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Sample records for kappa delta pi

  1. Reflections on the Most Important Educational Developments of the 20th Century: Kappa Delta Pi Laureates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael P., Comp.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-three Kappa Delta Pi Laureates describe the primary educational developments of the 20th century. Commonly cited milestones include the Supreme Court's Brown v Board of Education decision, federal financial aid, the works of Dewey and Freire, technology, the GI Bill, Head Start, progressive education, centralization and decentralization,…

  2. PPARbeta/delta agonist stimulates human lung carcinoma cell growth through inhibition of PTEN expression: the involvement of PI3K and NF-kappaB signals.

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Zheng, Ying; Roman, Jesse

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) promotes cancer cell survival. We previously demonstrated that a selective PPARbeta/delta agonist, GW501516, stimulated human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell growth. Here, we explore the mechanisms responsible for this effect. We show that GW501516 decreased phosphate and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor known to decrease cell growth and induce apoptosis. Activation of PPARbeta/delta and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was associated with inhibition of PTEN. GW501516 increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and p65 protein expression through activation of PPARbeta/delta and PI3K/Akt signals and enhanced the physical interactions between PPARbeta/delta and p65 protein. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of p65 by small RNA interference (siRNA) blocked the effect of GW501516 on PTEN expression and on NSCLC cell proliferation. GW501516 also inhibited IKBalpha protein expression. Silencing of IKBalpha enhanced the effect of GW501516 on PTEN protein expression and on cell proliferation. It also augmented the GW501516-induced complex formation of PPARbeta/delta and p65 proteins. Overexpression of PTEN suppressed NSCLC cell growth and eliminated the effect of GW501516 on phosphorylation of Akt. Together, our observations suggest that GW501516 induces the proliferation of NSCLC cells by inhibiting the expression of PTEN through activation of PPARbeta/delta, which stimulates PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling. Overexpression of PTEN overcomes this effect and unveils PPARbeta/delta and PTEN as potential therapeutic targets in NSCLC.

  3. Proceedings of the Developmental Conference on the Future Role of Pi Kappa Delta in the Forensic Community (St. Louis, Missouri, March 22, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pi Kappa Delta. National Council.

    Reflecting the ideas, suggestions, and criticisms offered by members of Pi Kappa Delta as to the organization's future role in the forensic community, these proceedings deal with organizational structure and processes; competitive and noncompetitive outlets; pedagogy and research; and inter-forensic organizational cooperation. The papers are as…

  4. Phi Delta Kappa Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa, Trenton, NJ. Trenton Area Chapter.

    This collection of articles on aspects of educational research, service, and leadership, are all written by members the Trenton (New Jersey) Area Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa. "Extra Year Programs: The K-1 Transition," by Richard Graja, reports on a study of 210 families regarding the Extra Year program, an opportunity for children to…

  5. Phi Delta Kappa at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2006-01-01

    Since its fraternal origins a century ago, Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) International has been foremost a society of individuals joined together in professional collegiality and dedicated to tenets of leadership, service, and research in education. As PDK crosses the threshold into its second century, that early spirit of association lit in 1906, like…

  6. The PI3K p110delta is required for down-regulation of RAG expression in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Llorian, Miriam; Stamataki, Zania; Hill, Susan; Turner, Martin; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill

    2007-02-15

    At the immature B cell stage the BCR signals the down-regulation of the RAG genes and Ig L chain (LC) allelic and isotype exclusion. The signaling pathway that regulates these events is poorly characterized. We demonstrate that immature B cells from mice deficient in the PI3K catalytic subunit p110delta fail to suppress RAG expression and inappropriately recombine kappa and lambda LC loci. In addition, in the presence of the autoantigen, clonal deletion and receptor editing still takes place, demonstrating that these processes are independent of p110delta. These results demonstrate a role for p110delta in the regulation of RAG gene expression and thereby LC allelic/isotype exclusion.

  7. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  8. Down-regulation of PKHD1 induces cell apoptosis through PI3K and NF-{kappa}B pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Liping; Wang, Shixuan; Hu, Chaofeng

    2011-04-15

    Mutations in PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1) gene cause the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), encoded by PKHD1, is a membrane-associated receptor-like protein. Although it is widely accepted that cystogenesis is mostly due to aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis, it is still unclear how apoptosis is regulated. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship among apoptosis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in FPC knockdown kidney cells. We show that PKHD1-silenced HEK293 cells demonstrate a higher PI3K/Akt activity. Selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt using LY294002 or wortmannin in these cellsmore » increases serum starvation-induced HEK293 cell apoptosis with a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and higher caspase-3 activity. PI3K/Akt inhibition also leads to increased NF-{kappa}B activity in these cells. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in apoptotic function in PKHD1-silenced cells, and PI3K/Akt inhibition correlates with upregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. These observations provide a potential platform for determining FPC function and therapeutic investigation of ARPKD.« less

  9. The History of Delta Pi Epsilon, 1936-1986--A Golden Past: Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Floyd L.

    1986-01-01

    The history of Delta Pi Epsilon (1936-1986) is presented, citing such highlights as research awards, new chapters, publications, annual conferences, organization of new committees, and conventions. Facts about Delta Pi Epsilon and a list of references are included also. (CT)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  11. The p({gamma}, {pi}{sup 0}) reaction in the {Delta}(1232) region

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Gutenberg, J.; Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    Linearly polarized photons from the Laser Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) have been used by Blanpied et al. to study the p({gamma}, {pi}{sup 0}) reaction, looking for the E2 transition amplitude in the nucleon to Delta(1232) excitation. These authors contrast their measured cross-section ratio d{sigma}{parallel}/d{sigma}{perpendicular}, with expectations of earlier analyses, by the authors and Wittman (DMW), by Nozawa et al. (NBL), and using the multipoles of Behrends and Donnachie directly, and find {open_quotes}large discrepancies{close_quotes} among them. Here the authors clarify these discrepancies. The crucial difference between DMW and NBL calculations is the inclusion of the u-channel {Delta} contribution in DMW, omittedmore » in NBL. The authors find for a fair, though not perfect, agreement with the new data: E{sub 1+}{sup {pi}}{sup 0} {r_arrow}2.1E{sub 1+}{sup {pi}}{sup 0}, keeping other multipoles fixed.« less

  12. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in adipocytes by lowering nuclear factor-kappaB activity via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, Ricardo; Serrano, Lucía; Coll, Teresa; Moullan, Norman; Sánchez, Rosa M; Merlos, Manuel; Palomer, Xavier; Laguna, Juan C; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Chronic activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in white adipose tissue leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in the development of insulin resistance. It is presently unknown whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta activation prevents inflammation in adipocytes. First, we examined whether the PPARbeta/delta agonist GW501516 prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment with GW501516 blocked LPS-induced IL-6 expression and secretion by adipocytes and the subsequent activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) pathway. This effect was associated with the capacity of GW501516 to impede LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. Second, in in vivo studies, white adipose tissue from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, compared with that of lean rats, showed reduced PPARbeta/delta expression and PPAR DNA-binding activity, which was accompanied by enhanced IL-6 expression and NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, IL-6 expression and NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was higher in white adipose tissue from PPARbeta/delta-null mice than in wild-type mice. Because mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 (MEK1/2) is involved in LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation in adipocytes, we explored whether PPARbeta/delta prevented NF-kappaB activation by inhibiting this pathway. Interestingly, GW501516 prevented ERK1/2 phosphorylation by LPS. Furthermore, white adipose tissue from animal showing constitutively increased NF-kappaB activity, such as ZDF rats and PPARbeta/delta-null mice, also showed enhanced phospho-ERK1/2 levels. These findings indicate that activation of PPARbeta/delta inhibits enhanced cytokine production in adipocytes by preventing NF-kappaB activation via ERK1/2, an effect that may help prevent insulin resistance.

  13. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Myoung Hee; Oh, Sang Cheul; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B.more » Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.« less

  14. Reaction. pi. /sup -/p. --> pi. /sup -/. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/p at 8 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagaki, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yuta, H.

    1982-10-01

    Results from a high-statistics experiment involving an exposure of the SLAC 82-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a beam of 8-GeV/c ..pi../sup -/ yielding a final state of ..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/p are presented. Copious production of rho, ..delta../sup + +/, and f is found. Considerable quasi-two-body production in which one particle decays to one of the above resonances is also observed. Some double-resonance production involving baryon and meson resonances is also seen. The production properties of rho, ..delta../sup + +/, and f mesons are well described by a double-Regge model.

  15. The 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of the 39th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's attitudes toward the public schools. This year's report examined the public's assessment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and its principal strategy, standardized testing. The authors include a summary of key findings and tables showing…

  16. Opioid hedonic hotspot in nucleus accumbens shell: mu, delta, and kappa maps for enhancement of sweetness "liking" and "wanting".

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniel C; Berridge, Kent C

    2014-03-19

    A specialized cubic-millimeter hotspot in the rostrodorsal quadrant of medial shell in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats may mediate opioid enhancement of gustatory hedonic impact or "liking". Here, we selectively stimulated the three major subtypes of opioid receptors via agonist microinjections [mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE), or kappa (U50488H)] and constructed anatomical maps for functional localizations of consequent changes in hedonic "liking" (assessed by affective orofacial reactions to sucrose taste) versus "wanting" (assessed by changes in food intake). Results indicated that the NAc rostrodorsal quadrant contains a shared opioid hedonic hotspot that similarly mediates enhancements of sucrose "liking" for mu, delta, and kappa stimulations. Within the rostrodorsal hotspot boundaries each type of stimulation generated at least a doubling or higher enhancement of hedonic reactions, with comparable intensities for all three types of opioid stimulation. By contrast, a negative hedonic coldspot was mapped in the caudal half of medial shell, where all three types of opioid stimulation suppressed "liking" reactions to approximately one-half normal levels. Different anatomical patterns were produced for stimulation of food "wanting", reflected in food intake. Altogether, these results indicate that the rostrodorsal hotspot in medial shell is unique for generating opioid-induced hedonic enhancement, and add delta and kappa signals to mu as hedonic generators within the hotspot. Also, the identification of a separable NAc caudal coldspot for hedonic suppression, and separate NAc opioid mechanisms for controlling food "liking" versus "wanting" further highlights NAc anatomical heterogeneity and localizations of function within subregions of medial shell.

  17. Determination of the D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} coherence factors and average strong-phase differences using quantum-correlated measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.

    The first measurements of the coherence factors (R{sub K{pi}}{sub {pi}{sup 0}} and R{sub K3{pi}}) and the average strong-phase differences ({delta}{sub D}{sup K{pi}}{sup {pi}{sup 0}} and {delta}{sub D}{sup K3{pi}}) for D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} are presented. These parameters can be used to improve the determination of the unitarity triangle angle {gamma} in B{sup -}{yields}DK{sup -} decays, where D is a D{sup 0} or D{sup 0} meson decaying to the same final state. The measurements are made using quantum-correlated, fully reconstructed D{sup 0}D{sup 0} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at the {psi}(3770)more » resonance. The measured values are: R{sub K{pi}}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}=0.84{+-}0.07, {delta}{sub D}{sup K{pi}}{sup {pi}{sup 0}}=(227{sub -17}{sup +14}) deg., R{sub K3{pi}}=0.33{sub -0.23}{sup +0.20}, and {delta}{sub D}{sup K3{pi}}=(114{sub -23}{sup +26}) deg. These results indicate significant coherence in the decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, whereas lower coherence is observed in the decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The analysis also results in a small improvement in the knowledge of other D-meson parameters, in particular, the strong-phase difference for D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {delta}{sub D}{sup K{pi}}, and the mixing parameter y.« less

  18. Integral cross sections for the direct excitation of the A 3 (sigma) u +, B 3 (pi) g, W 3 (delta) u, B' 3 (sigma) u -, a' 1 (sigma) u -, a 1 (pi) g, w 1 (delta) u, and C 3 (pi) u electronic states in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Malone, C. P.; Kanik, I.

    2005-01-01

    Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation out of the ground state (X 1(sigma)g +) to the A 3(sigma)u +, B 3(pi)g, W 3(delta)u, B' 3(sigma)u -, a' 1(sigma)u -, a 1(pi)g, w 1(delta)u, and states in N2 are reported at incident energies ranging between 10 and 100 eV. These data have been derived by integrating differential cross sections previously reported by this group. New differential cross section measurements for the a 1(pi)g state at 200 eV are also presented to extend the range of the reported integral cross sections for this state, which is responsible for the emissions of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system (a 1(pi)g (rightwards arrow) X 1(sigma)g +). The present results are compared and critically evaluated against existing cross sec In general, the present cross sections are smaller than previous results at low impact energies from threshold through the excitation function peak regions. These lower cross sections have potentially significant implications on our understanding of UV emissions in the atmospheres of Earth and Titan.

  19. Inequalities between Kappa and Kappa-Like Statistics for "k x k" Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents inequalities between four descriptive statistics that can be expressed in the form [P-E(P)]/[1-E(P)], where P is the observed proportion of agreement of a "kappa x kappa" table with identical categories, and E(P) is a function of the marginal probabilities. Scott's "pi" is an upper bound of Goodman and Kruskal's "lambda" and a…

  20. Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N{yields}{pi}{pi}N reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Department d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona E-08028 Barcelona

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N{yields}{pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N{yields}{pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sectionsmore » and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi}{sup +}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n,{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p and {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}n,{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}p,{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W=2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.« less

  1. Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N {right arrow} {pi pi}N reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N {yields} {pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{Delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The datamore » of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi} + p {yields} {pi} + {pi} + n, {pi} + {pi}0p and {pi} - p {yields} {pi} + {pi} - n, {pi} - {pi}0p,{pi}0{pi}0n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W = 2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{Delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.« less

  2. Betting on Teachers: The 43rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup organization. Some important findings of this year's poll include: About half of us believe teacher unions are hurting public education, but we're more likely to support teacher union leaders than governors in disputes over teacher collective…

  3. Cooking the Questions? The 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Terry M.

    2002-01-01

    The author asserts that the questions in Phi Delta Kappa's (PDK) recent poll on the issue of school vouchers were purposely designed to reflect negatively on the voucher issue. From the 1970s until 1991, PDK measured voucher support with a survey item that defined vouchers as a government-funded program allowing parents to choose among public,…

  4. IL-7 splicing variant IL-7{delta}5 induces human breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Deshun; Department of Pharmaceutical science, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong; Liu, Bing

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study confirms the role of IL-7{delta}5 in breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. -- Abstract: Various tumor cells express interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-7 variants. IL-7 has been confirmed to stimulate solid tumor cell proliferation. However, the effect of IL-7 variants on tumor cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-7{delta}5 (an IL-7 variant lacking exon 5) on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The resultsmore » showed that IL-7{delta}5 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression from G1 phase to G2/M phase, associated with upregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the downregulation of p27{sup kip1} expression. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7{delta}5 induced the activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 reversed the proliferation and cell cycle progression of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced by IL-7{delta}5. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IL-7{delta}5 variant induces human breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, IL-7{delta}5 may be a potential target for human breast cancer therapeutics intervention.« less

  5. Decursinol angelate blocks transmigration and inflammatory activation of cancer cells through inhibition of PI3K, ERK and NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Jung; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2010-10-01

    Inflammation is known to be closely associated with the development of cancer. Decursinol angelate (DA), a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica gigas and related compounds have been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about their effects on the inflammatory processes associated with cancer. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of DA was evaluated in cancer cell lines with respect to cellular invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokine, cell adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. DA inhibited the invasion of fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080 and breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 in the Matrigel invasion assay. DA-mediated suppression of cancer cell invasion was accomplished by suppression of PI3K activity known to be associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement related to cellular migration. DA also suppressed the adhesion of cancer cells to ECM mediated by down-regulation of beta(1)-integrin expression levels. Furthermore, DA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMP-9 through suppression of PI3K, ERK and NF-kappaB activation. These results demonstrate that DA suppresses invasion and inflammatory activation of cancer cells through modulation of PI3K/AKT, ERK and NF-kappaB. These anti-inflammatory activities of DA may contribute to its anti-cancer activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Time for Change: The 42nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup Organization. The results of this year's poll are presented along with past results, when applicable, to give both a snapshot of Americans' opinions about their schools and an indication of how those opinions are changing over time. [Commentaries by…

  7. Bis(acesulfamato-kappaO4)diaquabis(3-methylpyridine-kappaN)nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Dege, Necmi; Içbudak, Hasan; Adiyaman, Elif

    2007-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: diaquabis(6-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4-olato-kappaO4)bis(3-methylpyridine-kappaN)nickel(II)], [Ni(C4H4NO4S)2(C6H7N)2(H2O)2], the Ni(II) centre resides on a centre of symmetry and has a distorted octahedral geometry. The basal plane is formed by two carbonyl O atoms of two monodentate trans-oriented acesulfamate ligands and two trans aqua ligands. The axial positions in the octahedron are occupied by two N atoms of two trans pyridine ligands. Molecules are stacked in columns running along the a axis. There are pi-pi stacking interactions between the molecules in each column, with a distance of 3.623 (2) A between the centroids of the pyridine rings. There are also O-H...O interactions between the columns.

  8. Dynamical coupled-channels study of pi N --> pi pi N reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, Hiroyuki; Julia Diaz, Bruno; Lee, Tsung-Shung

    2009-01-01

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of pi N, gamma^* N --> pi N, eta N, pi pi N reactions, the pi N --> pi pi N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are pi N, eta N, and pi pi N which has pi Delta, rho N, and sigma N resonant components. The non-resonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16more » bare excited nucleon (N^*) states which are dressed by the non-resonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The available total cross section data of pi^+ p --> pi^+ pi^+ n, pi^+ pi^0 and pi^- p --> pi^+ pi^- n, pi^- pi^0 n, pi^0 pi^0 n can be reproduced to a very large extent both in magnitudes and energy-dependence. Possible improvements of the model are investigated, in p« less

  9. A preferential p110alpha/gamma PI3K inhibitor attenuates experimental inflammation by suppressing the production of proinflammatory mediators in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Dagia, Nilesh M; Agarwal, Gautam; Kamath, Divya V; Chetrapal-Kunwar, Anshu; Gupte, Ravindra D; Jadhav, Mahesh G; Dadarkar, Shruta S; Trivedi, Jacqueline; Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha A; Kharas, Firuza; Fonseca, Lyle C; Kumar, Sanjay; Bhonde, Mandar R

    2010-04-01

    A promising therapeutic approach to diminish pathological inflammation is to inhibit the increased production and/or biological activity of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-6). The production of proinflammatory cytokines is controlled at the gene level by the activity of transcription factors, such as NF-kappaB. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), a lipid kinase, is known to induce the activation of NF-kappaB. Given this, we hypothesized that inhibitors of PI3K activation would demonstrate anti-inflammatory potential. Accordingly, we studied the effects of a preferential p110alpha/gamma PI3K inhibitor (compound 8C; PIK-75) in inflammation-based assays. Mechanism-based assays utilizing human cells revealed that PIK-75-mediated inhibition of PI3K activation is associated with dramatic suppression of downstream signaling events, including AKT phosphorylation, IKK activation, and NF-kappaB transcription. Cell-based assays revealed that PIK-75 potently and dose dependently inhibits in vitro and in vivo production of TNF-alpha and IL-6, diminishes the induced expression of human endothelial cell adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1), and blocks human monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Most importantly, PIK-75, when administered orally in a therapeutic regimen, significantly suppresses the macroscopic and histological abnormalities associated with dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis. The efficacy of PIK-75 in attenuating experimental inflammation is mediated, at least in part, due to the downregulation of pertinent inflammatory mediators in the colon. Collectively, these results provide first evidence that PIK-75 possesses anti-inflammatory potential. Given that PIK-75 is known to exhibit anti-cancer activity, the findings from this study thus reinforce the cross-therapeutic functionality of potential drugs.

  10. Slopes of $pi$-meson spectra in the K $Yields$ 3$pi$ decays (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustnikov, A.A.

    1973-12-01

    The strong violation ( approximates 35%) of the rule DELTA T = 1/2 on the Dalitz piot for the K yields 3 pi decays is considered in the framework of the nonlinear realization of the chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. The Lagrangian without derivatives obtained previously is used to describe the contact weak K pi interaction. It is postulated that the enhancement of effects related to the electromagnetic mass differences of pi and K mesons in the K yields 3 pi amplitudes is due to the PCAC modification: partial delta A = constant pi (1 - 2 alpha lambda /supmore » 2/ KK). At alpha = 0.8 the predictions of the model are shown to coincide with the experiment. (auth)« less

  11. A coincidence measurement of the D(gamma, pp pi(-)) cross section in the region of the Delta resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quraan, Maher A.

    Photonuclear reactions are excellent means for understanding final state interactions (FSI). The photon interacts only electromagnetically, allowing a clean separation of the strong interaction channels in the final state. The availability of high duty factor electron machines and large acceptance detectors in the past decade have allowed a further investigation of these effects covering wider regions of phase space. In this experiment, we have successfully measured the D(/gamma, pp/pi/sp-) reaction cross section at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL) utilizing the Saskatchewan- Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). This is the first measurement of the /gamma D /to pp/pi/sp--cross section covering a wide range of phase space with an attempt to study the FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction that has successfully reproduced the normalizations. The cross section for this reaction is compared to the calculation of J. M. Laget. Laget's theory is quite successful in describing the shapes of the distributions. as well as the overall magnitude of the cross section. The different FSI's and the /Delta - N interaction have an overall effect of 10%-15% on the single differential cross section, with the calculation that includes /Delta - N interaction having the best normalization compared to the data.

  12. Unusual pi-donating effects of pi-accepting substituents on the stabilities of benzylic cations: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Kon; Han, In Suk; Ryu, Wang Sun; Lee, Hai Whang; Lee, Bon-Su; Kim, Chan Kyung

    2006-02-23

    The pi-donating effects of pi-accepting X-substituents in substituted benzylic cations, X-C(6)H(5)-CHR(+) where R = CF(3), H and OCH(3), and X = p-NH(2), p-OCH(3), p-CH(3), H, p-F, p-Cl, p-CHO, m-CN, p-CN, m-NO(2) or p-NO(2), have been studied theoretically by using isodesmic hydride transfer reactions at various levels of theory. It might be difficult to determine the pi-donating effects of pi-acceptors using the simple Hammett-type linear equation, because it is not sensitive enough to include small pi-donating effects. Therefore, this effect was estimated using the NBO deletion energy (DeltaE(D)) of the second-order charge-transfer interaction (DeltaE(ct)) between the pi-orbitals (or lone pair orbitals) of the X-substituent and the pi-orbitals of phenyl ring. The extents of pi-donating effects increased in the order X = p-NO(2) < p-CHO < p-CN < p-Cl for both neutral and cationic species, and these effects were found to be more important for para- than for meta-substituents. Moreover, this could represent a general trend for pi-donation by pi-acceptors. On the other hand, the effects of R-substituents on this pi-donating effect were found to be in the order R = OCH(3) < H congruent with CF(3), as predicted by natural resonance theory (NRT) analyses.

  13. A note on the kappa statistic for clustered dichotomous data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Yang, Zhao

    2014-06-30

    The kappa statistic is widely used to assess the agreement between two raters. Motivated by a simulation-based cluster bootstrap method to calculate the variance of the kappa statistic for clustered physician-patients dichotomous data, we investigate its special correlation structure and develop a new simple and efficient data generation algorithm. For the clustered physician-patients dichotomous data, based on the delta method and its special covariance structure, we propose a semi-parametric variance estimator for the kappa statistic. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is performed to evaluate the performance of the new proposal and five existing methods with respect to the empirical coverage probability, root-mean-square error, and average width of the 95% confidence interval for the kappa statistic. The variance estimator ignoring the dependence within a cluster is generally inappropriate, and the variance estimators from the new proposal, bootstrap-based methods, and the sampling-based delta method perform reasonably well for at least a moderately large number of clusters (e.g., the number of clusters K ⩾50). The new proposal and sampling-based delta method provide convenient tools for efficient computations and non-simulation-based alternatives to the existing bootstrap-based methods. Moreover, the new proposal has acceptable performance even when the number of clusters is as small as K = 25. To illustrate the practical application of all the methods, one psychiatric research data and two simulated clustered physician-patients dichotomous data are analyzed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain.more » Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.« less

  15. Differential Cross Sections for the Electron Impact Excitation of the A(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup +), B(sup 3)Pi(sub g), W(sup 3)(Delta)(sub u), B'(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup -), a'(sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup -), a(sup 1)Pi(sub g), w(sup 1)Delta(sub u), and C(sup 3)Pi(sub u) States of N(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Johnson, P. V.; Ozkay, I.; Yan, P.; Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of molecular nitrogen from the ground X(sup 1)(Sigma)(sub g)(sup +)(v''=0)level to the A(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup +)(v'), B(sup 3)Pi(sub g)(v'), W(sup 3)(Delta)(sub u)(v'),B'(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup -)(v'), a(sup 1)(Pi)(sub g)(v'), w(sup 1)(Delta)(sub u)(v'), and C(sup 3)(Pi)(sub u)(v') levels are presented. The data are obtained at the incident energies of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV over the angular range of 5(deg)-130(deg) in 5(deg) intervals. The individual electronic state excitation differential cross sections are obtained by unfolding electron energy-loss spectra of molecular nitrogen using available semiempirical Frank-Condon factors. The data are compared to previous measurements and to available theory. We also make several important suggestions regarding future work that, like the present, relies on the unfolding of electron energy-loss spectra for obtaining differential cross sections.

  16. Measurement of the K- pi+ S-wave system in D+ ---> K- pi+ pi+ decays from Fermilab E791

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, B.; /Cincinnati U.

    A new approach to the analysis of three body decays is presented. Measurements of the S-wave K{pi} amplitude are made in independent ranges of invariant mass from threshold up to the upper kinematic limit in D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decays. These are compared with results obtained from a fit where the S-wave is assumed to have {kappa} and K{sub 0}{sup +}(1430) resonances. Results are also compared with measurements of K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} elastic scattering. Contributions from I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 are not resolved in this study. If I = 1/2 dominates, however, themore » Watson theorem prediction, that the phase behavior below K{eta}' threshold should match that in elastic scattering, is not well supported by these data. Production of K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} from these D decays is also studied.« less

  17. Salicylates inhibit flavivirus replication independently of blocking nuclear factor kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Liao, C L; Lin, Y L; Wu, B C; Tsao, C H; Wang, M C; Liu, C I; Huang, Y L; Chen, J H; Wang, J P; Chen, L K

    2001-09-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a positive-sense RNA genome that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Whether flaviviruses require an activated nuclear factor(s) to complete their life cycle and trigger apoptosis in infected cells remains elusive. Flavivirus infections quickly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and salicylates have been shown to inhibit NF-kappaB activation. In this study, we investigated whether salicylates suppress flavivirus replication and virus-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. In a dose-dependent inhibition, we found salicylates within a range of 1 to 5 mM not only restricted flavivirus replication but also abrogated flavivirus-triggered apoptosis. However, flavivirus replication was not affected by a specific NF-kappaB peptide inhibitor, SN50, and a proteosome inhibitor, lactacystin. Flaviviruses also replicated and triggered apoptosis in cells stably expressing IkappaBalpha-DeltaN, a dominant-negative mutant that antagonizes NF-kappaB activation, as readily as in wild-type BHK-21 cells, suggesting that NF-kappaB activation is not essential for either flavivirus replication or flavivirus-induced apoptosis. Salicylates still diminished flavivirus replication and blocked apoptosis in the same IkappaBalpha-DeltaN cells. This inhibition of flaviviruses by salicylates could be partially reversed by a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Together, these results show that the mechanism by which salicylates suppress flavivirus infection may involve p38 MAP kinase activity but is independent of blocking the NF-kappaB pathway.

  18. Factors Leading to Membership in Professional Associations and Levels of Professional Commitment as Determined by Active and Inactive Members of Delta Pi Epsilon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Stacey; O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken with grant funds provided by the Delta Pi Epsilon (DPE) Research Foundation, Inc., to assess the factors of professional commitment related to membership. Additionally, the respondents' perceptions about DPE affiliating with the National Business Education Association (NBEA) were investigated. Method: Of the…

  19. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portionmore » of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.« less

  20. Kappa statistic for clustered matched-pair data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Zhou, Ming

    2014-07-10

    Kappa statistic is widely used to assess the agreement between two procedures in the independent matched-pair data. For matched-pair data collected in clusters, on the basis of the delta method and sampling techniques, we propose a nonparametric variance estimator for the kappa statistic without within-cluster correlation structure or distributional assumptions. The results of an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrate that the proposed kappa statistic provides consistent estimation and the proposed variance estimator behaves reasonably well for at least a moderately large number of clusters (e.g., K ≥50). Compared with the variance estimator ignoring dependence within a cluster, the proposed variance estimator performs better in maintaining the nominal coverage probability when the intra-cluster correlation is fair (ρ ≥0.3), with more pronounced improvement when ρ is further increased. To illustrate the practical application of the proposed estimator, we analyze two real data examples of clustered matched-pair data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Probing ligand recognition of the opioid pan antagonist AT-076 at nociceptin, kappa, mu, and delta opioid receptors through structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Journigan, V Blair; Polgar, Willma E; Tuan, Edward W; Lu, James; Daga, Pankaj R; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2017-10-16

    Few opioid ligands binding to the three classic opioid receptor subtypes, mu, kappa and delta, have high affinity at the fourth opioid receptor, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP). We recently reported the discovery of AT-076 (1), (R)-7-hydroxy-N-((S)-1-(4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-3-methylbutan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide, a pan antagonist with nanomolar affinity for all four subtypes. Since AT-076 binds with high affinity at all four subtypes, we conducted a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study to probe ligand recognition features important for pan opioid receptor activity, using chemical modifications of key pharmacophoric groups. SAR analysis of the resulting analogs suggests that for the NOP receptor, the entire AT-076 scaffold is crucial for high binding affinity, but the binding mode is likely different from that of NOP antagonists C-24 and SB-612111 bound in the NOP crystal structure. On the other hand, modifications of the 3-hydroxyphenyl pharmacophore, but not the 7-hydroxy Tic pharmacophore, are better tolerated at kappa and mu receptors and yield very high affinity multifunctional (e.g. 12) or highly selective (e.g. 16) kappa ligands. With the availability of the opioid receptor crystal structures, our SAR analysis of the common chemotype of AT-076 suggests rational approaches to modulate binding selectivity, enabling the design of multifunctional or selective opioid ligands from such scaffolds.

  2. Differential cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}, B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}, W {sup 3}{delta}{sub u}, B{sup '} {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup -}, a{sup '} {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup -}, a {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}, w {sup 1}{delta}{sub u}, and C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u} states of N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M.A.; Ozkay, I.; Johnson, P.V.

    2005-06-15

    Measurements of differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of molecular nitrogen from the ground X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(v{sup ''}=0) level to the A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(v{sup '}), B {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}(v{sup '}), W {sup 3}{delta}{sub u}(v{sup '}), B{sup '} {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup -}(v{sup '}), a{sup '} {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup -}(v{sup '}), a {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(v{sup '}), w {sup 1}{delta}{sub u}(v{sup '}), and C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}(v{sup '}) levels are presented. The data are obtained at the incident energies of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV over the angular range of 5 deg. -130more » deg. in 5 deg. intervals. The individual electronic state excitation differential cross sections are obtained by unfolding electron energy-loss spectra of molecular nitrogen using available semiempirical Frank-Condon factors. The data are compared to previous measurements and to available theory. We also make several important suggestions regarding future work that, like the present, relies on the unfolding of electron energy-loss spectra for obtaining differential cross sections.« less

  3. Increased PI3-kinase in presympathetic brain areas of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Veerasingham, Shereeni J; Yamazato, Masanobu; Berecek, Kathleen H; Wyss, J Michael; Raizada, Mohan K

    2005-02-18

    Existing evidence led us to hypothesize that increases in p85alpha, a regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase, in presympathetic brain areas contribute to hypertension. PI3-kinase p85alpha, p110alpha, and p110delta mRNA was 1.5- to 2-fold higher in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with their controls, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The increase in p85alpha/p110delta was attenuated in SHR treated with captopril, an angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme inhibitor, from in utero to 6 months of age. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), p110delta mRNA was approximately 2-fold higher in SHR than in WKY. Moreover, the increases in mRNA were associated with higher PI3-kinase activity in both nuclei. The functional relevance was studied in neuronal cultures because SHR neurons reflect the augmented p85alpha mRNA and PI3-kinase activity. Expression of a p85 dominant-negative mutant decreased norepinephrine (NE) transporter mRNA and [3H]NE uptake by approximately 60% selectively in SHR neurons. In summary, increased p85alpha/p110delta expression in the PVN and RVLM is associated with increased PI3-kinase activity in the SHR. Furthermore, normalized PI3-kinase p85alpha/p110delta expression within the PVN might contribute to the overall effect of captopril, perhaps attributable to a consequent decrease in NE availability.

  4. Nickel-induced down-regulation of {Delta}Np63 and its role in the proliferation of keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu; Li Wenqi; Cheng Senping

    2011-06-15

    Epidemiological, animal, and cell studies have demonstrated that nickel compounds are human carcinogens. The mechanisms of their carcinogenic actions remain to be investigated. p63, a close homologue of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has been linked to cell fate determination and/or maintenance of self-renewing populations in several epithelial tissues, including skin, mammary gland, and prostate. {Delta}Np63, a dominant negative isoform of p63, is amplified in a variety of epithelial tumors including squamous cell carcinomas and carcinomas of the prostate and mammary glands. The present study shows that nickel suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in a short-time treatment (up to 48 h). Nickelmore » treatment caused activation of NF-{kappa}B. Blockage of NF-{kappa}B partially reversed nickel-induced {Delta}Np63 suppression. Nickel decreased interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by nickel. Nickel was able to activate p21, and its activation was offset by the over-expression of {Delta}Np63. In turn, elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth. The present study demonstrated that nickel decreased interferon regulatory proteins IRF3 and IRF7, and activated NF-{kappa}B, resulting in {Delta}Np63 suppression and then p21 up-regulation. {Delta}Np63 plays an important role in nickel-induced cell proliferation. - Highlights: > Ni suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in HaCat cells. > Ni activated NF-{kappa}B, decreased expressions of IRF3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. > Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by Ni. > Ni activated p21, and its activation was offset by over-expression of {Delta}Np63. > Elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth.« less

  5. Widely different luminescence lifetimes of the [Delta]RRR, [Lambda]SSS and the [Delta]RRS, [Lambda]SSR diastereomers of fac-tris[(8-quinolyl)phenylmethylsily] iridium(III): Exciplex formation with solvents by distinct [sigma]-donor and [pi]-acceptor binding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Djurovich, P.I.; Cook, W.; Joshi, R.

    1994-01-13

    Luminescence lifetimes ([tau][sub m]) of the [sigma]-bond-to-ligand charge-transfer (SBLCT) excited states of two diastereomers of fac-tris[(8-quinolyl)phenylmethylsilyl]iridium(III) differ by about a factor of 2 and are strongly solvent dependent. The [tau][sub m] values of the more symmetric [Delta]RRR, [Lambda]SSS diastereomer (A) are generally longer than those of the less symmetric [Delta]RRS, [Lambda]SSR diastereomer (B); [tau][sub m]'s of both diastereomers are substantially shortened relative to their values in aliphatic hydrocarbons by exciplex formation with a variety of weakly coordinating solvents including aromatic hydrocarbons, olefins, ethers, ketones, alcohols, and nitriles. Quenching constants (k[sub q]) due to exciplex formation are found to be muchmore » larger for B than they are for A in the [sigma]-donor solvents (cyclic ethers, ketones, alcohols, and nitriles); however, k[sub q] values of B are slightly smaller than those of A in [pi]-acceptor solvents (aromatic hydrocarbons, olefins). The results suggest that [sigma]-donor solvents form exciplexes by binding at the metal center, whereas [pi]-acceptor solvents bind at a quinolyl radical anion ligand site. A and B may prove useful as luminescent environmental probes which can distinguish between [sigma]-donor and [pi]-acceptor binding sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  6. kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, F; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Matthes, H; Lannes, B; Micheletti, G; Mattéi, M G; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Kieffer, B

    1995-01-01

    Using the mouse delta-opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated genomic clones encoding the human mu- and kappa-opioid receptor genes. Their organization appears similar to that of the human delta receptor gene, with exon-intron boundaries located after putative transmembrane domains 1 and 4. The kappa gene was mapped at position q11-12 in human chromosome 8. A full-length cDNA encoding the human kappa-opioid receptor has been isolated. The cloned receptor expressed in COS cells presents a typical kappa 1 pharmacological profile and is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The expression of kappa-opioid receptor mRNA in human brain, as estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, is consistent with the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in pain perception, neuroendocrine physiology, affective behavior, and cognition. In situ hybridization studies performed on human fetal spinal cord demonstrate the presence of the transcript specifically in lamina II of the dorsal horn. Some divergences in structural, pharmacological, and anatomical properties are noted between the cloned human and rodent receptors. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624359

  7. The radiant ephemerides of kappa-Cygnids from the IMO video database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triglav-Cekada, Mihaela

    2006-08-01

    The analysis of single-station IMO video network data of the July and August period with 36 576 meteors in search of kappa-Cygnid, alpha-Lyrid and zeta-Draconid meteor showers was made using the program Radiant. These showers will be named kappa-Cygnid meteor complex radiants. The detailed analysis of the whole August period from 1993-2004 included the behavior of radiants in different magnitude ranges and different years from 2000 on. Detailed radiant calculations for different velocities for 5g and 10g solar longitude intervals were also done. In 10g solar longitude intervals also the calculations for different magnitude ranges were conducted. The activity of the kappa-Cygnid radiant and the alpha-Lyrid radiant was proven, unlike the zeta-Draconid radiant, where no activity could be confirmed. For the whole August period also the behavior of radiants in separate years 2000-2004, when day-to-day meteor coverage is available, was made. From that it can be hinted on alternating bigger activity of the kappa-Cygnid and alpha-Lyrid radiants. In the years 2000 and 2001 the alpha-Lyrid radiant is more active, when on the contrary in 2002, 2003 and 2004 the kappa-Cygnid radiant is more active. The year 2003 is interesting from another aspect, as three radiants can be seen. If the third radiant is the zeta-Draconid radiant, a few years more video observations will have to be gathered and the radiant calculations repeated. For the day of the kappa-Cygnid meteor complex maximum, on August 18, the mean radiant positions were deduced: the more active kappa-Cygnid radiant lies at alpha=280 deg and delta=+58 deg with an area of the maximum probability of 10 deg x 15 deg, and the less active alpha-Lyrid radiant is placed at alpha=292 deg and delta=+52 deg with a radius of maximum probability of 2 deg. The radiant drift was not possible to obtain as in the 5 deg and 10 deg solar longitude interval calculations the positions of both radiants apparently oscillate. As no change can

  8. Kappa and Hirschberg ratio measured with an automated video gaze tracker.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, Frank

    2002-05-01

    To develop a fast automated procedure to measure kappa and the Hirschberg ratio for immediate use in a video gaze tracker. Using the hardware platform of the PowerRefractor and a 200 mm lens, the pupil was imaged with a resolution of 57 pixels/mm, at a camera distance of 90 cm. Both the positions of the first Purkinje image and the edges of the pupil were located at 25 Hz sampling rate with subpixel resolution using video image processing software developed under Borland C++. Subjects fixated on a red spot on the left side of the monitor. If their fixation was stable (standard deviation <0.2 degrees in 25 subsequent measurements evaluated in 1 s), the fixation spot appeared automatically on the right side, and the procedure was repeated. Data on the angular position of the optical axis for both targets were stored and provided kappa and the Hirschberg ratio with a standard deviation of about 0.2 degrees or better. This enabled the system to track fixation with a resolution of about 0.2 degrees. (1) Kappa was +3.91+/-2.73 degrees (right eyes), -3.93+/-2.68 degrees (left eyes, mean +/- SD from 24 young adults). Kappa was highly correlated in both eyes (r = 0.8996), but there were significant asymmetries between both eyes in three subjects (delta up to 3 degrees). (2) The Hirschberg ratios were 12.93+/-1.23 degrees/mm = 22.56 delta/mm (right eyes) and 12.82+/-1.49 degrees/mm = 22.38 delta/mm (left eyes). They were also highly correlated in both eyes (r = 0.931). (3) Neither kappa nor the Hirschberg ratios were correlated to refractive errors (range +0.50 to -7.75 D, mean -1.73+/-2.29 D [spherical equivalents]). (1) The video gaze tracker measured fixation with an angular resolution high enough to display the eye position during reading of individual words on the computer screen. (2) The applicable Hirschberg ratio changed with the power of the spectacles of the subjects by about 3% per diopter. (3) In some subjects, there were significant differences in the geometry

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung

    2008-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-{alpha} in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-{alpha} induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-{kappa}B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 ({delta}ERK) and JNK ({delta}JNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNKmore » were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of {delta}ERK and {delta}JNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-{kappa}B in TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-{alpha}-stimulated degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and translocation of NF-{kappa}B into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-{alpha} in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-{kappa}B MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B are essential for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 gene expression.« less

  10. Plausible explanation for the {Delta}{sub 5/2}{sup +}(2000) puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Jujun; Department of Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001; Martinez Torres, A.

    2011-05-15

    From a Faddeev calculation for the {pi}-({Delta}{rho}){sub N{sub 5/2}{sup -}{sub (1675)}} system we show the plausible existence of three dynamically generated I(J{sup P})=3/2(5/2{sup +}) baryon states below 2.3 GeV, whereas only two resonances, {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(1905)(****) and {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000)(**), are cataloged in the Particle Data Book Review. Our results give theoretical support to data analyses extracting two distinctive resonances, {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}({approx}1740) and {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}({approx}2200), from which the mass of {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000)(**) is estimated. We propose that these two resonances should be cataloged instead of {Delta}{sub 5/2{sup +}}(2000). This proposal gets further support from the possible assignmentmore » of the other baryon states found in the approach in the I=1/2,3/2 with J{sup P}=1/2{sup +},3/2{sup +},5/2{sup +} sectors to known baryonic resonances. In particular, {Delta}{sub 1/2{sup +}}(1750)(*) is naturally interpreted as a {pi}N{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1650) bound state.« less

  11. From Beginners to Successes: Six Life Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendong, Shi

    2018-01-01

    Shi Gendong wrote this essay in response to the topic "Even Laureates Were Beginners Once: Lessons Learned Along the Way," which was the title of the Laureate Panel at the Kappa Delta Pi Convocation in October 2017.

  12. Learning to Teach through Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Christine Sleeter wrote this essay in response to the topic "Even Laureates Were Beginners Once: Lessons Learned Along the Way," which was the title of the Laureate Panel at the Kappa Delta Pi Convocation in October 2017.

  13. Induced Proton Polarization for pi0 Electroproduction at Q2 = 0.126 GeV2/c2 Around the Delta(1232) Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Warren; Ricardo Alarcon; Christopher Armstrong

    1998-12-01

    We present a measurement of the induced proton polarization P{sub n} in {pi}{sup 0} electroproduction on the proton around the {Delta} resonance. The measurement was made at a central invariant mass and a squared four-momentum transfer of W = 1231 MeV and Q{sup 2} = 0.126 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, respectively. We measured a large induced polarization, P{sub n} = -0.397 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.009. The data suggest that the scalar background is larger than expected from a recent effective Hamiltonian model.

  14. Beginning Is Always the Hardest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    Sonia Nieto wrote this essay in response to the topic "Even Laureates Were Beginners Once: Lessons Learned Along the Way," which was the title of the Laureate Panel she moderated at the Kappa Delta Pi Convocation in October 2017.

  15. Learning Disability: An Educational Adventure. The 1967 Kappa Delta Pi Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kephart, Newell C.

    Educational implications and symptoms are described for learning disorders, the disruption in the processing of information within the central nervous system caused by brain damage, emotional disturbance, or inadequate presentation of learning experiences. Developmental sequences, developmental progression, and restoration of development are…

  16. Does the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 improve accuracy in reporting anterior lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)?

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Richard; Logan, Callum; O'Callaghan, Michael; Gormly, Kirsten; Chan, Ken; Foreman, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is useful in detecting anterior prostate tumours. Due to the location of anterior tumours, they are often diagnosed with a large size and may be suspicious for extra-prostatic extension (EPE). We aim to evaluate whether PI-RADS v2 is more accurate in assessing anterior prostate lesions identified on mpMRI compared to PI-RADS v1. Patients with anterior prostate lesions diagnosed on mpMRI who proceeded to a cognitive fusion transperineal prostate biopsy were identified. Each mpMRI was blinded and read by two experienced prostate MRI radiologists and assigned a PI-RADS v1 and PI-RADS v2 score, and the presence of EPE was estimated. Correlation was made with transperineal histopathology and, where relevant, radical prostatectomy histopathology. Concordance measures between PI-RADS v1 and PI-RADS v2, and between examiners of the same PI-RADS score were calculated using a weighted kappa. Fifty-eight consecutive men were identified. Concordance between the examiners for PI-RADS v1 and for v2 showed substantial agreement (version 1: weighted kappa 0.71; version 2: weighted kappa 0.69). There was no difference in accuracy when using PI-RADS v1 or PI-RADS v2 to predict clinically significant cancer. There was poor correlation between EPE measured on mpMRI compared with EPE in radical prostatectomy histopathology. PI-RADS v2 is reproducible between radiologists but does not have improved accuracy for diagnosing anterior tumours of the prostate when compared to PI-RADS v1. Multiparametric MRI is accurate at detecting anterior tumours with a sensitivity of 86-88%.

  17. Dexamethasone protection from TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells requires NF-kappaB and is independent from AKT.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Catalina; Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Córdova, Emilio; Mejía, Salvador; Covarrubias, Luis; Ventura, José; Zentella, Alejandro

    2006-02-21

    The biochemical bases for hormone dependence in breast cancer have been recognized as an important element in tumor resistance, proliferation and metastasis. On this respect, dexamethasone (Dex) dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in the MCF-7 cell line has been demonstrated to be a useful model for the study of this type of cancer. Recently, cytoplasmic signaling induced by steroid receptors has been described, such as the activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways. We evaluated their possible participation in the Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. Cellular cultures of the MCF-7 cell line were exposed to either, TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha and Dex, and cell viability was evaluated. Next, negative dominants of PI3K and IkappaB-alpha, designed to block the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways, respectively, were transfected and selection and evaluation of several clones overexpressing the mutants were examined. Also, correlation with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) expression was examined. Independent inhibition of these two pathways allowed us to test their participation in Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Expression of the PI3K dominant negative mutant did not alter the protection conferred by Dex against TNF-alpha mediated cell death. Contrariwise, clones expressing the IkappaB-alpha dominant negative mutant lost the Dex-conferred protection against TNF-alpha. In these clones degradation of c-IAP was accelerated, while that of XIAP was remained unaffected. NF-kappaB, but not PI3K/Akt activation, is required for the Dex protective effect against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, and correlates with lack of degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-IAP1.

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) increases the expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4. The roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta.

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Wingerd, Byron; Roman, Jesse

    2005-09-30

    The prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 has been implicated in the growth and progression of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the factors that control its expression have not been entirely elucidated. Our studies show that NSCLC cells express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) protein and that treatment with a selective PPARbeta/delta agonist (GW501516) increases EP4 mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 induced NSCLC cell proliferation, and this effect was prevented by PPARbeta/delta antisense or EP4 short interfering RNA (siRNA). GW501516 increased the phosphorylation of Akt and decreased PTEN expression. The selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), wortmannin, and PPARbeta/delta antisense, abrogated the effect of GW501516 on EP4 expression, whereas that of the inhibitor of Erk did not. GW501516 also increased EP4 promoter activity through effects on the region between -1555 and -992 bp in the EP4 promoter, and mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in this region abrogated the effect of GW501516. GW501516 increased not only the binding activity of C/EBP to the NF-IL6 site in the EP4 promoter, which was prevented by the inhibitor of PI3-K, but also increased C/EBPbeta protein in a dose- and PPARbeta/delta-dependent manner. The effect of GW501516 on EP4 protein was eliminated in the presence of C/EBPbeta siRNA. Finally, we showed that pretreatment of NSCLC with GW501516 further increased NSCLC cell proliferation in response to exogenous dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that was diminished in the presence of PPARbeta/delta antisense and EP4 siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of PPARbeta/delta induces PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 expression through PI3-K signals and increases human lung carcinoma cell proliferation in response to PGE2. The increase in transcription of the EP4 gene by PPARbeta/delta agonist was associated with increased C

  19. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} by GW501516 prevents fatty acid-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Coll, Teresa; Alvarez-Guardia, David; Barroso, Emma; Gómez-Foix, Anna Maria; Palomer, Xavier; Laguna, Juan C; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    Elevated plasma free fatty acids cause insulin resistance in skeletal muscle through the activation of a chronic inflammatory process. This process involves nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation as a result of diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation and subsequent protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta) phosphorylation. At present, it is unknown whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta) activation prevents fatty acid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. In C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, the PPARdelta agonist GW501516 prevented phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Ser(307) and the inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation caused by exposure to the saturated fatty acid palmitate. This latter effect was reversed by the PPARdelta antagonist GSK0660. Treatment with the PPARdelta agonist enhanced the expression of two well known PPARdelta target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, preventing the reduction in fatty acid oxidation caused by palmitate exposure. In agreement with these changes, GW501516 treatment reversed the increase in DAG and PKCtheta activation caused by palmitate. These effects were abolished in the presence of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor etomoxir, thereby indicating that increased fatty acid oxidation was involved in the changes observed. Consistent with these findings, PPARdelta activation by GW501516 blocked palmitate-induced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Likewise, drug treatment inhibited the increase in IL-6 expression caused by palmitate in C2C12 and human skeletal muscle cells as well as the protein secretion of this cytokine. These findings indicate that PPARdelta attenuates fatty acid-induced NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by reducing DAG accumulation

  20. Thermodynamics reveal that helix four in the NLS of NF-kappaB p65 anchors IkappaBalpha, forming a very stable complex.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, Simon; Croy, Carrie H; Kjaergaard, Magnus; Huxford, Tom; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2006-07-07

    IkappaBalpha is an ankyrin repeat protein that inhibits NF-kappaB transcriptional activity by sequestering NF-kappaB outside of the nucleus in resting cells. We have characterized the binding thermodynamics and kinetics of the IkappaBalpha ankyrin repeat domain to NF-kappaB(p50/p65) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). SPR data showed that the IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB associate rapidly but dissociate very slowly, leading to an extremely stable complex with a K(D,obs) of approximately 40 pM at 37 degrees C. As reported previously, the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of p65 contributes little to the overall binding affinity. Conversely, helix four of p65, which forms part of the nuclear localization sequence, was essential for high-affinity binding. This was surprising, given the small size of the binding interface formed by this part of p65. The NF-kappaB(p50/p65) heterodimer and p65 homodimer bound IkappaBalpha with almost indistinguishable thermodynamics, except that the NF-kappaB p65 homodimer was characterized by a more favorable DeltaH(obs) relative to the NF-kappaB(p50/p65) heterodimer. Both interactions were characterized by a large negative heat capacity change (DeltaC(P,obs)), approximately half of which was contributed by the p65 helix four that was necessary for tight binding. This could not be accounted for readily by the small loss of buried non-polar surface area and we hypothesize that the observed effect is due to additional folding of some regions of the complex.

