soil barrier to subterranean termites.

  15. Co-cracking of real MSW into bio-oil over natural kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandidi, I. M.; Susila, M. D.; Pambudi, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a potential material that can be converted into bio-oil through thermal degradation process or pyrolysis. The efficiency and productivity of pyrolysis can be increased with the use of natural catalyst like kaolin. The addition of catalyst also reduces the overall cost of conversion process. In this study conversion of MSW into Bio Fuel using Pyrolysis in the presence of of natural kaolin as catalyst has been investigated for 60 min at 400°C temperature. During the process 0.5 w/w catalyst to MSW ratio was maintained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse the chemical composition of bio fuel. It is found that bio-oil production increases substantially with the use of catalyst. It is observed that the production of bio-oil is 23.6 % with the use of catalyst in process, which was only 15.2 % without the use of catalyst. The hydrocarbon range distribution of oil produced through pyrolysis reveals that gasoline and diesel fuel (C5-C20) are its main constituents. The functional group detected in bio-oil by GC-MS analysis is similar to that of diesel-48 in which paraffin and olefin are major mass species.

  16. Attenuation measurements of ultrasound in a kaolin-water slurry. A linear dependence upon frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, M.S.; Mai, J.L.; Good, M.S. )

    1993-08-01

    The attenuation of ultrasound through a kaolin-water slurry was measured for frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MHz. The maximum concentration of the slurry was for a weight percentage of 44% (or a volume fraction of 0.24). The goal of these measurements was to assess the feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation to determine the concentration of a slurry of known composition. The measurements were obtained by consecutively adding kaolin to the slurry and measuring the attenuation at each concentration. After reaching a maximum concentration a dilution technique was used, in which an amount of slurry was removed and water was added, to obtain the attenuation as a function of the concentration. The dilution technique was the more effective method to obtain calibration data. These measurements were carried out using two transducers, having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz, separated by 0.1016m (4.0 in.). The maximum attenuation measured in these experiments was about 100Np/m, but the experimental apparatus has the capability of measuring a larger attenuation if the distance between the two transducers is decreased. For a given frequency, the data show that ln V/V[sub 0] depends linearly upon the volume fraction (V is the received voltage for the slurry and V[sub 0] is that obtained for water). This indicated that each particle acts independently in attenuating ultrasound. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Application of zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin for the removal of heavy metals: II. Isotherm models.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hanan S; Jamil, Tarek S; Hegazy, Eman Z

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the adsorption behavior of zeolites A and X, which are prepared from very cheap local Egyptian clay (kaolin), with respect to Cu(2+), Cd(+2), Cr(+2), Ni(+2) and Zn(2+) has been studied. The batch method has been employed, using metal solutions ranging from 100 to 400 mg/L. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) and adsorption percent were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. In the uptake evaluation part of the study, adsorption ratios of metal cations on zeolites A and X match to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) adsorption isotherm data. Also, every cation exchange capacity for metals has been calculated. According to the equilibrium studies, the selectivity sequence can be given as Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>Cu(2+)>Zn(2+)>Ni(2+). It was found that the uptake depend on hydrated ion diameter. This study may attract more interest due to the presence of large reservoirs of very cheap kaolin in Egypt from which both zeolite types were prepared.

  18. The kinetics of Al-Si spinel phase crystallization from calcined kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Ptacek, Petr

    2010-11-15

    The crystallization of Al-Si spinel from medium ordered kaolin with high content of kaolinite was investigated using the differential thermal analysis (DTA). The apparent activation energy of the process was evaluated from the dependence of exothermic peak of crystallization on heating rate. Within the applied interval of heating rate (1-40 K min{sup -1}) the temperature of peak maximum increases from initial value of 1220.5 K in about 54.2 K. The apparent activation energy of the process 856{+-}2 kJ mol{sup -1}was calculated using the Kissinger equation. The growth morphology of Al-Si spinel crystal was evaluated from the Avrami parameter. The average value of morphology parameter determined within the observed interval of heating rate is 3.08{+-}0.03. This value indicates that crystallization mechanism of Al-Si spinel phase proceeds by bulk nucleation of the new phase with constant number of nuclei and that the three-dimensional growth of crystals is controlled by the reaction rate on the phases interface. - Graphical abstract: Kinetics of crystallization of Al-Si spinel from calcined kaolin was investigated by the DTA using the Kissinger kinetic approach. The apparent activation energy and morphology parameter of the process is 856{+-}2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 3.08{+-}0.03, respectively.

  19. The use of electrokinetics, EDTA, and flushing solutions in the removal of lead from Kaolin clay

    SciTech Connect

    Coletta, T.F.; Bruell, C.J.; Ryan, D.K.

    1995-12-31

    The use of electrokinets in conjunction with anodic and complexant-bearing cathodic flushing solutions was studied to determine its efficiency in removing lead from clay. Experiments were conducted in a horizontal soil column apparatus with Kaolin clay. Anodic flushing solutions were prepared by mixing water and clay in rations ranging from 2:1 to 40:1 by weight. To decrease the pH (and therefore lead buildup) at the cathode, the cathode was flush with an EDTA solution. A total organic carbon analysis was performed to determine if the EDTA was migrating back into the clay column. Results showed that lead removal efficiency increased with an increasing water to clay ratio to an optimum ratio of 7:1. In addition, increasing the time of cathode flushing to four days with EDTA at pH 4 increased lead removal at the cathode end. Lead removal at the cathode is higher than in columns flushed with sodium chloride and ionic solutions. Flushing the cathode for 10 days resulted in decreased overall lead removal efficiency. This is possibly due to precipitation of EDTA at the low final pH distribution. EDTA does migrate back into the column, and high concentrations are associated with significant lead removal at the cathode end. It appears that the optimization of the elemental constituents of the anodic flushing solution in conjunction with the proper conditioning of the cathode with complexants enhances lead removal from Kaolin clay.

  20. [Hygienic evaluation of the occupational risk in working with Bulgarian bentonite raw material].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova-Docheva, L; Buralkov, T; Kolev, K

    1986-01-01

    The use of bentonite in various branches of industry, and first of all, in foundry workshops, grows rapidly. The literature data on health injuries by bentonite dust are rather contradictory: due primarily, to the changeable mineralogical composition of the raw material from different deposits. That requires a specific hygienic assessment of each deposit in exploitation. The authors studied the mineral composition, quantitative ratio of the mineral components and morphology of the particles from the respirable fraction of aerosol in the extraction of Bulgarian bentonite. The microscopic mineralogical analysis in phase contrast, established a basic mass of clay minerals, confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. The free silicic oxide is presented by low-temperature crystobalite and quartz, more rarely opal and chalcedony. Its quantity does not surpass 1-2%. The experimental studies on experimental animals confirmed fibrosis, degree I and II, according to Belt and King. The clinical studies on the workers established the presence of reticular changes in the lungs, type S and L, according to ILO-UC classification. The hygienic characteristic of the Bulgarian bentonite provided grounds for its broad application as a substitute for more dangerous raw materials, quartz sand in the foundries, in particular. Regardless of its advantages, bentonite is not harmless. The adherence to MAC for dustiness and periodic control of the quartz content in the raw material and aerosol in the working environment, are compulsory.

  1. Geochemical And Petrological Investigations Of The Representative Cretaceous Bentonite Beds, Wyoming : Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, N. I.

    2004-12-01

    Representative bentonite samples were collected from the exposed Cretaceous siliciclastics in Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming. Bentonite beds constitute a significant stratigraphic importance with respect to local and regional correlation tool and are associated with the Thermopolis Shale (Lower Cretaceous), Mowry Shale (Lower Cretaceous), and Frontier Formation (Upper Cretaceous). These beds range in thickness from few inches to ten feet and are interbedded with thick cross-bedded sandstone, pebbly sandstone, polymictic conglomerate, siliceous-rippled shale, and lignitic shale. Preliminary petrological and geochemical investigations were carried out to establish a distinctive geochemical signature for each bed. Emphasis was given on the overall distribution of the immobile traces, high refractory elements, and ultrastable heavy mineral components among the selective bentonite beds. The outcome of petrological, bulk, and trace element studies involving multiple bentonite beds indicated a subtle difference in terms of abundance of trace-element and detrital components among the studied samples and can be attributed to the source region characteristics, distinctive diagenetic pathways, and depositional setting. Furthermore, geochemical analyses involving multi-element plots suggest to an evolving source terrain located in close proximity to the bentonite depositional basin.

  2. Polypropylene Fiber Amendments to Alleviate Initiation and Evolution of Desiccation Cracks in Bentonite Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuller, M.; Gebrenegus, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sodium saturated bentonite is a major constituent of compacted and geosynthetic liners and covers for hydraulic isolation of hazardous waste, playing a crucial role in protecting groundwater and other environmental resources from harmful landfill leachates. Due to favorable hydraulic properties (i.e., low permeability), large surface area and associated adsorption capacity for particular contaminants, and relative abundance and low cost, bentonite is the material of choice in many modern waste containment systems. However, long-term interactions between bentonite and waste leachate and exposure of bentonite to desiccative conditions may significantly deteriorate liner or cover performance and ultimately lead to failure of containment systems. In the presented study, the potential usefulness of polypropylene fiber amendments for preventing initiation and evolution of desiccation cracks, while maintaining acceptably low permeability under saturated conditions was investigated. Well-controlled desiccation experiments were conducted using initially saturated bentonite-sand mixtures that contained varying amounts of polypropylene fibers. Initiation and evolution of surface cracks were observed by means of X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). Advanced image analysis techniques were employed to characterize and quantify 2-D and 3-D features of the evolving crack networks. Potential negative effects of employed additives on saturated hydraulic conductivity were determined with fully-automated Flexible Wall Permeametry (FWP).