  1. Count on kappa.

    PubMed

    Czodrowski, Paul

    2014-11-01

    In the 1960s, the kappa statistic was introduced for the estimation of chance agreement in inter- and intra-rater reliability studies. The kappa statistic was strongly pushed by the medical field where it could be successfully applied via analyzing diagnoses of identical patient groups. Kappa is well suited for classification tasks where ranking is not considered. The main advantage of kappa is its simplicity and the general applicability to multi-class problems which is the major difference to receiver operating characteristic area under the curve. In this manuscript, I will outline the usage of kappa for classification tasks, and I will evaluate the role and uses of kappa in specifically machine learning and cheminformatics.

  2. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway through I{kappa}B degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B.

    2005-11-10

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-{kappa}B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B activation was characterized by translocation of NF-{kappa}B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene expression. NF-{kappa}B activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-{kappa}B activation. Degradationmore » of I{kappa}B protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of I{kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}DN) significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activation induced by PRRSV. However, I{kappa}B{alpha}DN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-{kappa}B was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-{kappa}B activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.« less

  3. Rosmanol potently inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through downregulating MAPK, NF-kappaB, STAT3 and C/EBP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Lee, Jong Hun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wang, Ju-Ming; Wang, Ying-Jan; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2009-11-25

    Rosmanol is a natural polyphenol from the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) with high antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of rosmanol on the induction of NO synthase (NOS) and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rosmanol markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 protein and gene expression, as well as the downstream products, NO and PGE2. Treatment with rosmanol also reduced translocation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) subunits by prevention of the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB). Western blot analysis showed that rosmanol significantly inhibited translocation and phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and the protein expression of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta. We also found that rosmanol suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Our results demonstrate that rosmanol downregulates inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB and STAT3 through interfering with the activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling. Taken together, rosmanol might contribute to the potent anti-inflammatory effect of rosemary and may have potential to be developed into an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

  4. Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B0 to (rho pi)0 Using a Time-Dependent Dalitz Plot Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.

    We present the preliminary measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B{sup 0} {yields} ({rho}{pi}){sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis. The results are obtained from a data sample of 213 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays, collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. This analysis extends the narrow-rho quasi-two-body approximation used in the previous analysis, by taking into account the interference between the rho resonances of the three charges. We measure 16 coefficients of the bilinear form factor terms occurring in the time-dependent decay rate of the B{supmore » 0} meson with the use of a maximum-likelihood fit. We derive the physically relevant quantities from these coefficients. We measure the direct CP-violation parameters A{sub {rho}{pi}} = -0.088 {+-} 0.049 {+-} 0.013 and C = 0.34 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.05, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. For the mixing-induced CP-violation parameter we find S = -0.10 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.04, and for the dilution and strong phase shift parameters respectively, we obtain {Delta}C = 0.15 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.03 and {Delta}S = 0.22 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.03. For the angle alpha of the Unitarity Triangle we measure (113{sub -17}{sup +27} {+-} 6){sup o}, while only a weak constraint is achieved at the significance level of more than two standard deviations. Finally, for the relative strong phase {delta}{sub {+-}} between the B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} transitions we find (-67{sub -31}{sup +28} {+-} 7) deg, with a similarly weak constraint at two standard deviations and beyond.« less

  5. Mechanistic investigations of imine hydrogenation catalyzed by cationic iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Martín, Marta; Sola, Eduardo; Tejero, Santiago; Andrés, José L; Oro, Luis A

    2006-05-15

    Complexes [IrH2(eta6-C6H6)(PiPr3)]BF4 (1) and [IrH2(NCMe)3(PiPr3)]BF4 (2) are catalyst precursors for homogeneous hydrogenation of N-benzylideneaniline under mild conditions. Precursor 1 generates the resting state [IrH2{eta5-(C6H5)NHCH2Ph}(PiPr3)]BF4 (3), while 2 gives rise to a mixture of [IrH{PhN=CH(C6H4)-kappaN,C}(NCMe)2(PiPr3)]BF4 (4) and [IrH{PhN=CH(C6H4)-kappaN,C}(NCMe)(NH2Ph)(PiPr3)]BF4 (5), in which the aniline ligand is derived from hydrolysis of the imine. The less hindered benzophenone imine forms the catalytically inactive, doubly cyclometalated compound [Ir{HN=CPh(C6H4)-kappaN,C}2(NH2CHPh2)(PiPr3)]BF4 (6). Hydrogenations with precursor 1 are fast and their reaction profiles are strongly dependent on solvent, concentrations, and temperature. Significant induction periods, minimized by addition of the amine hydrogenation product, are commonly observed. The catalytic rate law (THF) is rate = k[1][PhN=CHPh]p(H2). The results of selected stoichiometric reactions of potential catalytic intermediates exclude participation of the cyclometalated compounds [IrH{PhN=CH(C6H4)-kappaN,C}(S)2(PiPr3)]BF4 [S = acetonitrile (4), [D6]acetone (7), [D4]methanol (8)] in catalysis. Reactions between resting state 3 and D2 reveal a selective sequence of deuterium incorporation into the complex which is accelerated by the amine product. Hydrogen bonding among the components of the catalytic reaction was examined by MP2 calculations on model compounds. The calculations allow formulation of an ionic, outer-sphere, bifunctional hydrogenation mechanism comprising 1) amine-assisted oxidative addition of H2 to 3, the result of which is equivalent to heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen, 2) replacement of a hydrogen-bonded amine by imine, and 3) simultaneous H delta+/H delta- transfer to the imine substrate from the NH moiety of an arene-coordinated amine ligand and the metal, respectively.

  6. Promoting Global Initiatives and Cross-Cultural Understanding in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Snodgress, Faye

    2012-01-01

    As an "international" honor society in education, Kappa Delta Pi (KDP) recognizes the importance of encouraging and promoting education internationally in the 21st century. The challenge shared by educators in many countries is to achieve higher levels of learning for all students. Committed educators around the globe are already working…

  7. Determination of the strong phase in D0-->K+pi- using quantum-correlated measurements.

    PubMed

    Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E

    2008-06-06

    We exploit the quantum coherence between pair-produced D0 and D[over]0 in psi(3770) decays to study charm mixing, which is characterized by the parameters x and y, and to make a first determination of the relative strong phase delta between D0-->K+pi- and D[over]0-->K+pi-. Using 281 pb(-1) of e+e- collision data collected with the CLEO-c detector at Ecm=3.77 GeV, as well as branching fraction input and time-integrated measurements of RM identical with (x2 + y2)/2 and RWS identical with Gamma(D0-->K+pi-)/Gamma(D[over]0-->K+pi-) from other experiments, we find cosdelta=1.03(-0.17)(+0.31)+/-0.06, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. By further including other mixing parameter measurements, we obtain an alternate measurement of cosdelta=1.10+/-0.35+/-0.07, as well as x sindelta=(4.4(-1.8)(+2.7)+/-2.9)x10(-3) and delta=(22(-12-11)(+11+9)) degrees .

  8. Diagnostic performance and reproducibility of T2w based and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) based PI-RADSv2 lexicon descriptors for prostate MRI.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Matthias; Hahn, Felix; Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Krauss, Tobias; Langer, Mathias; Dovi-Akué, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    To examine the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 T2w and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) based lexicon descriptors, inter-observer agreement for descriptor assignment and diagnostic accuracy of the PI-RADSv2 assessment categories for multiparametric prostate MRI. 176 lesions in 79 consecutive patients are analyzed, lesions are histopathologically verified by MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy. All lesions are rated according to the PI-RADSv2 lexicon, descriptors for T2w and DWI sequences and resulting assessment categories are assigned by two independent blinded radiologists. We perform receiver-operating-characteristic analysis using the assessment categories. To analyze inter-observer agreement, we calculate weighted kappa values for assessment category assignment and unweighted kappa values for descriptor assignment. PI-RADSv2 assessment categories yield an area under the curve of 0.76/0.74 (radiologist 1/radiologist 2), P >0.05. Weighted kappa for agreement is 0.601 in the peripheral zone and 0.580 in the transition zone. We detect a difference in the cancer rate for PI-RADSv2 category 3 between peripheral zone (32%) and transition zone (12%), P <0.05. We obtain moderate agreement at most for descriptor assignment with kappa values ranging from 0.082 (T2w shape in the transition zone) to 0.407 (T2w signal intensity in the peripheral zone) and 0.493 (ADC pattern in the peripheral zone). Our analysis corroborates typical descriptors for benign/malignant lesions, but also reveals insights into potential pitfalls - T2w wedge shaped lesions in the peripheral zone have a considerable cancer rate, despite being labelled category 2 in the lexicon. Agreement for descriptor assignment in the PI-RADSv2 lexicon is at most moderate in our study. Typical descriptors for benign and malignant lesions are validated, whereas the discriminatory power of some descriptors is challenged. The difference in the cancer rate for PI-RADSv2 category 3 between peripheral zone and transition

  9. Dalitz Plot Analyses of B- to D+ Pi- Pi-, B+ to Pi+ Pi- Pi+ and D(S)+ to Pi+ Pi- Pi+ at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Liaoyuan; /Iowa State U.

    We report on the Dalitz plot analyses of B{sup -} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{sup +}. The Dalitz plot method and the most recent BABAR results are discussed.

  10. Pharmacological characterization of the cloned kappa opioid receptor as a kappa 1b subtype.

    PubMed

    Lai, J; Ma, S W; Zhu, R H; Rothman, R B; Lentes, K U; Porreca, F

    1994-10-27

    Substantial pharmacological evidence in vitro and in vivo has suggested the existence of subtypes of the kappa opioid receptor. Quantitative radioligand binding techniques resolved the presence of two high affinity binding sites for the kappa 1 ligand [3H]U69,593 in mouse brain membranes, termed kappa 1a and kappa 1b, respectively. Whereas the kappa 1a site has high affinity for fedotozine and oxymorphindole and low affinity for bremazocine and alpha-neoendorphin, site kappa 1b has high affinity for bremazocine and alpha-neoendorphin and low affinity for fedotozine and oxymorphindole. CI-977 and U69,593 bind equally well at both sites. To determine the relationship between these kappa 1 receptor subtypes and the recently cloned mouse kappa 1 receptor (KOR), we examined [3H]U69,593 binding to the KOR in stably transfected cells (KORCHN-8). Competition of [3H]U69,593 binding to the KOR by bremazocine, alpha-neoendorphin, fedotozine and oxymorphindole resolved a single class of binding sites at which these agents had binding affinities similar to that of the kappa 1b site present in mouse brain. These results suggest that the cloned KOR corresponds to the kappa 1 site in mouse brain defined as kappa 1b.

  11. A nonradial pulsation model for the rapidly rotating Delta Scuti star Kappa(2) Bootis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, E. J.; Walker, G. A. H.; Hubeny, I.

    1991-01-01

    A sectorial nonradial pulsation model is used to construct theoretical line profiles which mimic the variations for Kappa(2) Boo. Synthetic spectra generated with the appropriate Teff and log g are used as input. It is found that the data can be reproduced by the combination of a high-degree l is approximately equal to 12 mode with P(osc) aproximately equal to 0.071 d, and a low-degree mode, l is approximately equal to 0-2 with P(osc) approximately equal to 0.071-0.079 d. The projected rotational velocity (v sin i - 115 +/-5 km/s) was determined by fitting synthetic line profiles to the observed spectra. The velocity amplitude of the high-degree oscillations is estimated to be about 3.5 km/s. It is found that the ratio of the horizontal and radial pulsation amplitudes is small (about 0.02) and consistent with p-mode oscillations. Comparisons are made with models invoking starspots, and it is impossible to fit the observations of Kappa(2) Boo by a starspot model without assuming unrealistic values of radius or equatorial velocity.

  12. FGF-1-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in breast cancer cells is mediated by increased activities of NF-kappaB and activating protein-1.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Gina; Covaleda, Lina; Mendes, Odete; Martini-Stoica, Heidi; Stoica, George

    2008-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here, we investigate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) on the expression of MMP-9 in ENU1564, an ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. We observed that FGF-1 induces a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 mRNA, protein, and activity in ENU1564 cells. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of MMP-9 regulation by FGF-1, we investigated the role of components of PI3K-Akt and MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathways in our system since NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factor binding sites have been characterized in the upstream region of the MMP-9 gene. We demonstrated that FGF-1 increases Akt phosphorylation, triggers nuclear translocation of NF-kappaBp65, and enhances degradation of cytoplasmic IkappaBalpha. Pretreatment of cells with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly inhibited MMP-9 protein expression in FGF-1-treated cells. Conversely, our data show that FGF-1 increases ERK phosphorylation in ENU1564 cells, increases c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner, and triggers nuclear translocation of c-jun. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a MEK1/2 inhibitor significantly inhibited MMP-9 protein expression in FGF-1 treated cells. Finally, we observed increased DNA binding of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in FGF-1-treated cells and that mutation of either NF-kappaB or AP-1 response elements prevented MMP-9 promoter activation by FGF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FGF-1-induced MMP-9 expression in ENU1564 cells is associated with increasing DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and involve activation of a dual signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt and MEK1/2-ERK. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  14. PI-RADS version 2: Preoperative role in the detection of normal-sized pelvic lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yoon; Shin, Su-Jin; Jung, Dae Chul; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Oh, Young Taik

    2017-06-01

    To analyze whether Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2) scores are associated with a risk of normal-sized pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) in prostate cancer (PCa). A consecutive series of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) for PCa were retrospectively analyzed under the approval of institutional review board in our institution. No patients had enlarged (≥0.8cm in short-axis diameter) lymph nodes. Clinical parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), greatest percentage of biopsy core, and percentage of positive cores], and PI-RADSv2 score from two independent readers were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating-characteristic curve for PLNM. Diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 and Briganti nomogram was compared. Weighted kappa was investigated regarding PI-RADSv2 scoring. Normal-sized PLNM was found in 9.5% (21/221) of patients. In multivariate analysis, PI-RADSv2 (reader 1, p=0.009; reader 2, p=0.026) and PSA (reader 1, p=0.008; reader 2, p=0.037) were predictive of normal-sized PLNM. Threshold of PI-RADSv2 was a score of 5, where PI-RADSv2 was associated with high sensitivity (reader 1, 95.2% [20/21]; reader 2, 90.5% [19/21]) and negative predictive value (reader 1, 99.2% [124/125]; reader 2, 98.6% [136/138]). However, diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 (AUC=0.786-0.788) was significantly lower than that of Briganti nomogram (AUC=0.890) for normal-sized PLNM (p<0.05). The inter-reader agreement was excellent for PI-RADSv2 of 5 or not (weighted kappa=0.804). PI-RADSv2 scores may be associated with the risk of normal-sized PLNM in PCa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Induced proton polarization for {pi}{sup 0} electroproduction at Q{sup 2}=0.126 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} around the {Delta}(1232) resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcon, R.; Comfort, J.R.; Dolfini, S.

    1998-12-01

    We present a measurement of the induced proton polarization P{sub n} in {pi}{sup 0} electroproduction on the proton around the {Delta} resonance. The measurement was made at a central invariant mass and a squared four-momentum transfer of W=1231 MeV and Q{sup 2}=0.126 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, respectively. We measured a large induced polarization, P{sub n}={minus}0.397{plus_minus}0.055{plus_minus}0.009. The data suggest that the scalar background is larger than expected from a recent effective Hamiltonian model. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Pay for Performance: Whose Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are not in short supply. Recent issues of the "Kappa Delta Pi Record" examined two of these: Common Core State Standards (Winter 2011) and Charter Schools (Spring 2011). Teacher pay for performance is another policy gaining traction in state legislatures and at the federal level. The Race to the Top (RTTT)…

  17. [Preparation and spectral analysis of a new type of blue light-emitting material delta-Alq3].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-ying; Gao, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, He-feng; Xu, Bing-she

    2006-10-01

    In the present article, delta-Alq3, a new type of blue light-emitting material, was synthesized and investigated by IR spectra, XRD spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electroluminescence (EL) spectra. The relationship between molecular spatial structure and spectral characteristics was studied by the spectral analysis of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3. Results show that a new phase of Alq3 (delta-Alq3) can be obtained by vacuum heating alpha-Alq3, and the molecular spatial structure of alpha-Alq3 changes during the vacuum heating. The molecular spatial structure of delta-Alq3 lacks symmetry compared to alpha-Alq3. This transformation can reduce the electron cloud density on phenoxide of Alq3 and weaken the intermolecular conjugated interaction between adjacent Alq3 molecules. Hence, the pi--pi* electron transition absorption peak of delta-Alq3 shifts toward short wavelength in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the maximum emission peak of delta-Alq3 (lamda max = 480 nm) blue-shifts by 35 nm compared with that of alpha-Alq3 (lamda max = 515 nm) in PL spectra. The maximum emission peaks of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3 are all at 520 nm in EL spectra.

  18. Method and apparatus for Delta Kappa synthetic aperture radar measurement of ocean current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) employed for delta k measurement of ocean current from a spacecraft without the need for a narrow beam and long observation times. The SAR signal is compressed to provide image data for different sections of the chirp band width, equivalent to frequencies and a common area for the separate image fields is selected. The image for the selected area at each frequency is deconvolved to obtain the image signals for the different frequencies and the same area. A product of pairs of signals is formed, Fourier transformed and squared. The spectrum thus obtained from different areas for the same pair of frequencies are added to provide an improved signal to noise ratio. The shift of the peak from the center of the spectrum is measured and compared to the expected shift due to the phase velocity of the Bragg scattering wave. Any difference is a measure of current velocity v sub o (delta k).

  19. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Yang, Eun Ju; Kim, In Sik

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilc syndrome is a disorder associated with clonally eosinophilic proliferation. The importance of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) in the pathogenesis and classification of HES has been recently reported. In this study, we investigated the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1. These cells express CCR2 protein among the CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-5). MCP-1 induces strong migration of EoL-1 cells and the chemotaxis signal in response to MCP-1 involves a G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), PKC delta, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. MCP-1 activates p38 MAPK via G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC and PKC delta cascade. MCP-1 also induces NF-kappaB translocation and the activation is inhibited by PKC delta activation. The increase in the basal expression and activity of PKC delta in EoL-1 cells, compared to normal eosinophils, inhibits apoptosis in EoL-1 cells. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of PKC delta is related to inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but not to FIP1L1-PDGFRA. PKC delta functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and is involved in EoL-1 cell movement stimulated by MCP-1. This study contributes to an understanding of MCP-1 in eosinophil biology and pathogenic mechanism of eosinophilic disorders.

  20. Role of mu, but not delta or kappa, opioid receptors in context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking.

    PubMed

    Bossert, Jennifer M; Hoots, Jennifer K; Fredriksson, Ida; Adhikary, Sweta; Zhang, Michelle; Venniro, Marco; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-05-19

    Relapse to nonmedical use of prescription opioids often occurs after exposure to places previously associated with drug use. Here, we describe a rat model of context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking after repeated cycles of drug self-administration and extinction-induced abstinence. We also determined the role of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR) in this reinstatement. We trained rats to self-administer oxycodone for 6 h/d in Context A; lever pressing was paired with a discrete cue. Next, we extinguished the lever pressing in the presence of the discrete cue in Context B and then tested the rats for reinstatement of oxycodone seeking in both contexts. We retrained rats to self-administer oxycodone in Context A, re-extinguished their lever pressing in Context B, and retested them for reinstatement in both contexts. Prior to testing, we injected the rats with vehicle or antagonists of MOR (naltrexone; 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg), DOR (naltrindole; 7.5 or 15 mg/kg), or KOR (LY2456302; 5 or 10 mg/kg). We also tested the effect of naltrexone, naltrindole, and LY2456302 on oxycodone self-administration under fixed-ratio-1 (FR1) and progressive-ratio (PR) reinforcement schedules. We observed context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking after repeated cycles of drug self-administration and extinction. Naltrexone, but not naltrindole or LY2456302, injections decreased this reinstatement. Additionally, naltrexone increased oxycodone self-administration under the FR1 schedule and decreased oxycodone self-administration under the PR schedule; naltrindole and LY2456302 were ineffective. Results demonstrate a critical role of MOR, but not DOR or KOR, in context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone seeking and oxycodone self-administration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong transverse fields in delta-spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Wang, Haimin

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of the strength and direction of transverse magnetic fields in six delta-spots are presented. The field direction is determined by the relative strength of the pi- and sigma-components at different polarizer orientations, and is, with one exception, parallel to the neutral line and as strong as the umbral field. Field strengths determined by line splitting are as high as 3980 G.

  2. Words, Thoughts, and Acts of Hate: A Personal Story of How KDP's Precepts Help Make Me a Better Teacher and a Better Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Rea

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate Kappa Delta Pi's Centennial anniversary, educators were invited to reflect and write about significant changes in the field of education over the last century and about how education may evolve as we move into the 21st century. Submitted essays were considered through a blind review process, and the winning essays are presented in…

  3. Leptin-induced IL-6 production is mediated by leptin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, NF-kappaB, and p300 pathway in microglia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Da-Yuu; Yang, Rong-Sen; Tsai, Huei-Yann; Kao, Ming-Ching; Fu, Wen-Mei; Chen, Yuh-Fung

    2007-07-15

    Leptin, the adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, is known to function as an immunomodulatory regulator. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in IL-6 production caused by leptin in microglia. Microglia expressed the long (OBRl) and short (OBRs) isoforms of the leptin receptor. Leptin caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-6 production. Leptin-mediated IL-6 production was attenuated by OBRl receptor antisense oligonucleotide, PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002 and wortmannin), Akt inhibitor (1L-6-hydroxymethyl-chiro-inositol-2-((R)-2-O-methyl-3-O-octadecylcarbonate)), NF-kappaB inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), IkappaB protease inhibitor (L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylenylethyl chloromethyl ketone), IkappaBalpha phosphorylation inhibitor (Bay 117082), or NF-kappaB inhibitor peptide. Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 small-interference RNA or the dominant-negative mutant of p85 and Akt also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Stimulation of microglia with leptin activated IkappaB kinase alpha/IkappaB kinase beta, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser(276), p65 and p50 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, and kappaB-luciferase activity. Leptin-mediated an increase of IkappaB kinase alpha/IkappaB kinase beta activity, kappaB-luciferase activity, and p65 and p50 binding to the NF-kappaB element was inhibited by wortmannin, Akt inhibitor, and IRS-1 small-interference RNA. The binding of p65 and p50 to the NF-kappaB elements, as well as the recruitment of p300 and the enhancement of histone H3 and H4 acetylation on the IL-6 promoter was enhanced by leptin. Our results suggest that leptin increased IL-6 production in microglia via the leptin receptor/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB and p300 signaling pathway.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10033 - Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10033 Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as zinc...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10033 - Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10033 Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as zinc...

  6. T cell-intrinsic requirement for NF-kappa B induction in postdifferentiation IFN-gamma production and clonal expansion in a Th1 response.

    PubMed

    Corn, Radiah A; Aronica, Mark A; Zhang, Fuping; Tong, Yingkai; Stanley, Sarah A; Kim, Se Ryoung Agnes; Stephenson, Linda; Enerson, Ben; McCarthy, Susan; Mora, Ana; Boothby, Mark

    2003-08-15

    NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors are linked to innate immune responses and APC activation. Whether and how the induction of NF-kappaB signaling in normal CD4(+) T cells regulates effector function are not well-understood. The liberation of NF-kappaB dimers from inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaBs) constitutes a central checkpoint for physiologic regulation of most forms of NF-kappaB. To investigate the role of NF-kappaB induction in effector T cell responses, we targeted inhibition of the NF-kappaB/Rel pathway specifically to T cells. The Th1 response in vivo is dramatically weakened when T cells defective in their NF-kappaB induction (referred to as IkappaBalpha(DeltaN) transgenic cells) are activated by a normal APC population. Analyses in vivo, and IL-12-supplemented T cell cultures in vitro, reveal that the mechanism underlying this T cell-intrinsic requirement for NF-kappaB involves activation of the IFN-gamma gene in addition to clonal expansion efficiency. The role of NF-kappaB in IFN-gamma gene expression includes a modest decrease in Stat4 activation, T box expressed in T cell levels, and differentiation efficiency along with a more prominent postdifferentiation step. Further, induced expression of Bcl-3, a trans-activating IkappaB-like protein, is decreased in T cells as a consequence of NF-kappaB inhibition. Together, these findings indicate that NF-kappaB induction in T cells regulates efficient clonal expansion, Th1 differentiation, and IFN-gamma production by Th1 lymphocytes at a control point downstream from differentiation.

  7. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1}more » knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is

  8. An Introduction to Isaac Leon Kandel: Who He Was and Why He Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Few professors of education in the 21st century know the name Isaac Leon Kandel. A Kappa Delta Pi Laureate and author of more than 20 books, Kandel may be known to scholars who specialize in comparative education or educational history; however, Kandel is known to very few beyond these two fields. This article is a testament to Kandel, his…

  9. Measurement of the ratios of branching fractions B(B0s --> Ds- pi+ pi+ pi-)/B(B0-->D- pi+ pi+ pi-) and B(B0s --> Ds- pi+)/B(B0-->D- pi+).

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-02-09

    Using 355 pb;{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, we study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B_{(s)};{0}-->D_{(s)};{-}pi;{+} and B_{(s)};{0}-->D_{(s)};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-}. We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})/B(B;{0}-->D;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})=1.05+/-0.10(stat)+/-0.22(syst). We also update our measurement of B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+})/B(B;{0}-->D;{-}pi;{+}) to 1.13+/-0.08(stat)+/-0.23(syst), improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. We find B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+})=[3.8+/-0.3(stat)+/-1.3(syst)]x10;{-3} and B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})=[8.4+/-0.8(stat)+/-3.2(syst)]x10;{-3}.

  10. The Theoretical Transition Probabilities Between the B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) and the A(sup 3)Sigma(Sup +, sub u), W(sup 3)Delta(sub u), B'(sup 3)Sigma(sup -, sub u) States of N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuemmel, Helmar T.; Partridge, Harry; Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The electronic transition moment functions between the B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) and the A(sup 3)Sigma(sup +, sub u), W(sup 3)Delta(sub u), B'(sup 3)Sigma(sup -, sub u) states of N2 are studied using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (ICMRCI) method based upon complete active space SCF (CASSCF) reference wave-functions. The dependence of the moments on both the one and n-particle basis sets has been investigated in detail. The calculated radiative lifetimes for the vibrational levels of B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) are in excellent agreement with the most recent measurement of Euler and Pipkin (1983)

  11. Observation of {eta}{sup '} Decays to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.

    Using {psi}(2S){yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}J/{psi}, J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}{eta}{sup '} events acquired with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we make the first observations of the decays {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}, measuring absolute branching fractions (37{sub -9}{sup +11}{+-}4)x10{sup -4} and (25{sub -9}{sup +12}{+-}5)x10{sup -4}, respectively. For {eta}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, this result probes the mechanism of isospin violation and the roles of {pi}{sup 0}/{eta}/{eta}{sup '}-mixing and final state rescattering in strong decays. We also set upper limits on branching fractions for {eta}{sup '} decays to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, 2({pi}{supmore » +}{pi}{sup -}), {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}2{pi}{sup 0}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup 0}, 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), and invisible final states.« less

  12. The discriminative effects of the kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A in nonhuman primates: dissociation from classic hallucinogen effects.

    PubMed

    Butelman, Eduardo R; Rus, Szymon; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-06-01

    The widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A is a unique example of a plant-derived compound selective for kappa-opioid receptors and may produce effects distinct from those of other compounds with classic hallucinogenic or dissociative properties which are also abused in humans. The objective of this study is to characterize the salvinorin A discriminative cue in nonhuman primates with high kappa-receptor genetic homology to humans. Adult rhesus monkeys (n = 3) were trained to discriminate salvinorin A (0.015 mg/kg, s.c.) from vehicle, in a food-reinforced operant discrimination assay. Parallel studies, using unconditioned behavioral endpoints (facial relaxation and ptosis) also evaluated the kappa-opioid receptor mediation of salvinorin A in vivo function. Monkeys trained to discriminate salvinorin A generalized structurally diverse, centrally penetrating kappa-agonists (bremazocine, U69,593, and U50,488). By contrast, mu- and delta-opioid agonists (fentanyl and SNC80, respectively) were not generalized, nor were the serotonergic 5HT2 hallucinogen psilocybin or the dissociative N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist, ketamine. The discriminative effects of salvinorin A were blocked by the opioid antagonist quadazocine (0.32 mg/kg), but not by the 5HT2 antagonist ketanserin (0.1 mg/kg). Consistent with these findings, salvinorin and kappa-agonists (e.g., U69,593) produce effects in the unconditioned endpoints (e.g., ptosis), whereas psilocybin was inactive. These findings support the conclusion that the interoceptive/discriminative cue produced by salvinorin A is mediated by agonism at kappa-receptors and is mechanistically distinct from that produced by a classic serotonergic hallucinogen.

  13. Interleukin-1 beta induced synthesis of protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-epsilon in EL4 thymoma cells: possible involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Varley, C L; Royds, J A; Brown, B L; Dobson, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence here that the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) stimulates a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon and PKC-delta protein levels and increases PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta, transcripts in EL4 thymoma cells. Incubation of EL4 cells with IL-1 beta induced protein synthesis of PKC-epsilon (6-fold increase) by 7 h and had a biphasic effect on PKC-delta levels with peaks at 4 h (2-fold increase) and 24 h (4-fold increase). At the level of mRNA, PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta levels, were induced after incubation of EL4 cells with IL-1 beta. The signalling mechanisms utilized by IL-1 beta to induce the synthesis of these PKC isoforms were investigated. Two phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, inhibited IL-1 beta-induced synthesis of PKC-epsilon. However, the PI 3-kinase inhibitors had little effect on the IL-1 beta-induced synthesis of PKC-delta in these cells. Our results indicate that IL-1 beta induced both PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon expression over different time periods. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that IL-1 beta induction of PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta, may occur via the PI 3-kinase pathway. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in B0 -> pi+ pi-, B0 -> K+ pi-, B0 -> pi0 pi0, B0 -> K0 pi0 and Isospin Analysis of B -> pi pi Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Bernard; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The authors present preliminary results of improved measurements of the CP-violating asymmetries and branching fractions in the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. This update includes all data taken at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the asymmetric PEP-II B-meson factory at SLAC, corresponding to 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs. They find S{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.03, C{sub {pi}{pi}} = -0.25 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.02, {Alpha}{sub K{sub {pi}}} = -0.107 {+-} 0.016{sub -0.004},{supmore » +0.006}, C{sub {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} = -0.43 {+-} 0.26 {+-} 0.05, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.83 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (10.1 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. They observe CP violation with a significance of 6.7{sigma} in B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -} and 6.1{sigma} in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Constraints on the Unitarity Triangle angle {alpha} are determined from the isospin relation between all B {yields} {pi}{pi} rates and asymmetries.« less

  15. Scalar resonances in a unitary {pi}{pi} S-wave model for D{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Boito, D. R.; Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP; Dedonder, J.-P.

    We propose a model for D{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays following experimental results which indicate that the two-pion interaction in the S wave is dominated by the scalar resonances f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} and f{sub 0}(980). The weak decay amplitude for D{sup +}{yields}R{pi}{sup +}, where R is a resonance that subsequently decays into {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, is constructed in a factorization approach. In the S wave, we implement the strong decay R{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} by means of a scalar form factor. This provides a unitary description of the pion-pion interaction in the entire kinematically allowed mass range m{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}more » from threshold to about 3 GeV{sup 2}. In order to reproduce the experimental Dalitz plot for D{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, we include contributions beyond the S wave. For the P wave, dominated by the {rho}(770){sup 0}, we use a Breit-Wigner description. Higher waves are accounted for by using the usual isobar prescription for the f{sub 2}(1270) and {rho}(1450){sup 0}. The major achievement is a good reproduction of the experimental m{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}{sup 2} distribution, and of the partial as well as the total D{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} branching ratios. Our values are generally smaller than the experimental ones. We discuss this shortcoming and, as a by-product, we predict a value for the poorly known D{yields}{sigma} transition form factor at q{sup 2}=m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}.« less

  16. Determination of the S-Wave Pi Pi Scattering Lengths From a Study of K - to Pi - Pi0 Pi0 Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.

    We report the results from a study of the full sample of {approx}6.031 x 10{sup 7} K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass (M{sub 00}) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M{sub 00} = 2m{sub +}, where m{sub +} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{supmore » +}{pi}{sup -} decay. Fits to the M{sub 00} distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}, the difference between the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I = 0 and I = 2 states. Higher-order {pi}{pi} rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a{sub 2}.« less

  17. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  18. Measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Angle {gamma} in B{sup {+-}}{yields}D{sup (*)}K{sup {+-}} Decays with a Dalitz Analysis of D{yields}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.

    2005-09-16

    We report on a measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violating phase {gamma} through a Dalitz analysis of neutral D decays to K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} in the processes B{sup {+-}}{yields}D{sup (*)}K{sup {+-}}, D*{yields}D{pi}{sup 0}, D{gamma}. Using a sample of 227x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector, we measure the amplitude ratios r{sub B}=0.12{+-}0.08{+-}0.03{+-}0.04 and r{sub B}*=0.17{+-}0.10{+-}0.03{+-}0.03, the relative strong phases {delta}{sub B}=(104{+-}45{sub -21-24}{sup +17+16}) deg. and {delta}{sub B}*=(-64{+-}41{sub -12}{sup +14}{+-}15) deg. between the amplitudes A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -}) and A(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*)0}K{sup -}), and {gamma}=(70{+-}31{sub -10-11}{sup +12+14}) deg. The first error is statistical, the second is the experimentalmore » systematic uncertainty, and the third reflects the Dalitz model uncertainty. The results for the strong and weak phases have a twofold ambiguity.« less

  19. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} induces renal epithelial cell death through NF-{kappa}B-dependent and MAPK-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dae Sik; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Park, Ji Yeon

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} induces cell death in renal proximal tubular cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unidentified. The present study was undertaken to examine the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-{kappa}B in opossum kidney (OK) cell death induced by 15d-PGJ{sub 2}. Treatment of OK cells with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, which was largely attributed to apoptosis. 15d-PGJ{sub 2} increased ROS production and the effect was inhibited by catalase and N-acetylcysteine. The 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cell death was also prevented by these antioxidants, suggesting thatmore » the cell death was associated with ROS generation. The PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cell death. 15d-PGJ{sub 2} caused a transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) of MEK, an ERK upstream kinase, did not alter the 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cell death. Transfection with constitutively active MEK and dominant-negative MEK had no effect on the cell death. 15d-PGJ{sub 2} inhibited the NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity, which was accompanied by an inhibition of nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit p65 and impairment in DNA binding. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B with a NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor pyrrolidinecarbodithioate and transfection with I{kappa}B{alpha} (S32A/36A) caused cell death. These results suggest that the 5d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced OK cell death was associated with ROS production and NF-{kappa}B inhibition, but not with MAPK activation.« less

  20. Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    The kappa statistic is frequently used to test interrater reliability. The importance of rater reliability lies in the fact that it represents the extent to which the data collected in the study are correct representations of the variables measured. Measurement of the extent to which data collectors (raters) assign the same score to the same variable is called interrater reliability. While there have been a variety of methods to measure interrater reliability, traditionally it was measured as percent agreement, calculated as the number of agreement scores divided by the total number of scores. In 1960, Jacob Cohen critiqued use of percent agreement due to its inability to account for chance agreement. He introduced the Cohen's kappa, developed to account for the possibility that raters actually guess on at least some variables due to uncertainty. Like most correlation statistics, the kappa can range from -1 to +1. While the kappa is one of the most commonly used statistics to test interrater reliability, it has limitations. Judgments about what level of kappa should be acceptable for health research are questioned. Cohen's suggested interpretation may be too lenient for health related studies because it implies that a score as low as 0.41 might be acceptable. Kappa and percent agreement are compared, and levels for both kappa and percent agreement that should be demanded in healthcare studies are suggested.

  1. The e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup 0}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){eta}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} cross sections measured with initial-state radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){eta}{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta}{gamma} with the hard photon radiated from the initial state. About 20 000, 4300, 5500, and 375 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 232 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the obtained cross sections from the threshold to about 5 GeV can be compared with corresponding direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements, currently available only for the {eta}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{supmore » -} and {omega}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} submodes of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup 0} channel. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and we extract their cross sections where possible. In particular, we isolate the contribution from e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{omega}(782){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and study the {omega}(1420) and {omega}(1650) resonances. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all these final states and several intermediate states, as well as the {psi}(2S) in some modes, and we measure the corresponding branching fractions.« less

  2. Effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} inhibitor, on TLR-4-dependent activation of murine microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Division of Research and Development, Neuronex, Inc., San31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2005-11-11

    In microglia, Toll-like receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiate innate immune responses upon interaction with infectious agents. The effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} specific inhibitor, on TLR-4-mediated signaling was investigated in murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and taxol. Pretreatment of microglia cells with rottlerin decreased LPS- and taxol-induced nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 99.1 {+-} 1.5 nM). Through MTT and FACS analysis, we found that the inhibition effect of rottlerin was not due to microglial cell death. Rottlerin pretreatment also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, andmore » expression of type II nitric oxide synthase. In addition, microglial phagocytosis in response to TLR-4 activation was diminished in which rottlerin was pretreated. Together, these data raise the possibility that certain PKC-{delta} specific inhibitors can modulate TLR-4-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and can alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases in central nervous system.« less

  3. Scalar resonances in a unitary {pi}{pi} S-wave model for D{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup+}{pi}{sup-}{pi}{sup+}.

    SciTech Connect

    Boito, D. R.; Dedonder, J.-P.; El-Bennich, B.

    We propose a model for D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays following experimental results which indicate that the two-pion interaction in the S wave is dominated by the scalar resonances f{sub 0}(600)/{sigma} and f{sub 0}(980). The weak decay amplitude for D{sup +} {yields} R{pi}{sup +}, where R is a resonance that subsequently decays into {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, is constructed in a factorization approach. In the S wave, we implement the strong decay R {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} by means of a scalar form factor. This provides a unitary description of the pion-pion interaction in the entire kinematically allowedmore » mass range m{sub {pi}{pi}}{sup 2} from threshold to about 3 GeV{sup 2}. In order to reproduce the experimental Dalitz plot for D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, we include contributions beyond the S wave. For the P wave, dominated by the {rho}(770){sup 0}, we use a Breit-Wigner description. Higher waves are accounted for by using the usual isobar prescription for the f{sub 2}(1270) and {rho}(1450){sup 0}. The major achievement is a good reproduction of the experimental m{sub {pi}{pi}}{sup 2} distribution, and of the partial as well as the total D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} branching ratios. Our values are generally smaller than the experimental ones. We discuss this shortcoming and, as a by-product, we predict a value for the poorly known D {yields} {sigma} transition form factor at q{sup 2} = m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}.« less

  4. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    PubMed

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  5. The structure of the blue luminescent delta-phase of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium(III) (Alq3).

    PubMed

    Cölle, Michael; Dinnebier, Robert E; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2002-12-07

    The existence of the facial isomer in the delta-phase of Alq3 is proven by X-ray structural analysis, revealing that both the different molecular structure and the weaker overlap of the pi-orbitals of hydroxyquinoline ligands belonging to neighboring Alq3 molecules as compared to other phases (alpha, beta) are likely to be the origin of the significantly different optical properties of delta-Alq3.

  6. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta induces lung cancer growth via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator gamma-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Han, Shouwei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Ying; Roman, Jesse

    2009-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta), GW501516, stimulated human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth, partly through inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 expression. Here, we show that GW501516 also decreases the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKalpha), a major regulator of energy metabolism. This was mediated through specific activation of PPARbeta/delta, as a PPARbeta/delta small interfering RNA inhibited the effect. However, AMPKalpha did not mediate the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, as silencing of AMPKalpha did not inhibit GW501516-induced cell proliferation. Instead, we found that GW501516 stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator gamma (PGC)-1alpha, which activated the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-K)/Akt mitogenic pathway. An inhibitor of PI3-K, LY294002, had no effect on PGC-1alpha, consistent with PGC-1alpha being upstream of PI3-K/Akt. Of note, an activator of AMPKalpha, 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside, inhibited the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, suggesting that although AMPKalpha is not responsible for the mitogenic effects of GW501516, its activation can oppose these events. This study unveils a novel mechanism by which GW501516 and activation of PPARbeta/delta stimulate human lung carcinoma cell proliferation, and suggests that activation of AMPKalpha may oppose this effect.

  7. Hydroxyl X2Pi pure rotational transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorvitch, D.; Goldman, A.; Dothe, Hoang; Tipping, R. H.; Chackerian, C., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    We present a list of frequencies, term values, Einstein A values, and assignments for the pure rotational transitions of the X2Pi state of the OH molecule. This list includes transitions from 3 to 2015/cm for Delta-v = 0, v-double-prime = 0-4, and J-double-prime = 0.5-49.5. The A values were computed using recent advances in calculating wave functions for a coupled system and an experimentally derived electric dipole moment function (Nelson et al., 1990) which exhibits curvature.

  8. Heat shock protein 70 negatively regulates the heat-shock-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade by facilitating I{kappa}B kinase renaturation and blocking its further denaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Choon-Taek; Kim, Young Whan

    2005-07-01

    Heat shock (HS) treatment has been previously shown to suppress the I{kappa}B/nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) cascade by denaturing, and thus inactivating I{kappa}B kinase (IKK). HS is characterized by the induction of a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, their role in the HS-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade is unclear. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression was found not to suppress the TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B pathway, thus suggesting that HSP70 is unlikely to suppress this pathway. When TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B pathway was regained 24 h after HS, HSP70 was found to be highly up-regulated. Moreover, blocking HSP70 induction delayedmore » TNF-{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and the resolubilization of IKK. In addition, HSP70 associated physically with IKK, suggesting that HSP70 is involved in the recovery process via molecular chaperone effect. Adenovirus-mediated HSP70 overexpression prior to HS blocked the I{kappa}B{alpha} stabilizing effect of HS by suppressing IKK insolubilization. Moreover, the up-regulation of endogenous HSP70 by preheating, suppressed this subsequent HS-induced IKK insolubilization, and this effect was abrogated by blocking HSP70 induction. These findings indicate that HSP70 accumulates during HS and negatively regulates the HS-induced suppression of the I{kappa}B/NF-{kappa}B cascade by facilitating the renaturation of IKK and blocking its further denaturation.« less

  9. Id-1 activation of PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB signaling pathway and its significance in promoting survival of esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Cheung, Pak Yan; Wang, Xianghong; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ling, Ming Tat; Wong, Yong Chuan; Cheung, Annie L M

    2007-11-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding (Id-1) is a helix-loop-helix protein that is over-expressed in many types of cancer including esophageal cancer. This study aims to investigate its effects on the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) signaling pathway and the significance in protecting esophageal cancer cells against apoptosis. We found elevated expression of phosphorylated forms of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and inhibitor of kappa B, as well as increased nuclear translocation of NFkappaB subunit p65 and NFkappaB DNA-binding activity, in esophageal cancer cells with stable ectopic Id-1 expression. Transient transfection of Id-1 into HEK293 cells confirmed activation of PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB signaling and the effects were counteracted by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) elicited a significantly weaker apoptotic response, following a marked and sustained activation of Akt and NFkappaB in the Id-1-over-expressing cells, compared with the vector control. The effects of Id-1 on the PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB signaling pathway and apoptosis were reversed in esophageal cancer cells transfected with siRNA against Id-1. In addition, inhibition of PI3K or NFkappaB signaling using the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the NFkappaB inhibitor Bay11-7082 increased the sensitivity of Id-1-over-expressing esophageal cancer cells to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Our results provide the first evidence that Id-1 induces the activation of PI3K/Akt/NFkappaB signaling pathway, and protects esophageal cancer cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in vitro. Inactivation of Id-1 may provide us with a novel strategy to improve the treatment and survival of patients with esophageal cancer.

  10. Novel pharmacology: asimadoline, a kappa-opioid agonist, and visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, M

    2008-09-01

    Asimadoline is a potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the kappa receptor, with IC(50) of 5.6 nmol L(-1) (guinea pig) and 1.2 nmol L(-1) (human recombinant), and high selectively with kappa : micro : delta binding ratios of 1 : 501 : 498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 h post-on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post hoc analyses suggest that asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg asimadoline was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain-free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date.

  11. Spectral temperatures of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) resonances produced in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Imran; Olimov, Kh. K., E-mail: olimov@comsats.edu.pk

    The reconstructed experimental transverse momentum (p{sub t}) distributions of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) resonances produced in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c and the corresponding spectra calculated using Modified FRITIOF model were analyzed in the framework of Hagedorn Thermodynamic Model. The spectral temperatures of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) resonances were extracted from fitting their p{sub t} spectra with one-temperature Hagedorn function. The extracted spectral temperatures of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) were compared with the corresponding temperatures of {pi}{sup -} mesons in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c obtained similarly from fitting the p{sub t} spectra of {pi}{sup -}more » by one-temperature Hagedorn function. The spectral temperatures of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) resonances agreed within uncertainties with the corresponding temperatures of {pi}{sup -} mesons produced in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c.« less

  12. The utility of the NEO-PI-R validity scales to detect response distortion: a comparison with the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Morasco, Benjamin J; Gfeller, Jeffrey D; Elder, Katherine A

    2007-06-01

    In this psychometric study, we compared the recently developed Validity Scales from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992b) with the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Validity Scales. We collected data from clients (n = 74) who completed comprehensive psychological evaluations at a university-based outpatient mental health clinic. Correlations between the Validity Scales of the NEO-PI-R and MMPI-2 were significant and in the expected directions. The relationships provide support for convergent and discriminant validity of the NEO-PI-R Validity Scales. The percent agreement of invalid responding on the two measures was high, although the diagnostic agreement was modest (kappa = .22-.33). Finally, clients who responded in an invalid manner on the NEO-PI-R Validity Scales produced significantly different clinical profiles on the NEO-PI-R and MMPI-2 than clients with valid protocols. These results provide additional support for the clinical utility of the NEO-PI-R Validity Scales as indicators of response bias.

  13. Involvement of the kappa-opioid receptor in the anxiogenic-like effect of CP 55,940 in male rats.

    PubMed

    Marín, S; Marco, E; Biscaia, M; Fernández, B; Rubio, M; Guaza, C; Schmidhammer, H; Viveros, M P

    2003-02-01

    We have studied the possible interaction between three selective opioid-receptor antagonists, nor-binaltorphimine (NB: kappa) (5 mg/kg), cyprodime (CY: mu) (10 mg/kg) and naltrindole (NTI: delta) (1 mg/kg), and the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940, in the modulation of anxiety (plus-maze) and adrenocortical activity (serum corticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay) in male rats. The holeboard was used to evaluate motor activity and directed exploration. CP 55,940 (75 microg/kg, but not 10 microg/kg) induced an anxiogenic-like effect, which was antagonised by NB. The other effects of CP 55,940 (75 microg/kg), a decreased holeboard activity and stimulation of adrenocortical activity, were not antagonised by any of the three opioid receptor antagonists. CY and NTI, when administered alone, induced marked reductions in motor activity, anxiogenic-like effects and stimulation of adrenocortical activity. The selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist NB, on its own, did not modify the level of anxiety but stimulated adrenocortical activity. We provide the first pharmacological evidence about the involvement of the kappa-opioid receptor in the anxiogenic-like effect of CP 55,940.