  3. Swelling pressure of a divalent-rich bentonite: Diffuse double-layer theory revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Tom; Tripathy, Snehasis

    2009-05-01

    Physicochemical forces are responsible for the swelling pressure development in saturated bentonites. In this paper, the swelling pressures of several compacted bentonite specimens for a range of dry density of 1.10-1.73 Mg/m3 were measured experimentally. The clay used was a divalent-rich Ca-Mg-bentonite with 12% exchangeable Na+ ions. The theoretical swelling pressure-dry density relationship for the bentonite was determined from the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double-layer theory. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results showed that the experimental swelling pressures are either smaller or greater than their theoretical counterparts within different dry density ranges. It is shown that for dry density of the clay less than about 1.55 Mg/m3, a possible dissociation of ions from the surface of the clay platelets contributed to the diffuse double-layer repulsion. At higher dry densities, the adsorptive forces due to surface and ion hydration dominated the swelling pressures of the clay. A comparison of the modified diffuse double-layer theory equations proposed in the literature to determine the swelling pressures of compacted bentonites and the experimental results for the clay in this study showed that the agreement between the calculated and experimental swelling pressure results is very good for dry densities less than 1.55 Mg/m3, whereas at higher dry densities the use of the equations was found to be limited.

  4. Modification of bentonite with a cationic surfactant: An adsorption study of textile dye Reactive Blue 19.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Adnan; Omeroğlu, Ciğdem; Erdoğan, Yunus; Ozcan, A Safa

    2007-02-09

    The utilization of modified bentonite with a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTMA) bromide) as an adsorbent was successfully carried out to remove a synthetic textile dye (Reactive Blue 19 (RB19)) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters such as pH, contact time and temperature. The surface modification of bentonite with a surfactant was examined using the FTIR spectroscopic technique and elemental analysis. Effective pH for the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite was around 1.5. The Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the best to represent the equilibrium with experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) has been found to be 3.30x10(-4)molg(-1) or 206.58mgg(-1). The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite was favored with the negative Gibbs free energy values. The pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics and the intraparticle diffusion model was also applicable up to 40min for the adsorption of RB19 onto DTMA-bentonite.

  5. Adsorption of mixed cationic-nonionic surfactant and its effect on bentonite structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Huayong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant onto bentonite and its effect on bentonite structure were investigated. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behavior on clay mineral for its possible use in remediation technologies of soil and groundwater contaminated by toxic organic compounds. The cationic surfactant used was hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB), and the nonionic surfactant was Triton X-100 (TX100). Adsorption of TX100 was enhanced significantly by the addition of HDPB, but this enhancement decreased with an increase in the fraction of the cationic surfactant. Part of HDPB was replaced by TX100 which decreased the adsorption of HDPB. However, the total adsorbed amount of the mixed surfactant was still increased substantially, indicating the synergistic effect between the cationic and nonionic surfactants. The surfactant-modified bentonite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Surfactant intercalation was found to decrease the bentonite specific surface area, pore volume, and surface roughness and irregularities, as calculated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The co-adsorption of the cationic and nonionic surfactants increased the ordering conformation of the adsorbed surfactants on bentonite, but decreased the thermal stability of the organobentonite system.

  6. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies for sorption of chlorobenzenes on CTMAB modified bentonite and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Li, Laisheng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Wu, Honghai

    2010-01-15

    The sorption of chlorobenzenes (CBs) by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) modified bentonite and kaolinite was investigated. The sorption isotherms for CBs were nearly linear, suggesting that sorption could be described by a distribution process. The distribution coefficient (K(d)) was primarily affected by the amount of sorbed surfactant. The organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K(oc)), however, was particularly dependent on arrangement of the surfactant cations. The K(d) of CBs was larger for CTMAB-bentonites than that for CTMAB-kaolinites, while the case for K(oc) was opposite. Thus, the clay mineral structure and morphology had a considerable influence on the surfactant arrangement, which was responsible for the partitioning of CBs. The sorption of CBs onto both CTMAB-bentonites and CTMAB-kaolinites followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The intra-particle diffusion model for sorption was also investigated and compared to identify sorption mechanism. The sorption of CBs both on CTMAB-bentonites and CTMAB-kaolinites was exothermic in nature and accompanied by an increase in entropy and a decrease in Gibbs energy in the temperature range of 15-35 degrees C. The results indicated that CBs strongly interacted with CTMAB modified bentonite and kaolinite.

  7. Bentonite-amended soil special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This special study was conducted to assess the viability of soil with a high percentage of bentonite added as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. To achieve maximum concentration limits (MCLs) at several UMTRA Project sites, covers with a very low permeability are needed. If alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are the appropriate site groundwater compliance strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to demonstrate, among other things, that the infiltration to the disposal cell is as low as reasonably achievable, and hence that the cover has a very low permeability. When the study discussed here was begun, the lowest permeability element available was CLAYMAX[sub R], a manufactured liner material constructed of natural material (bentonite clay) between two geosynthetics.The strength of soil-bentonite mixes was measured to see if they could be placed on sideslopes and not pose stability problems. Also evaluated were the hydraulic conductivities of soil-bentonite mixes. If the strengths and permeabilities of soils with a high percentage of bentonite are favorable, the soils may be used as infiltration barriers in current cover designs without changing pile geometries. The scope of work for this study called for a literature review and a two-phased laboratory testing program. This report presents the results of the literature review and the first phase of the testing program.

  8. State of a Bentonite Barrier After 8 Years of Heating and Hydration in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, Maria Victoria; Fernandez, Ana Maria; Gomez, Roberto; Martin, Pedro Luis; Barcala, Jose Miguel; Barrenechea, Jose F.; Luque, Javier F.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions of the bentonite in an engineered barrier for HLW disposal have been simulated in a laboratory test. Six cylindrical blocks of bentonite compacted at a dry density of 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} were piled up in a hermetic Teflon cell. The total length of the clay column inside the cell was 60 cm. The bottom surface of the bentonite was heated at 100 deg. C while the top surface was injected with granitic water. The duration of the test was 7.6 years. The water intake was measured during the test and, at the end, the cell was dismounted and the dry density, water content, mineralogy, geochemistry, and swelling capacity of the clay were measured in different sections along the column. At the end of the test no full water saturation was reached and water content and dry density gradients were found along the column. No mineralogical changes have been detected, although the pore water chemistry and the exchangeable complex of the smectite have changed along the bentonite. None of these changes affect drastically its swelling capacity, which remains high. The material used in this test is the FEBEX bentonite. (authors)

  9. Kinetics of metribuzin release from bentonite-polymer composites in water.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sonalika; Manjaiah, K M; Datta, S C; Ahmed Shabeer, T P; Kumar, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    A series of bentonite polymer-composites (BPCs) loaded with metribuzin were studied for their controlled release in aqueous medium. The release of active ingredient from BPCs was significantly lower as compared to commercial metribuzin formulation. The results revealed that the cumulative metribuzin release was highest (81%) from the BPCs containing 8% clay (commercial bentonite) and 2% metribuzin which correspond to the lowest (14 days) half-life values i.e., time required for 50% release of active ingredient (t1/2). The metribuzin release from the BPCs decreased with increased concentration of clays in polymer matrix and the release was further decreased with BPCs prepared with pure nano-bentonite. BPCs containing 12% clay and 2% metribuzin showed maximum t1/2 values i.e., 25 and 51 days for commercial bentonite and pure nano-bentonite as clay sources, respectively. The differential behaviour in the metribuzin release rates from BPCs was ascribed due to variations in crosslinking of metribuzin in the composites. As metribuzin release was found to be slower in BPCs compared to commercial formulation, it could be used for control of weeds tailored to different crops.

  10. [Thermodynamics adsorption and its influencing factors of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on the bentonite and humus].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Zai, De-Xin; Zhao, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus was investigated by using the equilibrium oscillometry. The adsorption capacity of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus was great higher than bentonite at the same concentration. Equilibrium data of Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms showed significant relationship to the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus (chlorpyrifos: R2 0.996 4, 0.996 3; triazophos: R2 0.998 9, 0.992 4). Langmuir isotherm was the best for chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite (chlorpyrifos: R2 = 0.995 7, triazophos: R2 = 0.998 9). The pH value, adsorption equilibrium time and temperature were the main factors affecting adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus. The adsorption equilibrium time on mixed adsorbent was 12h for chlorpyrifos and 6h for triazophos respectively. The mass ratio of humus and bentonite was 12% and 14% respectively, the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos was the stronglest and tended to saturation. At different temperatures by calculating the thermodynamic parameters deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, confirmed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous exothermic process theoretically. The adsorption was the best when the pH value was 6.0 and the temperature was 15 degrees C.

  11. Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gök, Özer; Özcan, A. Safa; Özcan, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) onto modified bentonite from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were investigated in the experimentally. Natural bentonite was modified by using 1,6-diamino hexane (DAH) as a modifying agent. The characterization of modified bentonite (DAH-bentonite) was accomplished by using FTIR, TGA, BET and elemental analysis techniques. The optimum pH value for the adsorption experiments was found to be 1.5 and all the experiments were carried out at this pH value. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model agrees very well with the experimental results. Equilibrium data were also fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model in the studied concentration range of RB19 at 20 °C. The results indicate that DAH-modified bentonite is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.

  12. Selectivity coefficient for Ca/Na ion exchange in highly compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin; Hedström, Magnus

    Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material around the waste canisters and as tunnel backfill material in several concepts for disposal of radioactive waste. The distribution of charge compensating cations in the bentonite is of interest for several reasons, one being possible release of colloid particles from the bentonite to groundwater with very low ionic strength. The cation distribution at equilibrium may be calculated for various relevant groundwater compositions by use of selectivity coefficients. However, present literature data generally concerns coefficients measured in batch experiments with high water-to-solid ratios. The basic aim with the present work was therefore to determine selectivity coefficients for sodium/calcium exchange in bentonite with low water-to-solid ratios, and thereby give a reliable base for calculating the cation distribution in a confined bentonite buffer with a relatively high density. In total, six tests with homo-ionic Na- and Ca-montmorillonite, prepared to three material densities, were equilibrated with test solutions of successively increasing concentration. The distribution of cations at equilibrium was measured by use of ion selective electrodes and ICP/AES, and selectivity coefficients were calculated according to the Gaines-Thomas convention. The obtained selectivity coefficient was found to be in the range of 3.8-7.8, which is similar to those previously reported for high water-to-solid ratios.

  13. Modeling cation diffusion in compacted water-saturated sodium bentonite at low ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Bourg, Ian C; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C M

    2007-12-01

    Sodium bentonites are used as barrier materials for the isolation of landfills and are under consideration for a similar use in the subsurface storage of high-level radioactive waste. The performance of these barriers is determined in large part by molecular diffusion in the bentonite pore space. We tested two current models of cation diffusion in bentonite against experimental data on the relative apparent diffusion coefficients of two representative cations, sodium and strontium. On the "macropore/nanopore" model, solute molecules are divided into two categories, with unequal pore-scale diffusion coefficients, based on location: in macropores or in interlayer nanopores. On the "surface diffusion" model, solute molecules are divided into categories based on chemical speciation: dissolved or adsorbed. The macropore/nanopore model agrees with all experimental data at partial montmorillonite dry densities ranging from 0.2 (a dilute bentonite gel) to 1.7 kg dm(-3) (a highly compacted bentonite with most of its pore space located in interlayer nanopores), whereas the surface diffusion model fails at partial montmorillonite dry densities greater than about 1.3 kg dm(-3).

  14. Removal of toxic elements from aqueous solution using bentonite modified with L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Bakatula, E N; Cukrowska, E M; Weiersbye, I M; Mihaly-Cozmuta, L; Tutu, H

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes the use of bentonite modified with L-histidine for the removal of Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, U and Zn from aqueous solutions such as those impacted by acidic drainage. The surface areas of natural bentonite and bentonite-histidine were 73.8 and 61.2 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Elemental analysis showed an increase in the amount of carbon (0.258%) and nitrogen (0.066%) for the bentonite-histidine. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the operating variables affecting the adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solution such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were studied in batch mode. The Freundlich isotherm model yielded a better fit than the Langmuir for the adsorption of Cu, Co, Ni and Zn, implying adsorption on a heterogeneous surface. Adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model, suggesting chemisorption as the rate-limiting step. The apparent activation energy was greater than 40 kJ mol(-1) for Cu, Zn, Ni, Co and U, which is characteristic of a chemically controlled reaction. Thermodynamic constants ΔG and ΔH showed that the adsorption of metals was endothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption of heavy metals onto bentonite-histidine was efficient at low pH values, meaning that the adsorbent could be useful for remediating acid mine water.

  15. Improving the quality of biopolymer (poly lactic acid) with the addition of bentonite as filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani; Agusnar, Harry; Wirjosentono, Basuki; Rihayat, Teuku; Nurhanifa

    2017-07-01

    PLA (Poly Lactid Acid) - Bentonite polymer nanocomposite which is a combination of natural and nanometer-scale inorganic substances created through three processes, mixing using a melt blending, molding with a hot press using specimens Standard ASTM D 638 Type IV and drying. In this study, PLA combined with two types of natural bentonite obtained from different areas to find differences in the quality of the results of characterization. To optimize the performance of filler, before mixing, bentonite have to furificate first with (NaPO3)6 and also open the interlayer space with CTAB. D-spacing of bentonite imterlayer were analyze by X-Ray difraction (XRD). Characterization bionanocomposite resulting morphologic structure was tested using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanical analysis of PLA-bentonite nanocomposite in the form of tensile strength was tested using a tensile test specimens of standard American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 638 Type 4, and thermal resistance using Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  16. Modeling cation diffusion in compacted water-saturatedNa-bentonite at low ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C.M.

    2007-08-28

    Sodium bentonites are used as barrier materials for the isolation of landfills and are under consideration for a similar use in the subsurface storage of high-level radioactive waste. The performance of these barriers is determined in large part by molecular diffusion in the bentonite pore space. We tested two current models of cation diffusion in bentonite against experimental data on the relative apparent diffusion coefficients of two representative cations, sodium and strontium. On the 'macropore/nanopore' model, solute molecules are divided into two categories, with unequal pore-scale diffusion coefficients, based on location: in macropores or in interlayer nanopores. On the 'surface diffusion' model, solute molecules are divided into categories based on chemical speciation: dissolved or adsorbed. The macropore/nanopore model agrees with all experimental data at partial montmorillonite dry densities ranging from 0.2 (a dilute bentonite gel) to 1.7 kg dm{sup -3} (a highly compacted bentonite with most of its pore space located in interlayer nanopores), whereas the surface diffusion model fails at partial montmorillonite dry densities greater than about 1.2 kg dm{sup -3}.

  17. Studies on the effect of quartz, bentonite and coal dust mixtures on macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Adamis, Z.; Timár, M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of quartz, bentonite and coal dusts as well as the effect of the artificial mixture of these dusts on TTC reduction and extra-and intra-cellular lactate dehydrogenase activity in peritoneal rat macrophages was determined in vitro. The cell-membrane-damaging effect of quartz caused a significant extracellular release of lactate dehydrogenase. Bentonite caused no extracellular enzyme release, which leads us to believe that the biological effect of this dust is shown by decrease in intra-cellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. TTC reduction was inhibited equally by quartz and qentonite. In mixtures of quartz (60%)-bentonite (40%) dust the specific effect of quartz was inhibited by bentonite in vitro and also in vivo. We obtained the same results with coal-quartz-bentonite dust mixtures in vitro. Our experiments show that comparison of the biological effects of artificial dust mixtures and airborne dust samples is justified, and prove that performing various examinations simultaneously give fuller particulars on the probable biological effect of mineral dusts. PMID:213094

  18. The Lower Silurian Osmundsberg K-bentonite. Part I: Stratigraphic position, distribution, and palaeogeographic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, Stig M.; Huff, W.D.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    A large number of Lower Silurian (Llandovery) K-bentonite beds have been recorded from northwestern Europe, particularly in Baltoscandia and the British Isles, but previous attempts to trace single beds regionally have yielded inconclusive results. The present study suggests that based on its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position and trace element geochemistry, one Telychian ash bed, the Osmundsberg K-bentonite, can be recognized at many localities in Estonia, Sweden and Norway and probably also in Scotland and Northern Ireland. This bed, which is up to 115 cm thick, is in the lower-middle turriculatus Zone. The stratigraphic position, thickness variation and geographic distribution of the Osmundsberg K-bentonite are illustrated by means of 12 selected Llandovery successions in Sweden, Estonia, Norway, Denmark, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Baltoscandia, the Osmundsberg K-bentonite shows a trend of general thickness increase in a western direction suggesting that its source area was located in the northern Iapetus region between Baltica and Laurentia. Because large-magnitude ash falls like the one that produced the Osmundsberg K-bentonite last at most a few weeks, such an ash bed may be used as a unique time-plane for a variety of regional geological and palaeontological studies.

  19. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  20. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier; Montenegro, Luis

    2011-09-25

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO(2)(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO(3)(-) and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier; Montenegro, Luis

    2011-09-01

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO 2(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO 3- and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  2. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  3. Influence of deficit irrigation and kaolin particle film on grape composition and volatile compounds in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  4. Kaolin particle film and water deficit influence red winegrape color under high solar radiation in an arid climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Main and interactive effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit severity on vine and berry attributes were evaluated in the warm, semi-arid climate of southwestern Idaho over three growing seasons in the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec. Berry concentrations of total anthocyan...

  5. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  6. Kaolin-based foliar reflectant and water deficit influence Malbec leaf and berry temperature, pigments, and photosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of a kaolin-based foliar reflectant on traits of commercial interest in the red-skinned wine grape cultivar Malbec (Vitis vinifera L.) were evaluated over three growing seasons by measuring the surface temperatures of leaves and clusters, leaf-level assimilation, leaf and berry pigment c...

  7. Reduction in toxicity of arsenic(III) to Halobacillus sp. Y35 by kaolin and their related adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Yao, Jun; He, Minyan; Choi, Martin M F; Feng, Liang; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Chen, Ke; Zhuang, Rensheng; Maskow, Thomas; Wang, Gejiao; Zaray, Gyula

    2010-04-15

    The growth of Halobacillus sp. Y35 has been investigated in HGM hypersaline medium with different doses of As(III) and kaolin. The metabolic heat flux decreases with the increase in As(III) concentration, indicating that strain Y35 lowers their metabolic activity in order to resist the As(III) toxicity. Carbon dioxide flux, cell growth and protein synthesis rates, and total thermal effect have been, for the first time, successfully employed simultaneously to assess the effect of As(III) on strain Y35 in the absence and presence of kaolin. The relative adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity of kaolin for As(III) are higher with strain Y35 than that without strain Y35, demonstrating that it is possible to reduce the toxicity of As(III) to our environment by both using mineral adsorption and biosorption technology. Our work shows the potential application of kaolin and strain Y35 for the removal of As(III) from contaminated groundwater. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  9. Repellency of a kaolin particle film to potato payllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on tomato under laboratory and field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is a vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum,” the bacterium causing several diseases in solanaceous crops. Laboratory and field no-choice and choice experiments were conducted to evaluate repellency of kaolin particle film on adults of B. cockerel...

  10. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  11. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  12. Effects of simulated pulmonary surfactant on the cytotoxicity and DNA-damaging activity of respirable quartz and kaolin.

    PubMed

    Gao, N; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Wallace, W E

    2000-06-09

    Respirable-sized quartz and kaolin dusts were pretreated with simulated pulmonary surfactant dispersions of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in saline to model the conditioning of particles depositing in alveolar regions of the lung. DPPC-treated and untreated dusts were used to challenge lavaged rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages in vitro. Cytotoxicity was determined over a 5-d period using both total and viable cell counts from a fluorescence-based viability assay. DNA damage, as an indication of genotoxicity, was determined over a 7-d period by the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Untreated quartz and kaolin both expressed a significant and potent cytotoxicity, which increased with concentration and time. DPPC-surfactant pretreatment delayed significant expression of this cytotoxicity until 3 to 5 d after challenge. Untreated quartz also caused DNA damage, which increased with concentration and time. DPPC-surfactant treatment of quartz delayed most DNA damage expression to 5 and 7 d. Untreated kaolin expressed weaker activity for DNA damage, significant at the highest concentration through 5 d, and at the higher concentrations on d 7. Surfactant treatment delayed most kaolin activity for DNA damage to 7 d after challenge.