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Progressive Combined Immunodeficiency and Lymphoproliferation in Activated PI3K <delta> Syndrome Type 1.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsubasa; Imai, Kohsuke; Tsujita, Yuki; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kamae, Chikako; Honma, Kenichi; Mitsui-Sekinaka, Kanako; Sekinaka, Yujin; Kato, Tamaki; Hanabusa, Katsuyuki; Endo, Eri; Takashima, Takehiro; Hiroki, Haruka; Yeh, Tzu-Wen; Tanaka, Keisuke; Nagahori, Masakazu; Tsuge, Ikuya; Bando, Yuki; Iwasaki, Fuminori; Shikama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Masami; Kimoto, Tomiko; Moriguchi, Naohiko; Yuza, Yuki; Kaneko, Takashi; Suzuki, Kyoko; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Kunitsu, Tomoaki; Waragai, Tomoko; Sano, Hideki; Hashimoto, Yuko; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Osamu; Shirakawa, Toshihiko; Kato, Motohiro; Uchiyama, Toru; Ishimura, Masataka; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kracker, Sven; Durandy, Anne; Kojima, Daiei; Muramatsu, Hideki; Wada, Taizo; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Takada, Hidetoshi; Kojima, Seiji; Ogawa, Seishi; Ohara, Osamu; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Morio, Tomohiro

    2018-05-17

    Activated phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase-delta (PI3Kδ) syndrome type 1 (APDS1) is a recently described primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, lymphoid hyperplasia, and herpesviridae infections due to germline gain-of-function mutations of PIK3CD. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be considered to ameliorate progressive immunodeficiency and associated malignancy, but appropriate indications, method, and outcomes of HSCT for APDS1 remain undefined. Our objective was to analyze the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, prognosis, and treatment of APDS1 and explore appropriate indications and methods of HSCT. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cohorts undergoing HSCT at collaborating facilities. Thirty-year overall survival was 86.1%, but event-free survival was 39.6%. Life-threatening events, such as severe infections or lymphoproliferation, were frequent in childhood and adolescence, and were common indications for HSCT. Nine patients underwent HSCT with fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Seven patients survived after frequent adverse complications and engraftment failure. Most symptoms improved after HSCT. Patients with APDS1 showed variable clinical manifestations. Life-threatening progressive combined immunodeficiency and massive lymphoproliferation were common indications for HSCT. Fludarabine-based RIC-HSCT ameliorated clinical symptoms, but transplant-related complications were frequent, including graft failure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Measurements of the branching fractions for B{sub (s)}{yields}D{sub (s)}{pi}{pi}{pi} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{pi}{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Aaij, R.; Bauer, Th.; Beuzekom, M. van

    Branching fractions of the decays H{sub b}{yields}H{sub c}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to H{sub b}{yields}H{sub c}{pi}{sup -} are presented, where H{sub b} (H{sub c}) represents B{sup 0} (D{sup +}), B{sup -} (D{sup 0}), B{sub s}{sup 0} (D{sub s}{sup +}), and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} ({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}). The measurements are performed with the LHCb detector using 35 pb{sup -1} of data collected at {radical}(s)=7 TeV. The ratios of branching fractions are measured to be [B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]/[B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]=2.38{+-}0.11{+-}0.21, [B(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]/[B(B{sup -}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sup -})]= 1.27{+-}0.06{+-}0.11, [B(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]/[B(B{submore » s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]=2.01{+-}0.37{+-}0.20, [B({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]/[B({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})]=1.43{+-}0.16{+-}0.13 We also report measurements of partial decay rates of these decays to excited charm hadrons. These results are of comparable or higher precision than existing measurements.« less

  16. 40 CFR 721.10033 - Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-. 721.10033 Section 721.10033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1003...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10033 - Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-. 721.10033 Section 721.10033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1003...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10033 - Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc, [ethanedioato(2-)-. kappa. O1, . kappa. O2]-. 721.10033 Section 721.10033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1003...

  19. Homologous kappa-neurotoxins exhibit residue-specific interactions with the alpha 3 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a comparison of the structural requirements for kappa-bungarotoxin and kappa-flavitoxin binding.

    PubMed

    McLane, K E; Weaver, W R; Lei, S; Chiappinelli, V A; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1993-07-13

    kappa-Flavotoxin (kappa-FTX), a snake neurotoxin that is a selective antagonist of certain neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), has recently been isolated and characterized [Grant, G. A., Frazier, M. W., & Chiappinelli, V. A. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1532-1537]. Like the related snake toxin kappa-bungarotoxin (kappa-BTX), kappa-FTX binds with high affinity to alpha 3 subtypes of neuronal AChRs, even though there are distinct sequence differences between the two toxins. To further characterize the sequence regions of the neuronal AChR alpha 3 subunit involved in formation of the binding site for this family of kappa-neurotoxins, we investigated kappa-FTX binding to overlapping synthetic peptides screening the alpha 3 subunit sequence. A sequence region forming a "prototope" for kappa-FTX was identified within residues alpha 3 (51-70), confirming the suggestions of previous studies on the binding of kappa-BTX to the alpha 3 subunit [McLane, K. E., Tang, F., & Conti-Tronconi, B. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1537-1544] and alpha-bungarotoxin to the Torpedo AChR alpha subunit [Conti-Tronconi, B. M., Tang, F., Diethelm, B. M., Spencer, S. R., Reinhardt-Maelicke, S., & Maelicke, A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 6221-6230] that this sequence region is involved in formation of a cholinergic site. Single residue substituted analogues, where each residue of the sequence alpha 3 (51-70) was sequentially replaced by a glycine, were used to identify the amino acid side chains involved in the interaction of this prototope with kappa-FTX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The disagreeable behaviour of the kappa statistic.

    PubMed

    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    It is often of interest to measure the agreement between a number of raters when an outcome is nominal or ordinal. The kappa statistic is used as a measure of agreement. The statistic is highly sensitive to the distribution of the marginal totals and can produce unreliable results. Other statistics such as the proportion of concordance, maximum attainable kappa and prevalence and bias adjusted kappa should be considered to indicate how well the kappa statistic represents agreement in the data. Each kappa should be considered and interpreted based on the context of the data being analysed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Kwang, Jimmy; Wang Jin

    The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstratedmore » PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.« less

  2. FBI-1 enhances transcription of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive E-selectin gene by nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Kang, Jae-Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Yim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jung-Min; Heo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Yeun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2005-07-29

    The POZ domain is a highly conserved protein-protein interaction motif found in many regulatory proteins. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in the expression of a variety of genes in response to infection, inflammation, and stressful conditions. We found that the POZ domain of FBI-1 (factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of human immunodeficiency virus-1) interacted with the Rel homology domain of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB in both in vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays. FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of E-selectin genes in HeLa cells upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation and overcame gene repression by IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain of FBI-1, which is a dominant-negative form of FBI-1, repressed NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, and the repression was cooperative with IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain tagged with a nuclear localization sequence polypeptide of FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-responsive gene transcription, suggesting that the molecular interaction between the POZ domain and the Rel homology domain of p65 and the nuclear localization by the nuclear localization sequence are important in the transcription enhancement mediated by FBI-1. Confocal microscopy showed that FBI-1 increased NF-kappaB movement into the nucleus and increased the stability of NF-kappaB in the nucleus, which enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of the E-selectin gene. FBI-1 also interacted with IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta.

  3. Observation of CH A (sup 2)Delta approaches X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) and B (sup 2)Sigma(sup -) approaches X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) emissions in gas-phase collisions of fast O((sup 3)P) atoms with acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Optical emissions in single-collision, beam-beam reactions of fast (3-22 eV translational energy) O(P-3) atoms with C2H2 have been measured in the wavelength range 300-850 nm. Two features were observed, one with a peak wavelength at 431 nm, corresponding to the CH A (sup 2)Delta yields X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) transition, and a second weaker emission in the range 380-400 nm corresponding to the B (sup 2)Sigma(sup -) yields X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) transition. Both the A yields X and B yields X emissions were fit to a synthetic spectrum of CH(A) at a vibrational temperature T(sub v) of 10,000 K (0.86 eV) and a rotational temperature T(r) of approximately 5000 K (0.43 eV); and CH(B) to T(sub v) = 2500 K (0.22 eV) and T(sub r) = 1000 K (0.09 eV). The energy threshold for the A yields X emission was measured to be 7.3 +/- 0.4 eV (lab) or 4.5 +/- 0.2 eV (c.m.). This agrees with the energy threshold of 7.36 eV (lab) for the reaction O(P-3) + C2H2 yields CH(A) + HCO.

  4. Effect of unitarization on the amplitudes for the decays K{sub 1}{sup 0} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}-} and K{sup +} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}+{pi}-}

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalin, E. P., E-mail: shabalin@itep.r

    The unitarization of the amplitude for the decay process K{sub 1}{sup 0} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}-} and allowance for the rescattering of final-state pions in the decay process K{sup +} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}+{pi}-} make it possible to evaluate, by using the parameters extracted from data on K {sup {yields}}2{pi} decays, the K{sup +} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}+{pi}-} decay width. The result agrees with the experimental width value at a level of a few percent. Allowance for corrections for higher order terms of the momentum expansion of the amplitude for the decay process K{sup +} {sup {yields} {pi}+{pi}+{pi}-} leads to the slope-parameter valuemore » of g{sub ++-}{sup th} = 0.2182, which agrees with its experimental counterpart, g{sub ++-}{sup exp} = 0.2154 {+-} 0.0035.« less

  5. Oleamide suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in BV2 murine microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Jinhwa; Lee, Ju Hie; Kim, Ja-Eun; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2010-05-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing fatty acid amide that accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid of the sleep-deprived animals. Microglia are the major immune cells involved in neuroinflammation causing brain damage during infection, ischemia, and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we examined the effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the mechanisms involved in BV2 microglia. Oleamide inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and prostaglandin E2 as well as expression of iNOS and COX-2. We showed that oleamide blocked LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK). We also showed that oleamide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK, activation of PI 3-kinase, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, we showed that a specific antagonist of the CB2 receptor, AM630, blocked the inhibitory effects of oleamide on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of NF-kappaB. Taken together, our results suggest that oleamide shows an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First observation of the decays {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.

    We present a study of the P-wave spin-triplet charmonium {chi}{sub cJ} decays (J=0, 1, 2) into {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. The analysis is based on 106x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} decays recorded with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII electron positron collider. The decay into the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} hadronic final state is observed for the first time. We measure the branching fractions B({chi}{sub c0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(3.34{+-}0.06{+-}0.44)x10{sup -3}, B({chi}{sub c1}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(0.57{+-}0.03{+-}0.08)x10{sup -3}, and B({chi}{sub c2}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=(1.21{+-}0.05{+-}0.16)x10{sup -3}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematical, respectively.

  7. The kappa statistic in rehabilitation research: an examination.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh R; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2004-08-01

    The number and sophistication of statistical procedures reported in medical rehabilitation research is increasing. Application of the principles and methods associated with evidence-based practice has contributed to the need for rehabilitation practitioners to understand quantitative methods in published articles. Outcomes measurement and determination of reliability are areas that have experienced rapid change during the past decade. In this study, distinctions between reliability and agreement are examined. Information is presented on analytical approaches for addressing reliability and agreement with the focus on the application of the kappa statistic. The following assumptions are discussed: (1) kappa should be used with data measured on a categorical scale, (2) the patients or objects categorized should be independent, and (3) the observers or raters must make their measurement decisions and judgments independently. Several issues related to using kappa in measurement studies are described, including use of weighted kappa, methods of reporting kappa, the effect of bias and prevalence on kappa, and sample size and power requirements for kappa. The kappa statistic is useful for assessing agreement among raters, and it is being used more frequently in rehabilitation research. Correct interpretation of the kappa statistic depends on meeting the required assumptions and accurate reporting.

  8. Mechanisms generating kappa distributions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, Georgios

    2017-10-01

    Kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across plasma physics. Publication records reveal an exponential growth of papers relevant to kappa distributions. However, the vast majority of publications refer to statistical fits and applications of these distributions in plasmas. Up to date, there is no systematic analysis on the origin of kappa distributions, that is, the mechanisms that can generate kappa distributions in plasmas. The general scheme that characterizes these mechanisms is composed of two parts: (1) the generation of local correlations among particles, and (2) the thermalization, that is, the stabilization of the particle system into stationary states described by kappa distributions or combinations thereof. Several mechanisms are known in the literature, each characterized by a specific relationship between the plasma properties. These relationships serve as conditions that need to be fulfilled for the corresponding mechanisms to be applied in the plasma. Using these relationships, we identify three mechanisms that generate kappa distributions in the solar wind plasma: (i) Debye shielding, (ii) magnetic field binding, and (iii) thermal fluctuations, each one prevailing in different scales of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field properties. The work was supported in part by the project NNX17AB74G of NASA's HGI Program.

  9. MicroRNA-22 and microRNA-140 suppress NF-{kappa}B activity by regulating the expression of NF-{kappa}B coactivators

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, Akemi; Otsuka, Motoyuki, E-mail: otsukamo-tky@umin.ac.jp; Kojima, Kentaro

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} miRNAs were screened for their ability to regulate NF-{kappa}B activity. {yields} miRNA-22 and miRNA-140-3p suppress NF-{kappa}B activity by regulating coactivators. {yields} miRNA-22 targets nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1). {yields} miRNA-140-3p targets nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1 (NRIP1). -- Abstract: Nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is a transcription factor that regulates a set of genes that are critical to many biological phenomena, including liver tumorigenesis. To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate NF-{kappa}B activity in the liver, we screened 60 miRNAs expressed in hepatocytes for their ability to modulate NF-{kappa}B activity. We found that miRNA-22 and miRNA-140-3p significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activity bymore » regulating the expression of nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) and nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1 (NRIP1), both of which are NF-{kappa}B coactivators. Our results provide new information about the roles of miRNAs in the regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity.« less

  10. Chronic nicotine-induced changes in gene expression of delta and kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands in the mesocorticolimbic system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Muzeyyen; Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Keser, Aysegul; Balkan, Burcu

    2017-09-01

    Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. This study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/kg/day for 6 days. Rats were decapitated 1 hr after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system. mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), amygdala (AMG), dorsal striatum (DST), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that nicotine upregulated DOR mRNA in the VTA at all of the doses employed, in the AMG at the 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg doses, and in the DST at the 0.4 mg/kg dose. Conversely, PDYN mRNA was reduced in the LHA with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine and in the AMG with 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. KOR mRNA was also decreased in the DST with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Nicotine did not regulate PENK mRNA in any brain region studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quark-hadron duality and parity violating asymmetry of electroweak reactions in the {delta} region

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, K.; Sato, T.; Lee, T.-S.H.

    2005-08-01

    A dynamical model [T. Sato and T.-S. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. C 54, 2660 (1996); 63, 055201 (2001); T. Sato, D. Uno, and T.-S. H. Lee, ibid. 67, 065201 (2003)] of electroweak pion production reactions in the {delta}(1232) region has been extended to include the neutral current contributions for examining the local quark-hadron duality in neutrino-induced reactions and for investigating how the axial N-{delta} form factor can be determined by the parity violating asymmetry of N(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}) reactions. We first show that the recent data of (e,e{sup '}) structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub 2}, which exhibit the quark-hadronmore » duality, are in good agreement with our predictions. For possible future experimental tests, we then predict that the structure functions F{sub 1},F{sub 2}, and F{sub 3} for ({nu},e) and ({nu},{nu}{sup '}) processes also show the similar quark-hadron duality. The spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} of (e,e{sup '}) have also been calculated from our model. It is found that the local quark-hadron duality is not seen in the calculated g{sub 1} and g{sub 2}, while our results for g{sub 1} and some polarization observables associated with the exclusive p(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}{pi}) and p{sup {yields}}(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}{pi}) reactions are in reasonably good agreement with the recent data. In the study of parity violating asymmetry A of N(e{sup {yields}},e{sup '}) reactions, the relative importance between the nonresonant mechanisms and the {delta} excitation is investigated by taking into account the unitarity condition. Predictions are made for using the data of A to test the axial N-{delta} form factors determined previously in the studies of N({nu}{sub {mu}},{mu}{sup -}{pi}) reactions. The predicted asymmetry A are also compared with the parton model predictions for future experimental investigations of quark-hadron duality.« less

  12. [Expressions of HSP 70 and NF-kappaB in the peripheral blood lymphocyte of chronic gastritis patients of different syndrome patterns].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Yan, Xue-Hui

    2012-09-01

    To study the expressions of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the peripheral blood lymphocyte of chronic gastritis (CG) patients of Pi-Wei hygropyrexia syndrome (PWHS) and Pi-qi deficiency syndrome (PQDS), and to explore their correlation with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Recruited were totally 86 CG patients who visited at the clinics of gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, including 67 patients of PWHS (30 of predominant-dampness, 30 of equal dampness and heat, and 30 of predominant-heat) and 19 patients of PQDS. Another 12 volunteers from healthy employees and students of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited as the control group. Their peripheral blood was collected. The Hp infection was detected using ASSURE Hp rapid test. The expressions of HSP 70 and NF-kappaB in the peripheral blood lymphocyte were detected using flow cytometry. The Hp infection rate was 37. 31% in the GS patients of PWHS and 36. 84% in the GS patients of PQDS (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of HSP 70 decreased in the PWHS predominant-heat group, and the expression of NF-kappaB increased in the PWHS predominant-heat group and the PQDS group (P<0.05). The expression of NF-kappaB were higher in the positive Hp infection patients of PWHS and PQDS than in the control group (P<0.05). The expression of HSP 70 was higher in the positive Hp infection patients of PQDS than in the negative Hp infection patients of PQDS (P<0.05). Besides, the coefficient correlation was -0. 023 between HSP 70 and Hp infection, and 0. 027 between NF-KB and Hp infection (P>0.05). The increased expression of NF-KB in the peripheral blood lymphocyte of CG patients of PWHS and PQDS might reflect the pathogenic roles of "inner evil" in Chinese medicine theories. The increased expression of HSP 70 in CG patients of PQDS and decreased expression of HSP 70 in CG

  13. The effects of dexamethasone on rat brain cortical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhi; Kang Jinsong; Li Yang

    2006-08-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of brain tissue injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we studied the effects of endotoxic shock on rat brain cortex NF-{kappa}B and the effects of dexamethasone on these changes. Rats were randomly divided into LPS, LPS + dexamethasone, and control groups. The DNA-binding activity of NF-{kappa}B was observed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Protein expression in nuclear extracts was studied using Western blots, and nuclear translocation was observed using immunohistochemistry. These indices were assayed at 1 h and 4 h after intravenous injection of LPS (4 mg.kg{sup -1}). EMSA showed significantly increased NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding activitymore » in nuclear extracts from the LPS group at both 1 h and 4 h after LPS injection, compared with the control group (P < 0.01). For the LPS group, the NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding activity was greater at 1 h than at 4 h (P < 0.05). The expression of p65 and p50 protein in the nuclear extracts was also increased, as compared with the control group. However, the expression of p65 and p50 protein from cytosolic extracts did not show any significant change. Dexamethasone down-regulated not only NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding activity but also the expression of p65 protein in the nuclear extracts. From these data, we have concluded that NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B play a key role in the molecular mechanism of brain tissue injury in endotoxic shock. Dexamethasone may alleviate brain injury by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B activation.« less

  14. PI3Kδ inhibition reduces TNF secretion and neuroinflammation in a mouse cerebral stroke model.

    PubMed

    Low, Pei Ching; Manzanero, Silvia; Mohannak, Nika; Narayana, Vinod K; Nguyen, Tam H; Kvaskoff, David; Brennan, Faith H; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Gelderblom, Mathias; Magnus, Tim; Kim, Hyun Ah; Broughton, Brad R S; Sobey, Christopher G; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Stow, Jennifer L; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2014-03-14

    Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of permanent disability. Although reperfusion is currently used as treatment, the restoration of blood flow following ischaemia elicits a profound inflammatory response mediated by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF), exacerbating tissue damage and worsening the outcomes for stroke patients. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) controls intracellular TNF trafficking in macrophages and therefore represents a prospective target to limit neuroinflammation. Here we show that PI3Kδ inhibition confers protection in ischaemia/reperfusion models of stroke. In vitro, restoration of glucose supply following an episode of glucose deprivation potentiates TNF secretion from primary microglia-an effect that is sensitive to PI3Kδ inhibition. In vivo, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in kinase-dead PI3Kδ (p110δ(D910A/D910A)) or wild-type mice pre- or post-treated with the PI3Kδ inhibitor CAL-101, leads to reduced TNF levels, decreased leukocyte infiltration, reduced infarct size and improved functional outcome. These data identify PI3Kδ as a potential therapeutic target in ischaemic stroke.

  15. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  16. Observation of pi+pi-pi+pi- photoproduction in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV at the STAR detector

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    We present a measurement of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} photonuclear production in ultra-peripheral Au-Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final states are observed at low transverse momentum and are accompanied by mutual nuclear excitation of the beam particles. The strong enhancement of the production cross section at low transverse momentum is consistent with coherent photoproduction. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} invariant mass spectrum of the coherent events exhibits a broad peak around 1540 {+-} 40 MeV/c{sup 2} with a width of 570 {+-} 60 MeV/c{sup 2},more » in agreement with the photoproduction data for the {rho}{sup 0}(1700). We do not observe a corresponding peak in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state and measure an upper limit for the ratio of the branching fractions of the {rho}{sup 0}(1700) to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} of 2.5% at 90% confidence level. The ratio of {rho}{sup 0}(1700) and {rho}{sup 0}(770) coherent production cross sections is measured to be 13.4 {+-} 0.8{sub stat.} {+-} 4.4{sub syst.}%.« less

  17. Observation of pi+ pi- pi+pi- photoproduction in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisons at sqrt sNN = 200 GeV at the STAR Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Dunlop, J.; et al. STAR Collaboration

    We present a measurement of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} photonuclear production in ultraperipheral Au-Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final states are observed at low transverse momentum and are accompanied by mutual nuclear excitation of the beam particles. The strong enhancement of the production cross section at low transverse momentum is consistent with coherent photoproduction. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} invariant mass spectrum of the coherent events exhibits a broad peak around 1540 {+-} 40 MeV/c{sup 2} with a width of 570 {+-} 60 MeV/c{sup 2},more » in agreement with the photoproduction data for the {rho}{sup 0}(1700). We do not observe a corresponding peak in the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state and measure an upper limit for the ratio of the branching fractions of the {rho}{sup 0}(1700) to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} of 2.5% at 90% confidence level. The ratio of {rho}{sup 0}(1700) and {rho}{sup 0}(770) coherent production cross sections is measured to be 13.4 {+-} 0.8{sub stat.}{+-}4.4{sub syst.}%.« less

  18. Controlling coherence using the internal structure of hard pi pulses.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanqun; Ramos, R G; Li, Dale; Barrett, S E

    2008-06-20

    The tiny difference between hard pi pulses and their delta-function approximation can be exploited to control coherence. Variants on the magic echo that work despite a large spread in resonance offsets are demonstrated using the zeroth- and first-order average Hamiltonian terms, for 13C NMR in 60C. The 29Si NMR linewidth of silicon has been reduced by a factor of about 70,00 using this approach, which also has potential applications in magnetic resonance microscopy and imaging of solids.

  19. The selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U50,488H attenuates voluntary ethanol intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, S; Werme, M; Brené, S; Franck, J

    2001-05-01

    Non-selective opioid receptor antagonists are increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The clinical effects are significant but the effect size is rather small and unpleasant side effects may limit the benefits of the compounds. Ligands acting at mu- and/or delta- receptors can alter the voluntary intake of ethanol in various animal models. Therefore, the attenuating effects of selective opioid receptor ligands on ethanol intake may be of clinical interest in the treatment of alcoholism. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a selective kappa-receptor agonist, U50,488H on voluntary ethanol intake in the rat. We used a restricted access model with a free choice between an ethanol solution (10% v/v) and water. During the 3-days baseline period, the rats received a daily saline injection (1 ml/kg, i.p.) 15 min before the 2 h access to ethanol. The animals had free access to water at all times. The control group received a daily saline injection during the 4-days treatment-period, whereas the treatment groups received a daily dose of U50,488H (2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg per day). Animals treated with U50,488H dose-dependently decreased their ethanol intake. The effect of the highest dose of U50,488H was reduced by pre-treatment with the selective kappa-antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). These results demonstrate that activation of kappa-opioid receptors can attenuate voluntary ethanol intake in the rat, and the data suggest that the brain dynorphin/kappa-receptor systems may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapy in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  20. Origins and properties of kappa distributions in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-07-01

    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as the space and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across space and plasma physics. However, a breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to the solid statistical framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, some of which will be presented in this talk: (i) The physical meaning of thermal parameters, e.g., temperature and kappa index; (ii) the multi-particle description of kappa distributions; (iii) the phase-space kappa distribution of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potential; (iv) the Sackur-Tetrode entropy for kappa distributions, and (v) the new quantization constant, h _{*}˜10 ^{-22} Js.

  1. Application of an Optical Model to the Interaction of the $pi$ Meson with the Nucleus in the $pi$ Mesic Atom (thesis); APPLICATION D'UN MODELE OPTIQUE POUR L'INTERACTION DU MESON $pi$ MESIQUE (THESE)

    SciTech Connect

    Berthet, M.

    1963-01-01

    The energy levels and their displacement DELTA E with respect to that of a meson placed in a coulomb potential are determined and compared with the experimental values. This comparison permits the selection of values for the parameters introduced by the hypothesis of the optical model. The absorption in the nucleus is studied using the hamiltonian of the nucleon- pi meson interaction and not th optical model. The results are compared with experimen values. As an introduction, the exact form of the interac tion of mesons with nuclei is defined by adopting the opti model. (J.S.R.)

  2. Study of the K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state in B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup +}{yields}{psi}'K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Guler, H.; McGill University, Montreal; Universite de Montreal, Montreal

    Using 535x10{sup 6} B-meson pairs collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, we measure branching fractions of (7.16{+-}0.10(stat){+-}0.60(syst)x10{sup -4} for B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and (4.31{+-}0.20(stat){+-}0.50(syst))x10{sup -4} for B{sup +}{yields}{psi}'K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. We perform amplitude analyses to determine the resonant structure of the K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state in B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup +}{yields}{psi}'K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and find that the K{sub 1}(1270) is a prominent component of both decay modes. There is significant interference among the different intermediate states, which leads, in particular, to a striking distortion ofmore » the {rho} line shape due to the {omega}. Based on the results of the fit to the B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} data, the relative decay fractions of the K{sub 1}(1270) to K{rho}, K{omega}, and K*(892){pi} are consistent with previous measurements, but the decay fraction to K{sub 0}*(1430) is significantly smaller. Finally, by floating the mass and width of the K{sub 1}(1270) in an additional fit of the B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} data, we measure a mass of (1248.1{+-}3.3(stat){+-}1.4(syst)) MeV/c{sup 2} and a width of (119.5{+-}5.2(stat){+-}6.7(syst)) MeV/c{sup 2} for the K{sub 1}(1270).« less

  3. Nonplanar ion acoustic waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Biswajit

    2011-06-15

    Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, nonlinear cylindrical and spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations are derived for the propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma with kappa distributed electrons and warm ions. The influence of kappa-distributed electrons and the effects caused by the transverse perturbation on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic waves (IAWs) are investigated. It is observed that increase in the kappa distributed electrons (i.e., decreasing {kappa}) decreases the amplitude of the solitary electrostatic potential structures. The numerical results are presented to understand the formation of ion acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons in nonplanar geometry. Themore » present investigation may have relevance in the study of propagation of IAWs in space and laboratory plasmas.« less

  4. Phosphate (Pi)-regulated heterodimerization of the high-affinity sodium-dependent Pi transporters PiT1/Slc20a1 and PiT2/Slc20a2 underlies extracellular Pi sensing independently of Pi uptake.

    PubMed

    Bon, Nina; Couasnay, Greig; Bourgine, Annabelle; Sourice, Sophie; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck, Laurent

    2018-02-09

    Extracellular phosphate (P i ) can act as a signaling molecule that directly alters gene expression and cellular physiology. The ability of cells or organisms to detect changes in extracellular P i levels implies the existence of a P i -sensing mechanism that signals to the body or individual cell. However, unlike in prokaryotes, yeasts, and plants, the molecular players involved in P i sensing in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent P i transporters PiT1 and PiT2 in mediating P i signaling in skeletal cells. We found that deletion of PiT1 or PiT2 blunted the P i -dependent ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent gene up-regulation of the mineralization inhibitors matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. This result suggested that both PiTs are necessary for P i signaling. Moreover, the ERK1/2 phosphorylation could be rescued by overexpressing P i transport-deficient PiT mutants. Using cross-linking and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approaches, we found that PiT1 and PiT2 form high-abundance homodimers and P i -regulated low-abundance heterodimers. Interestingly, in the absence of sodium-dependent P i transport activity, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was still regulated by extracellular P i levels. Of note, when two putative P i -binding residues, Ser-128 (in PiT1) and Ser-113 (in PiT2), were substituted with alanine, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was no longer regulated by extracellular P i These observations suggested that P i binding rather than P i uptake may be the key factor in mediating P i signaling through the PiT proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that P i -regulated PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization mediates P i sensing independently of P i uptake. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Characterizing Cometary Electrons with Kappa Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broiles, T. W.; Livadiotis, G.; Burch, J. L.; Chae, K.; Clark, G.; Cravens, T. E.; Davidson, R.; Eriksson, A.; Frahm, R. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft has escorted comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since 6 August 2014 and has offered an unprecedented opportunity to study plasma physics in the coma. We have used this opportunity to make the first characterization of cometary electrons with kappa distributions. Two three-dimensional kappa functions were fit to the observations, which we interpret as two populations of dense and warm (density 10 cubic centimeters, temperature 2 times 10 (sup 5) degrees Kelvin, invariant kappa index 10 to 1000), and rarefied and hot (density equals 0.005 cubic centimeters, temperature 5 times 10 (sup 5) degrees Kelvin, invariant kappa index equals 1 to 10) electrons. We fit the observations on 30 October 2014 when Rosetta was 20 kilometers from 67P, and 3 Astronomical Units from the Sun. We repeated the analysis on 15 August 2015 when Rosetta was 300 kilometers from the comet and 1.3 Astronomical Units from the Sun. Comparing the measurements on both days gives the first comparison of the cometary electron environment between a nearly inactive comet far from the Sun and an active comet near perihelion. We find that the warm population density increased by a factor of 3, while the temperature cooled by a factor of 2, and the invariant kappa index was unaffected. We find that the hot population density increased by a factor of 10, while the temperature and invariant kappa index were unchanged. We conclude that the hot population is likely the solar wind halo electrons in the coma. The warm population is likely of cometary origin, but its mechanism for production is not known.

  6. Exclusive Central pi+pi- production in CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, Michael; Swiech, Artur; Zurek, Maria

    2013-10-14

    Using the Collider Detector at Fermilab, CDF, we have measured exclusive pi+pi- production at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV and 1960 GeV. The pi+pi- pair is central, |y| < 1.0, and there are no other particles detected in |eta| < 5.9. We discuss the mass spectrum, showing f0(980) and f2(1270) resonances, s-dependence, pT-dependence, and angular distributions.

  7. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi+(c) ---> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi+(c) ---> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Engelfried, J.

    The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. They observe 56 {+-} 13 over a background of 21, and 23 {+-} 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({Xi}{submore » c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.20, and B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.23 {+-} 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.« less

  8. Large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} decay modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    We discuss a possibility of large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} from recent experimental data. The experimental data may be suggesting that there are some discrepancies between the data and theoretical estimation in the branching ratios of them. In B{yields}K{pi} decays, to explain it, a large electroweak penguin contribution and large strong phase differences seem to be needed. The contributions should appear also in B{yields}{pi}{pi}. We show, as an example, a solution to solve the discrepancies in both B{yields}K{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{pi}. However the magnitude of the parameters and the strong phase estimated from experimental data are quite largemore » compared with the theoretical estimations. It may be suggesting some new physics effects are included in these processes. We will have to discuss about the dependence of the new physics. To explain both modes at once, we may need large electroweak penguin contribution with new weak phases and some SU(3) breaking effects by new physics in both QCD and electroweak penguin-type processes.« less

  9. Some Paradoxical Results for the Quadratically Weighted Kappa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2012-01-01

    The quadratically weighted kappa is the most commonly used weighted kappa statistic for summarizing interrater agreement on an ordinal scale. The paper presents several properties of the quadratically weighted kappa that are paradoxical. For agreement tables with an odd number of categories "n" it is shown that if one of the raters uses the same…

  10. Measurement of the branching fraction $${\\mathcal{B}}(\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda^+_c\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)$$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.

    We report an analysis of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay in a data sample collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron corresponding to 2.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. We reconstruct the currently largest samples of the decay modes {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} (with {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++} {yields} {Lambda}{submore » c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}), and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455)0{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Sigma}{sub c}(2455)0 {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) and measure the branching fractions relative to the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching fraction. We measure the ratio {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/ {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=3.04 {+-} 0.33(stat){sub -0.55}{sup +0.70}(syst) which is used to derive {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=(26.8{sub -11.2}{sup +11.9}) x 10{sup -3}.« less

  11. First observation and measurement of the resonant structure of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay mode

    SciTech Connect

    Azzurri, P.; Barria, P.; Ciocci, M.A.

    The authors present the first observation of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay using data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They also present the first observation of the resonant decays {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{pi}{sup -}more » {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and measure their relative branching ratios.« less

  12. Exotic and qq-bar resonances in the pi+pi-pi- system produced in pi-p collisions at 18 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    S. U. Chung; K. Danyo; R. W. Hackenburg

    A partial-wave analysis of the reaction pi{sup -}p-->pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup -}p at 18 GeV/c has been performed on a data sample of 250 000 events obtained in the Brookhaven experiment E852. The well-known a{sub 1}(1260), a{sub 2}(1320) and pi{sub 2}(1670) resonant states are observed. The existence of the pi(1800), a{sub 1}(1700) and a{sub 4}(2040) states is confirmed. The a{sub 3}(1874) state is also observed. The exotic 1{sup -+} pi{sub 1}(1600) state produced in the natural parity exchange process is found to decay in the rho(770)pi{sup -} channel. A mass-dependent fit results in a resonance mass of 1593{+-}8{sub -47}{sup +29} MeV/c{supmore » 2} and a width of 168{+-}20{sub -12}{sup +150} MeV/c{sup 2}.« less

  13. Generation of Kappa Distributions in Solar Wind at 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.; Desai, M. I.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2018-02-01

    We examine the generation of kappa distributions in the solar wind plasma near 1 au. Several mechanisms are mentioned in the literature, each characterized by a specific relationship between the solar wind plasma features, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the kappa index—the parameter that governs the kappa distributions. This relationship serves as a signature condition that helps the identification of the mechanism in the plasma. In general, a mechanism that generates kappa distributions involves a single or a series of stochastic or physical processes that induces local correlations among particles. We identify three fundamental solar wind plasma conditions that can generate kappa distributions, noted as (i) Debye shielding, (ii) frozen IMF, and (iii) temperature fluctuations, each one prevailing in different scales of solar wind plasma and magnetic field properties. Moreover, our findings show that the kappa distributions, and thus, their generating mechanisms, vary significantly with solar wind features: (i) the kappa index has different dependence on the solar wind speed for slow and fast modes, i.e., slow wind is characterized by a quasi-constant kappa index, κ ≈ 4.3 ± 0.7, while fast wind exhibits kappa indices that increase with bulk speed; (ii) the dispersion of magnetosonic waves is more effective for lower kappa indices (i.e., further from thermal equilibrium); and (iii) the kappa and polytropic indices are positively correlated, as it was anticipated by the theory.

  14. Obliquely Propagating Waves in Bi-Kappa Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F.; Meneses, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of kappa velocity distribution functions (VDFs) have been the subjectof intense research. Such functions have beenfound to provide a better fitting to the VDFs measured by spacecraftin the solar wind. An anisotropic VDF contains free energy that can excite wavesin the plasma. The induced turbulence also determines the observed shape of the VDF.The general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established.However, for kappa distributions (isotropic or anisotropic), the majority of the studieswere restricted to the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation.Contributions to the general case of obliquely-propagating waves have been scarcely reported.The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interactionin kappa plasmas, since some instabilities can operate both in the parallel and oblique directions.A series of papers published by the authors begin to remedy this situation. In a first work [1],we have obtained the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. This approach was later generalized by [2],where the formalism was extended to the general case of electrostatic/electromagnetic waves propagatingin an isotropic kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles.In the present work [3], we generalize even further the formalism by the derivation of thegeneral dielectric tensor of an anisotropic bi-kappa plasma. We present the state-of-the-art of theformalism and show how it enables a systematic study of waves and instabilities propagating inarbitrary directions and frequencies in a bi-kappa plasma.[1] R. Gaelzer, L. F. Ziebell, J. Geophys. Res. 119, 9334 (2014), doi: 10.1002/2014JA020667.[2] R. Gaelzer, L. F. Ziebell, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016), doi: 10.1063/1.4941260.[3] R. Gaelzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062108 (2016), doi: 10.1063/1.4953430.

  15. Resampling probability values for weighted kappa with multiple raters.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Paul W; Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E

    2008-04-01

    A new procedure to compute weighted kappa with multiple raters is described. A resampling procedure to compute approximate probability values for weighted kappa with multiple raters is presented. Applications of weighted kappa are illustrated with an example analysis of classifications by three independent raters.

  16. Kappa-Electrons Downstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical description of the solar wind electron distribution function downstream of the termination shock under the influence of the shock-induced injection of overshooting KeV-energetic electrons will be presented. A kinetic phasespace transport equation in the bulk frame of the heliosheath plasma flow is developed for the solar wind electrons, taking into account shock-induced electron injection, convective changes, magnetic cooling processes and whistler wave-induced energy diffusion. Assuming that the local electron distribution under the prevailing Non-LTE conditions can be represented by a local kappa function with a local kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinates, we determine the parameters of the resulting, initial kappa distribution for the downstream electrons. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes can be derived and can be compared with those measured by the VOYAGER-1 spacecraft in the range between 40 to 70 KeV. It can then be shown that with kappa values around kappa = 6 one can in fact fit these data very satisfactorily. In addition it is shown that for isentropic electron flows kappa-distributed electrons have to undergo simultaneous changes of both parameters, i.e. kappa and theta, of the electron kappa function. It is also shown then that under the influence of energy sinks and sources the electron flux becomes non-isentropic with electron entropies changing along the streamline.

  17. Chiral symmetry and N*(1440){yields}N{pi}{pi} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Morishita, M.; Arima, M.

    2005-04-01

    The N*(1440){yields}N{pi}{pi} decay is studied by making use of the chiral reduction formula. This formula suggests a scalar-isoscalar pion-baryon contact interaction that is absent in the recent study of Hernandez et al. [Phys. Rev. C 66, 065201 (2002)]. The contact interaction is introduced into their model and is found to be necessary for the simultaneous description of g{sub RN{pi}}{sub {pi}} and the {pi}{pi} and {pi}N invariant mass distributions.

  18. Experimental Determination of the Electric Dipole Moment Function of the X Pi-2 Hydroxyl Radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Goorvitch, D.; Abrams, M. C.; Davis, S. P.; Benidar, A.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Strawa, Anthony W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory infrared emission spectra of X 2piOH obtained with the Solar McMath FTS and the U. Paris (Orsay) FTS are used in an inversion procedure to experimentally determine the electric dipole moment function (EDMF) of the hydroxyl radical. The spectra produced at Kitt Peak show vibrational levels up to v = 10 and rotational lines in the range, -25.5 less than or equal to m less than or equal to 12.5. The following vibrational quantum number ranges were observed: for DELTA v = -1, v prime = 1 - 9, for DELTA v = -2, v prime = 2 - 10, and for DELTA v = - 3, v prime = 6 - 10. The spectra produced at Orsay show DELTA v = -1, with v prime = 1 - 4 and -22.5 less than or equal to m less than or equal to 9.5 as well as DELTA v = 0, with v prime= 1 - 3, and 9.5 less than or equal to m less than or equal to 25.5. The OH rovibrational wavefunctions used in the inversion procedure were calculated using a procedure which reproduces observed rotational constants with a high level of accuracy. Comparisons of our EDMF are made with previous experimental and theoretical work.

  19. Nonequilibrium approach regarding metals from a linearised kappa distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech-Garret, J. L.

    2017-10-01

    The widely used kappa distribution functions develop high-energy tails through an adjustable kappa parameter. The aim of this work is to show that such a parameter can itself be regarded as a function, which entangles information about the sources of disequilibrium. We first derive and analyse an expanded Fermi-Dirac kappa distribution. Later, we use this expanded form to obtain an explicit analytical expression for the kappa parameter of a heated metal on which an external electric field is applied. We show that such a kappa index causes departures from equilibrium depending on the physical magnitudes. Finally, we study the role of temperature and electric field on such a parameter, which characterises the electron population of a metal out of equilibrium.

  20. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kan-o, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro, E-mail: koichi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Asai-Tajiri, Yukari

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polymore » IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB.« less

  1. Crop Acreage Estimation: Landsat TM and Resourcesat-1 AWiFS Sensor Assessment of the Mississippi River Delta, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boryan, Claire; Johnson, Dave; Craig, Mike; Seffrin, Bob; Mueller, RIck

    2007-01-01

    AWiFs data are appropriate for crop acreage estimation over large, spectrally homogenous, crop areas such as the Mid-West, the Delta and the Northern Great Plains. Regression and Kappa statistics for soybean, corn, cotton, rice and sorghum produced using both the Landsat TM and AWiFS data are very similar. AWiFS data appear to be a suitable alternative or supplement to Landsat TM data for production of NASS'Cropland Data Layer product.

  2. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Methods Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. Results The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The two methods showed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.671; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots were used to demonstrate the agreement between the two methods. Conclusions We designed a new method using UBM and corneal topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. PMID:28471103

  3. Measurement of Angle Kappa Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Corneal Topography.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Joon Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2017-06-01

    To introduce a new convenient and accurate method to measure the angle kappa using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and corneal topography. Data from 42 eyes (13 males and 29 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II and calculated with UBM and corneal topography. The angle kappa of the dominant eye was compared with measurements by Orbscan II. The mean patient age was 36.4 ± 13.8 years. The average angle kappa measured by Orbscan II was 3.98° ± 1.12°, while the average angle kappa calculated with UBM and corneal topography was 3.19° ± 1.15°. The difference in angle kappa measured by the two methods was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The two methods showed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.671; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots were used to demonstrate the agreement between the two methods. We designed a new method using UBM and corneal topography to calculate the angle kappa. This method is convenient to use and allows for measurement of the angle kappa without an expensive device. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  4. NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. NF-kappaB mediates FGF signal regulation of msx-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bushdid, P B; Chen, C L; Brantley, D M; Yull, F; Raghow, R; Kerr, L D; Barnett, J V

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in a stage- and cell-dependent manner. Recent evidence has shown that NF-kappaB activity is necessary for both chicken and mouse limb development. We report here that the NF-kappaB family member c-rel and the homeodomain gene msx-1 have partially overlapping expression patterns in the developing chick limb. In addition, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity resulted in a decrease in msx-1 mRNA expression. Sequence analysis of the msx-1 promoter revealed three potential kappaB-binding sites similar to the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) kappaB-binding site. These sites bound to c-Rel, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity significantly reduced transactivation of the msx-1 promoter in response to FGF-2/-4, known stimulators of msx-1 expression. These results suggest that NF-kappaB mediates the FGF-2/-4 signal regulation of msx-1 gene expression. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  7. Observation of pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup +}pi{sup -} photoproduction in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at the STAR detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B. I.; Betts, R. R.; Evdokimov, O.

    We present a measurement of pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup +}pi{sup -} photonuclear production in ultraperipheral Au-Au collisions at sq root(s{sub N{sub N}})=200 GeV from the STAR experiment. The pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup +}pi{sup -} final states are observed at low transverse momentum and are accompanied by mutual nuclear excitation of the beam particles. The strong enhancement of the production cross section at low transverse momentum is consistent with coherent photoproduction. The pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup +}pi{sup -} invariant mass spectrum of the coherent events exhibits a broad peak around 1540+-40 MeV/c{sup 2} with a width of 570+-60 MeV/c{sup 2}, in agreement with themore » photoproduction data for the rho{sup 0}(1700). We do not observe a corresponding peak in the pi{sup +}pi{sup -} final state and measure an upper limit for the ratio of the branching fractions of the rho{sup 0}(1700) to pi{sup +}pi{sup -} and pi{sup +}pi{sup -}pi{sup +}pi{sup -} of 2.5% at 90% confidence level. The ratio of rho{sup 0}(1700) and rho{sup 0}(770) coherent production cross sections is measured to be 13.4+-0.8{sub stat.}+-4.4{sub syst.}%.« less

  8. Depletion of the cellular levels of Bag-1 proteins attenuates phorbol ester-induced downregulation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Jana V., E-mail: Jana.maier@kit.edu; Volz, Yvonne; Berger, Caroline

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields}Bag-1 depletion only marginally affects the action of the glucocorticoid receptor but strongly regulates the activity of NF-{kappa}B. {yields}Bag-1 depletion attenuates phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B p65 and p50. {yields}Bag-1 interacts with I{kappa}B{alpha} and partially restores I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation in Bag-1 depleted cells. -- Abstract: Bag-1 consists in humans of four isoforms generated from the same RNA by alternative translation. Overexpression of single Bag-1 isoforms has identified Bag-1 as a negative regulator of action of many proteins including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we have analysed the ability of Bag-1 to regulatemore » the transrepression function of the GR. Silencing Bag-1 expression only marginally affects the transrepression action of the GR but decreased the action of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear accumulation of p65 and p50 NF-{kappa}B proteins in response to phorbol ester was attenuated following Bag-1 depletion in HeLa cells. Reconstitution of Bag-1 in depleted cells partially restored I{kappa}B{alpha} and NF-{kappa}B activation. Knock-down of Bag-1 expression also did not significantly alter GR-mediated transactivation but affected the basal transcription of some of the target genes. Thus Bag-1 proteins function as regulators of the action of selective transcription factors.« less

  9. Transgenerationally inherited piRNAs trigger piRNA biogenesis by changing the chromatin of piRNA clusters and inducing precursor processing

    PubMed Central

    Le Thomas, Adrien; Stuwe, Evelyn; Li, Sisi; Marinov, Georgi; Rozhkov, Nikolay; Chen, Yung-Chia Ariel; Luo, Yicheng; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Toth, Katalin Fejes; Patel, Dinshaw; Aravin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs that associate with Piwi proteins, called piRNAs, serve as guides for repression of diverse transposable elements in germ cells of metazoa. In Drosophila, the genomic regions that give rise to piRNAs, the so-called piRNA clusters, are transcribed to generate long precursor molecules that are processed into mature piRNAs. How genomic regions that give rise to piRNA precursor transcripts are differentiated from the rest of the genome and how these transcripts are specifically channeled into the piRNA biogenesis pathway are not known. We found that transgenerationally inherited piRNAs provide the critical trigger for piRNA production from homologous genomic regions in the next generation by two different mechanisms. First, inherited piRNAs enhance processing of homologous transcripts into mature piRNAs by initiating the ping-pong cycle in the cytoplasm. Second, inherited piRNAs induce installment of the histone 3 Lys9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) mark on genomic piRNA cluster sequences. The heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homolog Rhino binds to the H3K9me3 mark through its chromodomain and is enriched over piRNA clusters. Rhino recruits the piRNA biogenesis factor Cutoff to piRNA clusters and is required for efficient transcription of piRNA precursors. We propose that transgenerationally inherited piRNAs act as an epigenetic memory for identification of substrates for piRNA biogenesis on two levels: by inducing a permissive chromatin environment for piRNA precursor synthesis and by enhancing processing of these precursors. PMID:25085419

  10. NF-{kappa}B regulates Lef1 gene expression in chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Kangsun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Nam, Jong Hee

    The relation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling to osteoarthritis progression has been revealed with little information on the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study we found overexpression of Lef1 in cartilage tissue of osteoarthritic patients and elucidated molecular mechanism of NF-{kappa}B-mediated Lef1 gene regulation in chondrocytes. Treatment of IL-1{beta} augmented Lef1 upregulation and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B in chondrocytes. Under IL-1{beta} signaling, treatment of NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation inhibitor SN-50 reduced Lef1 expression. A conserved NF-{kappa}B-binding site between mouse and human was selected through bioinformatic analysis and mapped at the 14 kb upstream of Lef1 transcription initiation site. NF-{kappa}B binding to the sitemore » was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Lef1 expression was synergistically upregulated by interactions of NF-{kappa}B with Lef1/{beta}-catenin in chondrocytes. Our results suggest a pivotal role of NF-{kappa}B in Lef1 expression in arthritic chondrocytes or cartilage degeneration.« less

  11. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS 2 horizons

    DOE PAGES

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-03

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D =more » $$\\kappa/c_\\rho$$ and butterfy velocity $$\\upsilon_\\beta$$ in holographic models that flow to $$AdS_2$$ x $R^d$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of $$AdS_2$$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $$\\Delta$$ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = $$\\upsilon_B^2$$/(2$$\\pi$$T).« less

  12. IKK{epsilon} modulates RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Xiaoyong; Indukuri, Hemalatha; Liu Tianshuang

    2010-12-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is the most common cause of epidemic respiratory disease in infants and young children. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces the expression of immune/inflammatory genes through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study we have investigated the role of the non canonical I{kappa}B kinase (IKK){epsilon} in modulating RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Our results show that inhibition of IKK{epsilon} activation results in significant impairment of viral-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, through a reduction in NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity, without changes in nuclear translocation or DNA-binding activity. Absencemore » of IKK{epsilon} results in a significant decrease of RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B phosphorylation on serine 536, a post-translational modification important for RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, known to regulate NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity without affecting nuclear translocation. This study identifies a novel mechanism by which IKK{epsilon} regulates viral-induced cellular signaling.« less

  13. Opioid-receptor subtype agonist-induced enhancements of sucrose intake are dependent upon sucrose concentration.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, H; Yu, W Z; Bodnar, R J

    1997-07-01

    Selective mu ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO)), delta1 ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE)), delta2 ([D-Ala2, Glu4]-Deltorphin (Delt II)), kappa1 (U50488H) and kappa3 (naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzOH)) opioid agonists each stimulate food intake in rats. Whereas studies with selective opioid antagonists implicate mu and kappa1 receptors in the mediation of sucrose intake, studies with selective opioid agonists implicate mu and delta receptors in the mediation of saccharin intake. The present study determined if specific delta1, delta2, kappa1, kappa3 and mu opioid-receptor subtype agonists produced similar alterations in sucrose intake as a function of sucrose concentration (0.5%, 2.5%, 10%) across a 1-h time-course. Each of these agonists significantly increased sucrose intake with variations in pattern, magnitude, and consistency as a function of sucrose concentration. Whereas the mu opioid agonist, DAMGO, and the delta1 opioid agonist, DPDPE, each enhanced sucrose intake at higher (2.5%, 10%), but not lower (0.5%), concentrations, the delta2 opioid agonist, Delt II, increased sucrose intake at lower (0.5%, 2.5%), but not higher (10%), concentrations. Kappa opioid agonists produced less consistent effects. The kappa1 opioid agonist, U50488H, increased sucrose intake at high (10%) concentrations and decreased sucrose intake at low (0.5%) concentrations, and the kappa3 opioid agonist, NalBzOH, inconsistently increased sucrose intake at the 0.5% (20 microg) and 10% (1 microg) concentrations. Thus, these data further implicate mu, delta1, and delta2 opioid mediation of palatable intake, particularly of its orosensory characteristics.

  14. [Excitation and relaxation of metastable state NaK(1 3Pi) at high vibrational levels].

    PubMed

    Luan, Nan-Nan; Cai, Qin; Zhang, Li-Ping; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan

    2011-11-01

    The authors have investigated collision vibrational energy transfer rate constants in NaK[1 3Pi(v)] and He system. Pump laser excitation of the spin-forbidden band was used to produce very highly vibrationally excited metastable state NaK[1 3Pi (v = 22, 21, 20)]. The probe laser was used to excite the 1 3Pi (v = 22, 21, 20) to 5 3Pi(v'). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from 5 3Pi --> 1 3Sigma+ transition was used to follow the collision dynamics. The semilog plots of time-resolved LIF was obtained. The slopes yielded the effective lifetimes. From such data several Stern-Volmer plots could be constructed and the relaxation rate constants could be extracted for the sum of all processes that give rise to the decay of the prepared vibrational state. The rate constants (in units of 10(-11) cm3 x s(-1)) for v being 22, 21 and 20 are 1.4 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 1.0 +/- 0.1, respectively. The vibrational relaxation rate is increasing with vibrational quantum number. In order to determine the importance of multiquantum relaxation, it is necessary to measure the relative population of both the prepared state and collisionally populated states. By the kinetic equations governing up to Delta(v) = 2 transitions, the time dependence of populations of the vibrational states were obtained. With the help of the integrating the population equations over all time, the importance of the two-quantum relaxation could be studied experimentally. By varying the delay between the pump and the probe laser, the He pressure dependent vibrational state specific decay could be measured. The time evolutions and relative intensities of the three states v = 22, 21 and 20 by preparing v = 22 were obtained. Using experimental data the rate constants (in units of 10(-11) cm3 x s(-1)) for v = 22 --> 21 and v = 22 --> 20 are 0.67 +/- 0.15 and 0.49 +/- 0.12, respectively. The single quantum relaxation accounts for only about 48% of the total relaxation out of v = 22. Multi-quantum relaxation (Delta

  15. Kappa angles in different positions in patients with myopia during LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hui; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Li-Qiang; Huang, Yi-Fei

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the difference in kappa angle between sitting and supine positions during laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS A retrospective study was performed on 395 eyes from 215 patients with myopia that received LASIK. Low, moderate, and high myopia groups were assigned according to diopters. The horizontal and vertical components of kappa angle in sitting position were measured before the operation, and in supine position during the operation. The data from the two positions were compared and the relationship between kappa angle and diopters were analyzed. RESULTS Two hundred and twenty-three eyes (56.5%) in sitting position and 343 eyes (86.8%) in supine position had positive kappa angles. There were no significant differences in horizontal and vertical components of kappa angle in the sitting position or horizontal components of kappa angle in the supine position between the three groups (P>0.05). A significant difference in the vertical components of kappa angle in the supine position was seen in the three groups (P<0.01). Differences in both horizontal and vertical components of kappa angles were significant between the sitting and supine positions. Positive correlations in both horizontal and vertical components of kappa angles (P<0.05) were found and vertical components of kappa angle in sitting and supine positions were negatively correlated with the degree of myopia (sitting position: r=-0.109; supine position: r=-0.172; P<0.05). CONCLUSION There is a correlation in horizontal and vertical components of kappa angle in sitting and supine positions. Positive correlations in both horizontal and vertical components of kappa angle in sitting and supine positions till the end of the results. This result still needs further observation. Clinicians should take into account different postures when excimer laser surgery needs to be performed. PMID:27162734

  16. Antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids in brain cells, independent of NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Bourke, E; Moynagh, P N

    1999-08-15

    Glucocorticoids are potent antiinflammatory drugs. They inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. It has recently been proposed that the underlying basis to such inhibition is the induction of the protein I kappa B, which inhibits the transcription factor NF-kappa B. The latter is a key activator of the genes encoding cytokines and adhesion molecules. The present study shows that the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, inhibits the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and the adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in human 1321N1 astrocytoma and SK.N.SH neuroblastoma cells. However, dexamethasone failed to induce I kappa B or inhibit activation of NF-kappa B by IL-1 in the two cell types. EMSA confirmed the identity of the activated NF-kappa B by demonstrating that an oligonucleotide, containing the wild-type NF-kappa B-binding motif, inhibited formation of the NF-kappa B-DNA complexes whereas a mutated form of the NF-kappa B-binding motif was ineffective. In addition, supershift analysis showed that the protein subunits p50 and p65 were prevalent components in the activated NF-kappa B complexes. The lack of effect of dexamethasone on the capacity of IL-1 to activate NF-kappa B correlated with its inability to induce I kappa B and the ability of IL-1 to cause degradation of I kappa B, even in the presence of dexamethasone. The results presented in this paper strongly suggest that glucocorticoids may exert antiinflammatory effects in cells of neural origin by a mechanism(s) independent of NF-kappa B.

  17. delta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (delta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    delta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( delta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 86 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  18. The Search for Exotic Mesons in gamma p -> pi+pi+pi-n with CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Bookwalter

    2011-12-01

    The {pi}{sub 1}(1600), a J{sup PC} = 1{sup {-+}} exotic meson has been observed by experiments using pion beams. Theorists predict that photon beams could produce gluonic hybrid mesons, of which the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) is a candidate, at enhanced levels relative to pion beams. The g12 rungroup at Jefferson Lab's CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) has recently acquired a large photoproduction dataset, using a liquid hydrogen target and tagged photons from a 5.71 GeV electron beam. A partial-wave analysis of 502K {gamma}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}n events selected from the g12 dataset has been performed, and preliminary fit resultsmore » show strong evidence for well-known states such as the a{sub 1}(1260), a{sub 2}(1320), and {pi}{sub 2}(1670). However, we observe no evidence for the production of the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) in either the partial-wave intensities or the relative complex phase between the 1{sup {-+}} and the 2{sup {-+}} (corresponding to the {pi}{sub 2}) partial waves.« less

  19. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br

    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase inmore » the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population.« less

  20. Delta Vision, Delta Voices: The Mississippi Delta Beyond 2000

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-05-10

    This Report has taken its guidance from a single overriding goal: To recognize the enormous natural, capital, and cultural resources of the Delta, and to enable all of the Delta's citizens to participate as full and successful partners in America's s...

  1. The Correlation between Angle Kappa and Ocular Biometry in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Rang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate normative angle kappa data and to examine whether correlations exist between angle kappa and ocular biometric measurements (e.g., refractive error, axial length) and demographic features in Koreans. Methods Data from 436 eyes (213 males and 223 females) were analyzed in this study. The angle kappa was measured using Orbscan II. We used ocular biometric measurements, including refractive spherical equivalent, interpupillary distance and axial length, to investigate the correlations between angle kappa and ocular biometry. The IOL Master ver. 5.02 was used to obtain axial length. Results The mean patient age was 57.5 ± 12.0 years in males and 59.4 ± 12.4 years in females (p = 0.11). Angle kappa averaged 4.70 ± 2.70 degrees in men and 4.89 ± 2.14 degrees in women (p = 0.48). Axial length and spherical equivalent were correlated with angle kappa (r = -0.342 and r = 0.197, respectively). The correlation between axial length and spherical equivalent had a negative correlation (r = -0.540, p < 0.001). Conclusions Angle kappa increased with spherical equivalent and age. Thus, careful manipulation should be considered in older and hyperopic patients when planning refractive or strabismus surgery. PMID:24311927

  2. Inhibition of single Shaker K channels by kappa-conotoxin-PVIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, David

    2002-01-01

    kappa-Conotoxin-PVIIA (kappa-PVIIA) is a 27-residue basic (+4) peptide from the venom of the predator snail Conus purpurascens. A single kappa-PVIIA molecule interrupts ion conduction by binding to the external mouth of Shaker K channels. The blockade of Shaker by kappa-PVIIA was studied at the single channel level in membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes. The amplitudes of blocked and closed events were undistinguishable, suggesting that the toxin interrupts ion conduction completely. Between -20 and 40 mV kappa-PVIIA increased the latency to the first opening by one order of magnitude in a concentration-independent fashion. Because kappa-PVIIA has higher affinity for the closed channels at high enough concentration to block >90% of the resting channels, the dissociation rate could be estimated from the analysis of the first latency. At 0 mV, the dissociation rate was 20 s(-1) and had an effective valence of 0.64. The apparent closing rate increased linearly with [kappa-PVIIA] indicating an association rate of 56 microM(-1) s(-1). The toxin did not modify the fraction of null traces. This result suggests that the structural rearrangements in the external mouth contributing to the slow inactivation preserve the main geometrical features of the toxin-receptor interaction. PMID:12023223

  3. c-rel activates but v-rel suppresses transcription from kappa B sites.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, J; Kerr, L D; Ransone, L J; Bengal, E; Hunter, T; Verma, I M

    1991-01-01

    We show that the product of the protooncogene c-rel is a constituent of an NF-kappa B-like complex that binds to the kappa B site originally identified in the enhancer of immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene. c-rel protein synthesized in bacteria binds to the kappa B site in a sequence-specific manner. The rel-kappa B complex can be disrupted by incubation with anti-rel antibodies. The rel protein can form oligomers. The c-rel protein can activate transcription from promoters containing kappa B sites; v-rel, on the other hand, suppresses the transcription of genes linked to kappa B sites. Thus, v-rel may interfere with the normal transcriptional machinery of the cell by acting as a dominant negative mutant. Images PMID:2023921

  4. TNF{alpha} acting on TNFR1 promotes breast cancer growth via p42/P44 MAPK, JNK, Akt and NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, Martin A.; Carnevale, Romina P.; Proietti, Cecilia J.

    2008-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) enhances proliferation of chemically-induced mammary tumors and of T47D human cell line through not fully understood pathways. Here, we explored the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by TNF{alpha}, the participation of TNF{alpha} receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 and the molecular mechanism leading to breast cancer growth. We demonstrate that TNF{alpha} induced proliferation of C4HD murine mammary tumor cells and of T47D cells through the activation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, PI3-K/Akt pathways and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) transcriptional activation. A TNF{alpha}-specific mutein selectively binding to TNFR1 induced p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, Akt activation, NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation and cell proliferation,more » just like wild-type TNF{alpha}, while a mutein selective for TNFR2 induced only p42/p44 MAPK activation. Interestingly, blockage of TNFR1 or TNFR2 with specific antibodies was enough to impair TNF{alpha} signaling and biological effect. Moreover, in vivo TNF{alpha} administration supported C4HD tumor growth. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that injection of a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activity, Bay 11-7082, resulted in regression of TNF{alpha}-promoted tumor. Bay 11-7082 blocked TNF{alpha} capacity to induce cell proliferation and up-regulation of cyclin D1 and of Bcl-x{sub L}in vivo and in vitro. Our results reveal evidence for TNF{alpha} as a breast tumor promoter, and provide novel data for a future therapeutic approach using TNF{alpha} antagonists and NF-{kappa}B pharmacological inhibitors in established breast cancer treatment.« less

  5. Elastic scattering and particle production in two-prong. pi. /sup -/p interactions at 8 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagaki, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yuta, H.

    1982-10-01

    Results of a high-statistics study of elastic scattering and meson resonances produced by ..pi../sup -/p interactions at 8 GeV/c are presented. Large statistics and small systematic errors permit examination of the complete kinematic region. Total differential cross sections are given for rho/sup 0,-/, f/sup 0/, g/sup 0,-/, ..delta../sup + -/, ..delta../sup 0/, and N* resonances. Spin-density matrix elements and Legendre-polynomial moments are given for rho, f, and ..delta.. resonances. The results for rho/sup 0/ and f/sup 0/ resonances are compared with the predictions of a Regge-pole-exchange model. Properties of the above resonances are compared and discussed. In particular, we presentmore » evidence that the rho/sup 0/ and f/sup 0/ production mechanisms are similar. The similarity of the g/sup 0/ t distribution to that of the rho/sup 0/ and f/sup 0/ suggests a common production mechanism for all three resonances.« less

  6. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi- (in Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  7. Epstein–Barr Virus Susceptibility in Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS) Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carpier, Jean-Marie; Lucas, Carrie L.

    2018-01-01

    Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS) is an inherited immune disorder caused by heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) subunits p110δ or p85δ. This recently described primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) is characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphoproliferation, and susceptibility to herpesviruses, with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection being most notable. A broad range of PIDs having disparate, molecularly defined genetic etiology can cause susceptibility to EBV, lymphoproliferative disease, and lymphoma. Historically, PID patients with loss-of-function mutations causing defective cell-mediated cytotoxicity or antigen receptor signaling were found to be highly susceptible to pathological EBV infection. By contrast, the gain of function in PI3K signaling observed in APDS patients paradoxically renders these patients susceptible to EBV, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. At a cellular level, APDS patients exhibit deranged B lymphocyte development and defects in class switch recombination, which generally lead to defective immunoglobulin production. Moreover, APDS patients also demonstrate an abnormal skewing of T cells toward terminal effectors with short telomeres and senescence markers. Here, we review APDS with a particular focus on how the altered lymphocyte biology in these patients may confer EBV susceptibility. PMID:29387064

  8. Evidence for the decay D0-->K(-)pi(+)pi(-)e(+)nu(e).

    PubMed

    Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F

    2007-11-09

    Using a 281 pb{-1} data sample collected at the psi(3770) with the CLEO-c detector, we present the first absolute branching fraction measurement of the decay D0-->K(-)pi(+)pi(-)e(+)nu(e) at a statistical significance of about 4.0 standard deviations. We find 10 candidates consistent with the decay D0-->K(-)pi(+)pi(-)e(+)nu(e). The probability that a background fluctuation accounts for this signal is less than 4.1 x 10{-5}. We find B(D0-->K(-)pi(+)pi(-)e(+)nu(e)) = [2.8{-1.1}{+1.4}(stat)+/-0.3(syst)]x10{-4}. By restricting the invariant mass of the hadronic system to be consistent with K1(1270), we obtain the product of branching fractions B(D{0}-->K{1}{-}(1270)e{+}nu{e})xB(K1-(1270)-->K{-}pi{+}pi{-})=[2.5{-1.0}{+1.3}(stat)+/-0.2(syst)]x10{-4}. Using B(K1-(1270)-->K{-}pi{+}pi{-})=(33+/-3)%, we obtain B(D{0}-->K{1}{-}(1270)e{+}nu{e})=[7.6{-3.0}{+4.1}(stat)+/-0.6(syst)+/-0.7]x10{-4}. The last error accounts for the uncertainties in the measured K1-(1270)-->K{-}pi{+}pi{-} branching fractions.

  9. Nuclear factor kappa B: a potential target for anti-HIV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pande, V; Ramos, M J

    2003-08-01

    The Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor, which is sequestered in the cytoplasm by the protein IkappaB. NF-kappaB plays a major role in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression. Upon activation, NF-kappaB is released from IkappaB, moves to the nucleus, and binds to its sites on the HIV long terminal repeat to start transcription of integrated HIV genome. The present review focuses on the NF-kappaB as a potential target for the development of chemotherapy against HIV-1. Beginning from the viral-binding to reverse transcription, integration, and gene expression, to the virion maturation, the life cycle of HIV presents drug-targets at all the stages. As a result, many drugs have been developed and have entered clinical trials. Some of the most important of these are reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors, which have been used mostly in clinical studies in the form of combined therapy. But, this combined therapy has presented the problem of resistance, due to mutations in the virus. However, targeting NF-kappaB for the suppression of virus does not present the problem of resistance, as NF-kappaB is a normal part of the human T-4 cell, and is not subject to mutations, as is the virus. An overview of the NF-kappaB system and its role in HIV-1 is presented, followed by a critical review of its current and potential synthetic inhibitors. The drugs studied against NF-kappaB fall mainly into three categories: (1) Antioxidants, against oxidative stress conditions, which aid in NF-kappaB activation, (2) IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation inhibitors (the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB is necessary to make NF-kappaB free and move to the nucleus), and (3) NF-kappaB DNA binding inhibitors. The antioxidants include N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), alpha-Lipoic acid, glutathione monoester, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and tepoxalin, of which NAC is the best studied. The IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation inhibitors

  10. Soil phosphorus forms and profile distributions in the tidal river network region in the Yellow River Delta estuary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg(-1). Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance.

  11. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hachem, Ahmed; Yacoub, Daniel; Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Givenmore » that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against

  12. Direct covalent modification as a strategy to inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vineet; Sousa, Sérgio F; Ramos, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-KkappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor whose inappropriate activation may result in the development of a number of diseases including cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration and AIDS. Recent studies on NF-kappaB mediated pathologies, made therapeutic interventions leading to its inhibition an emerging theme in pharmaceutical research. NF-kappaB resides in the cytoplasm and is activated by several time-dependent factors, leading to proteasome-dependent degradation of its inhibitory protein (IkappaB), resulting in free NF-kappaB (p50 and p65 subunits, involved in disease states), which binds to target DNA sites, further resulting in enhanced transcription of several disease associated proteins. The complex pathway of NF-kappaB, finally leading to its DNA binding, has attracted several approaches interfering with this pathway. One such approach is that of a direct covalent modification of NF-kappaB. In this article, we present a critical review on the pharmacological agents that have been studied as inhibitors of NF-kappaB by covalently modifying redox-regulated cysteine residues in its subunits, ultimately resulting in the inhibition of kappaB DNA recognition and binding. Beginning with a general overview of NF-kappaB pathway and several possibilities of chemical interventions, the significance of redox-regulation in NF-kappaB activation and DNA binding is presented. Further, protein S-thiolation, S-nitrosylation and irreversible covalent modification are described as regular biochemical events in the cell, having provided a guideline for the development of NF-kappaB inhibitors discussed further. Although just a handful of inhibitors, with most of them being alkylating agents have been studied in the present context, this approach presents potential for the development of a new class of NF-kappaB-inhibitors.

  13. Pi-Pi contacts are an overlooked protein feature relevant to phase separation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Robert McCoy; Chong, Paul Andrew; Tsang, Brian; Kim, Tae Hun; Bah, Alaji; Farber, Patrick; Lin, Hong; Forman-Kay, Julie Deborah

    2018-02-09

    Protein phase separation is implicated in formation of membraneless organelles, signaling puncta and the nuclear pore. Multivalent interactions of modular binding domains and their target motifs can drive phase separation. However, forces promoting the more common phase separation of intrinsically disordered regions are less understood, with suggested roles for multivalent cation-pi, pi-pi, and charge interactions and the hydrophobic effect. Known phase-separating proteins are enriched in pi-orbital containing residues and thus we analyzed pi-interactions in folded proteins. We found that pi-pi interactions involving non-aromatic groups are widespread, underestimated by force-fields used in structure calculations and correlated with solvation and lack of regular secondary structure, properties associated with disordered regions. We present a phase separation predictive algorithm based on pi interaction frequency, highlighting proteins involved in biomaterials and RNA processing. © 2018, Vernon et al.

  14. Pi-Pi contacts are an overlooked protein feature relevant to phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Robert McCoy; Chong, Paul Andrew; Tsang, Brian; Kim, Tae Hun; Bah, Alaji; Farber, Patrick; Lin, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Protein phase separation is implicated in formation of membraneless organelles, signaling puncta and the nuclear pore. Multivalent interactions of modular binding domains and their target motifs can drive phase separation. However, forces promoting the more common phase separation of intrinsically disordered regions are less understood, with suggested roles for multivalent cation-pi, pi-pi, and charge interactions and the hydrophobic effect. Known phase-separating proteins are enriched in pi-orbital containing residues and thus we analyzed pi-interactions in folded proteins. We found that pi-pi interactions involving non-aromatic groups are widespread, underestimated by force-fields used in structure calculations and correlated with solvation and lack of regular secondary structure, properties associated with disordered regions. We present a phase separation predictive algorithm based on pi interaction frequency, highlighting proteins involved in biomaterials and RNA processing. PMID:29424691

  15. Akt-mediated regulation of NFkappaB and the essentialness of NFkappaB for the oncogenicity of PI3K and Akt.

    PubMed

    Bai, Dong; Ueno, Lynn; Vogt, Peter K

    2009-12-15

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt (cellular homolog of murine thymoma virus akt8 oncogene), also known as PKB (protein kinase B), is activated by lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Akt phosphorylates numerous protein targets that control cell survival, proliferation and motility. Previous studies suggest that Akt regulates transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) by inducing phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB). We show here that NFkappaB-driven transcription increases in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by myristylated Akt (myrAkt). Accordingly, both a dominant negative mutant of Akt and Akt inhibitors repress NFkappaB-dependent transcription. The degradation of the IkappaB protein is strongly enhanced in Akt-transformed cells, and the loss of NFkappaB activity by introduction of a super-repressor of NFkappaB, IkappaBSR, interferes with PI3K- and Akt-induced oncogenic transformation of CEF. The phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFkappaB at serine 534 is also upregulated in Akt-transformed cells. Our data suggest that the stimulation of NFkappaB by Akt is dependent on the phosphorylation of p65 at S534, mediated by IKK (IkappaB kinase) alpha and beta. Akt phosphorylates IKKalpha on T23, and this phosphorylation event is a prerequisite for the phosphorylation of p65 at S534 by IKKalpha and beta. Our results demonstrate two separate functions of the IKK complex in NFkappaB activation in cells with constitutive Akt activity: the phosphorylation and consequent degradation of IkappaB and the phosphorylation of p65. The data further support the conclusion that NFkappaB activity is essential for PI3K- and Akt-induced oncogenic transformation. Copyright (c) 2009 UICC.

  16. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for {pi}{pi} D- and F-wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the {pi}{pi} D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two-pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed {pi}{pi} interactions and are very useful tools to test the {pi}{pi} amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set of equations required for easy use. Full analytical expressions are presented. Along with the well-known dispersion relations successfulmore » in testing the {pi}{pi} S- and P-wave amplitudes, those presented here for the D and F waves give a complete set of tools for analyses of the {pi}{pi} interactions.« less

  17. Observation of an enhancement in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{Upsilon}(1S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and {Upsilon}(3S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} production near {radical}(s)=10.89 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.-F.; Hou, W.-S.; Chang, P.

    2010-11-01

    We measure the production cross sections for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{Upsilon}(1S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and {Upsilon}(3S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} as a function of {radical}(s) between 10.83 GeV and 11.02 GeV. The data consist of 8.1 fb{sup -1} collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe enhanced production in all three final states that does not agree well with the conventional {Upsilon}(10860) line shape. A fit using a Breit-Wigner resonance shape yields a peak mass of [10 888.4{sub -2.6}{sup +2.7}(stat){+-}1.2(syst)] MeV/c{sup 2} and a width of [30.7{sub -7.0}{sup +8.3}(stat){+-}3.1(syst)] MeV/c{sup 2}.

  18. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e to K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.

    2011-08-19

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}-{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e{sup +}e{supmore » -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} or e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020){pi}{pi}{gamma} reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y (2175) resonance in the {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and K{sup +}K{sup -} f{sub 0}(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the {phi}(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions.« less

  19. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Pre-folding IkappaBalpha alters control of NF-kappaB signaling.

    PubMed

    Truhlar, Stephanie M E; Mathes, Erika; Cervantes, Carla F; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-27

    Transcription complex components frequently show coupled folding and binding but the functional significance of this mode of molecular recognition is unclear. IkappaBalpha binds to and inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB via its ankyrin repeat (AR) domain. The beta-hairpins in ARs 5-6 in IkappaBalpha are weakly-folded in the free protein, and their folding is coupled to NF-kappaB binding. Here, we show that introduction of two stabilizing mutations in IkappaBalpha AR 6 causes ARs 5-6 to fold cooperatively to a conformation similar to that in NF-kappaB-bound IkappaBalpha. Free IkappaBalpha is degraded by a proteasome-dependent but ubiquitin-independent mechanism, and this process is slower for the pre-folded mutants both in vitro and in cells. Interestingly, the pre-folded mutants bind NF-kappaB more weakly, as shown by both surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry in vitro and immunoprecipitation experiments from cells. One consequence of the weaker binding is that resting cells containing these mutants show incomplete inhibition of NF-kappaB activation; they have significant amounts of nuclear NF-kappaB. Additionally, the weaker binding combined with the slower rate of degradation of the free protein results in reduced levels of nuclear NF-kappaB upon stimulation. These data demonstrate clearly that the coupled folding and binding of IkappaBalpha is critical for its precise control of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity.

  1. Determination of {pi}{sup {+-}} meson polarizabilities from the {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} process

    SciTech Connect

    Fil'kov, L.V.; Kashevarov, V.L.

    2006-03-15

    A fit of the experimental data to the total cross section of the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} in the energy region from threshold to 2500 MeV has been carried out using dispersion relations with subtractions for the invariant amplitudes, where the dipole and the quadrupole polarizabilities of the charged pion are free parameters. As a result, the sum and the difference of the electric and magnetic dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities of the charged pion have been found: ({alpha}{sub 1}+{beta}{sub 1}){sub {pi}{sup {+-}}}=(0.18{sub -0.02}{sup +0.11})x10{sup -4} fm{sup 3},({alpha}{sub 1}-{beta}{sub 1}){sub {pi}{sup {+-}}}=(13.0{sub -1.9}{sup +2.6})x10{sup -4} fm{sup 3},({alpha}{sub 2}+{beta}{sub 2}){sub {pi}{sup {+-}}}=(0.133{+-}0.015)x10{supmore » -4} fm{sup 5},({alpha}{sub 2}-{beta}{sub 2}){sub {pi}{sup {+-}}}=(25.0{sub -0.3}{sup +0.8})x10{sup -4} fm{sup 5}. These values agree with the dispersion sum rule predictions. The value found for the difference of the dipole polarizabilities is consistent with the results obtained from scattering of high energy {pi}{sup -} mesons off the Coulomb field of heavy nuclei [Yu. M. Antipov et al., Phys. Lett. B121, 445 (1983)] and from radiative {pi}{sup +} photoproduction from the proton at MAMI [J. Ahrens et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 23, 113 (2005)], whereas it is at variance with the recent calculations in the framework of chiral perturbation theory.« less

  2. Search for Quadrupole Strength in the Electroexcitation of the Delta+ (1232)

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz; C. Vellidis; Ricardo Alarcon

    2001-04-01

    High precision 1H(e, e'p)pi0 measurements at Q2 = 0.126. (GeV/c)2 are reported, which allow the determination of quadrupole amplitudes in the gamma*N --> Delta transition; they simultaneously test the reliability of electroproduction models. The derived quadrupole-to-dipole (I = 3/2) amplitude ratios, RSM = (-6.5 +/- 0.2stat+sys+/-2.5mod)% and REM = 9-2.1 +/-0.2stat+sys +/-2.0mod)%, are dominated by model error. Previous RSM and REM results should be reconsidered after the model uncertainties associated with the method of their extraction are taken into account.

  3. Synergistic activation of NF-{kappa}B by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKK{beta}-I{kappa}B{alpha}, and p38 MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida

    2006-12-15

    In review of the past studies on NF-{kappa}B regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-{kappa}B is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-{kappa}B and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitromore » and in vivo. The classical IKK{beta}-I{kappa}B{alpha} and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-{kappa}B via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-{kappa}B via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.« less

  4. Comparison of D--> KS0 pi and D--> KL0 pi decay rates.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J

    2008-03-07

    We present measurements of D--> KS0 pi and D--> KL0 pi branching fractions using 281 pb(-1) of psi(3770) data at the CLEO-c experiment. We find that B(D0--> KS0 pi 0) is larger than B(D0--> KL0 pi 0), with an asymmetry of R(D0)=0.108+/-0.025+/-0.024. For B(D+--> KS0 pi+) and B(D+--> KL0 pi+), we observe no measurable difference; the asymmetry is R(D+)=0.022+/-0.016+/-0.018. The D0 asymmetry is consistent with the value based on the U-spin prediction A(D0--> K0 pi 0)/A(D0--> K0 pi 0)=-tan2 theta C, where theta C is the Cabibbo angle.

  5. PI3K class II α regulates δ-opioid receptor export from the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Shiwarski, Daniel J; Darr, Marlena; Telmer, Cheryl A; Bruchez, Marcel P; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between signaling and trafficking by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has focused mainly on endocytic trafficking. Whether and how surface delivery of newly synthesized GPCRs is regulated by extracellular signals is less understood. Here we define a signaling-regulated checkpoint at the trans -Golgi network (TGN) that controls the surface delivery of the delta opioid receptor (δR). In PC12 cells, inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) activity blocked export of newly synthesized δR from the Golgi and delivery to the cell surface, similar to treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). Depletion of class II phosphoinositide-3 kinase α (PI3K C2A), but not inhibition of class I PI3K, blocked δR export to comparable levels and attenuated δR-mediated cAMP inhibition. NGF treatment displaced PI3K C2A from the Golgi and optogenetic recruitment of the PI3K C2A kinase domain to the TGN-induced δR export downstream of NGF. Of importance, PI3K C2A expression promotes export of endogenous δR in primary trigeminal ganglion neurons. Taken together, our results identify PI3K C2A as being required and sufficient for δR export and surface delivery in neuronal cells and suggest that it could be a key modulator of a novel Golgi export checkpoint that coordinates GPCR delivery to the surface. © 2017 Shiwarski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PI) to PI4-phosphate (PI4P) and then to PI(4,5)P2 is essential for the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration under heat stress in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Nan; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Ren, Ang; Shi, Liang; Zhu, Jing; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Yu, Han-Shou; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2018-04-26

    How cells drive the phospholipid signal response to heat stress (HS) to maintain cellular homeostasis is a fundamental issue in biology, but the regulatory mechanism of this fundamental process is unclear. Previous quantitative analyses of lipids showed that phosphatidylinositol (PI) accumulates after HS in Ganoderma lucidum, implying the inositol phospholipid signal may be associated with HS signal transduction. Here, we found that the PI-4-kinase and PI-4-phosphate-5-kinase activities are activated and that their lipid products PI-4-phosphate and PI-4,5-bisphosphate are increased under HS. Further experimental results showed that the cytosolic Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and ganoderic acid (GA) contents induced by HS were decreased when cells were pretreated with Li + , an inhibitor of inositol monophosphatase, and this decrease could be rescued by PI and PI-4-phosphate. Furthermore, inhibition of PI-4-kinases resulted in a decrease in the Ca 2+ and GA contents under HS that could be rescued by PI-4-phosphate but not PI. However, the decrease in the Ca 2+ and GA contents by silencing of PI-4-phosphate-5-kinase could not be rescued by PI-4-phosphate. Taken together, our study reveals the essential role of the step converting PI to PI-4-phosphate and then to PI-4,5-bisphosphate in [Ca 2+ ] c signalling and GA biosynthesis under HS. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of characteristics of {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) produced in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Olimov, Kh. K., E-mail: olimov@comsats.edu.pk; Haseeb, Mahnaz Q., E-mail: mahnazhaseeb@comsats.edu.pk; Khan, Imran

    2012-04-15

    Reconstructed momentum, transverse momentum, kinetic energy, rapidity, and emission angle distributions along with their mean values were compared for {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) resonances produced in p{sup 12}C and d{sup 12}C collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c. Mean momentum, transverse momentum, and rapidity of protons and negative pions coming from {Delta}{sup 0}(1232) decay were extracted and compared with the corresponding mean values for protons and {pi}{sup -} mesons in experiment and the relevant model calculations.

  8. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  9. Spermatozoa Expression of piR-31704, piR-39888, and piR-40349 and Their Correlation to Sperm Concentration and Fertilization Rate After ICSI.

    PubMed

    Cui, Long; Fang, Li; Shi, Biwei; Qiu, Sunquan; Ye, Yinghui

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between spermatozoa PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) levels and semen parameters and to evaluate the role of expression of piRNAs on fertilization and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. One hundred and eighty-six patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles were enrolled in our study. The levels of piRNAs in spermatozoa were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Semen parameters, including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, were evaluated. The rates of fertilization, early cleavage, and day 3 good-quality embryo were calculated to assess embryo development potential. Spermatozoa levels of piR-31704 and piR-39888 were decreased in male factor infertility group as compared with control group (for piR-31704, P = .027 and for piR-39888, P = .041, respectively). And these 2 piRNAs were expressed at higher levels in patients with normal sperm concentration compared with subnormal sperm concentration group (for piR-31704, P = .042; for piR-39888, P = .047, respectively), while there were no correlation between the 3 piRNAs expression levels in spermatozoa and the rates of sperm progressive motility and normal sperm morphology. There were significant increases in the levels of all 3 piRNAs in spermatozoa from the group with higher 2PN rates (for piR-31704, P = .002; for piR-39888, P < .001; for piR-40349, P < .001; respectively), but there was no correlation between spermatozoa levels of these 3 piRNAs and the rates of embryo early cleavage, day 3 good-quality embryos and pregnancy. Spermatozoa piRNA levels correlate with sperm concentration and fertilization rate after ICSI. Paternal piRNAs may play a role in fertilization process.

  10. Amplitude Analysis of B0 to K^ pi^-pi^0 and Evidence of Direct CP Violation in B to K^* pi decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.

    We analyze the decay B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup 0} with a sample of 454 million B{bar B} events collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, and extract the complex amplitudes of seven interfering resonances over the Dalitz plot. These results are combined with amplitudes measured in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{sub s}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays to construct isospin amplitudes from B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup *}{pi} and B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}K decays. We measure the phase of the isospin amplitude {Phi}{sub 3/2}, useful in constraining the CKM unitarity triangle angle {gamma}more » and evaluate a CP rate asymmetry sum rule sensitive to the presence of new physics operators. We measure direct CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup *+}{pi}{sup -} decays at the level of 3 {sigma} when measurements from both B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{sub s}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are combined.« less

  11. The relationship between kappa and temperature in energetic ion spectra at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    A universal energy per charge kappa function fit is simultaneously applied to the spectra of Voyager 2 Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) proton, helium, oxygen, sulfur, and carbon ions during 33 Jovian plasma sheet crossings from 26 to 160 R(sub J). The fits yield an approximately linear relationship between high energy spectral index, kappa, and core proton temperature of the form kappa (T(sub H)) approximately = eta dot T(sub H) + kappa(sub 0) with eta = 0.080 ke/V, kappa(sub 0) = 2.86, and T(sub H) measured in keV. Core proton temperatures range from 5 to 35 keV with spectral indices ranging from 3 to 6.

  12. Observation and modeling of compressional Pi 3 magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, K.; Yumoto, K.; Anderson, B. J.; Sibeck, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    Compressional magnetic pulsations with irregular waveforms and periods longer than 150 s (here termed Pi 3) have been studied by using data from Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) and GOES 5 and 6 in the dayside magnetosphere and compared with signatures on the ground at low latitudes by using data from Kakioka station (L = 1.25). On the ground, the pulsations appear in the horizontal component. A study of 17 such concurrent events during a 2-month period in 1986 reveals the following pulsation characteristics. (1) The peak-to-peak amplitudes in space (delta B(sub T)) and on the ground (delta H) are comparable and are in the range of 0.5-7 nT. (2) On the ground the pulsations can be seen at all local times, even at midnight, while at geostationary orbit they are observed only on the dayside with a clear amplitude maximum at noon. (3) The pulsations on the ground lag those observed by CCE near local noon, and the lag increases as the local time separation between CCE and the ground station increases. The time lag is 1-2 min longer when the ground station is on the nightside than when it is on the dayside. (4) The time lag between pulsations observed at geostationary orbit and near noon by CCE varies systematically with local time and is about 2 min per 6 hours of local time separation. These observations indicate that some nightside pulsations in the Pi 3 band have dayside origins. The position dependence of the pulsation amplitude can be explained well by changes in the magnetopause current, which are in turn presumably caused by changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. The time lags observed in space are consistent with signal propagation in the MHD fast mode, but the variation in space-ground time lags with ground station local time must be attributed to another mechanism.

  13. Pharmacological characterization of ATPM [(-)-3-aminothiazolo[5,4-b]-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan hydrochloride], a novel mixed kappa-agonist and mu-agonist/-antagonist that attenuates morphine antinociceptive tolerance and heroin self-administration behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jun; Tao, Yi-Min; Li, Fu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Hua; Xu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Jie; Cao, Ying-Lin; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; Neumeyer, John L; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2009-04-01

    ATPM [(-)-3-amino-thiazolo[5,4-b]-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan hydrochloride] was found to have mixed kappa- and mu-opioid activity and identified to act as a full kappa-agonist and a partial mu-agonist by in vitro binding assays. The present study was undertaken to characterize its in vivo effects on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice and heroin self-administration in rats. ATPM was demonstrated to yield more potent antinociceptive effects than (-)U50,488H (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide). It was further found that the antinociceptive effects of ATPM were mediated by kappa- and mu-, but not delta-opioid, receptors. In addition to its agonist profile on the mu-receptor, ATPM also acted as a mu-antagonist, as measured by its inhibition of morphine-induced antinociception. It is more important that ATPM had a greater ratio of the ED(50) value of sedation to that of antinociception than (-)U50,488 (11.8 versus 3.7), indicative of a less sedative effect than (-)U50,488H. In addition, ATPM showed less potential to develop antinociceptive tolerance relative to (-)U50,488H and morphine. Moreover, it dose-dependently inhibited morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. Furthermore, it was found that chronic treatment of rats for 8 consecutive days with ATPM (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) produced sustained decreases in heroin self-administration. (-)U50,488H (2 mg/kg s.c.) also produced similar inhibitory effect. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that ATPM, a novel mixed kappa-agonist and mu-agonist/-antagonist, could inhibit morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance, with less potential to develop tolerance and reduce heroin self-administration with less sedative effect. kappa-Agonists with some mu-activity appear to offer some advantages over selective kappa-agonists for the treatment of heroin abuse.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10688 - Copper, chloro[tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphite-.kappa.P]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) phosphite-.kappa.P]-. 721.10688 Section 721.10688 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10688 Copper, chloro[tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphite-.kappa.P]-. (a... copper, chloro[tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphite-.kappa.P]- (PMN P-13-221; CAS No. 24484-01-3) is subject to...

  15. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one ofmore » the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.« less

  16. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  17. Near-midnight observations of nitric oxide delta- and gamma-band chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, P. D.; Feldman, P. D.; Hartig, G. F.; Henry, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Chemiluminescent nightglow emission of the nitric oxide delta and gamma bands was measured from a sounding rocket launched on April 27, 1981, near local midnight. The integrated band emission rates for this near zenith observation above 205 km were less than 10 Rayleighs. The solar zenith angle was 127 deg. The branching ratio from the C2Pi state to the A2Sigma(+) state of NO was determined from comparison of the total emission rate of the delta band system to that of the gamma band system and found to be 0.30 + or - 0.06. The branching ratios within each of the band systems were found to be consistent with previous theoretical and experimental determinations. The vertical atomic nitrogen distribution, derived with the use of a model atmosphere, was found to have a peak density of 2.0 x 10 to the 7th atoms/cu cm at an altitude of 205 km. The analysis of these data indicate the presence of residual NO emission above 270 km at local midnight on the order of 1 Rayleigh of total band emission.

  18. The Story of PI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The early history and the uses of the mathematical notation - pi - are presented through both film footage and computer animation in this 'Project Mathematics' series video. Pi comes from the first letter in the Greek word for perimeter. Archimedes, and early Greek mathematician, formulated the equations for the computation of a circle's area using pi and was the first person to seriously approximate pi numerically, although only to a few decimal places. By 1985, pi had been approximated to over one billion decimal places and was found to have no repeating pattern. One use of pi is the application of its approximation calculation as an analytical tool for determining the accuracy of supercomputers and software designs.

  19. Developing a Truly Global Delta Database to Assess Delta Morphology and Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. L.; Edmonds, D. A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Whaling, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta morphology reflects the interplay of various environmental parameters, though these relationships have only been tested on small datasets with 30-50 deltas. These datasets are biased toward the largest deltas, which typically have compound morphologies, form on passive margins, and may not be representative of the full breadth in delta morphology. With the goal of building more robust predictions of delta morphology to enhance hazard mitigation and resiliency planning, we have developed a truly global delta database including every delta on the world's marine coastlines. Using Google Earth imagery, we first identified all fluvial river mouths (≥ 50 m wide) connected to an upstream catchment. Deltas are defined geomorphically as river mouths that split into two or more active or relict distributary channels, end in a depositional protrusion from the shoreline, or do both. In our database we identified 5,801 river mouths, and 1,426 of those coastal rivers (~25%) have a geomorphic delta. ~75% of deltas exhibit an active or relict distributary network, while the remaining ~25% are single channel deltas with a basinward protrusion. Preliminary morphometric analysis (ratio of shore-parallel width, W, to shore-perpendicular length, L) on a subset of 159 deltas suggests W:L values range from 0.52 (elongate) to 23.6 (broad/cuspate). The median W:L value is 2.68, suggesting the majority of deltas are roughly semi-circular (W:L = 2), and the distribution is heavily skewed to the broad/cuspate deltas (~28% are >4 times wider than they are long). Preliminary comparison to downstream significant wave height data shows that the 'wider' deltas relate to higher wave heights (R2 = 0.42), though the data are scattered. Ultimately, the database will include additional measured morphometrics, including number of channel mouths and delta area, and morphodynamic data derived from serial Landsat imagery.

  20. Clinical validation of nuclear factor kappa B expression in invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Pielka, Ewa; Lipinski, Artur; Jelen, Michal; Kielan, Wojciech; Agrawal, Siddarth

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Polish women. The expression of transcription nuclear factor kappa B, a key inducer of inflammatory response promoting carcinogenesis and cancer progression in breast cancer, is not well-established. We assessed the nuclear factor kappa B expression in a total of 119 invasive breast carcinomas and 25 healthy control samples and correlated this expression pattern with several clinical and pathologic parameters including histologic type and grade, tumor size, lymph node status, estrogen receptor status, and progesterone receptor status. The data used for the analysis were derived from medical records. An immunohistochemical analysis of nuclear factor kappa B, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor was carried out and evaluation of stainings was performed. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B was significantly higher than that in the corresponding healthy control samples. No statistical difference was demonstrated in nuclear factor kappa B expression in relation to age, menopausal status, lymph node status, tumor size and location, grade and histologic type of tumor, and hormonal status (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor). Nuclear factor kappa B is significantly overexpressed in invasive breast cancer tissues. Although nuclear factor kappa B status does not correlate with clinicopathological findings, it might provide important additional information on prognosis and become a promising object for targeted therapy.

  1. Search for resonances decaying to etac pi pi- in two-photon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.

    2012-06-18

    We report a study of the process {gamma}{gamma} {yields} X {yields} {eta}{sub c}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where X stands for one of the resonances {chi}{sub c2}(1P), {eta}{sub c}(2S), X(3872), X(3915), or {chi}{sub c2}(2P). The analysis is performed with a data sample of 473.9 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider. We do not observe a significant signal for any channel, and calculate 90% confidence-level upper limits on the products of branching fractions and two-photon widths {Lambda}{sub X{yields}{gamma}{gamma}} {Beta}(X {yields} {eta}{sub c}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}): 15.7 eV for {chi}{sub c2}(1P), 133 eV for {eta}{sub c}(2S), 11.1 eVmore » for X(3872) (assuming it to be a spin-2 state), 16 eV for X(3915) (assuming it to be a spin-2 state), and 19 eV for {chi}{sub c2}(2P). We also report upper limits on the ratios of branching fractions {Beta}({eta}{sub c}(2S) {yields} {eta}{sub c}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}({eta}{sub c}(2S) {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 10.0 and {Beta}({chi}{sub c2}(1P) {yields} {eta}{sub c}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}({chi}{sub c2}(1P) {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 32.9 at the 90% confidence level.« less

  2. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes suchmore » as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.« less

  3. Study of the Rare Hyperon Decay $${\\boldmath \\Omega^\\mp \\to \\Xi^\\mp \\: \\pi^+\\pi^-}$$

    SciTech Connect

    Kamaev, O.; Solomey, N.; Burnstein, R.A.

    The authors report a new measurement of the decay {Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} with 76 events and a first observation of the decay {bar {Omega}}{sup +} {yields} {bar {Xi}}{sup +} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} with 24 events, yielding a combined branching ratio (3.74{sub -0.56}{sup +0.67}) x 10{sup -4}. This represents a factor 25 increase in statistics over the best previous measurement. No evidence is seen for CP violation, with {Beta}({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 4.04{sub -0.71}{sup +0.83} x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}({bar {Omega}}{sup +} {yields} {bar {Xi}}{sup +} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 3.15{submore » -0.89}{sup +1.12} x 10{sup -4}. Contrary to theoretical expectation, they see little evidence for the decays {Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -} and {bar {Omega}}{sup +} {yields} {bar {Xi}}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup +} and place a 90% C.L. upper limit on the combined branching ratio {Beta}({Omega}{sup -}({bar {Omega}}{sup +}) {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} ({bar {Xi}}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}){pi}{sup {-+}}) < 7.0 x 10{sup -5}.« less

  4. NF-kappaB transcription factor is required for inhibitory avoidance long-term memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Freudenthal, Ramiro; Boccia, Mariano M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Blake, Mariano G; Merlo, Emiliano; Baratti, Carlos M; Romano, Arturo

    2005-05-01

    Although it is generally accepted that memory consolidation requires regulation of gene expression, only a few transcription factors (TFs) have been clearly demonstrated to be specifically involved in this process. Increasing research data point to the participation of the Rel/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of TFs in memory and neural plasticity. Here we found that two independent inhibitors of NF-kappaB induced memory impairment in the one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance paradigm in mice: post-training administration of the drug sulfasalazine and 2 h pretraining administration of a double-stranded DNA oligonucleotide containing the NF-kappaB consensus sequence (kappaB decoy). Conversely, one base mutation of the kappaB decoy (mut-kappaB decoy) injection did not affect long-term memory. Accordingly, the kappaB decoy inhibited NF-kappaB in hippocampus 2 h after injection but no inhibition was found with mut-kappaB decoy administration. A temporal course of hippocampal NF-kappaB activity after training was determined. Unexpectedly, an inhibition of NF-kappaB was found 15 min after training in shocked and unshocked groups when compared with the naïve group. Hippocampal NF-kappaB was activated 45 min after training in both shocked and unshocked groups, decreasing 1 h after training and returning to basal levels 2 and 4 h after training. On the basis of the latter results, we propose that activation of NF-kappaB in hippocampus is part of the molecular mechanism involved in the storage of contextual features that constitute the conditioned stimulus representation. The results presented here provide the first evidence to support NF-kappaB activity being regulated in hippocampus during consolidation, stressing the role of this TF as a conserved molecular mechanism for memory storage.

  5. Purinergic signaling is required for fluid shear stress-induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Genetos, Damian C., E-mail: dgenetos@ucdavis.edu; Karin, Norman J.; Geist, Derik J.

    2011-04-01

    Fluid shear stress regulates gene expression in osteoblasts, in part by activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B. We examined whether this process was under the control of purinoceptor activation. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts under static conditions expressed the NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein I{kappa}B{alpha} and exhibited cytosolic localization of NF-{kappa}B. Under fluid shear stress, I{kappa}B{alpha} levels decreased, and concomitant nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B was observed. Cells exposed to fluid shear stress in ATP-depleted medium exhibited no significant reduction in I{kappa}B{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B remained within the cytosol. Similar results were found using oxidized ATP or Brilliant Blue G, P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists, indicating that themore » P2X{sub 7} receptor is responsible for fluid shear-stress-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and nuclear accumulation of NF-{kappa}B. Pharmacologic blockage of the P2Y6 receptor also prevented shear-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation. These phenomena involved neither ERK1/2 signaling nor autocrine activation by P2X{sub 7}-generated lysophosphatidic acid. Our results suggest that fluid shear stress regulates NF-{kappa}B activity through the P2Y{sub 6} and P2X{sub 7} receptor.« less

  6. Measuring agreement of multivariate discrete survival times using a modified weighted kappa coefficient.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Manatunga, Amita K

    2009-03-01

    Assessing agreement is often of interest in clinical studies to evaluate the similarity of measurements produced by different raters or methods on the same subjects. We present a modified weighted kappa coefficient to measure agreement between bivariate discrete survival times. The proposed kappa coefficient accommodates censoring by redistributing the mass of censored observations within the grid where the unobserved events may potentially happen. A generalized modified weighted kappa is proposed for multivariate discrete survival times. We estimate the modified kappa coefficients nonparametrically through a multivariate survival function estimator. The asymptotic properties of the kappa estimators are established and the performance of the estimators are examined through simulation studies of bivariate and trivariate survival times. We illustrate the application of the modified kappa coefficient in the presence of censored observations with data from a prostate cancer study.