  13. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  14. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    PubMed

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase.

  15. Noncovalent immobilization of Pectinesterase (Prunus armeniaca L.) onto bentonite.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, Emine; Ozler, Aynur; Pekyardimci, Sule

    2008-01-01

    In this work, pectinesterase isolated from Malatya apricot was immobilized onto acid-treated bentonite surface by simple adsorption at pH 9.0. The properties of free and immobilized enzyme were defined. The effect of various factors such as pH, temperature, heat, and storage stability on immobilized enzyme were investigated. Optimum pH and temperature were determined to be 9.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the immobilized enzyme (Km and Vmax values) were also determined as 0.51 mM of the Km and 14.6 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) of the Vmax. No drastic change was observed in the Km value after immobilization. The Vmax value of immobilized enzyme was 8.4-fold bigger than those of free enzyme. Thermal and storage stability experiments were carried out. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process tends to stabilize the enzyme. The properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared to those of the free enzyme.

  16. Selective determination of isoniazid using bentonite clay modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Prajapati, Nandlal; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2015-02-01

    Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) (where dmbpy is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) was immobilized by ion-exchange in a bentonite clay film coating on a glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammetry characteristics of the immobilized Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) were stable and reproducible corresponding to the Fe(dmbpy)3(2+/3+) redox process. In the presence of isoniazid (IZ), the electrogenerated in film Fe(dmbpy)3(3+) oxidized IZ efficiently producing large anodic current. This current was linearly proportional to the IZ concentration in the solution. The process was described by an EC' electrocatalysis mechanism allowing for sensitive determination of IZ with a wide linear dynamic concentration range of 10.0μM to 10.0mM. The electrode was tested for its analytical suitability and possible discrimination of interferences by determining IZ in a commercially available pharmaceutical product. The paper reports on a simple, cheap, and easy to fabricate chronoamperometric chemical sensor for determination of IZ. Kinetic parameters, such as the catalytic rate constant (2.3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)) and diffusion coefficient of IZ (5.42×10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)), were determined using CV, chronoamperometry, and chronocoulometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sorption and desorption of silver ions by bentonite clays.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Leonel Vinicius; Quirino, Juliana Nunes; Monteiro, Alessandra Maffei; Abrão, Taufik; Parreira, Paulo Sérgio; Urbano, Alexandre; Santos, Maria Josefa

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased the concentration of metal species in the environment. The toxicity of silver ions to aquatic and terrestrial organisms has required monitoring by analytical methods, besides actions to promote its control as pollutant. Sorption and desorption processes are directly related to the mobility and availability of metal ions in the environment. In this context, clay minerals can be used for pre-concentration, removal and recovery of silver ions from aqueous solution. Herein, two bentonite clays (BaVC-1 and SWy-2) were characterised and applied to investigate the sorption and desorption of silver ions. Isotherms were fitted to the dual-mode Langmuir-Freundlich model to qualify and quantify sorption sites and evaluate the mobilisation process. The maximum sorption capacity was 743 and 849 meq kg(-1) for BaVC-1 and SWy-2, respectively. Hysteresis index (HI) and mobilisation factor (MF) suggest that the desorption of silver ions in BaVC-1 is about four times more conducive compared to that in SWy-2, although both materials have demonstrated a great potential for Ag(+) pre-concentration from aqueous solutions.

  18. The Paramagnetic Pillared Bentonites as Digestive Tract MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojović, Miloš; Daković, Marko; Omerašević, Mia; Mojović, Zorica; Banković, Predrag; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dušan

    The increased use of imaging techniques in diagnostic studies, such as MRI, has contributed to the development of the wide range of new materials which could be successfully used as image improving agents. However, there is a lack of such substances in the area of gastrointestinal tract MRI. Many of the traditionally popular relaxation altering agents show poor results and disadvantages provoking black bowel, side effects of diarrhea and the presence of artifacts arising from clumping. Paramagnetic species seem to be potentially suitable agents for these studies, but contrast opacification has been reported and less than 60% of the gastrointestinal tract magnetic resonance scans showed improved delineation of abdominal pathologies. The new solution has been proposed as zeolites or smectite clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) enclosing of paramagnetic metal ions obtained by ion-exchange methods. However, such materials have problems of leakage of paramagnetic ions causing the appearance of the various side-effects. In this study we show that Co+2 and Dy+3 paramagnetic-pillared bentonites could be successfully used as MRI digestive tract non-leaching contrast agents, altering the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of fluids in contact with the clay minerals.

  19. Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; McAllister, James P; Shen, Yimin; Wagshul, Mark E; Miller, Janet M; Egnor, Michael R; Johnston, Miles G; Haacke, E Mark; Walker, Marion L

    2008-06-01

    Communicating hydrocephalus (CH) occurs frequently, but clinically-relevant animal models amenable to diagnostic imaging and cerebrospinal fluid shunting are not available. In order to develop and characterize models of subarachnoid space (SAS) obstruction at the basal cisterns (BC) or cerebral convexities (CX), 25% kaolin was injected in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats following halothane anesthesia; intact- or saline-injected animals served as controls. For BC animals (n=28 hydrocephalics, n=20 controls), an anterior approach to the C1-clivus interval was employed and 30 microl of kaolin or saline was injected. For CX injections (n=13 hydrocephalics, n=3 controls), 50-60 microl of kaolin was injected bilaterally after separating the partitions in the SAS. In BC-injected rats, kaolin was observed grossly in the basal cisterns but not in the cisterna magna or at the foramina of Luschka, indicating that communicating (or extra-ventricular)--not obstructive--hydrocephalus had been induced. Following ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gadolinium injected into the lateral ventricle also demonstrated CSF flow from the foramina of Luschka. MRI also revealed that ventriculomegaly progressed steadily in BC animals and by 2 weeks post-kaolin the mean Evan's ratio (frontal horn) increased significantly (mean 0.45 compared to 0.31 in intact- and 0.34 in saline-injected controls; p<0.001 for each). CX animals exhibited kaolin deposits covering approximately 80% of the cerebral hemispheres and developed noticeable ventriculomegaly (mean Evan's ratio 0.40), which was significant relative to intact animals (p=0.011) but not saline-injected controls. Surprisingly, ventriculomegaly following CX injections was less severe and much more protracted, requiring 3-4 months to develop compared to ventriculomegaly produced by BC obstruction. No hydrocephalic animals demonstrated obvious neurological deficits, but BC-injected animals that subsequently

  20. Surface Fractal Dimension of Bentonite and its Application in Calculation of Swelling Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

    2014-09-01

    The correlation between the void ratio of swelled montmorillonite and the vertical overburden pressure can be expressed as {e}{ m} = Kp{ s}{D{ s}-3}. The surface fractal dimension Ds of five bentonites were estimated from the swelling deformation tests according to this fractal correlation. The reliability of surface fractal dimension obtained from the swelling deformation test was confirmed by nitrogen adsorption test, with identical values of surface fractal dimension obtained from both tests. The surface fractal dimension can also be used to estimate the swelling deformation of bentonite, after calculating the swelling coefficient K from the parameters of diffuse double layer (DDL) model in the osmotic swelling phase. Comparison of the model predictions with a number of experimental results on swelling deformation of both Na dominant and Ca dominant bentonites suggests that the surface fractal model works excellent in the cases tested.

  1. Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by hydroxy-8 quinoleine intercalated bentonite.

    PubMed

    Bentouami, A; Ouali, M S

    2006-01-15

    An Algerian bentonite was purified and modified by intercalation of 8-hydroxyquinolinium ion. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Comparative batch experiments were performed using bentonite-oxine complex (B-oxine) and sodic bentonite (B-Na) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions. Kinetics study results of cadmium removal with B-Na and B-oxine fit a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm data follow the Langmuir equation in which parameters were calculated. B-oxine has a better cadmium removal capacity (61.35 mg/g) than B-Na (29.41 mg/g). Calculated thermodynamic parameters using the van't Hoff equation showed that the removal process is endothermic with B-oxine and exothermic with B-Na. A mechanism of ion exchange followed by complexation-precipitation is suggested for cadmium removal with B-oxine.

  2. Adsorption Processes of Lead Ions on the Mixture Surface of Bentonite and Bottom Sediments.

    PubMed

    Hegedűsová, Alžbeta; Hegedűs, Ondrej; Tóth, Tomáš; Vollmannová, Alena; Andrejiová, Alena; Šlosár, Miroslav; Mezeyová, Ivana; Pernyeszi, Tímea

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of contaminants plays an important role in the process of their elimination from a polluted environment. This work describes the issue of loading environment with lead Pb(II) and the resulting negative impact it has on plants and living organisms. It also focuses on bentonite as a natural adsorbent and on the adsorption process of Pb(II) ions on the mixture of bentonite and bottom sediment from the water reservoir in Kolíňany (SR). The equilibrium and kinetic experimental data were evaluated using Langmuir isotherm kinetic pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order rate equations the intraparticle and surface diffusion models. Langmuir isotherm model was successfully used to characterize the lead ions adsorption equilibrium on the mixture of bentonite and bottom sediment. The pseudo second-order model, the intraparticle and surface (film) diffusion models could be simultaneously fitted the experimental kinetic data.