  7. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} down-regulates CXCR4 on carcinoma cells through PPAR{gamma}- and NF{kappa}B-mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Cynthia Lee; Lowthers, Erica Lauren; Blay, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a key role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer and its growth at metastatic sites. Here, we have investigated the mechanisms by which CXCR4 on cancer cells might be regulated by eicosanoids present within the colorectal tumor microenvironment. We show that prostaglandins PGE{sub 2}, PGA{sub 2}, PGD{sub 2}, PGJ{sub 2} and 15dPGJ{sub 2} each down-regulates CXCR4 receptor expression on human colorectal carcinoma cells to differing degrees. The most potent of these were PGD{sub 2} and its metabolites PGJ{sub 2} and 15dPGJ{sub 2}. Down-regulation was most rapid with the end-product 15dPGJ{sub 2} and was accompanied bymore » a marked reduction in CXCR4 mRNA. 15dPGJ{sub 2} is known to be a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma}. Down-regulation of CXCR4 was also observed with the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, while 15dPGJ{sub 2}-induced CXCR4 down-regulation was substantially diminished by the PPAR{gamma} antagonists GW9662 and T0070907. These data support the involvement of PPAR{gamma}. However, the 15dPGJ{sub 2} analogue CAY10410, which can act on PPAR{gamma} but which lacks the intrinsic cyclopentenone structure found in 15dPGJ{sub 2}, down-regulated CXCR4 substantially less potently than 15dPGJ{sub 2}. The cyclopentenone grouping is known to inhibit the activity of NF{kappa}B. Consistent with an additional role for NF{kappa}B, we found that the cyclopentenone prostaglandin PGA{sub 2} and cyclopentenone itself could also down-regulate CXCR4. Immunolocalization studies showed that the cellular context was sufficient to trigger a focal nuclear pattern of NF{kappa}B p50 and that 15dPGJ{sub 2} interfered with this p50 nuclear localization. These data suggest that 15dPGJ{sub 2} can down-regulate CXCR4 on cancer cells through both PPAR{gamma} and NF{kappa}B. 15dPGJ{sub 2}, present within the tumor microenvironment, may act to down-regulate CXCR4 and impact upon the overall process of tumor expansion.« less

  8. NF-kappaB activation in cancer: a challenge for ubiquitination- and proteasome-based therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Amit, Sharon; Ben-Neriah, Yinon

    2003-02-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation relies primarily on ubiquitin-mediated degradation of its inhibitor IkappaB. NF-kappaB plays an important role in many aspects of tumor development, progression, and therapy. Some types of cancer are characterized by constitutive NF-kappaB activity, whereas in others such activity is induced following chemotherapy. NF-kappaB-harboring tumors are generally resistant to chemotherapy and their eradication requires NF-kappaB inhibition. Here we describe the mechanisms of NF-kappaB activation in normal and tumor cells, review prevalent notions regarding the factor's contribution to tumorigenicity and discuss present and future options for NF-kappaB inhibition in cancer. The ubiquitination-mediated activation of NF-kappaB is intersected by another cancer-associated protein, beta-catenin. We, therefore, compare the related activation pathways and discuss the possibility of differential targeting of the involved ubiquitination machinery. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. The A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF502 inhibits the PI3K, PKB/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathway in synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients and in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats.

    PubMed

    Ochaion, A; Bar-Yehuda, S; Cohen, S; Amital, H; Jacobson, K A; Joshi, B V; Gao, Z G; Barer, F; Patoka, R; Del Valle, L; Perez-Liz, G; Fishman, P

    2008-08-15

    The A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) is over-expressed in inflammatory cells and was defined as a target to combat inflammation. Synthetic agonists to this receptor, such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA, exert an anti-inflammatory effect in experimental animal models of adjuvant- and collagen-induced arthritis. In this study we present a novel A(3)AR agonist, CF502, with high affinity and selectivity at the human A(3)AR. CF502 induced a dose dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) via de-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Furthermore, CF502 markedly suppressed the clinical and pathological manifestations of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in a rat experimental model when given orally at a low dose (100 microg/kg). As is typical of other G-protein coupled receptors, the A(3)AR expression level was down-regulated shortly after treatment with agonist CF502 in paw and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from treated AIA animals. Subsequently, a decrease in the expression levels of protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), IkappaB kinase (IKK), I kappa B (IkappaB), NF-kappaB and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) took place. In addition, the expression levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3beta), beta-catenin, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), known to control the level and activity of NF-kappaB, were down-regulated upon treatment with CF502. Taken together, CF502 inhibits FLS growth and the inflammatory manifestations of arthritis, supporting the development of A(3)AR agonists for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. PTEN Regulates PI(3,4)P2 Signaling Downstream of Class I PI3K.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mouhannad; Kielkowska, Anna; Chessa, Tamara; Anderson, Karen E; Barneda, David; Pir, Pınar; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Eguchi, Satoshi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Sasaki, Junko; Juvin, Véronique; Kiselev, Vladimir Y; Niewczas, Izabella; Gray, Alexander; Valayer, Alexandre; Spensberger, Dominik; Imbert, Marine; Felisbino, Sergio; Habuchi, Tomonori; Beinke, Soren; Cosulich, Sabina; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sasaki, Takehiko; Clark, Jonathan; Hawkins, Phillip T; Stephens, Len R

    2017-11-02

    The PI3K signaling pathway regulates cell growth and movement and is heavily mutated in cancer. Class I PI3Ks synthesize the lipid messenger PI(3,4,5)P 3 . PI(3,4,5)P 3 can be dephosphorylated by 3- or 5-phosphatases, the latter producing PI(3,4)P 2 . The PTEN tumor suppressor is thought to function primarily as a PI(3,4,5)P 3 3-phosphatase, limiting activation of this pathway. Here we show that PTEN also functions as a PI(3,4)P 2 3-phosphatase, both in vitro and in vivo. PTEN is a major PI(3,4)P 2 phosphatase in Mcf10a cytosol, and loss of PTEN and INPP4B, a known PI(3,4)P 2 4-phosphatase, leads to synergistic accumulation of PI(3,4)P 2 , which correlated with increased invadopodia in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells. PTEN deletion increased PI(3,4)P 2 levels in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and it inversely correlated with PI(3,4)P 2 levels across several EGF-stimulated prostate and breast cancer lines. These results point to a role for PI(3,4)P 2 in the phenotype caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in PTEN. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms for kappa reduction and color removal by xylanases

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Jeffries; Mark Davis; Brian Rosin; Larry L. Landucci

    1998-01-01

    Xylanases reduce kappa and release UV- and visibly absorptive materials from kraft pulps. The extents of these actions depend on the origin and processing of the pulp, access of enzymes to the substrate, and the natures of the enzymes. Hexeneuronic acid (HexA) is a component of kraft pulp xylans that accounts for a fraction of the kappa content. It absorbs strongly in...

  12. Ion and electron Kappa distribution functions in the plasma sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, P. S.; Stepanova, M. V.; Espinoza, C.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of ion and electron flux spectra in the Earth's plasma sheet using kappa distribution functions. Satellite data from the THEMIS mission were collected for thousands of crossings through the plasma sheet, between 7 and 35 Re and during the years 2008-2009. The events were separated according to the geomagnetic activity at the time. Our results show the distribution of the kappa index and characteristic energies across the plasma sheet and its evolution with distance to Earth for quiet times and for the substorm expansion and recovery phases. For the ions, it is observed that the kappa values tend to decrease outwards and that this effect is more significant in the dusk sector, where the smallest values are found for distances beyond 15 Re. The main effect of the substorms appears as an enhancement of this behavior. The electrons show a much more homogeneous distribution in quiet times, with a mild tendency for larger kappa values at larger distances. During substorms, the kappa values tend to equalize and appear very homogenous during expansion. However, they exhibit a significant increase in the dusk sector during the recovery substorm phase. Finally, we observe that the characteristic energy of the particles during substorms increases and concentrate at distances less than 15 Re.

  13. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  14. Exclusive Central $$\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$$ Production in Proton Antiproton Collisions at the CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Maria

    Exclusivemore » $$\\pi^{=}\\pi^{-}$$ production in proton-antiproton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 0.9 and 1.96 TeV in the Collider Detector at Fermilab has been measured. We select events with two particles with opposite charge in pseudorapidity region -1.3 < $$\\eta$$ < 1.3 with no other particles detected in -5.9 < $$\\eta$$ < 5.9. Particles are assumed to be pions. The $$\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$$system is required to have rapidity -1.0 < $y$ < 1.0. The data are expected to be dominated by the double pomeron exchange mechanism. Therefore, the quantum numbers of the central state are constrained. The data extend up to dipion mass M($$\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$$) = 5000 MeV/$c^2$. Resonance structures consistent with $$f_0$$ and $$f_2$$(1270) mesons are visible. The results are valuable for light hadron spectroscopy and for providing information about the nature of the pomeron in a region between non-perturbative and perturbative quantum chromodynamics« less

  15. Kappa statistic to measure agreement beyond chance in free-response assessments.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Marc; Combescure, Christophe; Merlini, Laura; Perneger, Thomas V

    2017-04-19

    The usual kappa statistic requires that all observations be enumerated. However, in free-response assessments, only positive (or abnormal) findings are notified, but negative (or normal) findings are not. This situation occurs frequently in imaging or other diagnostic studies. We propose here a kappa statistic that is suitable for free-response assessments. We derived the equivalent of Cohen's kappa statistic for two raters under the assumption that the number of possible findings for any given patient is very large, as well as a formula for sampling variance that is applicable to independent observations (for clustered observations, a bootstrap procedure is proposed). The proposed statistic was applied to a real-life dataset, and compared with the common practice of collapsing observations within a finite number of regions of interest. The free-response kappa is computed from the total numbers of discordant (b and c) and concordant positive (d) observations made in all patients, as 2d/(b + c + 2d). In 84 full-body magnetic resonance imaging procedures in children that were evaluated by 2 independent raters, the free-response kappa statistic was 0.820. Aggregation of results within regions of interest resulted in overestimation of agreement beyond chance. The free-response kappa provides an estimate of agreement beyond chance in situations where only positive findings are reported by raters.

  16. Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Baud, Véronique; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors have a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. It has become clear that aberrant regulation of NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that control its activity are involved in cancer development and progression, as well as in resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article discusses recent evidence from cancer genetics and cancer genome studies that support the involvement of NF-kappaB in human cancer, particularly in multiple myeloma. The therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NF-kappaB in cancer, and the possible complications and pitfalls of such an approach, are explored.

  17. Measuring the charged pion polarizability in the gamma gamma -> pi+pi- reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David W.; Miskimen, Rory A.; Mushkarenkov, Alexander Nikolaevich

    2013-08-01

    Development has begun of a new experiment to measure the charged pion polarizabilitymore » $$\\alpha_{\\pi}-\\beta_{\\pi}$$. The charged pion polarizability ranks among the most important tests of low-energy QCD presently unresolved by experiment. Analogous to precision measurements of $$\\pi^{\\circ}\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$$ that test the intrinsic odd-parity (anomalous) sector of QCD, the pion polarizability tests the intrinsic even-parity sector of QCD. The measurement will be performed using the $$\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\pi^{+{}}\\pi^{-{}}$$ cross section accessed via the Primakoff mechanism on nuclear targets using the GlueX detector in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The linearly polarized photon source in Hall-D will be utilized to separate the Primakoff cross-section from coherent $$\\rho^{\\circ}$$ production.« less

  18. Nomogram for sample size calculation on a straightforward basis for the kappa statistic.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyunsook; Choi, Yunhee; Hahn, Seokyung; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Byung-Joo

    2014-09-01

    Kappa is a widely used measure of agreement. However, it may not be straightforward in some situation such as sample size calculation due to the kappa paradox: high agreement but low kappa. Hence, it seems reasonable in sample size calculation that the level of agreement under a certain marginal prevalence is considered in terms of a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa value. Therefore, sample size formulae and nomograms using a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa under certain marginal prevalences are proposed. A sample size formula was derived using the kappa statistic under the common correlation model and goodness-of-fit statistic. The nomogram for the sample size formula was developed using SAS 9.3. The sample size formulae using a simple proportion of agreement instead of a kappa statistic and nomograms to eliminate the inconvenience of using a mathematical formula were produced. A nomogram for sample size calculation with a simple proportion of agreement should be useful in the planning stages when the focus of interest is on testing the hypothesis of interobserver agreement involving two raters and nominal outcome measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kappa2 opioid receptor subtype binding requires the presence of the DOR-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ansonoff, Michael A; Wen, Ting; Pintar, John E

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years substantial evidence has documented that opioid receptor homo- and heterodimers form in cell lines expressing one or more of the opioid receptors. We used opioid receptor knockout mice to determine whether in vivo pharmacological characteristics of kappa1 and kappa2 opioid receptors changed following knockout of specific opioid receptors. Using displacement of the general opioid ligand diprenorphine, we observed that occupancy or knockout of the DOR-1 gene increases the binding density of kappa1 receptors and eliminates kappa2 receptors in crude membrane preparations while the total density of kappa opioid binding sites is unchanged. Further, the analgesic potency of U69,593 in cumulative dose response curves is enhanced in mice lacking the DOR-1 gene. These results demonstrate that the DOR-1 gene is required for the expression of the kappa2 opioid receptor subtype and are consistent with the possibility that a KOR-1/DOR-1 heterodimer mediates kappa2 pharmacology.

  20. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  1. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10356 - Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc, bis[3-(acetyl-.kappa.O)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H)-dionato-.kappa.O4]diaqua-. 721.10356 Section 721.10356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  4. The Quest for Pi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Borwein, Peter B.; Plouffe, Simon

    1996-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of the analysis and computation of the mathematical constant Pi=3.14159 ..., including a number of the formulas that have been used to compute Pi through the ages. Recent developments in this area are then discussed in some detail, including the recent computation of Pi to over six billion decimal digits using high-order convergent algorithms, and a newly discovered scheme that permits arbitrary individual hexadecimal digits of Pi to be computed.

  5. New measurements of Cabibbo-suppressed decays of mesons with the CLEO-c detector.

    PubMed

    Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Xin, B; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J

    2006-03-03

    Using of data collected with the CLEO-c detector, we report on first observations and measurements of Cabibbo-suppressed decays of D mesons in the following six decay modes: pi+ pi- pi0 pi0, pi+ pi+ pi- pi- pi0, pi+ pi0 pi0, pi+ pi+ pi- pi0, eta pi0, and omega pi+ pi-. Improved branching fraction measurements in eight other multipion decay modes are also presented. The measured D --> pi pi rates allow us to extract the ratio of isospin amplitudes A(DeltaI = (3/2) / A(DeltaI = (1/2)) = 0.420 +/- 0.014(stat) +/- 0.016(syst) and the strong phase shift of delta1 = (86.4 +/- 2.8 +/- 3.3) degrees, which is quite large and now more precisely determined.

  6. Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of Pi Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Charles L.; Jenkins, Edward B.

    1991-01-01

    A spectrum of Pi Scorpii has been recorded from 1003 to 1172 A with a maximum SNR of about 20 and a velocity resolution of 2.4 km/s. Three types of H I as well as two discrete H II regions are distinguished in velocity space, allowing independent analyses of physical conditions and abundances for the individual gas components. A direct evaluation of optical depths and column densities across the absorption features is applied for the first time to the dominant ionization stage of Fe, Si, and P. Based on an analysis of the spectrum, it is concluded that all of the Ti II absorption seen toward Pi Sco arises in the warm, neutral intercloud medium while the other elements have their maximum absorption associated with cold clouds. A conservative value of log delta less than -3.4 is inferred for the Ti depletion in the cold clouds, a value more extreme than any integrated, line-of-sight measurement made to date.

  7. Dipion invariant mass distribution of the anomalous {Upsilon}(1S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} production near the peak of {Upsilon}(10860)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Dianyong; He Jun; Nuclear Theory Group, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000

    2011-10-01

    Considering the defects of the previous work for estimating the anomalous production rates of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{Upsilon}(1S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} near the peak of the {Upsilon}(5S) resonance at {radical}(s)=10.87 GeV [K. F. Chen et al. (Belle Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 112001 (2008)], we suggest a new scenario where the contributions from the direct dipion transition and the final-state interactions interfere to result in not only the anomalously large production rates, but also line shapes of the differential widths consistent with experimental measurement when assuming the reactions are due to the dipion emission of {Upsilon}(5S). At the end,more » we raise a new puzzle that the predicted differential width d{Gamma}({Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/dcos{theta} has a discrepant trend from the data while other predictions are well in accord with the data. It should be further clarified by more accurate measurements carried by future experiments.« less

  8. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    PubMed Central

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  9. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  10. Chronic intermittent hypoxia activates nuclear factor-{kappa}B in cardiovascular tissues in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Harly; Ye Xiaobing; Wilson, David

    2006-05-05

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms through which OSA promotes the development of cardiovascular disease are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation (CIH) is a major pathologic factor causing cardiovascular inflammation, and that CIH-induces cardiovascular inflammation and pathology by activating the NF-{kappa}B pathway. We demonstrated that exposure of mice to CIH activated NF-{kappa}B in cardiovascular tissues, and that OSA patients had markedly elevated monocyte NF-{kappa}B activity, which was significantly decreased when obstructive apneas and their resultant CIH were eliminatedmore » by nocturnal CPAP therapy. The elevated NF-{kappa}B activity induced by CIH is accompanied by and temporally correlated to the increased expression of iNOS protein, a putative and important NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene product. Thus, CIH-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation may be a molecular mechanism linking OSA and cardiovascular pathologies seen in OSA patients.« less

  11. EWS-FLI1 inhibits TNF{alpha}-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent transcription in Ewing sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagirand-Cantaloube, Julie, E-mail: julie.cantaloube@crbm.cnrs.fr; Laud, Karine, E-mail: karine.laud@curie.fr; Institut Curie, Genetique et biologie des cancers, Paris

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} EWS-FLI1 interferes with TNF-induced activation of NF{kappa}B in Ewing sarcoma cells. {yields} EWS-FLI1 knockdown in Ewing sarcoma cells increases TNF-induced NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. {yields} EWS-FLI1 reduces TNF-stimulated NF{kappa}B-dependent transcriptional activation. {yields} Constitutive NF{kappa}B activity is not affected by EWS-FLI1. {yields} EWS-FLI1 physically interacts with NF{kappa}B p65 in vivo. -- Abstract: Ewing sarcoma is primarily caused by a t(11;22) chromosomal translocation encoding the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. To exert its oncogenic function, EWS-FLI1 acts as an aberrant transcription factor, broadly altering the gene expression profile of tumor cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF{kappa}B) is a tightly regulated transcription factor controllingmore » cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, as well as tumorigenesis. NF{kappa}B activity is very low in unstimulated Ewing sarcoma cells, but can be induced in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We wondered whether NF{kappa}B activity could be modulated by EWS-FLI1 in Ewing sarcoma. Using a knockdown approach in Ewing sarcoma cells, we demonstrated that EWS-FLI1 has no influence on NF{kappa}B basal activity, but impairs TNF-induced NF{kappa}B-driven transcription, at least in part through inhibition of NF{kappa}B binding to DNA. We detected an in vivo physical interaction between the fusion protein and NF{kappa}B p65, which could mediate these effects. Our findings suggest that, besides directly controlling the activity of its primary target promoters, EWS-FLI1 can also indirectly influence gene expression in tumor cells by modulating the activity of key transcription factors such as NF{kappa}B.« less

  12. Regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Spilsbury, Alison; Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-{kappa}B in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional {kappa}B-system, measured using luciferase assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (-)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is thought to play an importantmore » role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-{kappa}B signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNF{alpha}, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative I{kappa}B{alpha} construct. In addition, TNF{alpha} increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or

  13. {pi} junction and spontaneous current state in a superfluid Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimura, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Shunji; CREST

    2011-07-15

    We discuss an idea to realize a spontaneous current in a superfluid Fermi gas. When a polarized Fermi superfluid (N{sub {up_arrow}}>N{sub {down_arrow}}, where N{sub {sigma}} is the number of atoms in the hyperfine state described by pseudospin {sigma}={up_arrow},{down_arrow}) is loaded onto a ring-shaped trap with a weak potential barrier, some excess atoms ({Delta}N=N{sub {up_arrow}}-N{sub {down_arrow}}) are localized around the barrier. As shown in our previous paper [T. Kashimura, S. Tsuchiya, and Y. Ohashi, Phys. Rev. A 82, 033617 (2010)], this polarized potential barrier works as a {pi} junction in the sense that the superfluid order parameter changes its sign acrossmore » the barrier. Because of this, the phase of the superfluid order parameter outside the junction is shown to be twisted by {pi} along the ring, which naturally leads to a circulating supercurrent. While the ordinary supercurrent state is obtained as a metastable state, this spontaneous current state is shown to be more stable than the case with no current. Our results indicate that localized excess atoms would be useful for the manipulation of the superfluid order parameter in cold Fermi gases.« less

  14. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  15. Transcription factor NF-kappaB participates in regulation of epithelial cell turnover in the colon.

    PubMed

    Inan, M S; Tolmacheva, V; Wang, Q S; Rosenberg, D W; Giardina, C

    2000-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB regulates the expression of genes that can influence cell proliferation and death. Here we analyze the contribution of NF-kappaB to the regulation of epithelial cell turnover in the colon. Immunohistochemical, immunoblot, and DNA binding analyses indicate that NF-kappaB complexes change as colonocytes mature: p65-p50 complexes predominate in proliferating epithelial cells of the colon, whereas the p50-p50 dimer is prevalent in mature epithelial cells. NF-kappaB1 (p50) knockout mice were used to study the role of NF-kappaB in regulating epithelial cell turnover. Knockout animals lacked detectable NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in isolated epithelial cells and had significantly longer crypts with a more extensive proliferative zone than their wild-type counterparts (as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining and in vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling). Gene expression profiling reveals that the NF-kappaB1 knockout mice express the potentially growth-enhancing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nerve growth factor-alpha genes at elevated levels, with in situ hybridization localizing some of the TNF-alpha expression to epithelial cells. TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB regulated, and its upregulation in NF-kappaB1 knockouts may result from an alleviation of p50-p50 repression. NF-kappaB complexes may therefore influence cell proliferation in the colon through their ability to selectively activate and/or repress gene expression.

  16. Mapping Changes in the Distribution of Aquatic Plant Species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from Airborne AVIRIS-ng Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S.; Khanna, S.; Bellvert, J.; Ustin, J. D.; Shapiro, K.

    2016-12-01

    Starting in the late 1980s major invasive aquatic pests began to expand their distributions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA, an area of 2,219 Km2 with 1,800 Km waterways. The most aggressive are the floating weed, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and the submerged Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed). The distribution of these species has reportedly expanded during the 2011-2015 drought. We mapped the distributions of invasive aquatic species using data from NASA's Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), which was flown over the Delta November 14, 15, 17, 24, 25, 2014 and September 17-21, 2015 by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). AVIRIS-NG measures 432 bands across the visible and reflected solar infrared, in wavelengths between 346 nm to 2505 nm. Sixty-one flightlines were flown at a nominal spatial resolution of 2.5 m x 2.5 m each year. Field data, identifying locations of aquatic species (1,036 points in 2014 and 1,375 in 2015) were collected by boat between October 20-30, 2014 and September 9-17, 2015 and were used for training and validation. The Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm was used to classify the species locations each year. The resulting classification was highly consistent with the field data, and produced pixel-based overall accuracy from confusion matrices of 83.9% with kappa values > 0.8 (indicating excellent agreement) in 2014 and overall accuracy of 95.8 and kappa value > 0.9 in 2015. Species distributions were highly dynamic between years. Submerged macrophytes increased their extent and density in 2015 from 779.4 m2 in 2014 to 1170.6 m2. Floating macrophytes acreage decreased from 354.0 m2 in 2014 to 191.4 m2 in 2015. Water hyacinth cover decreased throughout the delta due to chemical control activities but much of the cleared area was replaced by water primrose or submerged species. Water primrose increased from 83.6 m2 in 2014 to 114.3 m2 in 2015.

  17. Sedanolide induces autophagy through the PI3K, p53 and NF-κB signaling pathways in human liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Tsai; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Kuo, Yu-Hao; Li, Chien-Chun; Hsieh, Lan-Chi; Wu, Chih-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Sedanolide (SN), a phthalide-like compound from celery seed oil, possesses antioxidant effects. However, the effect of SN on cell death in human liver cancer cells has yet to be determined. In this study, cell viability determination, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescent staining and immunoblot analysis were performed to determine autophagy induction and autophagy-induced protein expression changes via molecular examination after human liver cancer (J5) cells were treated with SN. Our studies demonstrate that SN suppressed J5 cell viability by inducing autophagy. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-I, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Akt protein levels decreased, whereas PI3K-III, LC3-II and Beclin-1 protein levels increased following SN treatment in J5 cells. In addition, SN treatment upregulated nuclear p53 and damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) and downregulated cytosolic p53 and Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) expression in J5 cells. Furthermore, the cytosolic phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and nuclear p65 and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB increased after SN treatment. These results suggest that SN induces J5 cell autophagy by regulating PI3K, p53 and NF-κB autophagy-associated signaling pathways in J5 cells.

  18. Color Shade Instrumentation Correlation Study: Statistical Analysis. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    L* a* b* Alpha Desert Sand 503 Beta Chi Army Green 491 Delta Epsilon Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Desert Sand 503...Desert Sand 503 Epsilon Army Green 491 Iota Kappa Lambda Desert Sand 503 Mu Omega Omicron Desert Sand 503 Psi Rho...Color Tiles Figure 3-3. Correlation Matrix for a* Means of Color Tiles Alpha Beta Chi Delta Epsilon Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Omega Omicron Psi Rho

  19. Pi Division and Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number Pi (approximately 3.14159) is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference (C) to the diameter (d) of any given circle. In particular, Pi measures the circumference of a circle of diameter d = 1. Historically, the Greek mathematician Archimedes found good approximations for Pi by inscribing and circumscribing many-sided polygons…

  20. Observation and Study of the Baryonic B-meson Decays B to D(*) p pbar (pi) (pi)

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.

    We present results for B-meson decay modes involving a charm meson, protons, and pions using 455 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The branching fractions are measured for the following ten decays: {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}p{bar p}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}p{bar p}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup -} {yields} D*{sup 0}pp{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {bar B}{supmore » 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, B{sup -} {yields} D{sup +}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, and B{sup -} {yields} D*{sup +}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}. The four B{sup -} and the two five-body B{sup 0} modes are observed for the first time. The four-body modes are enhanced compared to the three- and the five-body modes. In the three-body modes, the M(p{bar p}) and M(D{sup (*)0}p) invariant mass distributions show enhancements near threshold values. In the four-body mode {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}p{bar p}{pi}{sup -}, the M(p{pi}{sup -}) distribution shows a narrow structure of unknown origin near 1.5GeV/c{sup 2}. The distributions for the five-body modes, in contrast to the others, are similar to the expectations from uniform phase-space predictions.« less

  1. Biological properties of potent inhibitors of class I phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases: from PI-103 through PI-540, PI-620 to the oral agent GDC-0941.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Patel, Sonal; Alix, Sonia; Box, Gary; Chuckowree, Irina; Folkes, Adrian; Gowan, Sharon; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Di Stefano, Francesca; Hayes, Angela; Henley, Alan T; Lensun, Letitia; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Robson, Anthony; Saghir, Nahid; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; McDonald, Edward; Sheldrake, Peter; Shuttleworth, Stephen; Valenti, Melanie; Wan, Nan Chi; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway is frequently deregulated in human cancers and inhibitors offer considerable therapeutic potential. We previously described the promising tricyclic pyridofuropyrimidine lead and chemical tool compound PI-103. We now report the properties of the pharmaceutically optimized bicyclic thienopyrimidine derivatives PI-540 and PI-620 and the resulting clinical development candidate GDC-0941. All four compounds inhibited phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase p110alpha with IC(50) < or = 10 nmol/L. Despite some differences in isoform selectivity, these agents exhibited similar in vitro antiproliferative properties to PI-103 in a panel of human cancer cell lines, with submicromolar potency in PTEN-negative U87MG human glioblastoma cells and comparable phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway modulation. PI-540 and PI-620 exhibited improvements in solubility and metabolism with high tissue distribution in mice. Both compounds gave improved antitumor efficacy over PI-103, following i.p. dosing in U87MG glioblastoma tumor xenografts in athymic mice, with treated/control values of 34% (66% inhibition) and 27% (73% inhibition) for PI-540 (50 mg/kg b.i.d.) and PI-620 (25 mg/kg b.i.d.), respectively. GDC-0941 showed comparable in vitro antitumor activity to PI-103, PI-540, and PI-620 and exhibited 78% oral bioavailability in mice, with tumor exposure above 50% antiproliferative concentrations for >8 hours following 150 mg/kg p.o. and sustained phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition. These properties led to excellent dose-dependent oral antitumor activity, with daily p.o. dosing at 150 mg/kg achieving 98% and 80% growth inhibition of U87MG glioblastoma and IGROV-1 ovarian cancer xenografts, respectively. Together, these data support the development of GDC-0941 as a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase. GDC-0941 has recently entered phase I clinical trials.

  2. Biological properties of potent inhibitors of class I phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases: from PI-103 through PI-540, PI-620 to the oral agent GDC-0941

    PubMed Central

    Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Patel, Sonal; Alix, Sonia; Box, Gary; Chuckowree, Irina; Folkes, Adrian; Gowan, Sharon; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Di Stefano, Francesca; Hayes, Angela; Henley, Alan T.; Lensun, Letitia; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Robson, Anthony; Saghir, Nahid; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; McDonald, Edward; Sheldrake, Peter; Shuttleworth, Stephen; Valenti, Melanie; Wan, Nan Chi; Clarke, Paul A.; Workman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway is frequently deregulated in human cancers and inhibitors offer considerable therapeutic potential. We previously described the promising tricyclic pyridofuropyrimidine lead and chemical tool compound PI-103. We now report the properties of the pharmaceutically optimized bicyclic thienopyrimidine derivatives PI-540 and PI-620 and the resulting clinical development candidate GDC-0941. All four compounds inhibited phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase p110α with IC50 ≤ 10 nmol/L. Despite some differences in isoform selectivity, these agents exhibited similar in vitro antiproliferative properties to PI-103 in a panel of human cancer cell lines, with submicromolar potency in PTEN-negative U87MG human glioblastoma cells and comparable phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway modulation. PI-540 and PI-620 exhibited improvements in solubility and metabolism with high tissue distribution in mice. Both compounds gave improved antitumor efficacy over PI-103, following i.p. dosing in U87MG glioblastoma tumor xenografts in athymic mice, with treated/control values of 34% (66% inhibition) and 27% (73% inhibition) for PI-540 (50 mg/kg b.i.d.) and PI-620 (25 mg/kg b.i.d.), respectively. GDC-0941 showed comparable in vitro antitumor activity to PI-103, PI-540, and PI-620 and exhibited 78% oral bioavailability in mice, with tumor exposure above 50% anti-proliferative concentrations for >8 hours following 150 mg/kg p.o. and sustained phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition. These properties led to excellent dose-dependent oral antitumor activity, with daily p.o. dosing at 150 mg/kg achieving 98% and 80% growth inhibition of U87MG glioblastoma and IGROV-1 ovarian cancer xenografts, respectively. Together, these data support the development of GDC-0941 as a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase. GDC-0941 has recently entered phase I clinical trials. PMID:19584227

  3. Immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene promoter and enhancer are not responsible for B-cell restricted gene rearrangement.

    PubMed Central

    Goodhardt, M; Babinet, C; Lutfalla, G; Kallenbach, S; Cavelier, P; Rougeon, F

    1989-01-01

    We have produced transgenic mice which synthesize chimeric mouse-rabbit immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains following in vivo recombination of an injected unrearranged kappa gene. The exogenous gene construct contained a mouse germ-line kappa variable (V kappa) gene segment, the mouse germ-line joining (J kappa) locus including the enhancer, and the rabbit b9 constant (C kappa) region. A high level of V-J recombination of the kappa transgene was observed in spleen of the transgenic mice. Surprisingly, a particularly high degree of variability in the exact site of recombination and the presence of non germ-line encoded nucleotides (N-regions) were found at the V-J junction of the rearranged kappa transgene. Furthermore, unlike endogenous kappa genes, rearrangement of the exogenous gene occurred in T-cells of the transgenic mice. These results show that additional sequences, other than the heptamer-nonamer signal sequences and the promoter and enhancer elements, are required to obtain stage- and lineage- specific regulation of Ig kappa light chain gene rearrangement in vivo. Images PMID:2508061

  4. Classification of Martian deltas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-borne sediments in streams are deposited, upon eventual cessation of flow, either as deltas or as alluvial fans or plains. Deltas and alluvial fans share a common characteristic; both may be described as deposition Al plains at the mouth of a river or stream. A delta is formed where a stream or river deposits its sedimentary load into a standing body of water such as an ocean or lake. An alluvial fan is produced where a stream loses capacity by a greatly decreased gradient. A delta has subaerial and subaqueous components, but an alluvial fan is entirely subaerial. In terrestrial conditions, deltas and alluvial fans are reasonably distinct landforms. The juxtaposition of concomitant features composition and internal structure are sufficiently explicit as to avoid any confusion regarding their proper identification on Mars, the recognition of deltas and their distinction from alluvial fans is made difficult by low resolution imaging. Further, although it may be demonstrated that standing bodies of water existed on the surface of Mars, many of these bodies may have existed for extremely short periods of time (a few days to months); hence, distinctive shoreline features were not developed. Thus, in an attempt to derive a Martian classification of deltas, the inclusion of wholly subaerial deposits may be unavoidable. A simple, broad, morphological classification of Martian deltas, primarily on planimetric shape, includes digitate deltas, fan-shaped deltas, and re-entrant deltas. A fourth, somewhat problematical class includes featureless plains at the end of many valley systems.

  5. Nitrogen-Doping Enables Covalent-Like pi-pi Bonding between Graphenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yong-Hui; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G

    The neighboring layers in bi-layer (and few-layer) graphenes of both AA and AB stacking motifs are known to be separated at a distance corresponding to van der Waals (vdW) interactions. In this Letter, we present for the first time a new aspect of graphene chemistry in terms of a special chemical bonding between the giant graphene molecules . Through rigorous theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that the N-doped graphenes (NGPs) with various doping levels can form an unusual two-dimensional (2D) pi pi bonding in bi-layer NGPs bringing the neighboring NGPs to significantly reduced interlayer separations. The interlayer binding energies can bemore » enhanced by up to 50% compared to the pristine graphene bi-layers that are characterized by only vdW interactions. Such an unusual chemical bonding arises from the pi pi overlap across the vdW gap while the individual layers maintain their in-plane pi-conjugation and are accordingly planar. The existence of the resulting interlayer covalent-like bonding is corroborated by electronic structure calculations and crystal orbital overlap population (COOP) analyses. In NGP-based graphite with the optimal doping level, the NGP layers are uniformly stacked and the 3D bulk exhibits metallic characteristics both in the in-plane and along the stacking directions.« less

  6. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation correlates with better prognosis and Akt activation in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Lan; Lee, Hye Seung; Jung, Jieun; Cho, Sung Jin; Chung, Hee-Yong; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Nam, Seon Young

    2005-04-01

    Because the biological significance of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in human gastric cancer is unclear, we undertook this study to clarify the regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB activation and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemistry for NF-kappaB/RelA was done on 290 human gastric carcinoma specimens placed on tissue array slides. The correlations between NF-kappaB activation and clinicopathologic features, prognosis, Akt activation, tumor suppressor gene expression, or Bcl-2 expression were analyzed. We also did luciferase reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR using the SNU-216 human gastric cancer cell line transduced with retroviral vectors containing constitutively active Akt or the NF-kappaB repressor mutant of IkappaBalpha. Nuclear expression of RelA was found in 18% of the gastric carcinomas and was higher in early-stage pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P = 0.019). A negative correlation was observed between NF-kappaB activation and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.034) and a positive correlation between NF-kappaB activation and overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.0228). In addition, NF-kappaB activation was positively correlated with pAkt (P = 0.047), p16 (P = 0.004), adenomatous polyposis coli (P < 0.001), Smad4 (P = 0.002), and kangai 1 (P < 0.001) expression. An in vitro study showed that NF-kappaB activity in gastric cancer cells is controlled by and controls Akt. NF-kappaB activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis and Akt activation. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB activation is a valuable prognostic variable in gastric carcinoma.

  7. Different effects of antisense RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50 oligonucleotides on the nuclear factor-kappaB mediated expression of ICAM-1 in human coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Voisard, R; Huber, N; Baur, R; Susa, M; Ickrath, O; Both, A; Koenig, W; Hombach, V

    2001-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is one of the key events in early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced and NF-kappaB mediated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) can be inhibited by antisense RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50 oligonucleotides (RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50). Smooth muscle cells (SMC) from human coronary plaque material (HCPSMC, plaque material of 52 patients), SMC from the human coronary media (HCMSMC), human endothelial cells (EC) from umbilical veins (HUVEC), and human coronary EC (HCAEC) were successfully isolated (HCPSMC, HUVEC), identified and cultured (HCPSMC, HCMSMC, HUVEC, HCAEC). 12 hrs prior to TNF-alpha stimulus (20 ng/mL, 6 hrs) RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50 (1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 30 microM) and controls were added for a period of 18 hrs. In HUVEC and HCAEC there was a dose dependent inhibition of ICAM-1 expression after adding of both RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50. No inhibitory effect was seen after incubation of HCMSMC with RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50. A moderate inhibition of ICAM-1 expression was found after simultaneous addition of RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50 to HCPSMC, no inhibitory effect was detected after individual addition of RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50. The data point out that differences exist in the NF-kappaB mediated expression of ICAM-1 between EC and SMC. Experimental antisense strategies directed against RelA p65 and NF-kappaB1 p50 in early atherosclerosis and restenosis are promising in HCAEC but will be confronted with redundant pathways in HCMSMC and HCPSMC.

  8. Delta Scuti Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    We review recent research on Delta Scuti stars from an observer's viewpoint. First, some signposts helping to find the way through the Delta Scuti jungle are placed. Then, some problems in studying individual pulsators in the framework of asteroseismology are given before a view on how the study of these variables has benefited (or not) from past and present high-precision asteroseismic space missions is presented. Some possible pitfalls in the analysis of data with a large dynamical range in pulsational amplitudes are pointed out, and a strategy to optimize the outcome of asteroseismic studies of Delta Scuti stars is suggested. We continue with some views on ``hybrid'' pulsators and interesting individual High Amplitude Delta Scuti stars, and then take a look on Delta Scuti stars in stellar systems of several different kinds. Recent results on pre-main sequence Delta Scuti stars are discussed as are questions related to the instability strip of these variables. Finally, some remarkable new theoretical results are highlighted before, instead of a set of classical conclusions, questions to be solved in the future, are raised.

  9. Measurement of branching fractions and charge asymmetries in B+/--->rho+/-pi0 and B+/--->rho0pi+/- decays, and search for B0-->rho0pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-07-30

    We present measurements of branching fractions and charge asymmetries in B-meson decays to rho(+)pi(0), rho(0)pi(+), and rho(0)pi(0). The data sample comprises 89x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We find the charge-averaged branching fractions B(B+-->rho(+)pi(0))=[10.9+/-1.9(stat)+/-1.9(syst)]x10(-6) and B(B+-->rho(0)pi(+))=(9.5+/-1.1+/-0.9)x10(-6), and we set a 90% confidence-level upper limit B(B0-->rho(0)pi(0))<2.9x10(-6). We measure the charge asymmetries ACP(pi(0))(rho(+))=0.24+/-0.16+/-0.06 and ACP(pi(+))(rho(0))=-0.19+/-0.11+/-0.02.

  10. First Observation of Charmed Resonances in the $$\\Lambda^0_b \\to \\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$$ Inclusive Decay and Measurement of Their Relative Branching Ratios at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Barria, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    We present the observation of themore » $$\\Lambda^0_b$$ decay into a $$\\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$$ final state, in $$p\\bar{p}$$ collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 1:96 TeV. The data analyzed were collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and correspond to 2:4 $$fb^{-1}$$ of integrated luminosity. We fit the invariant mass distribution of the reconstructed candidates to extract a signal yield of 848 $$\\pm$$ 93 $$\\Lambda^0_b$$ into $$\\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$$....« less

  11. piRNA-guided slicing of transposon transcripts enforces their transcriptional silencing via specifying the nuclear piRNA repertoire.

    PubMed

    Senti, Kirsten-André; Jurczak, Daniel; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Brennecke, Julius

    2015-08-15

    PIWI clade Argonaute proteins silence transposon expression in animal gonads. Their target specificity is defined by bound ∼23- to 30-nucleotide (nt) PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are processed from single-stranded precursor transcripts via two distinct pathways. Primary piRNAs are defined by the endonuclease Zucchini, while biogenesis of secondary piRNAs depends on piRNA-guided transcript cleavage and results in piRNA amplification. Here, we analyze the interdependencies between these piRNA biogenesis pathways in developing Drosophila ovaries. We show that secondary piRNA-guided target slicing is the predominant mechanism that specifies transcripts—including those from piRNA clusters—as primary piRNA precursors and defines the spectrum of Piwi-bound piRNAs in germline cells. Post-transcriptional silencing in the cytoplasm therefore enforces nuclear transcriptional target silencing, which ensures the tight suppression of transposons during oogenesis. As target slicing also defines the nuclear piRNA pool during mouse spermatogenesis, our findings uncover an unexpected conceptual similarity between the mouse and fly piRNA pathways. © 2015 Senti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. A new structural class of proteasome inhibitors that prevent NF-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Lum, R T; Kerwar, S S; Meyer, S M; Nelson, M G; Schow, S R; Shiffman, D; Wick, M M; Joly, A

    1998-05-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase or proteasome is a highly conserved cellular structure that is responsible for the ATP-dependent proteolysis of many proteins involved in important regulatory cellular processes. We have identified a novel class of inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the 20S proteasome that exhibit IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 microgram/mL (0.1 to 1 microM). In cell proliferation assays, these compounds inhibit growth with an IC50 ranging from 5 to 10 micrograms/mL (10-20 microM). A representative member of this class of inhibitors was tested in other biological assays. CVT-634 (5-methoxy-1-indanone-3-acetyl-leu-D-leu-1-indanylamide) prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and phorbol ester-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in vitro by preventing signal-induced degradation of I kappa B-alpha. In these studies, the I kappa B-alpha that accumulated was hyperphosphorylated, indicating that CVT-634 did not inhibit I kappa B-alpha kinase, the enzyme responsible for signal-induced phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. In vivo studies indicated that CVT-634 prevented LPS-induced TNF synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line. In addition, in mice pretreated with CVT-634 at 25 and 50 mg/kg and subsequently treated with LPS, serum TNF levels were significantly lower (225 +/- 59 and 83 +/- 41 pg/mL, respectively) than in those mice that were treated only with LPS (865 +/- 282 pg/mL). These studies suggest that specific inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome is sufficient to prevent signal-induced NF-kappa B activation and that the proteasome is a novel target for the identification of agents that may be useful in the treatment of diseases whose etiology is dependent upon the activation of NF-kappa B.

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, Kerstin; Buchholz, Katja; Werchau, Hermann

    2005-01-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The activation of NF-{kappa}B has been shown to depend on viral replication in the infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of RSV M2-1 protein, a transcriptional processivity and anti-termination factor, is sufficient to activate NF-{kappa}B in A549 cells. Electromobility shift assays show increased NF-{kappa}B complexes in the nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells. M2-1 protein is found in nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells and in RSV-infected cells. Co-immunoprecipitations of nuclear extracts of M2-1-expressing cells and of RSV-infected cellsmore » revealed an association of M2-1 with Rel A protein. Furthermore, the activation of NF-{kappa}B depends on the C-terminus of the RSV M2-1 protein, as shown by NF-{kappa}B-induced gene expression of a reporter gene construct.« less

  14. BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jian; Tan Juan; Zhang Xihui

    2010-05-10

    Multiple families of viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to regulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling, which plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular events, including virus-host interactions. In this study, we report that bovine foamy virus (BFV) is able to activate the NF-kappaB pathway through the action of its transactivator, BTas. Both cellular IKKbeta and IkappaBalpha also participate in this activation. In addition, we demonstrate that BTas induces the processing of p100, which implies that BTas can activate NF-kappaB through a noncanonical pathway as well. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis shows that BTas interacts with IKK catalytic subunits (IKKalpha and IKKbeta), which may bemore » responsible for regulation of IKK kinase activity and persistent NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the level of BTas-mediated LTR transcription correlates with the activity of cellular NF-kappaB. Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription.« less

  15. BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Tan, Juan; Zhang, Xihui; Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Qicheng; Guo, Tingting; Geng, Yunqi; Qiao, Wentao

    2010-05-10

    Multiple families of viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to regulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling, which plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular events, including virus-host interactions. In this study, we report that bovine foamy virus (BFV) is able to activate the NF-kappaB pathway through the action of its transactivator, BTas. Both cellular IKKbeta and IkappaBalpha also participate in this activation. In addition, we demonstrate that BTas induces the processing of p100, which implies that BTas can activate NF-kappaB through a noncanonical pathway as well. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis shows that BTas interacts with IKK catalytic subunits (IKKalpha and IKKbeta), which may be responsible for regulation of IKK kinase activity and persistent NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the level of BTas-mediated LTR transcription correlates with the activity of cellular NF-kappaB. Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The kappa-opiate receptor impacts the pathophysiology and behavior of substance use.

    PubMed

    Mysels, David; Sullivan, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the kappa-opiate receptor, in addition to the mu-opiate receptor, plays an important role in substance use pathophysiology and behavior. As dopamine activity is upregulated through chronic substance use, kappa receptor activity, mediated through the peptide dynorphin, is upregulated in parallel. Dynorphin causes dysphoria and decreased locomotion, and the upregulation of its activity on the kappa receptor likely dampens the excitation caused by increased dopaminergic activity. This feedback mechanism may have significant clinical implications for treating drug dependent patients in various stages of their pathology.

  17. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky

    2006-11-17

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha}more » because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.« less

  18. $$\\pi^0$$ Production with $K^-$ and $$\\pi^+$$ Beams at 530 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Lanaro, Armando

    1990-01-01

    In thia theaia we report on measurements of inclusive neutral pion production at large transverse momenta (more » $$P_T$$) in collision of 530 GeV/c ($$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 31.5 GeV) $K^-$ and $$\\pi^+$$ beams with a copper and beryllium combined target. The $$\\pi^0$$ acceptance in center-of-mass rapidity is $$\\mid y \\mid$$ < 0.7, for $$P_T$$ values greater than 3.5 GeV/c (negative beam) and 4.25 GeV/c (positive beam). The data were taken using the large acceptance liquid argon calorimeter of the E706 spectrometer at Fermilab, and analyzed using the standard E706 reconstruction package. Ratios on $$\\pi^0$$ yields using $$\\pi^+, \\pi^-, K^-$$ and $p$ are presented. The results are used to examine issues of scaling in point-like hadronic collisions at high energies and large transverse momenta.« less

  19. NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-07-15

    Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}Bmore » activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.« less

  20. Corrective recombination of mouse immunoglobulin kappa alleles in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Feddersen, R M; Van Ness, B G

    1990-01-01

    Previous characterization of mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene rearrangement products cloned from murine plasmacytomas has indicated that two recombination events can take place on a single kappa allele (R. M. Feddersen and B. G. Van Ness, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4792-4797, 1985; M. A. Shapiro and M. Weigert, J. Immunol. 139:3834-3839, 1987). To determine whether multiple recombinations on a single kappa allele can contribute to the formation of productive V-J genes through corrective recombinations, we have examined several Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B-cell clones which rearrange the kappa locus during cell culture. Clonal cell lines which had rearranged one kappa allele nonproductively while maintaining the other allele in the germ line configuration were grown, and secondary subclones, which subsequently expressed kappa protein, were isolated and examined for further kappa rearrangement. A full spectrum of rearrangement patterns was observed in this sequential cloning, including productive and nonproductive recombinations of the germ line allele and secondary recombinations of the nonproductive allele. The results show that corrective V-J recombinations, with displacement of the nonproductive kappa gene, occur with a significant frequency (6 of 17 kappa-producing subclones). Both deletion and maintenance of the primary (nonfunctional) V-J join, as a reciprocal product, were observed. Images PMID:2153918

  1. Connectivity in river deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  2. Identification of a novel A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B activation termed ABIN-2.

    PubMed

    Van Huffel, S; Delaei, F; Heyninck, K; De Valck, D; Beyaert, R

    2001-08-10

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a central role in the regulation of genes implicated in immune responses, inflammatory processes, and apoptotic cell death. The zinc finger protein A20 is a cellular inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation by various stimuli and plays a critical role in terminating NF-kappaB responses. The underlying mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition by A20 is still unknown. A20 has been shown to interact with several proteins including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors 2 and 6, as well as the inhibitory protein of kappaB kinase (IKK) gamma protein. Here we report the cloning and characterization of ABIN-2, a previously unknown protein that binds to the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of A20. NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF and interleukin-1 is inhibited by overexpression of ABIN-2. The latter also inhibits NF-kappaB activation induced by overexpression of receptor-interacting protein or TNF receptor-associated factor 2. In contrast, NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of IKKbeta or direct activators of the IKK complex, such as Tax, cannot be inhibited by ABIN-2. These results indicate that ABIN-2 interferes with NF-kappaB activation upstream of the IKK complex and that it might contribute to the NF-kappaB-inhibitory function of A20.

  3. Man made deltas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.

    2014-12-01

    During the last few millennia, southern European fluvio-deltaic systems have evolved in response to changes in the hydrological cycle, mostly driven by high-frequency climate oscillations and increasing anthropic pressure on natural landscapes. The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the bulk of the four largest northern Mediterranean and Black Sea deltas (Ebro, Rhone, Po and Danube) formed during two short and synchronous intervals during which anthropogenic land cover change was the main driver for enhanced sediment production. These two major growth phases occurred under contrasting climatic regimes and were both followed by generalized delta retreat, supporting the hypothesis of human-driven delta progradation. Delta retreat, in particular, was the consequence of reduced soil erosion for renewed afforestation after the fall of the Roman Empire, and of river dams construction that overkilled the still increasing sediment production in catchment basins since the Industrial Era. In this second case, in particular, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding.

  4. Regulation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway by ISGylation.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Miki; Sone, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2008-12-01

    Post-translational modification with ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa) (ISGylation) is mediated by a sequential reaction similar to ubiquitination, and various target proteins for ISGylation have been identified. We previously reported that ISGylation of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 suppresses its E2 activity. Ubc13 forms a heterodimer with Uev1A, a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant, and the Ubc13-Uev1A complex catalyzes the assembly of a Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chain, which plays a non-proteolytic role in the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. In this study, we examined the effect of ISGylation on tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-6/transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase (TAK)-1-dependent NF-kappaB activation. We found that expression of the ISGylation system suppresses NF-kappaB activation via TRAF6 and TAK1 and that the level of polyubiquitinated TRAF6 is reduced by expression of the ISGylation system. Taken together, the results suggest that the NF-kappaB pathway is negatively regulated by ISGylation.