  3. Mechanical properties and mophology natural rubber blend with bentonit and carbon black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, E. M.; Bukit, N.; Muliani; Frida, E.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical properties and morphology of composite natural rubber and natural bentonite with addition of Na-bentonite filler and carbon black to natural rubber. The method is carried material mixed with filler composition variations (0,10,20,30) phr using open mill for 6 min. Results of the open mill is vulcanized at a temperature of 170°C. Further testing mechanical properties and morphology. Results showed that the addition of Na-bentonite filler and carbon black influence on the mechanical properties of tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus of elasticity, hardness, and strong tear. Morphological results showed cavities in the rubber compound and the occurrence agglomeration.

  4. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy.

  5. Kaolin-based hemostatic dressing improves hemorrhage control from a penetrating inferior vena cava injury in coagulopathic swine.

    PubMed

    Koko, Kiavash R; McCauley, Brian M; Gaughan, John P; Nolan, Ryan S; Fromer, Marc W; Hagaman, Ashleigh L R; Choron, Rachel L; Brown, Spencer A; Hazelton, Joshua P

    2017-07-01

    Retrohepatic inferior vena cava (RIVC) injuries are often lethal due to challenges in obtaining hemorrhage control. We hypothesized that packing with a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (Control+; Z-Medica, Wallingford, CT) would improve hemorrhage control from a penetrating RIVC injury compared with packing with standard laparotomy sponges alone. Twelve male Yorkshire pigs received a 25% exchange transfusion of blood for refrigerated normal saline to induce a hypothermic coagulopathy. A laparotomy was performed and a standardized 1.5 cm injury to the RIVC was created which was followed by temporary abdominal closure and a period of uncontrolled hemorrhage. When the mean arterial pressure reached 70% of baseline, demonstrating hemorrhagic shock, the abdomen was re-entered, and the injury was treated with perihepatic packing using standard laparotomy sponges (L; n = 6) or a new kaolin-based hemostatic dressing (K; n = 6). Animals were then resuscitated for 6 hours with crystalloid solution. The two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test. A p value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. There was no difference in the animal's temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and blood loss at baseline or before packing was performed (all p > 0.05). In the laparotomy sponge group, five of six pigs survived the entire study period, whereas all six pigs treated with kaolin-based D2 hemostatic dressings survived. Importantly, there was significantly less blood loss after packing with the new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing compared with packing with laparotomy sponge (651 ± 180 mL vs. 1073 ± 342 mL; p ≤ 0.05). These results demonstrate that the use of this new hemostatic kaolin-based dressing improved hemorrhage control and significantly decreased blood loss in this penetrating RIVC model. This is basic science research based on a large animal model, level V.

  6. Effects of Melatonin on the Cerebellum of Infant Rat Following Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: a Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Turgut, Mehmet; Baka, Meral

    2017-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i.p. exogenous melatonin at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight after kaolin injection. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after the induction of hydrocephalus and melatonin administration. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was stained by immunohistochemical method. TUNEL method was used to define and quantitate apoptosis in the cerebellar tissues. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, and once significance was determined among means, post hoc pairwise comparisons were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. We found that melatonin administration significantly ameliorated ratio of substantia grisea area/substantia alba area in the cerebellum of infantile rats. Histologically, there was a significant reduction in the number of cerebellar apoptotic cells after the hydrocephalus induced by kaolin (P < 0.05). Our results clearly revealed that the histopathological changes in the cerebellum were reversed by systemic melatonin administration in infantile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to suggest melatonin as a candidate protective drug in children with hydrocephalus.

  7. Experimental and modeling studies on sorption and diffusion of radium in bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachi, Y.; Shibutani, T.; Sato, H.; Yui, M.

    2001-02-01

    The sorption and desorption behavior of radium on bentonite and purified smectite was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio by batch experiments. The distribution coefficients ( Kd) were in the range of 10 2 to >10 4 ml g -1 and depended on ionic strength and pH. Most of sorbed Ra was desorbed by 1 M KCl. The results for purified smectite indicated that Ra sorption is dominated by ion exchange at layer sites of smectite, and surface complexation at edge sites may increase Ra sorption at higher pH region. Reaction parameters between Ra and smectite were determined based on an interaction model between smectite and groundwater. The reaction parameters were then used to explain the results of bentonite by considering dissolution and precipitation of minerals and soluble impurities. The dependencies of experimental Kd values on pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio were qualitatively explained by the model. The modeling result for bentonite indicated that sorption of Ra on bentonite is dominated by ion exchange with smectite. The observed pH dependency was caused by changes of Ca concentration arising from dissolution and precipitation of calcite. Diffusion behavior of Ra in bentonite was also investigated as a function of dry density and ionic strength. The apparent diffusion coefficients ( Da) obtained in compacted bentonite were in the range of 1.1×10 -11 to 2.2×10 -12 m 2 s -1 and decreased with increasing in dry density and ionic strength. The Kd values obtained by measured effective diffusion coefficient ( De) and modeled De were consistent with those by the sorption model in a deviation within one order of magnitude.

  8. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO) Through Compacted Bentonite Clay : Mechanisms and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, I. C.; Bourg, A. C.; Sposito, G.

    2002-12-01

    Diffusion through microporous materials has long been tackled with common tools of hydrogeological investigation, adapted to materials with a larger pore size. Parameters such as the porosity, tortuosity and adsorption coefficients are still usually defined as if there were a clear boundary between the free pore water and the solid phase. We suggest that a closer look at the structure of microporous materials is necessary and can yield successful mechanistic models of diffusion. Our case study is the diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) through compacted bentonite clay. In compacted bentonite, due to the high montmorillonite content of bentonite, the pore water is in intimate contact with the surface and most of the microporous water solvates the exchangeable cations. Despite this, HTO diffusion is often used as a non-reactive tracer to probe the pore geometry of compacted clay, yielding very high tortuosity coefficients (up to 40-60, far above the expected 3 for a random array of flat pores). We describe a model that accounts for the dual porosity of compacted bentonite (interlayer and inter-aggregate pores) and the higher viscosity of water in montmorillonite interlayers. This model successfully predicts HTO diffusion through bentonites with different montmorillonite contents (from 50 to 100 %) in a wide range of bulk dry densities (up to 2.0 kg/L). The model has no adjustable parameters. This is important to the diffusion of all other species through compacted bentonite clays, because models of the diffusion of reactive species are generally built on the geometric pore properties derived from the diffusion of "non-reactive" species such as HTO.

  9. Measuring microbial metabolism in atypical environments: Bentonite in used nuclear fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Moes, Ana; McKelvie, Jennifer; Korber, Darren R; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2016-01-01

    Genomics enjoys overwhelming popularity in the study of microbial ecology. However, extreme or atypical environments often limit the use of such well-established tools and consequently demand a novel approach. The bentonite clay matrix proposed for use in Deep Geological Repositories for the long-term storage of used nuclear fuel is one such challenging microbial habitat. Simple, accessible tools were developed for the study of microbial ecology and metabolic processes that occur within this habitat, since the understanding of the microbiota-niche interaction is fundamental to describing microbial impacts on engineered systems such as compacted bentonite barriers. Even when genomic tools are useful for the study of community composition, techniques to describe such microbial impacts and niche interactions should complement these. Tools optimised for assessing localised microbial activity within bentonite included: (a) the qualitative use of the resazurin-resorufin indicator system for redox localisation, (b) the use of a CaCl2 buffer for the localisation of pH, and (c) fluorometry for the localisation of precipitated sulphide. The use of the Carbon Dioxide Evolution Monitoring System was also validated for measuring microbial activity in desiccated and saturated bentonite. Finally, the buffering of highly-basic bentonite at neutral pH improved the success of isolation of microbial populations, but not DNA, from the bentonite matrix. Thus, accessible techniques were optimised for exploring microbial metabolism in the atypical environments of clay matrices and desiccated conditions. These tools have application to the applied field of used nuclear fuel management, as well as for examining the fundamental biogeochemical cycles active in sedimentary and deep geological environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental and modeling studies on sorption and diffusion of radium in bentonite.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Y; Shibutani, T; Sato, H; Yui, M

    2001-02-01

    The sorption and desorption behavior of radium on bentonite and purified smectite was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio by batch experiments. The distribution coefficients (Kd) were in the range of 10(2) to > 10(4) ml g-1 and depended on ionic strength and pH. Most of sorbed Ra was desorbed by 1 M KCl. The results for purified smectite indicated that Ra sorption is dominated by ion exchange at layer sites of smectite, and surface complexation at edge sites may increase Ra sorption at higher pH region. Reaction parameters between Ra and smectite were determined based on an interaction model between smectite and groundwater. The reaction parameters were then used to explain the results of bentonite by considering dissolution and precipitation of minerals and soluble impurities. The dependencies of experimental Kd values on pH, ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio were qualitatively explained by the model. The modeling result for bentonite indicated that sorption of Ra on bentonite is dominated by ion exchange with smectite. The observed pH dependency was caused by changes of Ca concentration arising from dissolution and precipitation of calcite. Diffusion behavior of Ra in bentonite was also investigated as a function of dry density and ionic strength. The apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) obtained in compacted bentonite were in the range of 1.1 x 10(-11) to 2.2 x 10(-12) m2 s-1 and decreased with increasing in dry density and ionic strength. The Kd values obtained by measured effective diffusion coefficient (De) and modeled De were consistent with those by the sorption model in a deviation within one order of magnitude.

  11. Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; Fowler, J F; Sheretz, E F; Rietschel, R L

    1995-08-01

    Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America. We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis. A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in preventing experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis in susceptible volunteers. One hour before both forearms were patch tested with urushiol, the allergenic resin from poison ivy and poison oak, 5% quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was applied on one forearm. The test patches were removed after 4 hours and the sites interpreted for reaction 2, 5, and 8 days later. The difference in reactions between treated and untreated patch test sites was statistically analyzed. Two hundred eleven subjects with a history of allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy and poison oak were studied. One hundred forty-four subjects had positive reactions to urushiol. The test sites pretreated with quaternium-18 bentonite lotion had absent or significantly reduced reactions to the urushiol compared with untreated control sites (p < 0.0001) on all test days. When it occurred, the reaction consistently appeared later on treated than on control sites (p < 0.0001). One occurrence of mild, transient erythema at the application site was the only side effect from the quaternium-18 bentonite lotion. Quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was effective in preventing or diminishing experimentally produced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. Correlation of Champlainian (Middle Ordovician) K-bentonite beds in Central Pennsylvania based on chemical fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen-Lollis, J.; Huff, W.D.

    1986-11-01

    The lower Trenton Salona Formation in central Pennsylvania contains five widespread K-bentonite beds, distinguishable on the basis of chemical fingerprinting. Thirty-five samples, one from each K-bentonite bed with good stratigraphic control at seven localities, were analyzed for Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis and for Zr and Ti by X-ray fluorescence. Chemical data were then treated by step-wise discriminant analysis to determine the most powerful grouping of discriminating elements and to create a discriminant model which would maximize the differences between the five beds and used to classify samples whose stratigraphic position is uncertain. Discriminant analysis revealed that differences in chemical composition are significantly greater between K-bentonite beds than within them. Yb, Sc, Ti, Th, Dy, Ta, Ga, Hf, Fe, Tb, Na, Lu, Ce, Sm, Co, Cr, K, Cs, and Eu, listed in order of their relative strength to discriminate among the five beds as a group can account for all but 0.0001% of the variance existing within each bed. Four discriminant functions were computed during the analysis. Eigenvalues and a territorial map indicate that the discriminant model is very effective for characterizing each K-bentonite bed and classifying unknown samples. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of unique and identifiable chemical fingerprints of K-bentonite beds in the Salona Formation, and provide an additional tool for correlating K-bentonite beds in central Pennsylvania and surrounding areas.

  13. Air and groundwater flow at the interface between fractured host rock and a bentonite buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessirier, B.; Jarsjo, J.; Frampton, A.

    2014-12-01

    Designs of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel include several levels of confinement. The Swedish and Finnish concept KBS-3 targets for example sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock as host formation and would have the waste canisters embedded in an engineered buffer of compacted MX-80 bentonite. The host rock is a highly heterogeneous dual porosity material containing fractures and a rock matrix. Bentonite is a complex expansive porous material. Its water content and mechanical properties are interdependent. Beyond the specific physics of unsaturated flow and transport in each medium, the interface between them is critical. Detailed knowledge of the transitory two-phase flow regime, induced by the insertion of the unsaturated buffer in a saturated rock environment, is necessary to assess the performance of planned KBS-3 deposition holes. A set of numerical simulations based on the equations of two-phase flow for water and air in porous media were conducted to investigate the dynamics of air and groundwater flow near the rock/bentonite interface in the period following installation of the unsaturated bentonite buffer. We assume state of the two-phase flow parameter values for bentonite from laboratory water uptake tests and typical fracture and rock properties from the Äspö Hard rock laboratory (Sweden) gathered under several field characterization campaigns. The results point to desaturation of the rock domain as far as 10 cm away from the interface into matrix-dominated regions for up to 160 days. Similar observations were made during the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment (BRIE) at the Äspö HRL, with a desaturation sustained for even longer times. More than the mere time to mechanical and hydraulic equilibrium, the occurrence of sustained unsaturated conditions opens the possibility for biogeochemical processes that could be critical in the safety assessment of the planned repository.

  14. Ordovidan K-bentonites in the Precordillera of San Juan and its tectomasmatic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cingolani, C.A.; Huff, W.; Bergstrom, S.; Kolata, D.

    1997-01-01

    A succession of approximately 35 early Middle Ordovician K-bentonite beds are exposed in the Precordillera region near the town of Jachal, in San Juan Province (at Cerro Viejo and La Chilca sections). They occur in argillaceous limestone in the upper part of the San Juan Limestone and in the interbedded shales and mudstones at the base of the overlying Los Azules Formation. Total thickness of the K-bentonite-bearing interval is 23 m and individual beds range from 1 to 65 cm thick. An essentially Arenig-Llanvirn age for the K-bentonite succession is indicated by the presence of graptolites diagnostic of the Paraglossograptus tentaculatus Zone and conodonts indicating the Eoplacognathus suecicus Zone. The bentonites consist mainly of Rl ordered illite/smectite, characteristic of most of the lower Paleozoic K-bentonites, plus volcanogenic crystals. Similar to other K-bentonites, these probably represent the distal, glass-rich portion of fall-out ash beds derived from collision zone explosive volcanism. The geochemical data and preliminary plots on the magmatic discrimination diagram indicate the parental magma was of rhyolite to trachyandesite composition. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show the setting of Cerro Viejo ash layers as falling on the boundary between volcanic arc and within plate rocks, typical of collision margin felsic volcanic rocks. U-Pb isotope dating for two zircon fractions from one sample show a lower concordia intercept of 461, +7-10 Ma coincident with the biostratigraphic age. Thus, they have important implications for the origin and early history of the allochtonous Precordillera terrane and the Pacific margin of South America. Furthermore, they are potentially important in interpretations of the paleogeographic relations of Laurentia and Gondwana during Ordovician time. ?? 1997 Asociacio??n Geolo??gica Argentina.

  15. Construction of low permeability soil-bentonite barrier caps and liners for landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, T.; Williams, M.

    1995-12-31

    A low permeability soil barrier layer is the usual regulatory requirement for both caps and liner systems on modern municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste landfills. This soil layer is either used as the sole barrier or as the soil component of a composite liner system. This paper presents construction experience for blending on site soils with sodium bentonite to produce a thick, low permeability soil barrier layer. The paper begins with a description of the components and construction of the barrier layer and discusses how soil-bentonite barrier layers meet or exceed the regulatory performance criteria for both State and Federal agencies.

  16. A Study on the Effect of Clay Particle Orientation on Diffusion in Compacted Bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.

    2002-02-26

    In this study, the effect of the orientation of clay particles on diffusion in compacted bentonite, which is regarded to be quite important as a candidate buffer material in safety assessment for a geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, was experimentally discussed by investigating effective diffusion coefficients (De) for tritiated water (HTO), which is non-sorptive onto bentonite. The diffusion experiments were carried out for 2 kinds of smectite contents of Na-bentonites, Kunigel-V1{reg_sign} (content of Na-smectite, 46-49wt%) and Kunipia-F{reg_sign} (content of Na-smectite, > 99wt%) at dry densities of 1.0 and 1.5 Mg/m3 by a through-diffusion method. The through-diffusion experiments were carried out for the same direction as compacted direction of bentonite and perpendicular direction to compacted direction. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations for the cross section of bentonite in the axial and perpendicular directions to compacted direction of bentonite were also carried out at dry densities of 1.0, 1.6, and 2.0 Mg/m3. Although De values for Kunigel-V1{reg_sign} were approximately the same for both diffusion directions to compacted direction over the densities, and no anisotropy in De was found, De values in the perpendicular direction to compacted direction for Kunipia-F{reg_sign} were clearly higher than those in the same direction as compacted direction. In the SEM observations, no significant orientation of clay particles was found for Kunigel-V1{reg_sign} over the densities, while the orientation of clay particles was clearly found for Kunipia-F{reg_sign}, and the degree of the orientation of clay particles became significant with an increase in dry density of bentonite. This tendency is in good agreement with that for De values obtained, indicating that smectite content in bentonite affects the orientation property of clay particles, and that the orientated clay particles affect diffusion pathway.

  17. Young's modulus and thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from kaolin and zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunitrová, Ivana; Trník, Anton

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigate the dependence of Young's modulus, mass change, and thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from a varying amount of kaolin (100 - 50 %) and zeolite (0 - 50 %) on the firing temperature. The samples are fired in a furnace at different temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1 and 5 min soaking time at the highest temperature. Afterwards, the samples are freely cooled down and their mass, dimensions and resonant frequency are measured at room temperature. The resonant frequency (from which Young's modulus is calculated) is measured using an apparatus based on the impulse excitation technique (IET). Young's modulus of green samples is the highest for the sample containing 10 mass% of zeolite (3.2 GPa). After sintering the sample with 50 mass% of zeolite has the highest value (11.3 GPa).

  18. The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris

    2017-08-01

    Strength and deformation parameters of compacted soil are known to be related to soil type and moisture. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the influence of compaction energy on soil type and moisture. This study considers the effect of different compaction energy on certain geotechnical properties of Kaolin and Laterite soil. This paper describes a laboratory study conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil type, soil moisture content with different compaction energy and strength characteristic. Specimens were compacted with impact energy at levels of 596 kg/m3(Standard Proctor) and 2682 kJ/m3 (Modified Proctor) over a wide range of moisture contents to determine dry unit weight, and Unconfined Compression Strength Test (UCS). Result shows that compaction energy is an important factor in determining soil strength that should be considered during the planning phase of any earthwork construction operation.

  19. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  20. Kaolins: sources of differences in cation-exchange capacities and cesium retention

    SciTech Connect

    Lim. C.H.; Jackson, M.L.; Koons, R.D.; Helmke, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Seven kaolins from Georgia (southeastern USA), ranging from high to low commercial grade, were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction and chemical techniques to establish that the variation in quality was caused by impurities. The Ca and Cs cation-exchange capacities (CEC) varied from 2.67 to 8.17 and from 3.29 to 8.77 meq/100 g, respectively. The external surface CEC of kaolinite ranged from 0 to 1 meq/100 g. The Cs-retention capacity (0.19 to 1.14 meq/100 g) was closely related to Cs-measured vermiculite content and this content plus specific surface mica content. The Cs retention appeared to be primarily related to the presence of interlayer wedges at mica/vermiculite XY interfaces.

  1. Mechanisms of olive leaf extract-ameliorated rat arthritis caused by kaolin and carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dezheng; Geng, Chengyan; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Lihui; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Zhong, Laifu

    2012-03-01

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) has antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions. However, the role of OLE in mechanical inflammatory arthritis (osteoarthritis, OA) is unclear. This study investigated the effect of OLE on the development of kaolin and carrageenan-induced arthritis, a murine model of OA. Administration of OLE significantly ameliorated paw swelling, the paw Evans blue content and the histopathological scores. In the human monocyte cell line, THP-1, the OLE reduced the LPS-induced TNF-α production and was dose dependent. Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice also revealed that treatment with OLE suppressed ear edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production and was dose dependent. These results indicated that OLE is an effective antiarthritis agent through an antiinflammation mechanism. Also OLE may be beneficial for the treatment of OA in humans.