  5. Measurements of total production cross sections for $$\\pi^{+}$$+C, $$\\pi^{+}$$+Al, $$K^{+}$$+C, and $$K^{+}$$+Al at 60 GeV/c and $$\\pi^{+}$$+C and $$\\pi^{+}$$+Al at 31 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; et al.

    This paper presents several measurements of total production cross sections and total inelastic cross sections for the following reactions:more » $$\\pi^{+}$$+C, $$\\pi^{+}$$+Al, $$K^{+}$$+C, $$K^{+}$$+Al at 60 GeV/c, $$\\pi^{+}$$+C and $$\\pi^{+}$$+Al at 31 GeV/c . The measurements were made using the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. Comparisons with previous measurements are given and good agreement is seen. These interaction cross sections measurements are a key ingredient for neutrino flux prediction from the reinteractions of secondary hadrons in current and future accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiments.« less

  6. RRM2 induces NF-{kappa}B-dependent MMP-9 activation and enhances cellular invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, Mark S.; Whang, Edward E.

    2007-03-02

    Ribonucleotide reductase is a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes conversion of ribonucleotide 5'-diphosphates to their 2'-deoxynucleotide forms, a rate-limiting step in the production of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphates required for DNA synthesis. The ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit (RRM2) is a determinant of malignant cellular behavior in a range of human cancers. We examined the effect of RRM2 overexpression on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) transcription factor activity. RRM2 overexpression increases pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness and MMP-9 expression in a NF-{kappa}B-dependent manner. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of RRM2 expression attenuates cellular invasiveness and NF-{kappa}B activity. NF-{kappa}B is a key mediator ofmore » the invasive phenotypic changes induced by RRM2 overexpression.« less

  7. Study of a Narrow {pi}{sup +{pi}-} Peak at about 755 MeV/c{sup 2} in p-barn{yields}2{pi}{sup +}3{pi}{sup -} Annihilation at Rest

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspero, Mario

    2010-08-05

    A narrow peak in the {pi}{sup +{pi}-} mass distribution was seen by the Rome-Syracuse Collaboration in p-barn{yields}2{pi}{sup +}3{pi}{sup -} annihilation at rest in 1970. It was ignored for 40 years. The reanalysis of this peak finds that it has the mass 757.4{+-}2.8{sub stat{+-}}1.2{sub sys} MeV/c{sup 2} and a width consistent with the experimental resolution. The evidence of the peak is 5.2 standard deviations. The peak is generated in (1.03{+-}0.21{sub stat{+-}}0.21{sub sys})% of the p-barn annihilations at rest. No spin analysis is possible with the statistics of the experiment but there are arguments suggesting that it has J{sup p} = 0{supmore » +}.« less

  8. African swine fever virus IAP-like protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Clara I; Nogal, María L; Carrascosa, Angel L; Salas, María L; Fresno, Manuel; Revilla, Yolanda

    2002-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a homologue of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) that promotes cell survival by controlling the activity of caspase-3. Here we show that ASFV IAP is also able to activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Thus, transient transfection of the viral IAP increases the activity of an NF-kappaB reporter gene in a dose-responsive manner in Jurkat cells. Similarly, stably transfected cells expressing ASFV IAP have elevated basal levels of c-rel, an NF-kappaB-dependent gene. NF-kappaB complexes in the nucleus were increased in A224L-expressing cells compared with control cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin. This resulted in greater NF-kappaB-dependent promoter activity in ASFV IAP-expressing than in control cells, both in basal conditions and after PMA plus ionophore stimulation. The elevated NF-kappaB activity seems to be the consequence of higher IkappaB kinase (IKK) basal activity in these cells. The NF-kappaB-inducing activity of ASFV IAP was abrogated by an IKK-2 dominant negative mutant and enhanced by expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2.

  9. PI-273, a Substrate-Competitive, Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitor of PI4KIIα, Inhibits the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangmei; Gao, Zhen; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Lunfeng; Qiao, Xinhua; Zhao, Yingying; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Panpan; Lu, Junyan; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Hualiang; Luo, Cheng; Chen, Chang

    2017-11-15

    While phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIα) has been identified as a potential target for antitumor therapy, the clinical applications of PI4KIIα are limited by a lack of specific inhibitors. Here we report the first small-molecule inhibitor (SMI) of human PI4KIIα. Docking-based and ligand-based virtual screening strategies were first employed to identify promising hits, followed by two rounds of kinase activity inhibition validation. 2-(3-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)thioureido)-4-ethyl-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxamide (PI-273) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on PI4KIIα kinase activity (IC 50 = 0.47 μmol/L) and suppressed cell proliferation. Surface plasmon resonance and thermal shift assays indicated that PI-273 interacted directly with PI4KIIα. Kinetic analysis identified PI-273 as a reversible competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate phosphatidylinositol (PI), which contrasted with most other PI kinase inhibitors that bind the ATP binding site. PI-273 reduced PI4P content, cell viability, and AKT signaling in wild-type MCF-7 cells, but not in PI4KIIα knockout MCF-7 cells, indicating that PI-273 is highly selective for PI4KIIα. Mutant analysis revealed a role of palmitoylation insertion in the selectivity of PI-273 for PI4KIIα. In addition, PI-273 treatment retarded cell proliferation by blocking cells in G 2 -M, inducing cell apoptosis and suppressing colony-forming ability. Importantly, PI-273 significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell-induced breast tumor growth without toxicity. PI-273 is the first substrate-competitive, subtype-specific inhibitor of PI4KIIα, the use of which will facilitate evaluations of PI4KIIα as a cancer therapeutic target. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6253-66. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  11. NF-kappaB activation in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons is essential in illness- and leptin-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Pil-Geum; Namkoong, Cherl; Kang, Gil Myoung; Hur, Man-Wook; Kim, Seung-Whan; Kim, Geun Hyang; Kang, Yeoungsup; Jeon, Min-Jae; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Karin, Michael; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Min-Seon

    2010-03-26

    Anorexia and weight loss are prevalent in infectious diseases. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we established animal models of infection-associated anorexia by administrating bacterial and viral products, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein (Tat). In these models, we found that the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pivotal transcription factor for inflammation-related proteins, was activated in the hypothalamus. In parallel, administration of LPS and Tat increased hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which was abrogated by inhibition of hypothalamic NF-kappaB. In vitro, NF-kappaB activation directly stimulated the transcriptional activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), a precursor of anorexigenic melanocortin, and mediated the stimulatory effects of LPS, Tat, and pro-inflammatory cytokines on POMC transcription, implying the involvement of NF-kappaB in controlling feeding behavior. Consistently, hypothalamic injection of LPS and Tat caused a significant reduction in food intake and body weight, which was prevented by blockade of NF-kappaB and melanocortin. Furthermore, disruption of I kappaB kinase-beta, an upstream kinase of NF-kappaB, in POMC neurons attenuated LPS- and Tat-induced anorexia. These findings suggest that infection-associated anorexia and weight loss are mediated via NF-kappaB activation in hypothalamic POMC neurons. In addition, hypothalamic NF-kappaB was activated by leptin, an important anorexigenic hormone, and mediates leptin-stimulated POMC transcription, indicating that hypothalamic NF-kappaB also serves as a downstream signaling pathway of leptin.

  12. The inhibitory effect of alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate on the PI3K-Akt-NFkappaB pathway in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryosuke; Matsuki, Nori-aki; Jing, Gao; Kanematsu, Takashi; Abe, Kihachiro; Hirata, Masato

    2005-11-01

    1 Bisphosphonates are inhibitors of tumor cell growth as well as of bone resorption by inducing cell apoptosis. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which the drug induces cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of alendronate, one of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates on the phoshoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-NFkappaB pathway, the major cell survival pathway. 2 The PI3K-Akt-NFkappaB pathway was activated in the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha or insulin. Saos-2 was also used in some experiments. This was assessed by the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)), increased PI3K activity, phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 and threonine 308, increase in activity of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) and finally phosphorylation of IkappaB and its subsequent degradation. 3 Pretreatment with alendronate at 100 microM for 24 h prior to the stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha or insulin partially inhibited the IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation. These events were more clearly observed in the presence of inhibitors of proteasomes, which are responsible for the degradation of IkappaB. The drug also partially inhibited the activity of IKK, but almost fully inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and the production of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3). 4 The inhibitory effect of alendronate on IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation was not attenuated by the exogenous addition of geranylgeraniol to replenish the cytosolic isoprenyl lipid substrate. 5 The present findings demonstrate that alendronate inhibited the PI3K-Akt-NFkappaB cell survival pathway at the point of PI3K activation, thus indicating the presence of new targets of alendronate.

  13. Martian deltas: Morphology and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent detailed mapping has revealed numerous examples of Martian deltas. The location and morphology of these deltas are described. Factors that contribute to delta morphology are river regime, coastal processes, structural stability, and climate. The largest delta systems on Mars are located near the mouths of Maja, Maumee, Vedra, Ma'adim, Kasei, and Brazos Valles. There are also several smaller-scale deltas emplaced near channel mouths situated in Ismenius Lacus, Memnonia, and Arabia. Delta morphology was used to reconstruct type, quantity, and sediment load size transported by the debouching channel systems. Methods initially developed for terrestrial systems were used to gain information on the relationships between Martian delta morphology, river regime, and coastal processes.

  14. An essential role for the Id1/PI3K/Akt/NFkB/survivin signalling pathway in promoting the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hang; Kuang, Chun-Yan; Zhu, Jin-Kun; Yu, Yang; Qin, Zhe-Xue; Liu, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2012-04-01

    The enhancement of re-endothelialisation is a critical therapeutic option for repairing injured blood vessels. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that participate in endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialisation by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. The over-expression of the inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding 1 (Id1) significantly improved EPC proliferation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Id1 on the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)/survivin signalling pathway and its significance in promoting EPC proliferation in vitro. Spleen-derived EPCs were cultured as previously described. Id1 was presented at low levels in EPCs, and was rapidly up-regulated by stimulation with vascular endothelial growth factor. We demonstrated that transient transfection of Id1 into EPCs activated the PI3K/Akt/NFκB/survivin signalling pathway and promoted EPC proliferation. The proliferation of EPCs was extensively inhibited by silencing of endogenous Id1, and knockdown of Id1 expression led to suppression of PI3K/Akt/NFκB/survivin signalling pathway in EPCs. In addition, blockade by the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor, the NFκB inhibitor BAY 11-7082, the survivin inhibitor Curcumin, or the survivin inhibitor YM155 reduced the effects of Id1 transfection. These results suggest that the Id1/PI3K/Akt/NFκB/survivin signalling pathway plays a critical role in EPC proliferation. The Id1/PI3K/Akt/NFκB/survivin signalling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in the prevention of restenosis after vascular injury.

  15. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for {pi}{pi}D- and F1-wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.

    Results of implementation of dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition to description of {pi}{pi}D and F1 wave amplitudes are presented. We use relations with only one subtraction what leads to small uncertainties of results and to strong constraints for tested {pi}{pi} amplitudes. Presented equations are similar to those with one subtraction (so called GKPY equations) and to those with two subtractions (the Roy's equations) for the S and P waves. Numerical calculations are done with the S and P wave input amplitudes tested already with use of the Roy's and GKPY equations.

  16. The Delta Connectome: A network-based framework for studying connectivity in river deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Many deltas, including the Mississippi River Delta, have been losing land at fast rates compromising the safety and sustainability of their ecosystems. Knowledge of delta vulnerability has raised global concern and stimulated active interdisciplinary research as deltas are densely populated landscapes, rich in agriculture, fisheries, oil and gas, and important means for navigation. There are many ways of looking at this problem which all contribute to a deeper understanding of the functioning of coastal systems. One aspect that has been overlooked thus far, yet fundamental for advancing delta science is connectivity, both physical (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). In this paper, I propose a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. After analyzing the classic network representation as a set of nodes (e.g., bifurcations and junctions or regions with distinct physical or statistical behavior) and links (e.g., channels), I show that from connectivity considerations the delta emerges as a leaky network that continuously exchanges fluxes of matter, energy, and information with its surroundings and evolves over time. I explore each network representation and show through several examples how quantifying connectivity can bring to light aspects of deltaic systems so far unexplored and yet fundamental to understanding system functioning and informing coastal management and restoration. This paper serves both as an introduction to the Delta Connectome framework as well as a review of recent applications of the concepts of network and connectivity to deltaic systems within the Connectome framework.

  17. Persistent tumor necrosis factor signaling in normal human fibroblasts prevents the complete resynthesis of I kappa B-alpha.

    PubMed

    Poppers, D M; Schwenger, P; Vilcek, J

    2000-09-22

    Transcription factor NF-kappa B is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm, complexed with I kappa B inhibitory proteins. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 induce I kappa B-alpha phosphorylation, leading to I kappa B-alpha degradation and translocation of NF-kappa B to the nucleus where it activates genes important in inflammatory and immune responses. TNF and interleukin-1 actions are typically terminated by desensitization, and I kappa B-alpha reappearance normally occurs within 30-60 min. We found that in normal human FS-4 fibroblasts maintained in the presence of TNF, I kappa B-alpha protein failed to return to base-line levels for up to 15 h. Removal of TNF at any time during the 15-h period resulted in complete I kappa B-alpha resynthesis, suggesting that I kappa B-alpha reappearance was prevented by continued TNF signaling. Long term exposure of FS-4 fibroblasts to TNF led to a persistent presence of I kappa B-alpha mRNA, sustained I kappa B kinase activation, continuous proteasome-mediated degradation of I kappa B-alpha, and sustained nuclear localization of NF-kappa B. Continuous exposure of FS-4 cells to TNF did not lead to a sustained activation of p38 or ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, suggesting that not all TNF-induced signaling pathways are persistently activated. These findings challenge the notion that all cytokine-mediated signals are rapidly terminated by desensitization and illustrate the need to elucidate the process of deactivation of TNF-induced signaling.

  18. ICI 204448: a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the CNS.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J. S.; Carroll, J. A.; Alcock, P.; Main, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    1. A number of compounds were evaluated in an attempt to identify a kappa-opioid receptor agonist with limited access to the central nervous system. 2. Quaternary derivatives of the kappa-opioid agonists tifluadom, U-50488H and ethylketocyclazocine were essentially devoid of opioid activity in a range of isolated tissue preparations. 3. A novel compound - ICI 204448 - is described which produced a potent and naloxone-reversible inhibition of electrically-evoked contraction of the guinea-pig ileum, mouse vas deferens and rabbit vas deferens preparations. ICI 204448 was shown to displace the binding of the kappa-opioid ligand [3H]-bremazocine from guinea-pig cerebellum membranes. 4. Ex vivo binding studies in mice showed ICI 204448 to be well absorbed following subcutaneous administration. The brain levels achieved by ICI 20448 were substantially lower than those produced by kappa-agonists such as U-50488H and tifluadom. 5. A good correlation was found for a range of opioids between lipophilicity and degree of CNS penetration. PMID:2568146

  19. PI(5)P Regulates Autophagosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Puri, Claudia; Menzies, Fiona M.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of class III PI3K VPS34, recruits specific autophagic effectors, like WIPI2, during the initial steps of autophagosome biogenesis and thereby regulates canonical autophagy. However, mammalian cells can produce autophagosomes through enigmatic noncanonical VPS34-independent pathways. Here we show that PI(5)P can regulate autophagy via PI(3)P effectors and thereby identify a mechanistic explanation for forms of noncanonical autophagy. PI(5)P synthesis by the phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase PIKfyve was required for autophagosome biogenesis, and it increased levels of PI(5)P, stimulated autophagy, and reduced the levels of autophagic substrates. Inactivation of VPS34 impaired recruitment of WIPI2 and DFCP1 to autophagic precursors, reduced ATG5-ATG12 conjugation, and compromised autophagosome formation. However, these phenotypes were rescued by PI(5)P in VPS34-inactivated cells. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for alternative VPS34-independent autophagy-initiating pathways, like glucose starvation, and unravel a cytoplasmic function for PI(5)P, which previously has been linked predominantly to nuclear roles. PMID:25578879

  20. Zambezi River Delta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    It drains a watershed that spans eight countries and nearly 1.6 million square kilometers 600,000 square miles. The Zambezi also Zambeze is the fourth largest river in Africa, and the largest east-flowing waterway. The Operational Land Imager on the Landsat 8 satellite acquired this natural-color image of the Zambezi Delta on August 29, 2013. Sandbars and barrier spits stretch across the mouths of the delta, and suspended sediment extends tens of kilometers out into the sea. The sandy outflow turns the coastal waters to a milky blue-green compared to the deep blue of open water in the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi Delta includes 230 kilometers of coastline fronting 18,000 square kilometers (7,00 square miles) of swamps, floodplains, and even savannahs (inland). The area has long been prized by subsistence fishermen and farmers, who find fertile ground for crops like sugar and fertile waters for prawns and fish. Two species of endangered cranes and one of the largest concentration of buffalo in Africa -- among many other species of wildlife -- have found a haven in this internationally recognized wetland. However, the past six decades have brought great changes to the Zambezi Delta, which used to pour more water and sediment off of the continent. Hydropower dams upstream-most prominently, the Kariba and the Cahora Bassa-greatly reduce river flows during the wet season; they also trap sediments that would otherwise flow downstream. The result has been less water reaching the delta and the floodplains, which rely on pulses of nutrients and sediments from annual (and mostly benign) natural flooding. The change in the flow of the river affects freshwater availability and quality in the delta. Strong flows push fresh water further out into the sea and naturally keep most of a delta full of fresh (or mostly fresh) water. When that fresh flow eases, the wetlands become drier and more prone to fire. Salt water from the Indian Ocean also can penetrate further into the marsh

  1. {pi}-{pi} Interactions and magnetic properties in a series of hybrid inorganic-organic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J.

    The series of hybrid inorganic-organic solids T(Im){sub 2}[Ni(CN){sub 4}] with T=Fe, Co, Ni and Im=imidazole were prepared by soft chemical routes from aqueous solutions of the involved building units: imidazole, T{sup 2+} metal and the [Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-} anionic block. The obtained samples were characterized from infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, and thermogravimetric, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Anhydrous solids which crystallize with a monoclinic unit cell, in the I2/a space group with four formula units per cell (Z=4) were obtained. Their crystal structure was solved ab initio from the recorded X-ray powder patterns and then refined by the Rietveld method.more » The metal T is found with octahedral coordination to four N ends of CN groups and two imidazole molecules while the inner Ni atom preserves its planar coordination. The system of layers remains stacked in an ordered 3D structure through dipole-dipole and {pi}-{pi} interactions between imidazole rings from neighboring layers. In this way, a pillared structure is achieved without requiring the coordination of both nitrogen atoms from imidazole ring. The recorded magnetic data indicate the occurrence of a predominant ferromagnetic interaction at low temperature for Co and Ni but not for Fe. Such magnetic ordering is more favorable for Ni with transition temperature of 14.67 K, which was ascribed to the relatively high polarizing power for this metal. Within the considered T metals, to nickel the highest electron-withdrawing ability corresponds and this leads to an increase for the metal-ligand electron clouds overlapping and to a stronger {pi}-{pi} attractive interaction, two factors that result into a higher magnetic ordering temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Magnetic ordering through the {pi}-{pi} interaction between the imidazole rings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid inorganic-organic solids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid inorganic-organic molecular

  2. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LMX1B regulates expression of NF-kappa B target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Rascle, Anne; Neumann, Tanja; Raschta, Anne-Sarah

    2009-01-01

    LMX1B is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor essential for development. Putative LMX1B target genes have been identified through mouse gene targeting studies, but their identity as direct LMX1B targets remains hypothetical. We describe here the first molecular characterization of LMX1B target gene regulation. Microarray analysis using a tetracycline-inducible LMX1B expression system in HeLa cells revealed that a subset of NF-{kappa}B target genes, including IL-6 and IL-8, are upregulated in LMX1B-expressing cells. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity by short interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of p65 impairs, while activation of NF-{kappa}B activity by TNF-{alpha} synergizes induction of NF-{kappa}B target genes by LMX1B. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstratedmore » that LMX1B binds to the proximal promoter of IL-6 and IL-8 in vivo, in the vicinity of the characterized {kappa}B site, and that LMX1B recruitment correlates with increased NF-{kappa}B DNA association. IL-6 promoter-reporter assays showed that the {kappa}B site and an adjacent putative LMX1B binding motif are both involved in LMX1B-mediated transcription. Expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes is affected in the kidney of Lmx1b{sup -/-} knock-out mice, thus supporting the biological relevance of our findings. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that LMX1B directly regulates transcription of a subset of NF-{kappa}B target genes in cooperation with nuclear p50/p65 NF-{kappa}B.« less

  3. A new gene in A. rubens: A sea star Ig kappa gene.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Nadine; Osteras, Magne; Otten, Patricia; Leclerc, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The sea star Asterias rubens reacts specifically to the antigen:HRP (horse-radish peroxydase) and produces an antibody anti-HRP. We previously identified a candidate Ig kappa gene corresponding to this manuscript. We show now the gene referred to as: "sea star Ig kappa gene in its specificity".

  4. NF-kappaB mediates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-dependent iNOS expression in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Uffort, Deon G; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Ellerhorst, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    Tumor expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) predicts poor outcomes for melanoma patients. We have reported the regulation of melanoma iNOS by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we test the hypothesis that NF-kappaB mediates this regulation. Western blotting of melanoma cell lysates confirmed the constitutive expression of iNOS. Western blot detected baseline levels of activated nuclear extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NF-kappaB. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 in melanoma cell nuclei, with p50 being more prevalent. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated baseline NF-kappaB activity, the findings confirmed by supershift analysis. Treatment of melanoma cells with the MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased NF-kappaB binding to its DNA recognition sequence, implicating the MAPK pathway in NF-kappaB activation. Two specific NF-kappaB inhibitors suppressed iNOS expression, demonstrating regulation of iNOS by NF-kappaB. Several experiments indicated the presence of p50 homodimers, which lack a transactivation domain and rely on the transcriptional coactivator Bcl-3 to carry out this function. Bcl-3 was detected in melanoma cells and co-immunoprecipitated with p50. These data suggest that the constitutively activated melanoma MAPK pathway stimulates activation of NF-kappaB hetero- and homodimers, which, in turn, drive iNOS expression and support melanoma tumorigenesis.

  5. Analysis of Hydra PIWI proteins and piRNAs uncover early evolutionary origins of the piRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Lim, Robyn S M; Anand, Amit; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kai, Toshie

    2014-02-01

    To preserve genome integrity, an evolutionarily conserved small RNA-based silencing mechanism involving PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represses potentially deleterious transposons in animals. Although there has been extensive research into PIWI proteins in bilaterians, these proteins remain to be examined in ancient phyla. Here, we investigated the PIWI proteins Hywi and Hyli in the cnidarian Hydra, and found that both PIWI proteins are enriched in multipotent stem cells, germline stem cells, and in the female germline. Hywi and Hyli localize to the nuage, a perinuclear organelle that has been implicated in piRNA-mediated transposon silencing, together with other conserved nuage and piRNA pathway components. Our findings provide the first report of nuage protein localization patterns in a non-bilaterian. Hydra PIWI proteins possess symmetrical dimethylarginines: modified residues that are known to aid in PIWI protein localization to the nuage and proper piRNA loading. piRNA profiling suggests that transposons are the major targets of the piRNA pathway in Hydra. Our data suggest that piRNA biogenesis through the ping-pong amplification cycle occurs in Hydra and that Hywi and Hyli are likely to preferentially bind primary and secondary piRNAs, respectively. Presumptive piRNA clusters are unidirectionally transcribed and primarily give rise to piRNAs that are antisense to transposons. These results indicate that various conserved features of PIWI proteins, the piRNA pathway, and their associations with the nuage were likely established before the evolution of bilaterians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral geometry of {kappa}-Minkowski space

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Francesco

    After recalling Snyder's idea [Phys. Rev. 71, 38 (1947)] of using vector fields over a smooth manifold as 'coordinates on a noncommutative space', we discuss a two-dimensional toy-model whose 'dual' noncommutative coordinates form a Lie algebra: this is the well-known {kappa}-Minkowski space [Phys. Lett. B 334, 348 (1994)]. We show how to improve Snyder's idea using the tools of quantum groups and noncommutative geometry. We find a natural representation of the coordinate algebra of {kappa}-Minkowski as linear operators on an Hilbert space (a major problem in the construction of a physical theory), study its 'spectral properties', and discuss how tomore » obtain a Dirac operator for this space. We describe two Dirac operators. The first is associated with a spectral triple. We prove that the cyclic integral of Dimitrijevic et al. [Eur. Phys. J. C 31, 129 (2003)] can be obtained as Dixmier trace associated to this triple. The second Dirac operator is equivariant for the action of the quantum Euclidean group, but it has unbounded commutators with the algebra.« less

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae activates IKK/I kappa B-mediated signaling, which is inhibited by 4-HNE and following primary exposure.

    PubMed

    Donath, Bernadette; Fischer, Claudia; Page, Sharon; Prebeck, Sigrid; Jilg, Nikolaus; Weber, Marion; da Costa, Clarissa; Neumeier, Dieter; Miethke, Thomas; Brand, Korbinian

    2002-11-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation as well as LDL oxidation. The transcription factor NF-kappa B is found in an active state in atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effect of C. pneumoniae exposure on the NF-kappa B system in human monocytic lineage cells. Short exposure to C. pneumoniae as well as chlamydial heat shock protein 60 activated NF-kappa B, accompanied by increased cytokine production. Incubation with C. pneumoniae-induced depletion of I kappa B-alpha and later I kappa B-epsilon which was preceded by I kappa B kinase complex activation. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehyde LDL oxidation product, was shown to inhibit C. pneumoniae induced NF-kappa B activation by preventing I kappa B phosphorylation/proteolysis. During long-term incubation with C. pneumoniae I kappa B-alpha returned to baseline, whereas the levels of I kappa B-epsilon and p65 were upregulated. Interestingly, long-term preincubation with C. pneumoniae selectively prevented restimulation by this microorganism, which appears to be at least partly facilitated by inhibition of I kappa B proteolysis. C. pneumoniae-induced NF-kappa B activation as well as the inhibition of that effect under certain conditions may contribute to chronic inflammation with potential relevance to vascular disease.

  8. delta opioid receptors stimulate Akt-dependent phosphorylation of c-jun in T cells.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Nahid A; McAllen, Kathy; Sharp, Burt M

    2006-02-01

    Activation of naive T cells markedly up-regulates the expression of delta opioid receptors (DORs). These receptors are bound by DOR peptides released by T cells, modulating T cell functions such as interleukin-2 production, cellular proliferation, and chemotaxis. Previous studies have shown that DOR agonists [e.g., [D-Ala(2)-D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin (DADLE)] modulate T cell antigen receptor signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2) and that DORs directly induce phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (implicated in cytokine gene transcription) and its association with the MAPK c-jun1 NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Such observations suggest that DORs may induce the phosphorylation of c-jun. These experiments were performed to test this hypothesis and determine the potential roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (protein kinase B). DADLE (10(-10) to 10(-6) M) dose-dependently induced c-jun phosphorylation. This was blocked by pertussis toxin and the DOR-specific antagonist naltindole. Fluorescence flow cytometry showed that DADLE significantly stimulated c-jun phosphorylation by T cells. DADLE stimulated phosphorylation of membrane-associated Akt; wortmannin and LY294002 ([2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one]), specific inhibitors of PI3K, abolished the DADLE-induced phosphorylation of c-jun. Finally, inhibitors of Akt and JNK blocked DADLE-induced phosphorylation of c-jun. Thus, activated DORs directly stimulate c-jun phosphorylation through a PI3K-dependent pathway in T cells, apparently involving Akt. This implies that DORs activate JNK through a novel pathway dependent on PI3K and Akt, thereby regulating the function of activator protein-1 transcription complexes containing c-jun and other transcription partners.

  9. Reinstatement of cocaine place-conditioning prevented by the peptide kappa-opioid receptor antagonist arodyn.

    PubMed

    Carey, A N; Borozny, K; Aldrich, J V; McLaughlin, J P

    2007-08-13

    Stress contributes to the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in abstinent subjects. Kappa-opioid receptor antagonists attenuate the behavioral effects of stress, potentially providing therapeutic value in treating cocaine abuse. Presently, the peptide arodyn produced long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor antagonism, suppressing kappa-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociception at least 3 days after intracerebroventricular administration of 0.3 nmol. C57Bl/6J mice demonstrated cocaine-conditioned place preference, extinction over 3 weeks, and a subsequent reinstatement of place preference. Arodyn pretreatment suppressed stress-induced, but not cocaine-exposed, reinstatement of cocaine place preference. These results verify that arodyn and other kappa-opioid receptor antagonists may be useful therapeutics for cocaine abuse.

  10. Black, White, Greek...Like Who?: Howard University Student Perceptions of a White Fraternity on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 2, 1867, the Historically Black College or University (HBCU) Howard University (HU) was founded in Washington, D. C. Almost exactly one year later, the all white fraternity of Pi Kappa Alpha was founded at the University of Virginia. Over 100 years later, on February 18 2006, fifty-five HU students became charter members of Pi Kappa Alpha…

  11. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Inverse expression of estrogen receptor-beta and nuclear factor-kappaB in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Stylianos; Kominea, Athina; Melachrinou, Maria; Balampani, Eleni; Sotiropoulou-Bonikou, Georgia

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) signalling pathways in bladder urothelial carcinoma according to clinicopathological features, in order to elucidate their role during carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical methodology was carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from urinary bladder carcinomas of 140 patients (94 males and 46 females) who underwent transurethral resection of bladder neoplasms. Correlations between ER-beta and NF-kappaB, and tumor grade and T-stage were evaluated, along with demographic data, sex and age. A significant decrease in ER-beta expression in the nucleus of bladder cells during loss of cell differentiation (r(s) = -0.61, P-value < 0.001, test of trend P-value = 0.003) and in muscle invasive carcinomas (T2-T4; test of trend P-value < 0.001) was found. p65 Subunit of NF-kappaB was expressed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of bladder epithelial cells. A strong positive association between tumor grade and nuclear expression of NF-kappaB was shown. No correlation between NF-kappaB, nuclear or cytoplasmic staining, with T-stage was observed. An inverse correlation between ER-beta and nuclear p65 immunoreactivity was observed (r(s) = -0.45, P-value < 0.001). There was no correlation with demographic data. Our immunohistochemical study suggests the possible inverse regulation of NF-kappaB and ER-beta transcription factor during bladder carcinogenesis. Selective ER-beta agonists and agents, inhibitors of NF-kappaB, might represent a possible new treatment strategy for bladder urothelial tumors.

  13. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  14. Peripheral zone lesions of intermediary risk in multiparametric prostate MRI: Frequency and validation of the PI-RADSv2 risk stratification algorithm based on focal contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Matthias; Waibel, Lorenz; Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Langer, Mathias; Krauss, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    To validate the risk stratification algorithm of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2) for intermediary risk lesions (PI-RADSv2 category 3) in the peripheral zone based on focal contrast enhancement and to compare cancer rates in category 3, upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC value. We retrospectively analyze 172 consecutive patients undergoing prostate MRI with 315 histopathologically verified lesions. We select all lesions either assigned category 3 or category 4 in the peripheral zone for further analysis. We compare cancer rates with the two-sided chi-squared test. To determine inter-observer agreement about contrast enhancement two blinded radiologists evaluate the subset of category 3 lesions based on the diffusion weighted sequence. The frequency of peripheral PI-RADS 3, upgraded PI-RADS 4 and PI-RADS 4 lesions based on markedly low ADC value is 10.8%, 10.8% and 20.3%, respectively. Cancer rates (significant cancer only) in these subgroups are 8.8% (3/34), 23.5% (8/34) and 40.6% (26/64), P < 0.01. Inter-observer agreement is moderate for evaluation of contrast enhancement with kappa values between 0.46 and 0.5. We demonstrate a trend of increasing cancer rate from PI-RADSv2 category 3 to upgraded category 4 to category 4 based on markedly low ADC value. Peripheral lesions of intermediary risk in the diffusion weighted sequence account for 21.6% of all prostate lesions encountered. Since it is likely that patient management recommendations will be linked to assessment categories in future versions of PI-RADS, cancer rates in upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC values should be in a similar range. We conclude that in future studies of PI-RADSv2 upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC value should be reported separately to generate a database for meta-analysis of cancer rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Delta Niobium or Delta VICE?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Delta Niobium or Delta VICE? Niobium is one of a few chemical elements that can be used to discriminate between melts derived from upwelling mantle, represented by MORBs and OIBs, and those derived from subduction and continental crust environments. The Nb/U ratio was introduced because these two elements appear to partition nearly identically in upwelling environments, but very differently (from one another) in subduction and continental environments (Hofmann et al., 1986). Fitton et al. (1997, 2003) have taken a radically different approach, using log(Nb/Y)-log(Zr/Y) correlations that appear to discriminate between MORB and OIB (or plume) environments. MORB correlations are parallel to, and at lower Nb/Y ratios than, Iceland basalt correlations. This is expressed by a discrimination parameter defined as Delta Nb = 1.74 + log(Nb/Y) - 1.92 log(Zr/Y). N-MORB have negative Delta-Nb values, whereas Iceland and other OIBs have positive values. Fitton et al. interpret this in terms of a niobium deficiency in MORB that is balanced by a Nb excess in OIBs. This interpretation conflicts with evidence based on Nb/U ratios (Hofmann et al., 1986), that MORB and OIB are parts of a common reservoir, which is different from, and complementary to, the continental crust. Both parts of this MORB-OIB reservoir are characterized by higher-than-primitive Nb/U and Nb/Th ratios, whereas continental crust has dramatically lower Nb/U and Nb/Th ratios. The use of VICE/MICE (very-incompatible- element to moderately-incompatible-element) ratios, such as Nb/Y, obscures this. The significance of the VICE/MICE plot becomes clear if one replaces Nb by other VICEs in the log(Nb/Y)-log(Zr/Y) plot. This shows that any of these VICEs yield similar topologies as Nb/Y. Thus for a given Zr/Y ratio, depleted MORB have consistently lower Ba/Y, Th/Y, and La/Y ratios than do Iceland basalts, even the most incompatible-element- depleted Iceland picrites. This is caused by a less extreme depletion of

  16. The effects of vibronic coupling on the photophysics of pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Hajime

    A theoretical model describing photophysics of pi-conjugated aggregates, such as molecular crystals and polymer thin films, is developed. A Holstein-like Hamiltonian expressed with a multi-particle basis set is used to evaluate absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. An analysis with line strength ratio proves to be a powerful diagnostic tool to obtain additional spectral signatures with which to distinguish H- vs. J-aggregation. For the H-aggregates absorption peak ratio, A 0-0/A 0-1, diminishes as the excitonic coupling increases. Also the PL peak ratio, I 0-0/I 0-1, is zero at T=0K with no disorder and the value increases as temperature and disorder increase. By contrast the J-aggregates show the opposite trends. Furthermore we will show the PL peak ratio provides a direct measurement of the exciton coherence length for a linear J-aggregate and could be expressed as I0-0/I 0-1 = Ncoh/gamma2. We will also show that it is inversely proportional to square root of temperature (T-1/2). Applying our theory to the herringbone style oligoacene molecular crystals, we show the lowest singlet exciton states are highly influenced by charge transfer (CT) states and the well known energetic gap in two polarized absorption spectra, so called Davydov Splitting (DS), is a product of the interaction. We have successfully reproduced the DS for all three oligoacenes without any free parameters. Inspired by the CT contribution in oligoacene crystals, we further develop Wannier-Mott exciton model and apply to disorder-free polydiacetylene (PDA) quantum wires, which have been shown to be extremely emissive. We will show the quantum wire is a J-aggregate and we once again derive the peak ratio and the coherence size relation, I0-0/I 0-1 = kappaNcoh/gamma 2, where kappa is a prefactor close to unity. Typical photophysical properties of polymer pi-stacks such as those occurring in P3HT films are well explained by the simple linear H-aggregate model. However several groups have

  17. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  18. NF-{kappa}B p65 represses {beta}-catenin-activated transcription of cyclin D1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Injoo; Choi, Yong Seok; Jeon, Mi-Ya

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Cyclin D1 transcription is directly activated by {beta}-catenin; however, {beta}-catenin-induced cyclin D1 transcription is reduced by NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Protein-protein interaction between NF-{kappa}B p65 and {beta}-catenin might be responsible for p65-mediated repression of cyclin D1. {yields} One of five putative binding sites, located further upstream of other sites, is the major {beta}-catenin binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter. {yields} NF-{kappa}B binding site in cyclin D1 is occupied not only by p65 but also by {beta}-catenin, which is dynamically regulated by the signal. -- Abstract: Signaling crosstalk between the {beta}-catenin and NF-{kappa}B pathways represents a functional network.more » To test whether the crosstalk also occurs on their common target genes, the cyclin D1 promoter was used as a model because it contains binding sites for both proteins. {beta}-catenin activated transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter, while co-expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 reduced {beta}-catenin-induced transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed lithium chloride-induced binding of {beta}-catenin on one of the T-cell activating factor binding sites. More interestingly, {beta}-catenin binding was greatly reduced by NF-{kappa}B p65, possibly by the protein-protein interaction between the two proteins. Such a dynamic and complex binding of {beta}-catenin and NF-{kappa}B on promoters might contribute to the regulated expression of their target genes.« less

  19. Delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(2)H isotope ratio mass spectrometry of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine: application to methylamphetamine profiling.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael; Cawley, Adam T; Heagney, Aaron C; Kissane, Luke; Robertson, James; Salouros, Helen

    2009-07-01

    Conventional chemical profiling of methylamphetamine has been used for many years to determine the synthetic route employed and where possible to identify the precursor chemicals used. In this study stable isotope ratio analysis was investigated as a means of determining the origin of the methylamphetamine precursors, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine may be prepared industrially by several routes. Results are presented for the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C), nitrogen (delta(15)N) and hydrogen (delta(2)H) measured in methylamphetamine samples synthesized from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine of known provenance. It is clear from the results that measurement of the delta(13)C, delta(15)N and delta(2)H stable isotope ratios by elemental analyzer/thermal conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/TC-IRMS) in high-purity methylamphetamine samples will allow determination of the synthetic source of the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine precursor as being either of a natural, semi-synthetic, or fully synthetic origin. Copyright (c) 2009 Commonwealth of Australia.

  20. Measuring delta volumetric change and composition using a streakline-based method on the Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbut, K.; Estep, J. D.; Shaw, J.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating river delta growth is essential for determining coastal sustainability. We use a new method to quantify the recent accretion and composition of the Wax Lake Delta, a rapidly prograding delta in Louisiana. The method identifies the area of significant (subaqueous) delta aggradation from delta flow patterns, which are visible in aerial imagery through biogenic streaklines that naturally occur on the water surface. Comparison of bathymetric maps and streaklines shows that channel tips and the associated seaward extent of significant delta deposition occur where the divergence of flow direction equals 0 (+/- 400 m). Delta volumes calculated using this method, the 1974 pre-delta shoreline, and a measured average delta thickness of 1.6 m provide an estimate of the delta volume which we found to increase by 2.0*106 m3/yr between 1992 and 2014. We then compared this rate to the total volume of silt and sand discharged to the WLD using USGS measurements. Over the same period, the WLD received 1.4*106 m3/yr of sand and 9.0*106 m3/yr of silt and clay. Assuming all sand supplied to the delta is sequestered, volume comparisons show that the sand fraction of the WLD is between 18-38%, lower than previous estimates. Further, between 44-69% of the total suspended silt and clay bypasses the delta. These composition estimates can be used to predict land growth from engineered diversions, and the method can be used to monitor the resulting delta growth.

  1. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    PubMed

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  2. Bioorganometallic chemistry. 8. The molecular recognition of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids and substituted aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acid guests with supramolecular ({eta}{sup 5}-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium - nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide cyclic trimer hosts via non-covalent {pi}-{pi} and hydrophobic interactions in water: Steric, electronic, and conformational parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Ogo, Seiji; Fish, R.H.

    Molecular recognition, via non-covalent processes such as hydrogen bonding, {pi}-{pi}, and hydrophobic interactions, is an important biological phenomenon for guests, such as drugs, proteins, and other important biological molecules with, for example, host DNA/RNA. We have studied a novel molecular recognition process using guests that encompass aromatic and aliphatic amino acids [L-alanine, L-glutamine (L-Gln), L-histidine, L-isoleucine(L-Ile), L-leucine(L-Leu), L-phenylalanine(L-Phe), L-proline, L-tryptophan(L-Trp), L-valine(L-Val)], substituted aromatic carboxylic acids o-, m-, p-aminobenzoic acids (G1-3), benzoic acid (G4), phenylacetic acid (G5), p-methoxyphenylacetic acid (G6), o-methyoxybenozoic acid (G9), o-nitrobenzoic acid (G10), and aliphatic carboxylic acids [cyclohexylacetic acid (G7), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (G8)] with supramolecular, bioorganometallic hosts, ({eta}{supmore » 5}-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium (Cp{sup *}Rh)-nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide cyclic trimer complexes in aqueous solution at pH 7, utilizing {sup 1}H NMR, NOE, and molecular modeling techniques, and, as well, determining association constants (K{sub a}) and free energies of complexation ({Delta}{degree}G). The host-guest complexation occurs predominantly via non-covalent {pi}-{pi}, hydrophobic, and possible subtle H-bonding interactions, with steric, electronic, and molecular conformational parameters as important criteria. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  3. Amplitude Analysis of the Decay $$D_s^+ \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$$ in the Experiment E831/FOCUS (in Portuguese)

    SciTech Connect

    Schilithz, Anderson Correa; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    We present in this thesis the Dalitz Plot analysis of the D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decay, with the data of the E831/FOCUS, that took data in 1996 and 1997. The masses and widhts of f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(1370) are free parametres of the fit on Dalitz Plot, objectiving to study in detail these resonances. After this analysis we present the Spectator Model study on the S wave in this decay. For this study we used the formalism developed by M. Svec [2] for scattering. We present the comparison between the Isobar Model, frequently used inmore » Dalitz Plot analysis, and this formalism.« less

  4. Peripheral kappa-opioid agonist, ICI 204448, evokes hypothermia in cold-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Ding, Zhe; Gray, Alex M; Cowan, Alan

    2005-05-01

    ICI 204448, a selective kappa-opioid agonist with limited CNS access, can be used to discriminate central and peripheral opioid actions on physiological systems such as pain and thermoregulation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ICI 204448 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) on male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to ambient temperatures of 5, 20, or 32 degrees C. ICI 204448 did not alter the body temperature of rats maintained at 20 or 32 degrees C. However, 5 and 10 mg/kg of ICI 204448 evoked significant hypothermia in rats exposed to 5 degrees C. The i.c.v. administration of nor-BNI, a kappa-opioid antagonist, did not affect the hypothermia produced by the systemic injection of ICI 204448. Thus, an involvement of brain kappa-opioid receptors in ICI 204448-evoked hypothermia is unlikely. The present data demonstrate for the first time that ICI 204448 produces hypothermia in cold-exposed rats and suggest that the role of peripheral kappa-opioid receptors in thermoregulation becomes more significant at cold ambient temperatures. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Gonadal Hormone Modulation of Mu, Kappa, and Delta Opioid Antinociception in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Erin C.; Ulibarri, Catherine M.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that sex differences in morphine antinociception in rodents might be attributed to the activational effects of gonadal hormones. The present study determined whether hormonal modulation of opioid antinociception in adult rats extends to opioids other than the prototypic mu agonist morphine. Male and female rats were sham-gonadectomized (sham-GDX) or gonadectomized (GDX) and replaced with no hormone, estradiol (E2, females), progesterone (P4, females), E2+P4 (females), or testosterone (males). Approximately 28 days later, nociception was evaluated on the 50°C hot plate and warm water tail withdrawal tests before and after subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone, buprenorphine, U50,488, or SNC 80. In sham-GDX (gonadally intact) rats, the mu agonists and U50,488 were less effective in females than in males in at least one nociceptive test, and the delta agonist SNC 80 was less effective in males than in females. In males, gonadectomy tended to decrease, and testosterone tended to increase antinociception produced by 3 of the 4 agonists. In females, gonadectomy and hormone treatment had more variable effects, although E2 tended to decrease mu opioid antinociception. The present results suggest that activational effects of gonadal hormones are relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent on antinociception produced by various opioid agonists in the adult rat. Perspective: This study demonstrates that reproductive hormones such as testosterone in males and estradiol in females do not consistently modulate sensitivity to the analgesic effects of opioids in the adult organism. PMID:15820914

  6. The wave-tide-river delta classification revisited: Introducing the effects of Humans on delta equilibriu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besset, M.; Anthony, E.; Sabatier, F.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of physical processes on river deltas has long been identified, mainly on the basis of delta morphology. A cuspate delta is considered as wave-dominated, a delta with finger-like extensions is characterized as river-dominated, and a delta with estuarine re-entrants is considered tide-dominated (Galloway, 1975). The need for a more quantitative classification is increasingly recognized, and is achievable through quantified combinations, a good example being Syvitski and Saito (2007) wherein the joint influence of marine power - wave and tides - is compared to that of river influence. This need is further justified as deltas become more and more vulnerable. Going forward from the Syvitski and Saito (2007) approach, we confront, from a large database on 60 river deltas, the maximum potential power of waves and the tidal range (both representing marine power), and the specific stream power and river sediment supply reflecting an increasingly human-impacted river influence. The results show that 45 deltas (75%) have levels of marine power that are significantly higher than those of specific stream power. Five deltas have sufficient stream power to counterbalance marine power but a present sediment supply inadequate for them to be statistically considered as river-dominated. Six others have a sufficient sediment supply but a specific stream power that is not high enough for them to be statistically river-dominated. A major manifestation of the interplay of these parameters is accelerated delta erosion worldwide, shifting the balance towards marine power domination. Deltas currently eroding are mainly influenced by marine power (93%), and small deltas (< 300 km2 of deltaic protuberance) are the most vulnerable (82%). These high levels of erosion domination, compounded by accelerated subsidence, are related to human-induced sediment supply depletion and changes in water discharge in the face of the sediment-dispersive capacity of waves and currents.

  7. Colloidal gas-liquid condensation of polystyrene latex particles with intermediate kappa a values (5 to 160, a > kappa(-1)).

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masamichi; Kitano, Ryota

    2010-02-16

    Polystyrene latex particles showed gas-liquid condensation under the conditions of large particle radius (a > kappa(-1)) and intermediate kappa a, where kappa is the Debye-Hückel parameter and a is the particle radius. The particles were dissolved in deionized water containing ethanol from 0 to 77 vol %, settled to the bottom of the glass plate within 1 h, and then laterally moved toward the center of a cell over a 20 h period in reaching a state of equilibrium condensation. All of the suspensions that were 1 and 3 microm in diameter and 0.01-0.20 vol % in concentration realized similar gas-liquid condensation with clear gas-liquid boundaries. In 50 vol % ethanol solvent, additional ethanol was added to enhance the sedimentation force so as to restrict the particles in a monoparticle layer thickness. The coexistence of gas-liquid-solid (crystalline solid) was microscopically recognized from the periphery to the center of the condensates. A phase diagram of the gas-liquid condensation was created as a function of KCl concentration at a particle diameter of 3 microm, 0.10 vol % concentration, and 50:50 water/ethanol solvent at room temperature. The miscibility gap was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 250 microM. There was an upper limit of salt concentration where the phase separation disappeared, showing nearly critical behavior of macroscopic density fluctuation from 250 microM to 1 mM. These results add new experimental evidence to the existence of colloidal gas-liquid condensation and specify conditions of like-charge attraction between particles.

  8. GS143, an I{kappa}B ubiquitination inhibitor, inhibits allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Koichi; Wakashin, Hidefumi; Oki, Mie

    2008-09-26

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation with intense eosinophil infiltration and mucus hyper-production, in which antigen-specific Th2 cells play critical roles. Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway has been demonstrated to be essential for the production of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the airways in murine asthma models. In the present study, we examined the effect of GS143, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of I{kappa}B ubiquitination, on antigen-induced airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 prior to antigen challenge suppressed antigen-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in the lung of sensitized mice. Intranasal administration of GS143 also inhibited antigen-induced eosinophil andmore » lymphocyte recruitment into the airways as well as the expression of Th2 cytokines and eotaxin in the airways. Moreover, GS143 inhibited antigen-induced differentiation of Th2 cells but not of Th1 cells in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that I{kappa}B ubiquitination inhibitor may have therapeutic potential against asthma.« less

  9. Controls on delta formation, area, and topset slope: New predictive relationships developed using a global delta dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. L.; Edmonds, D. A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Paola, C.; Roy, S.; Nienhuis, J.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are irreplaceable natural and societal resources, though they are at risk of drowning due to sea-level rise and decreased sediment delivery. To enhance hazard mitigation efforts in the face of global environmental change, we must understand the controls on delta growth. Previous empirical studies of delta growth are based on small datasets and often biased towards large, river-dominated deltas. We are currently lacking relationships that predict delta formation, area, or topset slope across the full breadth of global deltas. To this end, we developed a global dataset of 5,229 rivers (with and without deltas) paired with nine upstream (e.g., sediment discharge) and four downstream (e.g., wave height) environmental variables. Using Google Earth imagery, we identify all coastal river mouths (≥ 50 m wide) connected to an upstream catchment, and define deltas as river mouths that split into two or more distributary channels, end in a depositional protrusion from the shoreline, or do both. Delta area is defined as the area of the polygon connecting the delta node, two lateral shoreline extent points, and the basinward-most extent of the delta. Topset slope is calculated as the average, linear slope from the delta node elevation (extracted from SRTM data) to the main channel mouth, and shoreline and basinward extent points. Of the 5,229 rivers in our dataset, 1,816 (35%) have a delta. Using 495 rivers (those with data available for all variables), we build an empirically-derived relationship that predicts delta formation with 76% success. Delta formation is controlled predominantly by upstream water and sediment discharge, with secondary control by downstream waves and tides that suppress delta formation. For those rivers that do form deltas, we show that delta area is best predicted by sediment discharge, bathymetric slope, and drainage basin area (R2 = 0.95, n = 170), and exhibits a negative power-law relationship with topset slope (R2 = 0.85, n = 1

  10. High Agreement and High Prevalence: The Paradox of Cohen's Kappa.

    PubMed

    Zec, Slavica; Soriani, Nicola; Comoretto, Rosanna; Baldi, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Cohen's Kappa is the most used agreement statistic in literature. However, under certain conditions, it is affected by a paradox which returns biased estimates of the statistic itself. The aim of the study is to provide sufficient information which allows the reader to make an informed choice of the correct agreement measure, by underlining some optimal properties of Gwet's AC1 in comparison to Cohen's Kappa, using a real data example. During the process of literature review, we have asked a panel of three evaluators to come up with a judgment on the quality of 57 randomized controlled trials assigning a score to each trial using the Jadad scale. The quality was evaluated according to the following dimensions: adopted design, randomization unit, type of primary endpoint. With respect to each of the above described features, the agreement between the three evaluators has been calculated using Cohen's Kappa statistic and Gwet's AC1 statistic and, finally, the values have been compared with the observed agreement. The values of the Cohen's Kappa statistic would lead to believe that the agreement levels for the variables Unit, Design and Primary Endpoints are totally unsatisfactory. The AC1 statistic, on the contrary, shows plausible values which are in line with the respective values of the observed concordance. We conclude that it would always be appropriate to adopt the AC1 statistic, thus bypassing any risk of incurring the paradox and drawing wrong conclusions about the results of agreement analysis.

  11. Functional Interactions between Major Rice Blast Resistance Genes, Pi-ta and Pi-b, and Minor Blast Resistance QTL.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinglong; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa H; Pinson, Shannon; Wang, Xueyan; Wu, Bo Ming

    2018-04-16

    Major blast resistance (R) genes confer resistance in a gene-for-gene manner. However, little information is available on interactions between R genes. In this study, interactions between two rice blast R genes, Pi-ta and Pi-b, and other minor blast resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were investigated in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising of 243 RILs from a 'Cybonnet' (CYBT)×'Saber' (SB) cross. CYBT has the R gene Pi-ta and SB has Pi-b. Ten differential isolates of four Magnaporthe oryzae races (IB-1, IB-17, IB-49, and IE-1K) were used to evaluate disease reactions of the 243 RILs under greenhouse conditions. Five resistance QTL were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 8, 9, and 12 with a linkage map of 179 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Among them, qBR12 (Q1), was mapped at the Pi-ta locus and accounted for 45.41% of phenotypic variation while qBR2 (Q2) was located at the Pi-b locus and accounted for24.81%of disease reactions. An additive-by-additive epistatic interaction between Q1 (Pi-ta) and Q2 (Pi-b) was detected; they can enhance the disease resistance by an additive 0.93 using the 0 to 9 standard phenotyping method. These results suggest that Pi-ta interacts synergistically with Pi-b.

  12. Welcome to CALFED Bay-Delta Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to: Content | Footer | Accessibility Search: Search CALFED Search CA.GOV | CALFED Bay-Delta California Delta Delta Home About the Delta CALFED Science About the Program Independent Science Board , CALFED Director photo of blue heron Bay-Delta Public Advisory Committee CALFED Agencies Calendar

  13. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  14. Coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) through axial bonding of substituted pyridines to nickel-porphyrins: sigma-donor versus pi-acceptor effects.

    PubMed

    Thies, Steffen; Bornholdt, Claudia; Köhler, Felix; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix; Herges, Rainer

    2010-09-03

    Nickel-porphyrins, with their rigid quadratic planar coordination framework, provide an excellent model to study the coordination-induced spin crossover (CISCO) effect because bonding of one or two axial ligands to the metal center leads to a spin transition from S=0 to S=1. Herein, both equilibrium constants K(1S) and K(2), and for the first time also the corresponding thermodynamic parameters DeltaH(1S), DeltaH(2), DeltaS(1S), and DeltaS(2), are determined for the reaction of a nickel-porphyrin (Ni-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) with different 4-substituted pyridines by temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy. The association constants K(1S) and K(2) are correlated with the basicity of the 4-substituted pyridines (R: OMe>H>CO(2)Et>NO(2)) whereas the DeltaH(1S) values exhibit a completely different order (OMeCO(2)Et>NO(2)). 4-Nitropyridine exhibits the largest binding enthalpy, which, however, is overcompensated by a large negative binding entropy. We attribute the large association enthalpy of nitropyridine with porphyrin to the back donation of electrons from the Ni d(xz) and d(yz) orbitals into the pi orbitals of pyridine, and the negative association entropy to a decrease in vibrational and internal rotation entropy of the more rigid porphyrin-pyridine complex. Back donation for the nitro- and cyanopyridine complexes is also confirmed by IR spectroscopy, and shows a shift of the N-O and C-N vibrations, respectively, to lower wave numbers. X-ray structures of 2:1 complexes with nitro-, cyano-, and dimethylaminopyridine provide further indication of a back donation. A further trend has been observed: the more basic the pyridine the larger is K(1S) relative to K(2). For nitropyridine K(2) is 17 times larger than K(1S) and in the case of methoxypyridine K(2) and K(1S) are almost equal.

  15. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  16. Kappa and Rater Accuracy: Paradigms and Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing parallels to classical test theory, this article clarifies the difference between rater accuracy and reliability and demonstrates how category marginal frequencies affect rater agreement and Cohen's kappa. Category assignment paradigms are developed: comparing raters to a standard (index) versus comparing two raters to one another…

  17. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  18. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  19. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Catherine L.; Laffy, Julie M. J.; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O’Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response. PMID:27729912

  20. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  1. Physical exercise enhances protein kinase C delta activity and insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in diabetes-prone psammomys obesus.

    PubMed

    Heled, Yuval; Shapiro, Yair; Shani, Yoav; Moran, Dani S; Langzam, Leah; Braiman, Liora; Sampson, Sanford R; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    We recently reported that physical exercise prevents the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of nutritionally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study we characterized the effect of physical exercise on protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) activity, as a mediator of the insulin-signaling cascade in vivo. Three groups of Psammomys obesus were exposed to a 4-week protocol: high-energy diet (HE/C), high-energy diet and exercise (HE/EX), or low-energy diet (LE/C). None of the animals in the HE/EX group became diabetic, whereas all the animals in the HE/C group became diabetic. After overnight fast, intraperitoneal (IP) insulin (1U) caused a greater reduction in blood glucose levels in the HE/EX and LE/C groups compared to the HE/C group. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase) was significantly higher in the HE/EX and LE/C groups compared with the HE/C group. Finally, IR-associated PKC delta was higher in the HE/EX and LE/C groups compared to the HE/C group. Coprecipitation of PKC delta with IR was higher in the HE/EX and LE/C groups compared to the HE/C group. Thus, we suggest that 4 weeks of physical exercise results in improved insulin-signaling response in Psammomys obesus accompanied by a direct connection between PKC delta and IR. We conclude that this mechanism may be involved in the preventive effect of exercise on type 2 diabetes mellitus in Psammomys obesus.

  2. Low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in Kappa magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunjung; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; López, R. A.; Yoon, P. H.

    2018-07-01

    The present paper provides a theoretical approach for the evaluation of the low frequency spontaneously emitted electromagnetic (EM) fluctuations in Kappa magnetized plasmas, which include the kinetic Alfvén, fast magnetosonic/whistler, kinetic slow mode, ion Bernstein cyclotron modes, and higher-order modes. The model predictions are consistent with particle-in-cell simulations. Effects of suprathermal particles on low frequency fluctuations are studied by varying the power index, either for ions (κ i) or for electrons (κ e). Computations for an arbitrary wave vector orientation and wave polarization provide the intensity of spontaneous emissions to be enhanced in the presence of suprathermal populations. These results strongly suggest that spontaneous fluctuations may significantly contribute to the EM fluctuations observed in space plasmas, where suprathermal Kappa distributed particles are ubiquitous.

  3. Man made deltas

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  4. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  5. Oncoprotein p28 GANK binds to RelA and retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm through nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Li, Hong Hai; Fu, Jing; Wang, Xue Feng; Ren, Yi Bin; Dong, Li Wei; Tang, Shan Hua; Liu, Shu Qing; Wu, Meng Chao; Wang, Hong Yang

    2007-12-01

    p28(GANK) (also known as PSMD10, p28 and gankyrin) is an ankyrin repeat anti-apoptotic oncoprotein that is commonly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas and increases the degradation of p53 and Rb. NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) is known to be sequestered in the cytoplasm by I kappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) proteins, but much less is known about the cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB by other cellular proteins. Here we show that p28(GANK) inhibits NF-kappaB activity. As a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, p28(GANK) directly binds to NF-kappaB/RelA and exports RelA from nucleus through a chromosomal region maintenance-1 (CRM-1) dependent pathway, which results in the cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB/RelA. We demonstrate that all the ankyrin repeats of p28(GANK) are required for the interaction with RelA and that the N terminus of p28(GANK), which contains the nuclear export sequence (NES), is responsible for suppressing NF-kappaB/RelA nuclear translocation. These results suggest that overexpression of p28(GANK) prevents the nuclear localization and inhibits the activity of NF-kappaB/RelA.

  6. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa.

    PubMed

    Kirilenko, Andrei P; Stepchenkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen's kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen's kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication.

  7. Inter-Coder Agreement in One-to-Many Classification: Fuzzy Kappa

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis involves classification of textual, visual, or audio data. The inter-coder agreement is estimated by making two or more coders to classify the same data units, with subsequent comparison of their results. The existing methods of agreement estimation, e.g., Cohen’s kappa, require that coders place each unit of content into one and only one category (one-to-one coding) from the pre-established set of categories. However, in certain data domains (e.g., maps, photographs, databases of texts and images), this requirement seems overly restrictive. The restriction could be lifted, provided that there is a measure to calculate the inter-coder agreement in the one-to-many protocol. Building on the existing approaches to one-to-many coding in geography and biomedicine, such measure, fuzzy kappa, which is an extension of Cohen’s kappa, is proposed. It is argued that the measure is especially compatible with data from certain domains, when holistic reasoning of human coders is utilized in order to describe the data and access the meaning of communication. PMID:26933956

  8. Mississippi River Delta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-11

    As the Mississippi River enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad stripe running northwest to southeast. This image was acquired on May 24, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03497

  9. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  10. Faddeev calculations of. pi. D scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    The present status of the Faddeev calculations of ..pi..D scattering is summarized, with emphasis on what has been learned about common approximation methods (for ..pi..-nucleus as well as ..pi..D). Some space is devoted to a discussion of the theoretical work which remains, including a suggestion of co-operation between theorists on a ''homework'' problem. Finally, examples of the interesting phenomena are given which one hopes to investigate through good ..pi..D experiments. Suggestions are made as to which experiments would be most useful.

  11. Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: Redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2

    PubMed Central

    Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Chavkin, Nick; Wallingford, Mary C.; Peterson, Danielle F.; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T.; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human VSMCs, but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo, as well as the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease, and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and over-expression strategies. Approach and Results Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1Δsm). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2 fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1Δsm compared to PiT-1flox/flox control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1Δsm and PiT-1flox/flox by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1Δsm mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared to PiT-1flox/flox VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1Δsm VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. Conclusions PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 appear to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23968976

  12. Delta FosB regulates wheel running.

    PubMed

    Werme, Martin; Messer, Chad; Olson, Lars; Gilden, Lauren; Thorén, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Brené, Stefan

    2002-09-15

    DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates in a region-specific manner in the brain after chronic perturbations. For example, repeated administration of drugs of abuse increases levels of DeltaFosB in the striatum. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of spontaneous wheel running, as a model for a natural rewarding behavior, on levels of DeltaFosB in striatal regions. Moreover, mice that inducibly overexpress DeltaFosB in specific subpopulations of striatal neurons were used to study the possible role of DeltaFosB on running behavior. Lewis rats given ad libitum access to running wheels for 30 d covered what would correspond to approximately 10 km/d and showed increased levels of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens compared with rats exposed to locked running wheels. Mice that overexpress DeltaFosB selectively in striatal dynorphin-containing neurons increased their daily running compared with control littermates, whereas mice that overexpress DeltaFosB predominantly in striatal enkephalin-containing neurons ran considerably less than controls. Data from the present study demonstrate that like drugs of abuse, voluntary running increases levels of DeltaFosB in brain reward pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaFosB in a distinct striatal output neuronal population increases running behavior. Because previous work has shown that DeltaFosB overexpression within this same neuronal population increases the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, results of the present study suggest that DeltaFosB may play a key role in controlling both natural and drug-induced reward.

  13. Eupatilin inhibits T-cell activation by modulation of intracellular calcium flux and NF-kappaB and NF-AT activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Dae; Choi, Suck-Chei; Oh, Tae-Young; Chun, Jang-Soo; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin, one of the pharmacologically active ingredients of Artemisia princeps, exhibits a potent anti-ulcer activity, but its effects on T-cell immunity have not been investigated. Here, we show that eupatilin has a profound inhibitory effect on IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells as well as in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Eupatilin neither influenced clustering of CD3 and LFA-1 to the immunological synapse nor inhibited conjugate formation between T cells and B cells in the presence or absence of superantigen (SEE). Eupatilin also failed to inhibit T-cell receptor (TCR) internalization, thereby, suggesting that eupatilin does not interfere with TCR-mediated signals on the membrane proximal region. In unstimulated T cells, eupatilin significantly induced apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by an increased population of annexin V(+)/PI(+) cells and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. To our surprise, however, once cells were activated, eupatilin had little effect on apoptosis, and instead slightly protected cells from activation-induced cell death, suggesting that apoptosis also is not a mechanism for eupatilin-induced T-cell suppression. On the contrary, eupatilin dramatically inhibited I-kappaBalpha degradation and NF-AT dephosphorylation and, consequently, inhibited NF-kappaB and NF-AT promoter activities in PMA/A23187-stimulated T cells. Interestingly, intracellular calcium flux was significantly perturbed in cells pre-treated with eupatilin, suggesting that calcium-dependent cascades might be targets for eupatilin action. Collectively, our results provide evidence for dual regulatory functions of eupatilin: (1) a pro-apoptotic effect on resting T cells and (2) an immunosuppressive effect on activated T cells, presumably through modulation of Ca(2+) flux. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Flow patterns and bathymetric signatures on the delta front of a prograding river delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J.; Mohrig, D. C.; Wagner, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    The transition of water between laterally confined channels and the unchannelized delta front controls the growth pattern of river deltas, but is difficult to measure on field-scale deltas. We quantify flow patterns, bathymetry and bathymetric evolution for the subaqueous delta front on the Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a rapidly prograding delta in coastal Louisiana. The flow direction field, mapped using streaklines composed of biogenic slicks on the water surface, shows that a significant portion of flow ( 59%) departs subaqueous channels laterally over the subaqueous margins of the channel seaward of the shoreline. Synoptic datasets of bathymetry and flow direction allow spatial changes in flow velocity to be quantified. Most lateral flow divergence and deceleration occurs within 3-8 channel widths outboard of subaqueous channel margins, rather than downstream of channel tips. In interdistributary bays, deposit elevation decreases with a basinward slope of 2.4 x 10-4 with distance from a channel margin along any flow path. Flow patterns and this slope produce constructional features called interdistributary troughs - topographic lows in the center of interdistributary bays. These data show that flow patterns and bathymetry on the delta front are coupled both at the transition from channelized to unchannelized flow and in the depositional regions outside the distributary network.

  15. IgA-kappa type multiple myeloma affecting proximal and distal renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Minemura, K; Ichikawa, K; Itoh, N; Suzuki, N; Hara, M; Shigematsu, S; Kobayashi, H; Hiramatsu, K; Hashizume, K

    2001-09-01

    A 45-year-old male was admitted because of chest pain, lumbago, and bilateral ankle pain. Examination disclosed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, acquired Fanconi syndrome, and abnormalities in distal nephron such as distal renal tubular acidosis and renal diabetes insipidus. Further exploration revealed IgA kappa multiple myeloma excreting urinary Bence Jones protein (kappa-light chain). Renal biopsy revealed thick basement membranes and elec-tron-dense crystals in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent studies revealed deposition of kappa-light chain in renal tubular epithelial cells that caused the renal tubular damage. Although the osteomalacia was relieved by medical treatment, the urinary Bence Jones protein and the renal tubular defects were not improved by the chemotherapy for the myeloma. The patient died of exacerbation of multiple myeloma at 50 years of age.

  16. Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan--Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Tamara; Prado, Héctor J; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L; Fissore, Eliana L; Gerschenson, Lia N; Matulewicz, María C

    2015-08-01

    Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Young moduli and the strain at break of films, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and flocculation behavior were also evaluated; the native and the amphoteric derivatives showed different and interesting properties. Cationization of iota-carrageenan was more difficult, indicating as it was previously observed for agarose, that substitution starts preferentially on the 2-position of 3,6-anhydrogalactose residues; in iota-carrageenan this latter unit is sulfated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PiVoT GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennersten, Miriam Dvorak; Banes, Anthony Vince; Boegner, Gregory J.; Dougherty, Lamar; Edwards, Bernard L.; Roman, Joseph; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has built an open architecture, 24 channel space flight GPS receiver. The CompactPCI PiVoT GPS receiver card is based on the Mitel/GEC Plessey Builder-2 board. PiVoT uses two Plessey 2021 correlators to allow tracking of up to 24 separate GPS SV's on unique channels. Its four front ends can support four independent antennas, making it a useful card for hosting GPS attitude determination algorithms. It has been built using space quality, radiation tolerant parts. The PiVoT card will track a weaker signal than the original Builder 2 board. It also hosts an improved clock oscillator. The PiVoT software is based on the original Plessey Builder 2 software ported to the Linux operating system. The software is POSIX complaint and can easily be converted to other POSIX operating systems. The software is open source to anyone with a licensing agreement with Plessey. Additional tasks can be added to the software to support GPS science experiments or attitude determination algorithms. The next generation PiVoT receiver will be a single radiation hardened CompactPCI card containing the microprocessor and the GPS receiver optimized for use above the GPS constellation. PiVoT was flown successfully on a balloon in July, 2001, for its first non-simulated flight.

  18. PiSCP1 and PiCDPK2 Localize to Peroxisomes and Are Involved in Pollen Tube Growth in Petunia Inflata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Yoon, Gyeong Mee; McCubbin, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Petunia inflata small CDPK-interacting protein 1 (PiSCP1) was identified as a pollen expressed PiCDPK1 interacting protein using the yeast two hybrid system and the interaction confirmed using pull-down and phosphorylation assays. PiSCP1 is pollen specific and shares amino acid homology with uncharacterized proteins from diverse species of higher plants, but no protein of known function. Expression of PiSCP1-GFP in vivo inhibited pollen tube growth and was shown to localize to peroxisomes in growing pollen tubes. As PiCDPK1 is plasma membrane localized, we investigated the localization of a second isoform, PiCDPK2, and show that it co-localizes to peroxisomes with PiSCP1 and that the two proteins interact in the yeast 2 hybrid interaction assay, suggesting that interaction with the latter CDPK isoform is likely the one of biological relevance. Both PiCDPK2 and PiSCP1 affect pollen tube growth, presumably by mediating peroxisome function, however how they do so is currently not clear. PMID:27137367

  19. Reciprocal inhibition of p53 and nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activities determines cell survival or death in neurons.

    PubMed

    Culmsee, Carsten; Siewe, Jan; Junker, Vera; Retiounskaia, Marina; Schwarz, Stephanie; Camandola, Simonetta; El-Metainy, Shahira; Behnke, Hagen; Mattson, Mark P; Krieglstein, Josef

    2003-09-17

    The tumor suppressor and transcription factor p53 is a key modulator of cellular stress responses, and activation of p53 precedes apoptosis in many cell types. Controversial reports exist on the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in p53-mediated apoptosis, depending on the cell type and experimental conditions. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the role of NF-kappaB in p53-mediated neuron death. In cultured neurons DNA damaging compounds induced activation of p53, whereas NF-kappaB activity declined significantly. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha (PFT) preserved NF-kappaB activity and protected neurons against apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed enhanced p53 binding to the transcriptional cofactor p300 after induction of DNA damage, whereas binding of p300 to NF-kappaB was reduced. In contrast, PFT blocked the interaction of p53 with the cofactor, whereas NF-kappaB binding to p300 was enhanced. Most interestingly, similar results were observed after oxygen glucose deprivation in cultured neurons and in ischemic brain tissue. Ischemia-induced repression of NF-kappaB activity was prevented and brain damage was reduced by the p53 inhibitor PFT in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that a balanced competitive interaction of p53 and NF-kappaB with the transcriptional cofactor p300 exists in neurons. Exposure of neurons to lethal stress activates p53 and disrupts NF-kappaB binding to p300, thereby blocking NF-kappaB-mediated survival signaling. Inhibitors of p53 provide pronounced neuroprotective effects because they block p53-mediated induction of cell death and concomitantly enhance NF-kappaB-induced survival signaling.

  20. Induction of oncogene addiction shift to NF-{kappa}B by camptothecin in solid tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Togano, Tomiteru; Sasaki, Masataka; Watanabe, Mariko

    2009-12-04

    The biological basis of the resistance of solid tumor cells to chemotherapy is not well understood. While addressing this problem, we found that gastric cancer cell line St-4/CPT, lung cancer cell line A549/CPT, and colon cancer cell line HT-29/CPT, all of which are resistant to camptothecin (CPT), showed strong and constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activity driven by I{kappa}B kinase compared with their parental cell lines St-4, A549, and HT-29. A new NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), reduced viability and induced apoptosis in St-4/CPT, A549/CPT, and HT-29/CPT cell lines, while their parental cell lines were resistant to DHMEQ. The results in thismore » study present an example of the shift in signals that support the survival of solid tumor cells to NF-{kappa}B during the acquisition of resistance to CPT. The results also indicate that solid tumor cells that become resistant to chemotherapy may be more easily treated by NF-{kappa}B inhibitors.« less

  1. NMR study on the network structure of a mixed gel of kappa and iota carrageenans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingjie; Du, Lei; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-10-05

    The temperature dependencies of the (1)H T2 and diffusion coefficient (D) of a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan were measured by NMR. Rheological and NMR measurements suggested an exponential formation of rigid aggregates of kappa-carrageenan and a gradual formation of fine aggregates of iota-carrageenan during two step increases of G'. The results also suggested that longer carrageenan chains are preferentially involved in aggregation, thus resulting in a decrease in the average Mw of solute carrageenans. The results of diffusion measurements for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) suggested that kappa-carrageenan formed thick aggregates that decreased hindrance to PEO diffusion by decreasing the solute kappa-carrageenan concentration in the voids of the aggregated chains, and that iota-carrageenan formed fine aggregates that decreased the solute iota-carrageenan concentration less. DPEO in a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan suggested two possibilities for the microscopic network structure: an interpenetrating network structure, or micro-phase separation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    PubMed

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  3. Expression profiling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) in mouse tissues using tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Billin, Andrew N; Okamoto, Yuji; Kinoshita, Mine; Asano, Satoshi

    2007-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) is known as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissues. In this study, to elucidate systemic physiological functions of PPAR-delta, we examined the tissue distribution and localization of PPAR-delta in adult mouse tissues using tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemistry. PPAR-delta positive signals were observed on variety of tissues/cells in multiple systems including cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, nervous, hematopoietic, immune, musculoskeletal, sensory and reproductive organ systems. In these organs, PPAR-delta immunoreactivity was generally localized on the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization was observed on several cell types including neurons in the nervous system and cells of the islet of Langerhans. These expression profiling data implicate various physiological roles of PPAR-delta in multiple organ systems. TMA-based immunohistochemistry enables to profile comprehensive protein localization and distribution in a high-throughput manner.

  4. Identification of known drugs that act as inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling and their mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susanne C; Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Shukla, Sunita J; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Shinn, Paul; Van Leer, Danielle; Leister, William; Austin, Christopher P; Xia, Menghang

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role across many cellular processes including embryonic and neuronal development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses to infection and inflammation. Dysregulation of NF-kappaB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and certain cancers. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB signaling has been found in some types of tumors including breast, colon, prostate, skin and lymphoid, hence therapeutic blockade of NF-kappaB signaling in cancer cells provides an attractive strategy for the development of anticancer drugs. To identify small molecule inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling, we screened approximately 2800 clinically approved drugs and bioactive compounds from the NIH Chemical Genomics Center Pharmaceutical Collection (NPC) in a NF-kappaB mediated beta-lactamase reporter gene assay. Each compound was tested at fifteen different concentrations in a quantitative high throughput screening format. We identified nineteen drugs that inhibited NF-kappaB signaling, with potencies as low as 20 nM. Many of these drugs, including emetine, fluorosalan, sunitinib malate, bithionol, narasin, tribromsalan, and lestaurtinib, inhibited NF-kappaB signaling via inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Others, such as ectinascidin 743, chromomycin A3 and bortezomib utilized other mechanisms. Furthermore, many of these drugs induced caspase 3/7 activity and had an inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cell growth. Our results indicate that many currently approved pharmaceuticals have previously unappreciated effects on NF-kappaB signaling, which may contribute to anticancer therapeutic effects. Comprehensive profiling of approved drugs provides insight into their molecular mechanisms, thus providing a basis for drug repurposing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of amore » $q$-$$\\bar q$$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $$\\Delta y$$ falling within the window of $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $$dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$$ on the near side at $$(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $$(\\Delta \\phi$$$\\sim$$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$$\\sim$$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, but there is no such prohibition for $$|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  6. NIK and IKKbeta interdependence in NF-kappaB signalling--flux analysis of regulation through metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Bum; Evans, Iona; Smallwood, Rod; Holcombe, Mike; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2010-02-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is central to control of immune and inflammatory responses. Cytokine induced activation through the classical or canonical pathway relies on degradation of the inhibitor, IkappaBalpha and regulation by the IKKbeta kinase. In addition, the NF-kappaB is activated through the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, NIK. Analysis of the IKK/NIK inter-relationship and its impact on NF-kappaB control, were analysed by mathematical modelling, using matrix formalism and stoichiometrically balanced reactions. The analysis considered a range of bio-reactions and core metabolites and their role in relation to kinase activation and in control of specific steps of the NF-kappaB pathway. The model predicts a growth-rate and time-dependent transfer of the primary kinase activity from IKKbeta to NIK. In addition, it suggests that NIK/IKKbeta interdependence is controlled by intermediates of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) within the glycolysis pathway, and thus, identifies a link between specific metabolic events and kinase activation in inflammatory signal transduction. Subsequent in vitro experiments, carried out to validate the impact of IKK/NIK interdependence, confirmed signal amplification at the level of the NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha complex control in the presence of both kinases. Further, they demonstrate that the induced potentiation is due to synergistic enhancement of relA-dependent activation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Curcumin Regulates Low-Linear Energy Transfer {gamma}-Radiation-Induced NF{kappa}B-Dependent Telomerase Activity in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aravindan, Natarajan, E-mail: naravind@ouhsc.ed; Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: We recently reported that curcumin attenuates ionizing radiation (IR)-induced survival signaling and proliferation in human neuroblastoma cells. Also, in the endothelial system, we have demonstrated that NF{kappa}B regulates IR-induced telomerase activity (TA). Accordingly, we investigated the effect of curcumin in inhibiting IR-induced NF{kappa}B-dependent hTERT transcription, TA, and cell survival in neuroblastoma cells. Methods and Materials: SK-N-MC or SH-SY5Y cells exposed to IR and treated with curcumin (10-100 nM) with or without IR were harvested after 1 h through 24 h. NF{kappa}B-dependent regulation was investigated either by luciferase reporter assays using pNF{kappa}B-, pGL3-354-, pGL3-347-, or pUSE-I{kappa}B{alpha}-Luc, p50/p65, or RelA siRNA-transfectedmore » cells. NF{kappa}B activity was analyzed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and hTERT expression using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. TA was determined using the telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay and cell survival using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide and clonogenic assay. Results: Curcumin profoundly inhibited IR-induced NF{kappa}B. Consequently, curcumin significantly inhibited IR-induced TA and hTERT mRNA at all points investigated. Furthermore, IR-induced TA is regulated at the transcriptional level by triggering telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter activation. Moreover, NF{kappa}B becomes functionally activated after IR and mediates TA upregulation by binding to the {kappa}B-binding region in the promoter region of the TERT gene. Consistently, elimination of the NF{kappa}B-recognition site on the telomerase promoter or inhibition of NF{kappa}B by the I{kappa}B{alpha} mutant compromises IR-induced telomerase promoter activation. Significantly, curcumin inhibited IR-induced TERT transcription. Consequently, curcumin inhibited hTERT mRNA and TA in NF{kappa}B overexpressed cells. Furthermore, curcumin

  8. Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Oh; Shin, Sejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Chun, Hyo-Kon; Chung, An-Sik

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9 activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-kappaB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F10 melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion.

  9. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  10. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; McCool, Brian A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase in ethanol intake and anxiety

  11. Over-expression of Flt3 induces NF-kappaB pathway and increases the expression of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Harigae, Hideo; Ishii, Keiko Kumura; Inomata, Mitsue; Fujiwara, Tohru; Yokoyama, Hisayuki; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Kameoka, Junichi; Licht, Jonathan D; Sasaki, Takeshi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2005-08-01

    Activating mutations or over-expression of the Flt3 is prevalent in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), associated with activation of Ras/MAP kinase and other signaling pathways. In this study, we addressed the role of Flt3 in the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), which is a target molecule of these kinase pathways. In BaF3 cells stably expressing Flt3, a NF-kappaB-responsive reporter was upregulated and its target gene, IL-6, was increased by the involvement of Flt3-ERK/MAPK-NF-kappaB pathway. Furthermore, we found a modest positive correlation (r=0.35, p=0.096) between Flt3 and IL-6 mRNA expression in 24 AML specimens. These results suggest a role of Flt3 over-expression in NF-kappaB pathway.

  12. The Niger Delta petroleum system; Niger Delta Province, Nigeria, Cameroon, and equatorial Guinea, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In the Niger Delta province, we have identified one petroleum system--the Tertiary Niger Delta (Akata-Agbada) petroleum system. The delta formed at the site of a rift triple junction related to the opening of the southern Atlantic starting in the Late Jurassic and continuing into the Cretaceous. The delta proper began developing in the Eocene, accumulating sediments that now are over 10 kilometers thick. The primary source rock is the upper Akata Formation, the marine-shale facies of the delta, with possibly contribution from interbedded marine shale of the lowermost Agbada Formation. Oil is produced from sandstone facies within the Agbada Formation, however, turbidite sand in the upper Akata Formation is a potential target in deep water offshore and possibly beneath currently producing intervals onshore. Known oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta rank the province as the twelfth largest in the world. To date, 34.5 billion barrels of recoverable oil and 93.8 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas have been discovered. In 1997, Nigeria was the fifth largest crude oil supplier to the United States, supplying 689,000 barrels/day of crude.

  13. Dopamine enhances the phosphaturic effect of PTH during acute respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Berndt, T J; Tucker, R R; Kent, P D; Streiff, P C; Tyce, G M; Knox, F G

    1999-12-01

    The phosphaturic response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) is blunted during acute respiratory alkalosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dopamine on the blunted phosphaturic response to PTH during acute respiratory alkalosis. The phosphaturic response to PTH was determined in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) normocapnic and respiratory alkalotic rats in the absence and presence of the infusion of exogenous dopamine (25 microg/kg/min) or of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, 250 microg/kg/min) to increase endogenous dopamine synthesis. In normocapnic rats, PTH infusion (33 U/kg plus 1 U/kg/min) significantly increased the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE(Pi)), from 1.5%+/-0.5% to 28.4%+/-4.0%, (deltaFE(Pi) 26.9%+/-4.1%, n = 11, P<.05); in respiratory alkalotic rats, the increase was from 0.4%+/-0.1% to 11.4%+/-1.7% (deltaFE(Pi) 11.0%+/-1.8%, n = 13, P<.05). However, the phosphaturic response to PTH was attenuated in respiratory alkalotic rats (deltaFE(Pi) 26.9%+/-4.1% vs 11.0%+/-1.9%, P<.05). In normocapnic rats, in the presence of dopamine or L-DOPA infusions, PTH infusion significantly increased the FE(Pi) from 6.1%+/-2.3% to 33.4%+/-8.0% (deltaFE(Pi) 27.3%+/-7.0%, n = 5) and from 3.2%+/-0.6% to 32.5%+/-3.3% (deltaFE(Pi) 29.3%+/-3.2%, n = 7), respectively. In respiratory alkalotic rats, in the presence of dopamine infusion, PTH significantly increased the FE(Pi), from 0.6%+/-0.2% to 19.3%+/-3.3% (deltaFE(Pi) 18.7%+/-3.3%, n = 6); in the presence of L-DOPA infusion it increased from 1.0%+/-0.3% to 20.5%+/-2.8% (deltaFE(Pi) 19.5%+/-2.9%, n = 8, P<.05 as compared with PTH alone). Thus the phosphaturic effect of PTH that was attenuated in respiratory alkalotic rats was enhanced by stimulation of endogenous dopamine synthesis by the infusion of L-DOPA.

  14. Angle Kappa Measurements: Normal Values in Healthy Iranian Population Obtained With the Orbscan II

    PubMed Central

    Gharaee, Hamid; Shafiee, Masoud; Hoseini, Rafie; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Abrishami, Yalda; Abrishami, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The angle kappa is important in proper centration of corneal ablation in keratorefractive surgery. Orbscan II device is widely used preoperatively in photoablation surgeries and can be used to measure the angle kappa. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the mean angle kappa and its intercepts in healthy young Iranian adults. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, orthotropic patients (age range, 18-35 years) who were referred to the Khatam Eye Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) were included. Exclusion criteria were as follows: history of any eye deviation or strabismus with or without orthoptic or surgical treatment; any intraocular, corneal, or keratorefractive surgery; contact lens use; any corneal anomaly; any ophthalmic or systemic drug consumption; and hyperopic spherical refraction > + 3.00 diopters (D), spherical refraction > -5.00 D, or cylindrical refraction > 2.00 D. All of the parameters were measured by the same operator through an Orbscan II device. Results: A total of 977 healthy participants who aged 18 to 45 years were included consecutively. The study population consisted of 614 females and 363 males. The average angle kappa was 5.00º ± 1.36º at 240.21º ± 97.17º in males and 4.97º ± 1.30º at 244.22º ± 94.39º in females (P = 0.63). The average horizontal (x-axis) angle kappa was -0.02º ± 0.49º, with a mean of -0.02º ± 0.50º in males and -0.02º ± 0.49º in females (P = 0.93). The average vertical (y-axis) angle kappa was -0.09º ± 0.32º, with a mean of -0.09º ± 0.33º in males and -0.09º ± 0.32º in females (P = 0.74). Conclusions: By using the normal angle kappa determined in this study, pseudodeviations can be identified more precisely in those who might undergo keratorefractive surgery. PMID:25763261

  15. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  16. Analysis of a delta spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2002-05-01

    delta -groups generally develop in three different ways: eruption of a single complex active region, eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot, or collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. In this paper, we present a rare observational result in which a delta -spot forms from rapid coalescence of two opposite magnetic features in a pre-existing delta -configuration. The white-light (WL) observations of this delta -spot in active region NOAA 9077 were performed by TRACE. The time-lapse movie of the co-aligned WL images shows that the whole active region was undergoing rapid disintegration and reconstruction on 11-17 July 2000. The preceding ({p}) and following ({f}) components of the delta -spot continue to grow in size, while the active region is in the decaying phase. Their proper motions are determined as a function of time using SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms. A major flare (3B/X5.7) erupted in the active region on 14 July. Initially, a relative shearing motion is visible between the {p} and {f} spots on this day. About two hours before the major flare, the shearing motion suddenly stops and the velocities change significantly. The ribbons of the flare are located just outside of the delta -configuration. An interesting finding is the sign reversal of the helicity of the {f} spot also just 2 hours before the flare. The delta -spot obviously separates after the flare. Our results clearly demonstrate that helicity reversal in magnetic features of a delta -configuration is likely to destabilize the compact structure, as well as to re-organize the magnetic field configuration, and, hence, is important for the rapid disintegration of a delta -spot during major flares. A model is presented to explain why a spot can change its chirality.

  17. Nucleon, $$\\Delta$$ and $$\\Omega$$ excited states in $$N_f=2+1$$ lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    John Bulava; Edwards, Robert G.; Engelson, Eric; ...

    2010-07-22

    The energies of the excited states of the Nucleon,more » $$\\Delta$$ and $$\\Omega$$ are computed in lattice QCD, using two light quarks and one strange quark on anisotropic lattices. The calculation is performed at three values of the light quark mass, corresponding to pion masses $$m_{\\pi}$$ = 392(4), 438(3) and 521(3) MeV. We employ the variational method with a large basis of interpolating operators enabling six energies in each irreducible representation of the lattice to be distinguished clearly. We compare our calculation with the low-lying experimental spectrum, with which we find reasonable agreement in the pattern of states. In addition, the need to include operators that couple to the expected multi-hadron states in the spectrum is clearly identified.« less

  18. GABARAPs regulate PI4P-dependent autophagosome:lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanzhi; Sun, Hui-Qiao; Zhu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Li; Albanesi, Joseph; Levine, Beth; Yin, Helen

    2015-06-02

    The Atg8 autophagy proteins are essential for autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. The γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) Atg8 family is much less understood than the LC3 Atg8 family, and the relationship between the GABARAPs' previously identified roles as modulators of transmembrane protein trafficking and autophagy is not known. Here we report that GABARAPs recruit palmitoylated PI4KIIα, a lipid kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and binds GABARAPs, from the perinuclear Golgi region to autophagosomes to generate PI4P in situ. Depletion of either GABARAP or PI4KIIα, or overexpression of a dominant-negative kinase-dead PI4KIIα mutant, decreases autophagy flux by blocking autophagsome:lysosome fusion, resulting in the accumulation of abnormally large autophagosomes. The autophagosome defects are rescued by overexpressing PI4KIIα or by restoring intracellular PI4P through "PI4P shuttling." Importantly, PI4KIIα's role in autophagy is distinct from that of PI4KIIIβ and is independent of subsequent phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2) generation. Thus, GABARAPs recruit PI4KIIα to autophagosomes, and PI4P generation on autophagosomes is critically important for fusion with lysosomes. Our results establish that PI4KIIα and PI4P are essential effectors of the GABARAP interactome's fusion machinery.

  19. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  20. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  1. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  2. Multiplex bioimaging of piRNA molecular pathway-regulated theragnostic effects in a single breast cancer cell using a piRNA molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Jung; Moon, Sung Ung; Park, Min Geun; Jung, Woon Yong; Park, Yong Keun; Song, Sung Kyu; Ryu, Je Gyu; Lee, Yong Seung; Heo, Hye Jung; Gu, Ha Na; Cho, Su Jeong; Ali, Bahy A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-09-01

    Recently, PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs) have emerged as novel cancer biomarkers candidate because of their high expression level in various cancer types and role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In this study, a novel breast cancer theragnostics probe based on a single system targeting the piRNA-36026 (piR-36026) molecular pathway was developed using a piR-36026 molecular beacon (MB). The piR-36026 MB successfully visualized endogenous piR-36026 biogenesis, which is highly expressed in MCF7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line), and simultaneously inhibited piR-36026-mediated cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. We discovered two tumor suppressor proteins, SERPINA1 and LRAT, that were directly regulated as endogenous piR-36026 target genes in MCF7 cells. Furthermore, multiplex bioimaging of a single MCF7 cell following treatment with piR-36026 MB clearly visualized the direct molecular interaction of piRNA-36026 with SERPINA1 or LRAT and subsequent molecular therapeutic responses including caspase-3 and PI in the nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Devil's in the Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Students frequently confuse and incorrectly apply the several "deltas" that are used in chemical engineering. The deltas come in three different flavors: "out minus in", "big minus little" and "now versus then." The first applies to a change in a stream property as the stream flows through a process. For example, the "[delta]H" in an energy…

  4. Observation of psi(3770) --> pi pi J/psi and measurement of Gamma ee[psi(2S)].

    PubMed

    Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weaver, K M; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2006-03-03

    We observe signals for the decays psi(3770) --> XJ/psi from data acquired with the CLEO detector operating at the CESR e+ e- collider with square root of s = 3773 MeV. We measure the following branching fractions Beta(psi(3770) --> XJ/psi and significances: (189 +/- 20 +/- 20) x 10(-5) (11.6sigma) for X = pi+ pi-, (80 +/- 25 +/- 16) x 10(-5) (3.4sigma) for X = pi0 pi0, and (87 +/- 33 +/- 22) x 10(-5) (3.5sigma) for X = eta, where the errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The radiative return process e+ e- --> gamma psi(2S) populates the same event sample and is used to measure Gamma ee[psi(2S)] = (2.54 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.11) keV.

  5. TAK1 regulates NF-{Kappa}B and AP-1 activation in airway epithelial cells following RSV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Nilay; Liu Tianshuang; Garofalo, Roberto P.

    2011-09-30

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of epidemic respiratory diseases in infants and young children. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces the expression of immune/inflammatory genes through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and AP-1. In this study, we have investigated the signaling pathway leading to activation of these two transcription factors in response to RSV infection. Our results show that IKK{beta} plays a key role in viral-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, while JNK regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription, as demonstrated by using kinase inactive proteins and chemical inhibitors of the two kinases.more » Inhibition of TAK1 activation, by overexpression of kinase inactive TAK1 or using cells lacking TAK1 expression, significantly reduced RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity, as well as NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, identifying TAK1 as an important upstream signaling molecule regulating RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 activation. - Highlights: > IKK{beta} is a major kinase involved in RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. > JNK regulates AP-1-dependent gene transcription in RSV infection. > TAK1 is a critical upstream signaling molecule for both pathways in infected cells.« less

  6. Prevalence of mutations in hepatitis C virus core protein associated with alteration of NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth A; Stanford, Sandra; Sherman, Kenneth E

    2006-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a key structural element of the virion but also affects a number of cellular pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor that regulates both anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory genes and its activation may contribute to HCV-mediated pathogenesis. Amino acid sequence divergence in core is seen at the genotype level as well as within patient isolates. Recent work has implicated amino acids 9-11 of core in the modulation of NF-kappaB activation. We report that the sequence RKT is highly conserved (93%) at this position across all HCV genotypes, based on sequences collected in the Los Alamos HCV database. Of the 13 types of variants present in the database, the two most prevalent substitutions are RQT and RKP. We further show that core encoding RKP fails to activate NF-kappaB signaling in vitro while NF-kappaB activation by core encoding RQT does not differ from control RKT core. The effect of RKP core is specific to NF-kappaB signaling as activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity is not altered. Further studies are needed to assess potential associations between specific amino acid substitutions at positions 9-11 and liver disease progression and/or response to treatment in individual patients.

  7. Relationship between carbachol hyperstimulation-induced pancreatic intracellular trypsinogen and NF-kappa B activation in rats in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunfang; Zheng, Hai; Liu, Sunan; Fang, Kaifeng

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between intracellular trypsinogen activation and NF-kappa B activation in rat pancreatic acinar cells induced by M3 cholinergic receptor agonist (carbachol) hyperstimulation was studied. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated, cultured and treated with carbachol, the active protease inhibitor (pefabloc) and NF-kappa B inhibitor (PDTC) in vitro. Intracellular trypsin activity was measured by using a fluorogenic substrate. The activity of NF-kappa B was monitored by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The results showed that after pretreatment with 2 mmol/L pefabloc, the activities of trypsin and NF-kappa B in pancreatic acinar cells treated with high concentrations of carbachol (10(-3) mol/L) in vitro was significantly decreased as compared with control group (P<0.01). The addition of 10(-2) mol/L PDTC resulted in a significant decrease of NF-kappa B activities in pancreatic acinar cells after treated with high concentrations of carbachol (10(-3) mol/L) in vitro, but the intracellular trypsinogen activity was not obviously inhibited (P>0.05). It was concluded that intracellular trypsinogen activation is likely involved in the regulation of high concentrations of carbachol-induced NF-kappa B activation in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. NF-kappa B activation is likely not necessary for high concentrations of carbachol-induced trypsinogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro.

  8. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  9. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-. 721.1880 Section 721.1880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1880 - Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)-. 721.1880 Section 721.1880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1880 Borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium... substance identified as borate(1-), tris(acetato-.kappa.O)hydro-, sodium, (T-4)- (PMN P-00-0922; CAS No...

  11. Cbp80 is needed for the expression of piRNA components and piRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Martino; Hernandez, Greco; Beuchle, Dirk; Berger, Fabienne; Peischl, Stephan; Bruggmann, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Cap binding protein 80 (Cbp80) is the larger subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (nCBC), which is known to play important roles in nuclear mRNA processing, export, stability and quality control events. Reducing Cbp80 mRNA levels in the female germline revealed that Cbp80 is also involved in defending the germline against transposable elements. Combining such knockdown experiments with large scale sequencing of small RNAs further showed that Cbp80 is involved in the initial biogenesis of piRNAs as well as in the secondary biogenesis pathway, the ping-pong amplification cycle. We further found that Cbp80 knockdown not only led to the upregulation of transposons, but also to delocalization of Piwi, Aub and Ago3, key factors in the piRNA biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, compared to controls, levels of Piwi and Aub were also reduced upon knock down of Cbp80. On the other hand, with the same treatment we could not detect significant changes in levels or subcellular distribution (nuage localization) of piRNA precursor transcripts. This shows that Cbp80 plays an important role in the production and localization of the protein components of the piRNA pathway and it seems to be less important for the production and export of the piRNA precursor transcripts. PMID:28746365

  12. Beyond the benzene dimer: an investigation of the additivity of pi-pi interactions.

    PubMed

    Tauer, Tony P; Sherrill, C David

    2005-11-24

    The benzene dimer is the simplest prototype of pi-pi interactions and has been used to understand the fundamental physics of these interactions as they are observed in more complex systems. In biological systems, however, aromatic rings are rarely found in isolated pairs; thus, it is important to understand whether aromatic pairs remain a good model of pi-pi interactions in clusters. In this study, ab initio methods are used to compute the binding energies of several benzene trimers and tetramers, most of them in 1D stacked configurations. The two-body terms change only slightly relative to the dimer, and except for the cyclic trimer, the three- and four-body terms are negligible. This indicates that aromatic clusters do not feature any large nonadditive effects in their binding energies, and polarization effects in benzene clusters do not greatly change the binding that would be anticipated from unperturbed benzene-benzene interactions, at least for the 1D stacked systems considered. Three-body effects are larger for the cyclic trimer, but for all systems considered, the computed binding energies are within 10% of what would be estimated from benzene dimer energies at the same geometries.

  13. The stimulation of central kappa opioid receptors decreases male sexual behavior and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Leyton, M; Stewart, J

    1992-10-23

    Systemic injections of the kappa (kappa) opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H decreased male sexual behavior, locomotor activity, body temperature and bodily grooming, and induced body flattening. The U-50,488H-induced inhibitions of male sexual behavior were prevented by systemic injections of naloxone and by intra-cranial injections of the kappa opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (NBNI). Injections of NBNI to either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) increased female-directed behavior, and prevented the U-50,488H-induced decreases in female-directed behavior. Intra-VTA NBNI prevented U-50,488H-induced decreases in the mean number of ejaculations, intra-NAS NBNI prevented U-50,488H-induced increases in copulation latencies. Intra-medial preoptic area (mPOA) injections of NBNI increased female-directed behavior, and attenuated U-50,488H-induced decreases in female-directed behavior as well as U-50,488H-induced increases in both copulation and ejaculation latencies. Injections of NBNI dorsal to the mPOA were ineffective. Two of 26 days following the central injection of NBNI, systemic injections of U-50,488H remained behaviorally ineffective, leaving both sexual behavior and locomotor activity undiminished. These results suggest that the stimulation of central kappa opioid receptors inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat; perhaps endogenous kappa opioid agonists induce sexual refractory periods.

  14. PiVoT GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennersten, Miriam; Banes, Vince; Boegner, Greg; Clagnett, Charles; Dougherty, Lamar; Edwards, Bernard; Roman, Joe; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has built an open architecture, 24 channel spaceflight Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The compact PCI PiVoT GPS receiver card is based on the Mitel/GEC Plessey Builder 2 board. PiVoT uses two Plessey 2021 correlators to allow tracking of up to 24 separate GPS SV's on unique channels. Its four front ends can support four independent antennas, making it a useful card for hosting GPS attitude determination algorithms. It has been built using space quality, radiation tolerant parts. The PiVoT card works at a lower signal to noise ratio than the original Builder 2 board. It also hosts an improved clock oscillator. The PiVoT software is based on the original Piessey Builder 2 software ported to the Linux operating system. The software is posix compliant and can be easily converted to other posix operating systems. The software is open source to anyone with a licensing agreement with Plessey. Additional tasks can be added to the software to support GPS science experiments or attitude determination algorithms. The next generation PiVoT receiver will be a single radiation hardened compact PCI card containing the microprocessor and the GPS receiver optimized for use above the GPS constellation.

  15. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwannmore » cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.« less

  16. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: zhongxia1977@126.com; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibitedmore » TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.« less

  17. Dipole moments and transition probabilities of the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u systems of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Dalgarno, A.

    1992-01-01

    Bonn-Oppenheimer-based ab initio calculations of dipole moments from the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u transitions of H2 have been conducted, to yield a tabulation of the dipole transition probabilities and Franck-Condon factors. These factors are given for transitions originating in the lowest vibrational level of the ground X 1Sigma(+) sub g state.