  2. Utilisation of Sand from Kaolin Washing for the Manufacture of Alkali-activated Artificial Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavro, Martin; Vavro, Leona; Mec, Pavel; Soucek, Kamil; Pticen, Frantisek; Reiterman, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Sandstones represent a traditional natural stones which are widely used in Czech architecture and sculpture over a long time. Thanks to their relatively easy workability, sandstones provide a wide range of stone products and also represent a popular material for architectural and sculptural purposes. In the field of restoration of artworks, they are therefore often used for manufacturing stone statue copies originally made from the same or similar type of stone. Despite a relatively common and varied occurrence of natural sandstones, the method of the artificial stone facsimiles creation in the form of various cast elements is also often applied in restoration practice. The history of application of artificial stones in civil engineering and architecture goes back to the ancient times, i.e. to Roman antiquity and possibly up to the time of ancient Egypt. The lack of appropriate natural rock, suitable in the view of colour, grain size or texture is the main reason of manufacturing copies based on synthetic mixtures. The other reason is high financial costs to create a sculpture copy from natural materials. Mixtures made from white and/or grey cements, sands, carefully selected crushed stone or well graded natural gravels, and mineral coloring pigments or mixtures with acrylate, polyester, and epoxy resins binder are the most frequently used artificial materials for cast stone manufacturing. This paper aims to bring information about composition and properties of artificial sandstones made from alkali-activated binder mixtures based on metakaolin and granulated blast furnace slag. The filler of this artificial stone is represented by fine-grained sand generated during kaolin wet processing. Used sand is mainly formed by quartz, feldspars, micas (muscovite > biotite), residual kaolin, and to a lesser extent also by Fe oxyhydroxides ("limonite"), titanium dioxide mineral (probably anatase), and carbonate mineral unidentified in detail. Annual Czech production of this

  3. Influence of Solids-to-liquid and Activator Ratios on Calcined Kaolin Cement Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Y. M.; Kamarudin, H.; Bakri, A. M. Mustafa Al; Binhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Nizar, I. Khairul; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    This paper summarizes the effect of activator ratio on the processing of cement powder. Geopolymer slurry was produced via alkaline activation of calcined kaolin. Once the geopolymer slurry solidified, it was crushed and ground to obtain cement powder. Ultilizing the concept of "just adding water", hardened cement paste could be produced from cement powder. This paper concluded that solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios have a significant effect on compressive strength of hardened cement paste. The optimum solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios were 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. SEM micrographs showed that a processing route to produce cement powder by "just adding water" was possible, and the structure became denser and fewer unreacted particles were observed.

  4. Electrochemical determination of cadmium(II) at platinum electrode modified with kaolin by square wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Mhammedi, M A El; Achak, M; Hbid, M; Bakasse, M; Hbid, T; Chtaini, A

    2009-10-30

    In this work, determination of cadmium(II) using square wave voltammetry (SWV) was described. The method is based on accumulation of these metal ions on kaolin platinum electrode (K/Pt). The K/Pt performance was optimized with respect to the surface modification and operating conditions. The optimized conditions were obtained in pH of 5.0 and accumulation time of 25 min. Under the optimal conditions, the relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 9 x 10(-8) to 8.3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The detection limit (DL, 3sigma) was 5.4 x 10(-9) mol L(-1). The analytical methodology was successfully applied to monitor the Cd(II) content in natural water. Interferences were also evaluated.

  5. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  6. Erosion of sodium bentonite by flow and colloid diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Luis; Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars

    Smectite gel formed at the outer part of a bentonite buffer in granitic rock could expand into rock fractures with seeping water. Such a gel can release colloids into low ionic strength waters. In addition the gel/sol can itself slowly flow downstream when it has reached a low particle concentration sufficient to decrease the viscosity to allow flow. The erosion due to the combined effects of particle diffusion and gel/sol flow is modelled for a thin fracture into which the gel expands influenced by various forces between and on particles. Some of the forces such as the electrical double layer force and viscous force are strongly influenced by the ionic strength of the pore water. Changes in the ionic strength due to diffusion and dilution of ions in the expanding clay are modelled simultaneously with the gel expansion, flow of gel and colloid release to the seeping water. The model includes description of flow of the seeping fluid, which gradually turns from pure water to sol to more dense gel as the smectite source is approached. The model also describes expansion of the gel/sol and colloid release and flow and diffusion of ions in the system. The coupled models are solved using a numerical code. The results show that the gel will flow with a non-negligible flowrate when its volume fraction is below 1%, but that the erosion and loss of smectite is not much influenced by the concentration of sodium in the clay or in the approaching seeping water, if they are kept below the Critical Coagulation Concentration, CCC.

  7. Topic usage of kaolin-impregnated gauze as a hemostatic in tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Delgado, Maria Estela; Kishi-Sutto, Celina Verónica; Albores de la-Riva, Xellic Nallely; Rosales-Cortes, Manuel; Gamboa-Sánchez, Paulino

    2014-12-01

    The main postoperative complications after tonsillectomy are due to bleeding, and effective hemostasis may lead to a reduction of overall postoperative morbidity. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of a novel kaolin-based hemostatic dressing in tonsillectomy. A pilot, single-blind, open label study was performed in patients aged 3-20 y with history of chronic or hypertrophic tonsillitis. Cold dissection tonsillectomy (CDT) + ligature was performed by the same surgeon. Hemostasis on each tonsillar fossa was achieved using kaolin-impregnated gauze (KG; study group) or standard surgical cotton gauze (CG; control). Time to complete hemostasis, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, pain score, analgesic use, and return to normal diet and activity were recorded for all children. A total of 230 patients with a mean age of 8.0 y (138 in the study group and 92 in the control group) were included in the study. Both operative time and intraoperative blood loss were significantly reduced in the KG group (P < 0.0001) versus the CG group. At 5 min, 84.8% patients using the KG successfully achieved complete hemostasis versus 34.8% in the CG group where standard gauze controlled bleeding only partially. Results show significantly less pain for the KG group at 6- and 12-h postoperative when compared with the CG group (P < 0.0001). Also, the KG group required less analgesic medications, returned to normal diet and normal activities faster than the CG group (P < 0.01). Preliminary findings show that the KG is effective and safe in managing surgical bleeding after tonsillectomy. In addition to rapid bleeding control, the dressing causes minimal inflammation and pain and allows patients to quickly return to normal activities. This novel dressing is a promising tool for ear, nose and throat surgical hemostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral antioxidant therapy for juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative and nitrosylative changes have been shown to occur in conjunction with the hypoxic changes and cellular/axonal damage in hydrocephalic rodent brains. We hypothesized that antioxidant therapy would improve behavioral, neurophysiological, and/or neurobiochemical outcomes in juvenile rats following induction of hydrocephalus. Methods Three-week old rats received an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed two weeks later to assess ventricle size and stratify rats to four treatment conditions. Rats were treated for two weeks daily with sham therapy of either oral canola oil or dextrose or experimental therapy of a low or high dose of an antioxidant mixture containing α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), reduced glutathione, and reduced lipoic acid. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Results All hydrocephalic groups lagged in weight gain in comparison to non-hydrocephalic controls, all developed significant ventriculomegaly, and all exhibited white matter destruction. Canola oil with or without the antioxidant mixture normalized antioxidant capacity in brain tissue, and the dextrose-treated rats had the greatest ventricular enlargement during the treatment period. However, there were no significant differences between the four treatment groups of hydrocephalic rats for the various behavioral tasks. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein quantitation showed no differences between the treatment groups or with control rats. There was increased lipid peroxidation in the hydrocephalic rats compared to controls but no differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The antioxidant cocktail showed no therapeutic benefits for juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus although canola oil might have mild benefit. PMID:25324960

  9. [Mechanism and impact for microwave-enhanced integrative sorption of dye to mixture of surfactant and bentonite from water].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Wu; Zhu, Li-Zhong; Cai, Wei-Jian

    2006-11-01

    Microwave-enhanced integrative sorption (MEIS) of dye to mixture of surfactant and bentonite was put forward. The order of factor for integrative method was obtained by the orthogonal experiment. The optimal conditions, properties, kinetics and mechanisms for microwave-enhanced integrative sorption of Neutral Red S-BR to bentonite from water were investigated. Comparative study on decolorization rates of Neutral Red S-BR by other sorption method and MEIS from water were conducted. It is concluded that the order of factor for integrative method is amount of surfactant, bentonite and microwave time. The optimal condition for MEIS is that the ratio of amount of bentonite and water is equal to 1/1 000, the concentration of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is 120 mg/L (equivalent to 28% cation exchange capacity of bentonite) and microwave time is 60s. Comparative with organobentonite, the decolorization rates of Neutral Red S-BR to bentonite are greatly increased by MEIS at higher concentration of dye, amount of surfactant is greatly decreased, and the saturated sorption capacity and the reactive rate of sorption of dye to bentonite are greatly increased by microwave.

  10. Impact of environmental conditions on the sorption behavior of Pb(II) in Na-bentonite suspensions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shitong; Zhao, Donglin; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Songsheng; Chen, Lei; Yu, Xianjin

    2010-11-15

    In this study, a local bentonite from Lin'an county (Zhejiang province, China) was converted to Na-purified form and the Na-bentonite sample was characterized by using FTIR and XRD to determine its chemical constituents and micro-structure. The removal of lead from wastewaters by Na-bentonite was studied as a function of various environmental parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the sorption of Pb(II) on Na-bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Pb(II) at three different temperatures of 298, 318 and 338 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption process of Pb(II) on Na-bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH, the sorption of Pb(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na(+)/H(+) on Na-bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. From the experimental results, it is possible to conclude that Na-bentonite has good potentialities for cost-effective disposal of lead bearing wastewaters.