  18. Curcumin Modulates the Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Suppressing Constitutive and Inducible NF-{kappa}B Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Deorukhkar, Amit; Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is an integral part of the preoperative treatment of rectal cancers. However, only a minority of patients achieve a complete pathologic response to therapy because of resistance of these tumors to radiation therapy. This resistance may be mediated by constitutively active pro-survival signaling pathways or by inducible/acquired mechanisms in response to radiation therapy. Simultaneous inhibition of these pathways can sensitize these tumors to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal cancer cells were exposed to clinically relevant doses of gamma rays, and the mechanism of their radioresistance was investigated. We characterized the transcription factor nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B)more » activation as a mechanism of inducible radioresistance in colorectal cancer and used curcumin, the active ingredient in the yellow spice turmeric, to overcome this resistance. Results: Curcumin inhibited the proliferation and the post-irradiation clonogenic survival of multiple colorectal cancer cell lines. Radiation stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas curcumin suppressed this radiation-induced NF-{kappa}B activation via inhibition of radiation-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of {kappa}B alpha, inhibition of inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase activity, and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Curcumin also suppressed NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene products (Bcl-2, Bcl-x{sub L}, inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2, cyclooxygenase-2, and cyclin D1). Conclusions: Our results suggest that transient inducible NF-{kappa}B activation provides a prosurvival response to radiation that may account for development of radioresistance. Curcumin blocks this signaling pathway and potentiates the antitumor effects of radiation therapy.« less

  19. Application of the kappa-omega Turbulence Model to Quasi-Three-Dimensional Turbomachinery Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    1996-01-01

    Many computational fluid dynamics codes for turbomachinery use the Baldwin-Lomax (B-L) turbulence model. It is easy to implement in two dimensions and works well for predicting overall turbomachinery performance. However, it is awkward to implement in three dimensions, often has difficulty finding the length scale, has a crude transition model, and neglects freestream turbulence, surface roughness, and mass injection. The kappa-omega model developed by Wilcox is an appealing alternative for several reasons. First, it is the only two-equation model that can be integrated to the wall without requiring damping functions or the distance to the wall, and hence, should behave well numerically. Second, the effects of freestream turbulence, surface roughness, and mass injection are easily included in the model. Finally, transition can be simulated using the low Reynolds number version of the model. Menter applied the kappa-model to external flows and showed very good results for flows with adverse pressure gradients. Liu and Zheng described their implementation of the kappa-model in a cascade code that included an area change term to account for endwall convergence. They validated the model for a flat plate, and compared the B-L and kappa-models to measured surface pressures for a low-pressure turbine cascade. Since they did not use the low Reynolds number version of the model, their results showed problems resulting from early transition. In this Note the low Reynolds number kappa-model was incorporated in the author's quasi-three-dimensional turbomachinery analysis code. The code includes the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream-surface thickness variation, and also includes the B-L turbulence model. The kappa-omega model was implemented using many of Menter's recommendations and an implicit approximate-factorization scheme described by Baldwin and Barth. The model was tested for a transonic compressor with rotation and variable stream-surface radius and height

  20. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  1. Quercetin attenuates high fructose feeding-induced atherosclerosis by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis via ROS-regulated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue-Li; Zhao, Cui-Hua; Yao, Xin-Liang; Zhang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid compound extracted from various plants, such as apple and onions. Previous studies have revealed its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. This study investigated the ability of quercetin to inhibit high fructose feeding- or LPS-induced atherosclerosis through regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation response in vivo and in vitro experiments. 50 and 100mg/kg quercetin were used in our study, showing significant inhibitory role in high fructose-induced atherosclerosis via reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, Caspase-3 activation, inflammatory cytokines releasing, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and collagen contents as well as modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related proteins expression. We also explored the protective effects of quercetin on atherosclerosis by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Protein kinase B (AKT)-associated Bcl-2/Caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways activation, promoting AKT and Bcl-2 expression and reducing Caspase-3 and NF-κB activation. Quercetin reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in high fructose feeding-induced mice assessed by oil red O. Also, in vitro experiments, quercetin displayed inhibitory role in LPS-induced ROS production, inflammatory response and apoptosis, which were linked with PI3K/AKT-regulated Caspase-3 and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results showed that quercetin inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in high fructose feeding mice via PI3K/AKT activation regulated by ROS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  3. Multiple opioid receptors in endotoxic shock: evidence for delta involvement and mu-delta interactions in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amato, R; Holaday, J W

    1984-01-01

    The use of selective delta and mu opioid antagonists has provided evidence that delta opioid receptors within the brain mediate the endogenous opioid component of endotoxic shock hypotension. The selectivity of these delta and mu antagonists was demonstrated by their differing effects upon morphine analgesia and endotoxic hypotension. The mu antagonist beta-funaltrexamine, at doses that antagonized morphine analgesia, failed to alter shock, whereas the delta antagonist M 154,129: [N,N-bisallyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-psi-(CH2S)-Phe-Leu-OH] (ICI) reversed shock at doses that failed to block morphine analgesia. Therefore, selective delta antagonists may have therapeutic value in reversing circulatory shock without altering the analgesic actions of endogenous or exogenous opioids. Additional data revealed that prior occupancy of mu binding sites by irreversible opioid antagonists may allosterically attenuate the actions of antagonists with selectivity for delta binding sites. For endogenous opioid systems, this observation provides an opportunity to link in vivo physiological responses with receptor-level biochemical interactions. PMID:6326151

  4. Hair analysis for delta(9)-THC, delta(9)-THC-COOH, CBN and CBD, by GC/MS-EI. Comparison with GC/MS-NCI for delta(9)-THC-COOH.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Maria João; Monsanto, Paula Verâncio; Pinho Marques, Estela Gouveia; Bermejo, Ana; Avila, Sofia; Castanheira, Alice Martelo; Margalho, Cláudia; Barroso, Mário; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2002-08-14

    A sensitive analytical method was developed for quantitative analysis of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), 11-nor-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (delta(9)-THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in human hair. The identification of delta(9)-THC-COOH in hair would document Cannabis use more effectively than the detection of parent drug (delta(9)-THC) which might have come from environmental exposure. Ketamine was added to hair samples as internal standard for CBN and CBD. Ketoprofen was added to hair samples as internal standard for the other compounds. Samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase for 2h at 40 degrees C. After cooling, samples were extracted with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure (with chloroform/isopropyl alcohol, after alkalinization, and n-hexane/ethyl acetate, after acidification), which was developed in our laboratory. The extracts were analysed before and after derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and pentafluoropropanol (PFPOH) using a Hewlett Packard gas chromatographer/mass spectrometer detector, in electron impact mode (GC/MS-EI). Derivatized delta(9)-THC-COOH was also analysed using a Hewlett Packard gas chromatographer/mass spectrometer detector, in negative ion chemical ionization mode (GC/MS-NCI) using methane as the reagent gas. Responses were linear ranging from 0.10 to 5.00 ng/mg hair for delta(9)-THC and CBN, 0.10-10.00 ng/mg hair for CBD, 0.01-5.00 ng/mg for delta(9)-THC-COOH (r(2)>0.99). The intra-assay precisions ranged from <0.01 to 12.40%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 80.9 to 104.0% for delta(9)-THC, 85.9-100.0% for delta(9)-THC-COOH, 76.7-95.8% for CBN and 71.0-94.0% for CBD. The analytical method was applied to 87 human hair samples, obtained from individuals who testified in court of having committed drug related crimes. Quantification of delta(9)-THC-COOH using GC/MS-NCI was found to be more convenient than GC/MS-EI. The latter may give rise

  5. Study of the strong {sigma}{sub c}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{pi},{sigma}{sub c}*{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{pi} and {xi}{sub c}*{yields}{xi}{sub c}{pi} decays in a nonrelativistic quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Albertus, C.; Nieves, J.; Hernandez, E.

    We present results for the strong widths corresponding to the {sigma}{sub c}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{pi}, {sigma}{sub c}*{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{pi} and {xi}{sub c}*{yields}{xi}{sub c}{pi} decays. The calculations have been done in a nonrelativistic constituent quark model with wave functions that take advantage of the constraints imposed by heavy quark symmetry. Partial conservation of axial current hypothesis allows us to determine the strong vertices from an analysis of the axial current matrix elements. Our results {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}{sup ++}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=2.41{+-}0.07{+-}0.02 MeV, {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})=2.79{+-}0.08{+-}0.02 MeV, {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=2.37{+-}0.07{+-}0.02 MeV, {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}*{sup ++}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=17.52{+-}0.74{+-}0.12 MeV, {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}*{supmore » +}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})=17.31{+-}0.73{+-}0.12 MeV, {gamma}({sigma}{sub c}*{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=16.90{+-}0.71{+-}0.12 MeV, {gamma}({xi}{sub c}*{sup +}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}+{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})=3.18{+-}0.10{+-}0.01 MeV, and {gamma}({xi}{sub c}*{sup 0}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}+{xi}{sub c}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})=3.03{+-}0.10{+-}0.01 MeV are in good agreement with experimental determinations.« less

  6. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  7. 4Pi Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Roman; Engelhardt, Johann; Lang, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscopy has become a key technology in the life sciences today. Its noninvasive nature provides access to the interior of intact and even living cells, where specific molecules can be precisely localized by fluorescent tagging. However, the attainable 3D resolution of an optical microscope has long been hampered by a comparatively poor resolution along the optic axis. By coherent focusing through two objective lenses, 4Pi microscopy improves the axial resolution by three- to fivefold. This primer is intended as a starting point for the design and operation of a 4Pi microscope of type A.

  8. The Role of the Noncanonical NF-KappaB Pathway in Colon Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0321 TITLE: The Role of the Noncanonical NF -KappaB Pathway in Colon Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yatrik Shah...2013 - 29 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0321 The Role of the Noncanonical NF -KappaB Pathway in Colon Cancer 5b...inflammatory bowel disease samples that the non-canonical NF -κB2 signaling cascade is highly activated in intestinal epithelial cells compared to normal

  9. Detection of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingrong; Ge, Yinghua; Cheng, Dandan; Nie, Zuoming; Lv, Zhengbing

    2016-09-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26 to 31-nt small non-coding RNAs that have been reported mostly in germ-line cells and cancer cells. However, the presence of piRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark liver has not yet been reported. In a previous study of microRNAs in shark liver, some piRNAs were detected from small RNAs sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 4857 piRNAs were predicted and found in shark liver. We further selected 17 piRNAs with high and significantly differential expression between normal and regenerative liver tissues for subsequent verification by Northern blotting. Ten piRNAs were further identified, and six of these were matched to known piRNAs in piRNABank. The actual expression of six known and four novel piRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 401 target genes of the 10 piRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Through GO and pathway function analyses, only five piRNAs could be annotated with eighteen GO annotations. The results indicated that the identified piRNAs are involved in many important biological responses, including immune inflammation, cell-specific differentiation and development, and angiogenesis. This manuscript provides the first identification of piRNAs in the liver of whitespotted bamboo shark using Solexa technology as well as further elucidation of the regulatory role of piRNAs in whitespotted bamboo shark liver. These findings may provide a useful resource and may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against liver damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A theoretical study of hydrogen complexes of the XH-pi type between propyne and HF, HCL or HCN.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Alessandra M; da Silva, Washington L V; Lopes, Kelson C; Ventura, Elizete; Araújo, Regiane C M U; do Monte, Silmar A; da Silva, João Bosco P; Ramos, Mozart N

    2006-05-15

    The present manuscript reports a systematic investigation of the basis set dependence of some properties of hydrogen-bonded (pi type) complexes formed by propyne and a HX molecule, where X=F, Cl and CN. The calculations have been performed at Hartree-Fock, MP2 and B3LYP levels. Geometries, H-bond energies and vibrational have been considered. The more pronounced effects on the structural parameters of the isolated molecules, as a result of complexation, are verified on RCtriple bondC and HX bond lengths. As compared to double-zeta (6-31G**), triple-zeta (6-311G**) basis set leads to an increase of RCtriple bondC bond distance, at all three computational levels. In the case where diffuse functions are added to both hydrogen and 'heavy' atoms, the effect is more pronounced. The propyne-HX structural parameters are quite similar to the corresponding parameters of acetylene-HX complexes, at all levels. The largest difference is obtained for hydrogen bond distance, RH, with a smaller value for propyne-HX complex, indicating a stronger bond. Concerning the electronic properties, the results yield the following ordering for H-bond energies, DeltaE: propynecdots, three dots, centeredHF>propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCl>propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCN. It is also important to point out that the inclusion of BSSE and zero-point energies (ZPE) corrections cause significant changes on DeltaE. The smaller effect of ZPE is obtained for propynecdots, three dots, centeredHCN at HF/6-311++G** level, while the greatest difference is obtained at MP2/6-31G** level for propynecdots, three dots, centeredHF system. Concerning the IR vibrational it was obtained that larger shift can be associated with stronger hydrogen bonds. The more pronounced effect on the normal modes of the isolated molecule after the complexation is obtained for HX stretching frequency, which is shifted downward.

  11. Ganges River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. Offshore Deterioration in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stattegger, K.; Unverricht, D.; Heinrich, C.

    2016-02-01

    The interplay of river, tide and wave forcing controls shape and sedimentation at the front of the Mekong Delta. Specific hydro- and morphodynamic conditions in the western subaqueous part of the asymmetric Mekong Delta generate a sand ridge - channel system (SRCS) which is unique in subaqueous delta formation. This large-scale morphological element extends 130 km along the delta front consisting of two sand ridges and two erosional channels. Three different zones within SRCS can be distinguished. The eastern initial zone stretches along delta slope and inner shelf platform southwest of the Bassac river mouth, the largest and westernmost distributary of the Mekong Delta. In the central zone SRCS covers the outer part of the subaqueous delta platform with a pronounced sand-ridge and erosional channel morphology. Cross-sections of the SRCS reveal an asymmetric shape including steeper ridge flanks facing into offshore direction. Channels incise down to 18.2 m water depth (wd) and 10.5 down the ridge top at the outer subaqueous delta platform, respectively. Towards the west the sand ridges pinch out while the two channels merge into one and form a giant erosional scour of up to 33 m wd within the subaqueous delta platform. In the western zone, the channel gets shallower and vanishes along the south-western edge of the subaqueous delta platform around Ca Mau Cape. Sediment transport from the Mekong River nourishes the sand ridges. In contrast, tide and wind-driven currents cut the erosional channels, which act also as fine-sediment conveyor from eroding headlands to the distal part of the delta front that is 200 km apart of the Bassac river mouth. SRCS in the subaqueous Mekong Delta is a relevant indicator of delta-front instability and erosion.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces gamma-glutamyltransferase expression via nuclear factor-kappaB in cooperation with Sp1.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Simone; Schnekenburger, Michael; Cristofanon, Silvia; Buck, Isabelle; Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Daubeuf, Sandrine; Eifes, Serge; Dicato, Mario; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Visvikis, Athanase; Diederich, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) cleaves the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione (GSH), an endogenous antioxidant, and is involved in mercapturic acid metabolism and in cancer drug resistance when overexpressed. Moreover, GGT converts leukotriene (LT) C4 into LTD4 implicated in various inflammatory pathologies. So far the effect of inflammatory stimuli on regulation of GGT expression and activity remained to be addressed. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) induced GGT promoter transactivation, mRNA and protein synthesis, as well as enzymatic activity. Remicade, a clinically used anti-TNFalpha antibody, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p50 and p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) isoforms, curcumin, a well characterized natural NF-kappaB inhibitor, as well as a dominant negative inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha), prevented GGT activation at various levels, illustrating the involvement of this signaling pathway in TNFalpha-induced stimulation. Over-expression of receptor of TNFalpha-1 (TNFR1), TNFR-associated factor-2 (TRAF2), TNFR-1 associated death domain (TRADD), dominant negative (DN) IkappaBalpha or NF-kappaB p65 further confirmed GGT promoter activation via NF-kappaB. Linker insertion mutagenesis of 536 bp of the proximal GGT promoter revealed NF-kappaB and Sp1 binding sites at -110 and -78 relative to the transcription start site, responsible for basal GGT transcription. Mutation of the NF-kappaB site located at -110 additionally inhibited TNFalpha-induced promoter induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed mutagenesis results and further demonstrated that TNFalpha treatment induced in vivo binding of both NF-kappaB and Sp1, explaining increased GGT expression, and led to RNA polymerase II recruitment under inflammatory conditions.

  14. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Yu, Yang; Jankowska, Anna; Luo, Yicheng; Wasik, Kaja A.; Malone, Colin D.; Harrison, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam; Wakimoto, Barbara T.; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Piwi proteins and their associated small RNAs are essential for fertility in animals. In part, this is due to their roles in guarding germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA populations direct Piwi proteins to silence transposon targets and, as such, form a molecular code that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes. Information ultimately carried by piRNAs is encoded within genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters. These give rise to long, single-stranded, primary transcripts that are processed into piRNAs. Despite the biological importance of this pathway, neither the characteristics that define a locus as a source of piRNAs nor the mechanisms that catalyze primary piRNA biogenesis are well understood. We searched an EMS-mutant collection annotated for fertility phenotypes for genes involved in the piRNA pathway. Twenty-seven homozygous sterile strains showed transposon-silencing defects. One of these, which strongly impacted primary piRNA biogenesis, harbored a causal mutation in CG5508, a member of the Drosophila glycerol-3-phosphate O-acetyltransferase (GPAT) family. These enzymes catalyze the first acylation step on the path to the production of phosphatidic acid (PA). Though this pointed strongly to a function for phospholipid signaling in the piRNA pathway, a mutant form of CG5508, which lacks the GPAT active site, still functions in piRNA biogenesis. We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. PMID:23788724

  15. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID

  16. Dynamics of Disordered PI-PtBS Diblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Viscoelastic (G^*) and dielectric (ɛ'') data were examined for a LCST-type diblock copolymer composed of polyisoprene (PI; M = 53K) and poly(p-tert- butyl styrene) (PtBS; M = 42K) blocks disordered at T <=120 C^o. Only PI had the type-A dipole parallel along the chain backbone. Thus, the ɛ'' data reflected the global motion of the PI block, while the G^* data detected the motion of the copolymer chain as a whole. Comparison of these data indicated that the PI block relaxed much faster than the PtBS block at low T and the dynamic heterogeneity due to PtBS was effectively quenched to give a frictional nonuniformity for the PI block relaxation. The ɛ'' data were thermo-rheologically complex at low T, partly due to this nonuniformity. However, the block connectivity could have also led to the complexity. For testing this effect, the ɛ'' data were reduced at the iso- frictional state defined with respect to bulk PI. In this state, the ɛ'' data of the copolymer at low and high T, respectively, were close to the data for the star-branched and linear bulk PI. Thus, the PI block appeared to be effectively tethered in space at low T thereby behaving similarly to the star arm while the PI block tended to move cooperatively with the PtBS block at high T to behave similarly to the linear PI, which led to the complexity of the ɛ'' data. The PtBS block also exhibited the complexity (noted from the G^* data), which was well correlated with the complexity of the PI block.

  17. Neutrality of the canonical NF-kappaB-dependent pathway for human and murine cytomegalovirus transcription and replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Chris A; Angulo, Ana; Patterson, Ginelle; Ha, Sukwon; Huang, Huang; Messerle, Martin; Ware, Carl F; Ghazal, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to rapidly induce activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) after infection of fibroblast and macrophage cells. NF-kappaB response elements are present in the enhancer region of the CMV major immediate-early promoter (MIEP), and activity of the MIEP is strongly upregulated by NF-kappaB in transient-transfection assays. Here we investigate whether the NF-kappaB-dependent pathway is required for initiating or potentiating human and murine CMV replication in vitro. We show that expression of a dominant negative mutant of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB-alpha (IkappaBalphaM) does not alter the replication kinetics of human or mouse CMV in cultured cells. In addition, mouse embryo fibroblasts genetically deficient for p65/RelA actually showed elevated levels of MCMV replication. Mutation of all NF-kappaB response elements within the enhancer of the MIEP in a recombinant mouse CMV containing the human MIEP (hMCMV-ES), which we have previously shown to replicate in murine fibroblasts with kinetics equivalent to that of wild-type mouse CMV, did not negatively affect replication in fibroblasts. Taken together, these data show that, for CMV replication in cultured fibroblasts activation of the canonical NF-kappaB pathway and binding of NF-kappaB to the MIEP are dispensable, and in the case of p65 may even interfere, thus uncovering a previously unrecognized level of complexity in the host regulatory network governing MIE gene expression in the context of a viral infection.

  18. The Study of Delta Dynamics via NITROGEN-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jeffrey Jon

    The differential cross section for the reaction ^{15}N(gamma, pi^{-})^{15}O _{rm gs} was measured at a photon energy of 220 MeV. The purpose of this measurement is to study the role of the delta resonance in the nuclear medium. Two multipoles contribute to the cross section --the E0 which is delta dominated, and the M1 which is primarily nonresonant. These multipoles dominate the cross section in different kinematic regimes. Thus it is possible to focus on a particular multipole by a judicious choice of kinematics. The experiment was carried out using the tagged photon beam at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. The target was a two-inch-diameter disc of urea isotopically enriched to >99% in ^{15 }N. A pair of scintillator range telescopes was used to detect the pions in coincidence with the photon tagger. Each telescope consisted of a stack of sixteen plastic scintillators preceded by two three-plane wire chambers. In addition, a metal degrader was placed in front of each telescope to moderate the high-energy pions so that they would stop inside the scintillator stack. By measuring the amount of material traversed by a given pion, it was possible to determine its momentum. Given the pion momentum and the photon energy, it was possible to reconstruct the entire reaction kinematics. The results of the experiment are compared to two calculations made within the framework of the Distorted -Wave Impulse Approximation. One calculation uses nuclear wave functions which are restricted to the 1p-shell while the other includes the effects of higher shells. In a similar experiment involving ^{13} C, the E0 part of the amplitude was found to be suppressed and this was interpreted as being due to the effects of higher shell configurations. In the present work, we find no evidence for such an E0 suppression.

  19. PI-RADS v2: Current standing and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clayton P; Türkbey, Barış

    2018-05-01

    The Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) was created in 2012 to establish standardization in prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) acquisition, interpretation, and reporting. In hopes of improving upon some of the PI-RADS v1 shortcomings, the PI-RADS Steering Committee released PI-RADS v2 in 2015. This paper reviews the accuracy, interobserver agreement, and clinical outcomes of PI-RADS v2 and comments on the limitations of the current literature. Overall, PI-RADS v2 shows improved sensitivity and similar specificity compared to PI-RADS v1. However, concerns exist regarding interobserver agreement and the heterogeneity of the study methodology.

  20. PI-RADS v2: Current standing and future outlook

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Clayton P.

    2018-01-01

    The Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) was created in 2012 to establish standardization in prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) acquisition, interpretation, and reporting. In hopes of improving upon some of the PI-RADS v1 shortcomings, the PI-RADS Steering Committee released PI-RADS v2 in 2015. This paper reviews the accuracy, interobserver agreement, and clinical outcomes of PI-RADS v2 and comments on the limitations of the current literature. Overall, PI-RADS v2 shows improved sensitivity and similar specificity compared to PI-RADS v1. However, concerns exist regarding interobserver agreement and the heterogeneity of the study methodology. PMID:29733790

  1. Delta modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The conclusions of the design research of the song adaptive delta modulator are presented for source encoding voice signals. The variation of output SNR vs input signal power/when 8, 9, and 10 bit internal arithmetic is employed. Voice intelligibility tapes to test the 10-bit system are used. An analysis of a delta modulator is also presented designed to minimize the in-band rms error. This is accomplished by frequency shaping the error signal in the modulator prior to hard limiting. The result is a significant increase in the output SNR measured after low pass filtering.

  2. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae ‘Apuki lava delta at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, during 2005–2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava–ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava–ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  3. Inhibition of IL-1{beta}-mediated inflammatory responses by the I{kappa}B{alpha} super-repressor in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Rae; Kweon, Suc-Hyun; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    The IL-1{beta}-NF-{kappa}B axis is a key pathway in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is central in the production of proinflammatory mediators in the inflamed synovium. Therefore, we examined whether fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) could be spared from IL-1{beta}-induced toxicity by an overexpressing I{kappa}B super-repressor. Infection of FLS with Ad-I{kappa}B{alpha} (S32A, S36A), an adenovirus-containing mutant I{kappa}B{alpha}, inhibited IL-1{beta}-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B. In addition, Ad-I{kappa}B{alpha} (S32A, S36A) prevented IL-1{beta}-induced inflammatory responses; namely, the production of chemokines, such as ENA-78 and RANTES, and activation of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Finally, increased cellular proliferation of FLS after IL-1{beta} treatment wasmore » significantly reduced by Ad-I{kappa}B{alpha} (S32A, S36A). However, Ad-I{kappa}B{beta} (S19A, S23A), the I{kappa}B{beta} mutant, was not effective in preventing IL-1{beta} toxicity. These results suggest that inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation is a potential target for the prevention of joint destruction in patients with RA.« less

  4. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    PubMed Central

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan. PMID:19419953

  5. Transcription factor NF-kappaB regulates inducible CD83 gene expression in activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    McKinsey, T A; Chu, Z; Tedder, T F; Ballard, D W

    2000-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD83 is expressed on the surface of mature dendritic cells that present processed antigens to T lymphocytes. In addition, T cells acquire CD83 expression following mitogenic stimulation in vitro. Here we report two lines of evidence demonstrating that this inducible lymphocyte response is genetically programmed by transcription factor NF-kappaB and contingent upon proteolytic breakdown of its cytoplasmic inhibitor IkappaBalpha. First, signal-dependent induction of CD83 mRNA expression is blocked in both transformed and primary T cells harboring a degradation-resistant mutant of IkappaBalpha that constitutively represses NF-kappaB. Second, as revealed in gel retardation assays, the IkappaBalpha constitutive repressor prevents the inducible interaction of NF-kappaB with consensus recognition sites identified in the CD83 promoter. Given that IkappaBalpha is functionally coupled to the T-cell antigen receptor, these findings suggest that the downstream transcription unit for CD83 is triggered by NF-kappaB during an adaptive immune response.

  6. The DELTA MONSTER: An RPV designed to investigate the aerodynamics of a delta wing platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Kristen; Flynn, Mike; Gallagher, Randy; Greek, Chris; Kozlowski, Marc; Mcdonald, Brian; Mckenna, Matt; Sellar, Rich; Shearon, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The mission requirements for the performance of aerodynamic tests on a delta wind planform posed some problems, these include aerodynamic interference; structural support; data acquisition and transmission instrumentation; aircraft stability and control; and propulsion implementation. To eliminate the problems of wall interference, free stream turbulence, and the difficulty of achieving dynamic similarity between the test and actual flight aircraft that are associated with aerodynamic testing in wind tunnels, the concept of the remotely piloted vehicle which can perform a basic aerodynamic study on a delta wing was the main objective for the Green Mission - the Delta Monster. The basic aerodynamic studies were performed on a delta wing with a sweep angle greater than 45 degrees. These tests were performed at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The delta wing was instrumented to determine the primary leading edge vortex formation and location, using pressure measurements and/or flow visualization. A data acquisition system was provided to collect all necessary data.

  7. Effects of Cot expression on the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Chikamatsu, Satomi; Furuno, Tadahide; Kinoshita, Yosuke; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Hirashima, Naohide; Teshima, Reiko; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-03-01

    Cot is a serine/threonine protein kinase and is classified as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase. Overexpression of this protein has been shown to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the p38 MAP kinase pathways and to stimulate NF-AT and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Here we have shown that Cot kinase activity is intimately involved in the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcvarepsilonRI)-mediated nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB1 independent of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. A transfected green fluorescent protein-tagged NF-kappaB1 (GFP-NF-kappaB1) resided in the cytoplasm in RBL-2H3 cells and it remained in the cytoplasm even when Cot tagged with red fluorescent protein (Cot-RFP) was co-expressed. Western blotting analysis showed that IkappaB kinases (IKKs) were expressed in RBL-2H3 cells but NIK was not. GFP-NF-kappaB1 translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after the aggregation of FcvarepsilonRI in Cot-transfected cells but not in kinase-deficient Cot-transfected cells. This finding gives a new insight into the role of Cot in the FcvarepsilonRI-mediated NF-kappaB activation in mast cells.

  8. Reprint Series: Computation of Pi. RS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the latest about pi; (2) a series useful in the computation of pi; (3) an ENIAC determination of pi and e to more than…

  9. An essential complementary role of NF-kappaB pathway to microbicidal oxidants in Drosophila gut immunity.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Ha, Eun-Mi; Oh, Chun-Taek; Seol, Jae-Hong; Brey, Paul T; Jin, Ingnyol; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jaesang; Lee, Daekee; Lee, Won-Jae

    2006-08-09

    In the Drosophila gut, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent immunity is critical to host survival. This is in contrast to the NF-kappaB pathway whose physiological function in the microbe-laden epithelia has yet to be convincingly demonstrated despite playing a critical role during systemic infections. We used a novel in vivo approach to reveal the physiological role of gut NF-kappaB/antimicrobial peptide (AMP) system, which has been 'masked' in the presence of the dominant intestinal ROS-dependent immunity. When fed with ROS-resistant microbes, NF-kappaB pathway mutant flies, but not wild-type flies, become highly susceptible to gut infection. This high lethality can be significantly reduced by either re-introducing Relish expression to Relish mutants or by constitutively expressing a single AMP to the NF-kappaB pathway mutants in the intestine. These results imply that the local 'NF-kappaB/AMP' system acts as an essential 'fail-safe' system, complementary to the ROS-dependent gut immunity, during gut infection with ROS-resistant pathogens. This system provides the Drosophila gut immunity the versatility necessary to manage sporadic invasion of virulent pathogens that somehow counteract or evade the ROS-dependent immunity.

  10. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na+-dependent Pi (NaPi) transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. Results We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members. A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM) domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR254-V483), was found to be a fully functional Pi transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL183-V483) did also support Pi transport albeit at very low levels. Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in

  11. Assessing the universal structure of personality in early adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 cultures.

    PubMed

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item-total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. The authors discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan.

  12. Induction of nuclear factor kappaB by the CD30 receptor is mediated by TRAF1 and TRAF2.

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, C S; Gedrich, R W; Gilfillan, M C; Thompson, C B

    1997-01-01

    CD30 is a lymphoid cell-specific surface receptor which was originally identified as an antigen expressed on Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Activation of CD30 induces the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor. In this study, we define the domains in CD30 which are required for NF-kappaB activation. Two separate elements of the cytoplasmic domain which were capable of inducing NF-kappaB independently of one another were identified. The first domain (domain 1) mapped to a approximately 120-amino-acid sequence in the membrane-proximal region of the CD30 cytoplasmic tail, between residues 410 and 531. A second, more carboxy-terminal region (domain 2) was identified between residues 553 and 595. Domain 2 contains two 5- to 10-amino-acid elements which can mediate the binding of CD30 to members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of signal transducing proteins. Coexpression of CD30 with TRAF1 or TRAF2 but not TRAF3 augmented NF-kappaB activation through domain 2 but not domain 1. NF-kappaB induction through domain 2 was inhibited by coexpression of either full-length TRAF3 or dominant negative forms of TRAF1 or TRAF2. In contrast, NF-kappaB induction by domain 1 was not affected by alterations in TRAF protein levels. Together, these data support a model in which CD30 can induce NF-kappaB by both TRAF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. TRAF-dependent induction of NF-kappaB appears to be regulated by the relative levels of individual TRAF proteins in the cell. PMID:9032281

  13. Investigation of leading-edge flap performance on delta and double-delta wings at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, Peter F.; Wood, Richard M.; Miller, David S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the aerodynamic performance of leading-edge flaps on three clipped delta and three clipped double-delta wing planforms with aspect ratios of 1.75, 2.11, and 2.50 was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.16. A primary set of fullspan leading-edge flaps with similar root and tip chords were investigated on each wing, and several alternate flap planforms were investigated on the aspect-ratio-1.75 wings. All leading-edge flap geometries were effective in reducing the drag at lifting conditions over the range of wing aspect ratios and Mach numbers tested. Application of a primary flap resulted in better flap performance with the double-delta planform than with the delta planform. The primary flap geometry generally yielded better performance than the alternate flap geometries tested. Trim drag due to flap-induced pitching moments was found to reduce the leading-edge flap performance more for the delta planform than for the double-delta planform. Flow-visualization techniques showed that leading-edge flap deflection reduces crossflow shock-induced separation effects. Finally, it was found that modified linear theory consistently predicts only the effects of leading-edge flap deflection as related to pitching moment and lift trends.

  14. Morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of muddy ebb-tidal deltas along a subsiding coast: Barataria Bay, Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Kulp, M.; Penland, S.; Flocks, J.; Kindinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Barataria barrier coast formed between two major distributaries of the Mississippi River delta: the Plaquemines deltaic headland to the east and the Lafourche deltaic headland to the west. Rapid relative sea-level rise (1??03 cm year-1) and other erosional processes within Barataria Bay have led to substantial increases in the area of open water (> 775 km2 since 1956) and the attendant bay tidal prism. Historically, the increase in tidal discharge at inlets has produced larger channel cross-sections and prograding ebb-tidal deltas. For example, the ebb delta at Barataria Pass has built seaward > 2??2 km since the 1880s. Shoreline erosion and an increasing bay tidal prism also facilitated the formation of new inlets. Four major lithofacies characterize the Barataria coast ebb-tidal deltas and associated sedimentary environments. These include a proximal delta facies composed of massive to laminated, fine grey-brown to pale yellow sand and a distal delta facies consisting of thinly laminated, grey to pale yellow sand and silty sand with mud layers. The higher energy proximal delta deposits contain a greater percentage of sand (75-100%) compared with the distal delta sediments (60-80%). Associated sedimentary units include a nearshore facies consisting of horizontally laminated, fine to very fine grey sand with mud layers and an offshore facies that is composed of grey to dark grey, laminated sandy silt to silty clay. All facies coarsen upwards except the offshore facies, which fines upwards. An evolutionary model is presented for the stratigraphic development of the ebb-tidal deltas in a regime of increasing tidal energy resulting from coastal land loss and tidal prism growth. Ebb-tidal delta facies prograde over nearshore sediments, which interfinger with offshore facies. The seaward decrease in tidal current velocity of the ebb discharge produces a gradational contact between proximal and distal tidal delta facies. As the tidal discharge increases and the inlet

  15. CCDS concept paper: Delta-DOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, David S.; Broder, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This Concept Paper proposes the development of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemes (CCSDS) standards for the deep space navigation technique known as 'delta-DOR' (Delta Differential One-Way Ranging).

  16. CCSDS concept paper: Delta-DOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, David S.; Border, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This Concept Paper proposes the development of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards for the deep space navigation technique known as 'delta-DOR' (Delta Differential One-Way Ranging).

  17. Convulsions may alter the specificity of kappa-opiate receptors.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A; Valenstein, E S

    1986-06-01

    Morphine, a mu-opiate agonist, and ethylketazocine, a kappa-opiate agonist, produce distinct behavioral, pharmacologic, and biochemical effects. In the mouse, large doses of morphine produce convulsions that are usually lethal and that cannot be blocked by naltrexone, whereas ethylketazocine produces nonlethal clonic convulsions that can be blocked by naltrexone. Moreover, mice made tolerant to morphine failed to show cross-tolerance to ethylketazocine, suggesting that the convulsions induced by these drugs are not mediated via a common opioid mechanism. Following a series of electroconvulsive shocks, both morphine and ethylketazocine produced clonic convulsions that were not lethal and that could be blocked by naltrexone. Furthermore, electroconvulsive shock-treated animals made tolerant to morphine-induced convulsions showed cross-tolerance to ethylketazocine. These data suggest that electroconvulsive shock may alter kappa-opioid systems in such a way as to allow mu-agonists to be functional at these sites.

  18. TLR3-mediated NF-{kappa}B signaling in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Diana M; Narasimhan, Sneha; Michaylira, Carmen Z; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2009-12-01

    Despite its position at the front line against ingested pathogens, very little is presently known about the role of the esophageal epithelium in host innate immune defense. As a key player in the innate immune response, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has not been well characterized in human esophageal epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response and signaling pathways activated by TLR stimulation of human esophageal cells in vitro. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we profiled the expression pattern of human TLRs 1-10 in primary esophageal keratinocytes (EPC2), immortalized nontransformed esophageal keratinocytes (EPC2-hTERT), and normal human esophageal mucosal biopsies and found that TLRs 1, 2, 3, and 5 were expressed both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cytokine IL-8 as a physiological read out of the inflammatory response, we found that TLR3 is the most functional of the expressed TLRs in both primary and immortalized esophageal epithelial cell lines in response to its synthetic ligand polyinosinic polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. Through reporter gene studies, we show that poly(I:C)-induced NF-kappaB activation is critical for the transactivation of the IL-8 promoter in vitro and that nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB occurs at an early time point following poly(I:C) stimulation of esophageal epithelial cells. Importantly, we also show that poly(I:C) stimulation induces the NF-kappaB-dependent esophageal epithelial expression of TLR2, leading to enhanced epithelial responsiveness of EPC2-hTERT cells to TLR2 ligand stimulation, suggesting an important regulatory role for TLR3-mediated NF-kappaB signaling in the innate immune response of esophageal epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that TLR3 is highly functional in the human esophageal epithelium and that TLR3-mediated NF-kappaB signaling may play an important regulatory role in esophageal epithelial homeostasis.

  19. Quantitation of IgG kappa and IgG lambda in the cerebrospinal fluid by sandwich ELISA method.

    PubMed

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Bojková, Jana; Všianský, František; Zapletalová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    IgG kappa and IgG lambda concentrations were quantified in 96 paired CSF and sera using Hevylite™ antibodies in an in-house developed sandwich ELISA method. In 56 of these samples, the results were compared with a qualitative isoelectric focusing/affinity-mediated immunoblotting assay for oligoclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda. Normal IgG kappa/lambda ratio in the CSF was the same as in serum. In 19/33 patients with intrathecal oligoclonal IgG synthesis, skewed IgG kappa/lambda ratio was observed (increased in 16 and decreased in 3 cases). The analysis of light chain composition of intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins could contribute to our understanding of intrathecal humoral immune response, although its diagnostic utility is limited.

  20. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-05-17

    The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na(+)- or H(+)-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H(502), and the human PiT1 glutamate, E(70),--both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members--are critical for P(i) transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H(502) is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E(70) is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members.A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM) domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR(254)-V(483)), was found to be a fully functional P(i) transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL(183)-V(483)) did also support P(i) transport albeit at very low levels. The results suggest that the overall structure of the P(i)-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in

  1. Peptide design using alpha,beta-dehydro amino acids: from beta-turns to helical hairpins.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Puniti; Ramakumar, S; Chauhan, V S

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation of alpha,beta-dehydrophenylalanine (DeltaPhe) residue in peptides induces folded conformations: beta-turns in short peptides and 3(10)-helices in larger ones. A few exceptions-namely, alpha-helix or flat beta-bend ribbon structures-have also been reported in a few cases. The most favorable conformation of DeltaPhe residues are (phi,psi) approximately (-60 degrees, -30 degrees ), (-60 degrees, 150 degrees ), (80 degrees, 0 degrees ) or their enantiomers. DeltaPhe is an achiral and planar residue. These features have been exploited in designing DeltaPhe zippers and helix-turn-helix motifs. DeltaPhe can be incorporated in both right and left-handed helices. In fact, consecutive occurrence of three or more DeltaPhe amino acids induce left-handed screw sense in peptides containing L-amino acids. Weak interactions involving the DeltaPhe residue play an important role in molecular association. The C--H.O==C hydrogen bond between the DeltaPhe side-chain and backbone carboxyl moiety, pi-pi stacking interactions between DeltaPhe side chains belonging to enantiomeric helices have shown to stabilize folding. The unusual capability of a DeltaPhe ring to form the hub of multicentered interactions namely, a donor in aromatic C--H.pi and C--H.O==C and an acceptor in a CH(3).pi interaction suggests its exploitation in introducing long-range interactions in the folding of supersecondary structures. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci), 2004

  2. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  3. Potential exposure of larval and juvenile delta smelt to dissolved pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Moon, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The San Francisco Estuary is critical habitat for delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a fish whose abundance has declined greatly since 1983 and is now listed as threatened. In addition, the estuary receives drainage from the Central Valley, an urban and agricultural region with intense and diverse pesticide usage. One possible factor of the delta smelt population decline is pesticide toxicity during vulnerable larval and juvenile stages, but pesticide concentrations are not well characterized in delta smelt spawning and nursery habitat. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential exposure of delta smelt during their early life stages to dissolved pesticides. For 3 years (1998-2000), water samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta were collected during April-June in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game's delta smelt early life stage monitoring program. Samples were analyzed for pesticides using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water samples contained multiple pesticides, ranging from 2 to 14 pesticides in each sample. In both 1999 and 2000, elevated concentrations of pesticides overlapped in time and space with peak densities of larval and juvenile delta smelt. In contrast, high spring outflows in 1998 transported delta smelt away from the pesticide sampling sites so that exposure could not be estimated. During 2 years, larval and juvenile delta smelt were potentially exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Although the measured concentrations were well below short-term (96-h) LC50 values for individual pesticides, the combination of multiple pesticides and lengthy exposure duration could potentially have lethal or sublethal effects on delta smelt, especially during early larval development.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1318 - Glucono delta-lactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucono delta-lactone. 184.1318 Section 184.1318... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1318 Glucono delta-lactone. (a) Glucono delta-lactone (C6H10O6, CAS Reg. No. 90-80-2), also called D-gluconic acid delta-lactone or D-glucono-1,5...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1318 - Glucono delta-lactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glucono delta-lactone. 184.1318 Section 184.1318... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1318 Glucono delta-lactone. (a) Glucono delta-lactone (C6H10O6, CAS Reg. No. 90-80-2), also called D-gluconic acid delta-lactone or D-glucono-1,5...

  6. Corneal NF-kappaB activity is necessary for the retention of transparency in the cornea of UV-B-exposed transgenic reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Alexander, George; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-04-01

    To determine the dynamics of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in murine corneal pathology and the role of NF-kappaB in maintaining corneal clarity after ultraviolet B radiation insult, transgenic mice containing NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter were exposed to LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide), TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha) or 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B radiation. NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides were also administered in some of the UV-B experiments. Following various exposure times, the mice were sacrificed and whole eyes or corneal tissues were obtained. Whole eyes were examined for scattering using a point-source optical imaging technique. Tissue homogenates were examined for luciferase activity using a luminometer. TNF-alpha and LPS-injected NF-kappaB-luciferase transgenic mice demonstrated 3-10-fold increases in cornea NF-kappaB with peak activities at 4 and 6 hr post-injection, respectively. Mice exposed to 4 kJ m(-2) UV-B exhibited a 3-fold increase in NF-kappaB activity 4 hr post-exposure. The administration of NF-kappaB-decoy oligonucleotides to mice had the effect of reducing UV-B-induced NF-kappaB activity in the cornea and significantly increasing the amount of light scattering in UV-B exposed corneas 7 days post-UV-B exposure when compared to sham injected mice. These results indicate that NF-kappaB is activated in cornea in pathologies that involves increased plasma levels of LPS and TNF-alpha, as well as direct UV-B exposure, and suggest that NF-kappaB activation play an essential part in the corneal healing process.

  7. Preparation and characterization of a neutral {pi}-radical molecular conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, T.M.; Cordes, A.W.; Haddon, R.C.

    1999-02-10

    The synthesis and solid-state characterization of the heterocyclic {pi}-radical 1,2,5-thiadiazolo[3,4-b]-1,2,3-dithiazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-2-yl, 1,2,3-TDTA, is described. The ESR spectrum of 1,2,3-TDTA (in CH{sub 2}-Cl{sub 2}, 293 K, g = 2.009) confirms a highly delocalized spin distribution, with observable hyperfine coupling to all five nitrogen atoms of the tricyclic molecule (a{sub N} = 0.514, 0.343, 0.109, 0.051, and 0.045 mT). While chemical and electrochemical oxidation (E{sub 1/2}(ox) = 1.14 V vs SCE) of 1,2,3-TDTA requires relatively harsh conditions, reduction is extremely fcile (E{sub 1/2}(red) = 0.15 V vs SCE). More importantly both the observed cell potential E{sub cell} and computed (MNDO) gas-phase enthalpy {Delta}H{submore » disp} for the disproportionation of this and other 1,2,3-dithiazolyls are significantly lower than those observed for their 1,3,2-isomers. Crystals of 1,2,3-TDTA are monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n, with a = 6.6749(16) {angstrom}, b = 11.7178(14) {angstrom}, c = 8.6148(14) {angstrom}, {beta} = 103.297(16){degree}, and Z = 4. The crystal structure consists of slipped stacks of heat-to-tail (centrosymmetric) {pi}-dimers. The closest intradimer S---S contact (S2---S3) is 3.2331(15) {angstrom}. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements establish that 1,2,3-TDTA is essentially diamagnetic at room temperature. The magnetic data, along with the results of variable-temperature single-crystal conductivity measurements (1,2,3-TDTA exhibits a room-temperature conductivity {sigma} = 1 x 10{sup {minus}4} S cm{sup {minus}1}), are interpreted in terms of one-dimensional hopping mechanism for charge transport.« less

  8. Charged bottomoniumlike states Z{sub b}(10610) and Z{sub b}(10650) and the {Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Dianyong; Nuclear Theory Group, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000; Liu Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Inspired by the newly observed two charged bottomoniumlike states, we consider the possible contribution from the intermediate Z{sub b}(10610) and Z{sub b}(10650) states to the {Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay process, which naturally explains Belle's previous observation of the anomalous {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} production near the peak of {Upsilon}(5S) at {radical}(s)=10.87 GeV [K. F. Chen et al. (Belle Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 112001 (2008)]. The resulting d{Gamma}({Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/dm{sub {pi}}{sup +}{sub {pi}}{sup -} and d{Gamma}({Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/dcos{theta} distributions agree with Belle's measurement after inclusion of these Z{sub b} states. This formalism also reproduces the Belle observation of the double-peak structuremore » and its reflection in the {Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +} invariant mass spectrum of the {Upsilon}(5S){yields}{Upsilon}(2S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay.« less

  9. Lymphotoxin activation by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected cell lines: role for NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Paul, N L; Lenardo, M J; Novak, K D; Sarr, T; Tang, W L; Ruddle, N H

    1990-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T-cell lines constitutively produce high levels of biologically active lymphotoxin (LT; tumor necrosis factor-beta) protein and LT mRNA. To understand the regulation of LT transcription by HTLV-I, we analyzed the ability of a series of deletions of the LT promoter to drive the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in HTLV-I-positive MT-2 cells. The smallest LT promoter fragment (-140 to +77) that was able to drive CAT activity contained a site that was similar to the immunoglobulin kappa-chain NF-kappa B-binding site. Since the HTLV-I tax gene activates the nuclear form of NF-kappa B, this finding suggested a possible means of HTLV-I activation of LT production. We found that the LT kappa B-like site specifically formed a complex with NF-kappa B-containing nuclear extract from MT-2, C81-66-45, and other activated T cells. Mutation of the LT kappa B site in the context of the LT promoter (-293 to +77) (mutant M1) reduced the ability of the promoter to drive the CAT gene in HTLV-I-infected and noninfected human T-cell lines. These data suggest a general role for NF-kappa B activation in the induction of LT gene transcription. Activation of LT in HTLV-I-infected cells may explain the pathology associated with HTLV-I infection, including the hypercalcemia that is prevalent in adult T-cell leukemia.

  10. Inhibition by spinal mu- and delta-opioid agonists of afferent-evoked substance P release.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Ichiro; Marvizon, Juan Carlos G; Song, Bingbing; Salgado, Frances; Codeluppi, Simone; Hua, Xiao-Ying; Yaksh, Tony L

    2005-04-06

    Opioid mu- and delta-receptors are present on the central terminals of primary afferents, where they are thought to inhibit neurotransmitter release. This mechanism may mediate analgesia produced by spinal opiates; however, when they used neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization as an indicator of substance P release, Trafton et al. (1999) noted that this evoked internalization was altered only modestly by morphine delivered intrathecally at spinal cord segment S1-S2. We reexamined this issue by studying the effect of opiates on NK1R internalization in spinal cord slices and in vivo. In slices, NK1R internalization evoked by dorsal root stimulation at C-fiber intensity was abolished by the mu agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (1 microM) and decreased by the delta agonist [D-Phe2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) (1 microM). In vivo, hindpaw compression induced NK1R internalization in ipsilateral laminas I-II. This evoked internalization was significantly reduced by morphine (60 nmol), DAMGO (1 nmol), and DPDPE (100 nmol), but not by the kappa agonist trans-(1S,2S)-3,4-dichloro-N-mathyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]-benzeneacetamide hydrochloride (200 nmol), delivered at spinal cord segment L2 using intrathecal catheters. These doses of the mu and delta agonists were equi-analgesic as measured by a thermal escape test. Lower doses neither produced analgesia nor inhibited NK1R internalization. In contrast, morphine delivered by percutaneous injections at S1-S2 had only a modest effect on thermal escape, even at higher doses. Morphine decreased NK1R internalization after systemic delivery, but at a dose greater than that necessary to produce equivalent analgesia. All effects were reversed by naloxone. These results indicate that lumbar opiates inhibit noxious stimuli-induced neurotransmitter release from primary afferents at doses that are confirmed behaviorally as analgesic.

  11. Reactive oxygen species mediate liver injury through parenchymal nuclear factor-kappaB inactivation in prolonged ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, Laura; Marí, Montserrat; Lluis, Josep M; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Morales, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB participates in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) hepatic signaling, stimulating both protective mechanisms and the generation of inflammatory cytokines. After analyzing NF-kappaB activation during increasing times of ischemia in murine I/R, we observed that the nuclear translocation of p65 paralleled Src and IkappaB tyrosine phosphorylation, which peaked after 60 minutes of ischemia. After extended ischemic periods (90 to 120 minutes) however, nuclear p65 levels were inversely correlated with the progressive induction of oxidative stress. Despite this profile of NF-kappaB activation, inflammatory genes, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1beta, predominantly induced by Kupffer cells, increased throughout time during ischemia (30 to 120 minutes), whereas protective NF-kappaB-dependent genes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), expressed in parenchymal cells, decreased. Consistent with this behavior, gadolinium chloride pretreatment abolished TNF/IL-1beta up-regulation during ischemia without affecting Mn-SOD levels. Interestingly, specific glutathione (GSH) up-regulation in hepatocytes by S-adenosylmethionine increased Mn-SOD expression and