  11. Analysis of colloids erosion from the bentonite barrier of a high level radioactive waste repository and implications in safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Albarran, Nairoby; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Cormenzana, José-Luís

    To investigate the dominant mechanisms of colloid formation from compacted and confined bentonite innovative experiments were conducted. Chemical or physical processes that can affect the erosion of the bentonite surface were analyzed (ionic strength of the water, Ca in the water and in the exchange complex of the clay, dry density of the clay and presence of a water flow rate at the bentonite surface). Hydration, swelling and extrusion of clay into pores or fractures are primary steps for the formation of free colloidal particles in the aqueous phase, and the chemistry of the clay/water system is the most important parameter controlling the generation and stability of colloids. Ca-bentonite formed colloids quantities below the detection limit of our techniques, even in deionised water, but a percentage of Na approximately 20-30% in the clay exchange complex, as that present in the FEBEX bentonite, is enough to allow the formation of colloidal particles in quantities very similar to those produced by the Na-bentonite. The results for bentonite colloid generation obtained at a laboratory scale allowed the estimation of a range of colloid generation rates under different chemical conditions. Results were compared with in situ experimental investigations carried out at the FEBEX gallery emplaced in a granite massif at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). The quantitative analysis of laboratory and in situ data can be used as input for models and performance assessment (PA) of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) repositories.

  12. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  13. Electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay and a resistivity-based detection method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Liu, Songyu; Cai, Yi; Fang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    As the dielectric constant and conductivity of petroleum products are different from those of the pore water in soil, the electrical resistivity characteristics of oil-contaminated soil will be changed by the corresponding oil type and content. The contaminated soil specimens were manually prepared by static compaction method in the laboratory with commercial kaolin clay and diesel oil. The water content and dry density of the first group of soil specimens were controlled at 10 % and 1.58 g/cm(3). Corresponding electrical resistivities of the contaminated specimens were measured at the curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 and 90, 120, and 210 days on a modified oedometer cell with an LCR meter. Then, the electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay were discussed. In order to realize a resistivity-based oil detection method, the other group of oil-contaminated kaolin clay specimens was also made and tested, but the initial water content, oil content, and dry density were controlled at 0~18 %, 0~18 %, 1.30~1.95 g/cm(3), respectively. Based on the test data, a resistivity-based artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. It was found that the electrical resistivity of kaolin clay decreased with the increase of oil content. Moreover, there was a good nonlinear relationship between electrical resistivity and corresponding oil content when the water content and dry density were kept constant. The decreasing velocity of the electrical resistivity of oil-contaminated kaolin clay was higher before the oil content of 12 % than after 12 %, which indicated a transition of the soil from pore water-controlled into oil-controlled electrical resistivity characteristics. Through microstructural analysis, the decrease of electrical resistivity could be explained by the increase of saturation degree together with the collapse of the electrical double layer. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) photos indicated that the diesel oil

  14. Thermal - Hydraulic Behavior of Unsaturated Bentonite and Sand-Bentonite Material as Seal for Nuclear Waste Repository: Numerical Simulation of Column Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, E.; Graupner, B.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    For deep geological repositories of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW), bentonite and sand bentonite mixtures are investigated as buffer materials to form a a sealing layer. This sealing layer surrounds the canisters and experiences an initial drying due to the heat produced by HLRW and a successive re-saturation with fluid from the host rock. These complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes interact and were investigated in laboratory column experiments using MX-80 clay pellets as well as a mixture of 35% sand and 65% bentonite. The aim of this study is to both understand the individual processes taking place in the buffer materials and to identify the key physical parameters that determine the material behavior under heating and hydrating conditions. For this end, detailed and process-oriented numerical modelling was applied to the experiments, simulating heat transport, multiphase flow and mechanical effects from swelling. For both columns, the same set of parameters was assigned to the experimental set-up (i.e. insulation, heater and hydration system), while the parameters of the buffer material were adapted during model calibration. A good fit between model results and data was achieved for temperature, relative humidity, water intake and swelling pressure, thus explaining the material behavior. The key variables identified by the model are the permeability and relative permeability, the water retention curve and the thermal conductivity of the buffer material. The different hydraulic and thermal behavior of the two buffer materials observed in the laboratory observations was well reproduced by the numerical model.

  15. Photo-Fenton degradation of rhodamine B using Fe2O3-Kaolin as heterogeneous catalyst: characterization, process optimization and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Zhang, Gaoke; Wang, Jiquan

    2014-11-01

    An efficient Fe2O3-Kaolin was synthesized as a heterogeneous catalyst for photo-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis confirmed the existence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the Fe2O3-Kaolin composite. The specific surface area of the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst increased from 19.47 to 39.32m(2)/g compared to kaolin. The catalytic activity of the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst was evaluated by the photo-Fenton degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation and the results showed that the catalyst was highly effective for the degradation of RhB in a wide pH range of 2.21-10.13. At optimal conditions, 98% discoloration and 66% mineralization of RhB were achieved in 120min. The catalyst was efficient for the degradation of methylene blue as well. Leaching test indicated that the leached iron from the catalyst was negligible and the catalyst still showed high photocatalytic activity after five reaction cycles, which all showed that the Fe2O3-Kaolin catalyst is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst for the degradation of various dyes in wastewater. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on photoluminescence measurements and a series of operating conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load

    PubMed Central

    Prasai, Tanka P.; Walsh, Kerry B.; Bhattarai, Surya P.; Midmore, David J.; Van, Thi T. H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  17. Sensitivity analysis of radionuclide migration in compacted bentonite: a mechanistic model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael; Lothenbach, Barbara; Shibata, Masahiro; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu

    2003-03-01

    Mechanistic model calculations for the migration of Cs, Ra, Am and Pb in compacted bentonite have been carried out to evaluate sensitivities with respect to different parameter variations. A surface chemical speciation/electric double layer model is used to calculate: (i) porewater composition and radionuclide speciation in solution and at the bentonite surface, yielding the distribution of mobile and sorbed species and (ii) interaction of diffusing species with negatively charged pore walls to obtain diffusion parameters. The basic scenario considers the interaction of compacted bentonite with a fresh-type groundwater; variations include the presence of bentonite impurities and saline groundwater. It is shown that these scenarios result in significant variations of porewater composition that affect migration via three mechanisms that can partly compensate each other: (1) effects on sorption through radionuclide complexation in solution, and competition of major cations for surface sites; (2) changes in radionuclide solution speciation leading to different diffusing species under different conditions; (3) effects on diffusion through changes in the electric double layer properties of the clay pores as a function of ionic strength.

  18. Enhancing the sorption capacity of CTMA-bentonite by simultaneous intercalation of cationic polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Zhu, Jianxi; Zhu, Runliang; Ge, Fei; Yuan, Peng; He, Hongping

    2010-06-15

    The saturated level of cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite by organic cations can significantly influence the sorption capacity of the resulting organobentonites. In this work cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) was applied to saturate part of the CEC of the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) modified bentonite, with the aim to enhance their sorption capacity. XRD was applied to investigate the basal spacings of the organobentonites with and without CPAM, and the sorption characteristics of the organobentonites towards phenol and nitrobenzene to CTMA-bentonite was also studied. The XRD characterization results showed that the resulting organobentonites (C/P-Bt) had larger basal spacings than the CTMA modified bentonite (C-Bt), which indicated that both CPAM and CTMA could intercalate into the interlayer spaces of C/P-Bt. The saturated CEC of C/P-Bt increased with the intercalated amounts of CPAM. The sorption coefficients (K(d)) of phenol and nitrobenzene on C/P-Bt were shown to first increase with the saturated CEC until the maximum, and then began to decrease as the saturated CEC further increased. The maximum increase of K(d) reached 41% and 23% for phenol and nitrobenzene, respectively, which could be ascribed to the enhanced affinity of the adsorbed CTMA aggregates towards the sorbates. Results of this work showed that the simultaneous intercalation of CPAM could be a novel method to enhance the sorption capacity of the traditional organobentonites.

  19. Retention of heavy metal ions in bentonites from Grau Region (Northern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, J.; Vega, J. L.; Alvarez, R.; Loredo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies on the retention of metals (Cu, Co, Ni, and Zn) in bentonite samples from the Grau Region (Northern Peru) have been accomplished using monometallic, bimetallic, trimetallic, and tetrametallic solutions. Parameters such as pH and concentration of dissolved metals and organic compounds have been evaluated by means of batch adsorption experiments. Adsorption rates indicate the suitability of these bentonites in the environmental industry for heavy metals retention purposes. In addition to its quality as physical barrier to avoid the dispersion through the environment of polluted leachates, bentonite, due to its high cation exchange capacity, can act also as a chemical barrier, protecting the quality of surface and groundwater systems, while limiting the migration of heavy metals in solid residues or sludge stocked in security landfills. Adsorption rates of tested bentonites were proved to decrease when concentrations of both metal and organic compounds, as well as the number of ionic species, increase in solution; additionally, lower metal removal rates from solution were obtained when extremely acidic conditions were achieved.

  20. Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S S; Rauf, Naseem

    2006-06-01

    The ability of bentonite to remove malachite green from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature, pH and shaking time. Maximum adsorption of the dye, i.e. >90% has been achieved in aqueous solutions using 0.05 g of bentonite at a pH of 9. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH degrees, DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots of lnK(D) against 1/T. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K showed that the adsorption pattern on bentonite seems to follow the Langmuir, Freundlih and D-R isotherms. The temperature increase reduces adsorption capacity by bentonite, due to the enhancement of the desorption step in the mechanism. The numerical values of sorption free energy (E(a)) of 1.00-1.12 kJ mol(-1) indicated physical adsorption. The kinetic data indicated an intraparticle diffusion process with sorption being first order. The rate constant k was 0.526 min(-1). The concentration of malachite green oxalate was measured before and after adsorption by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer.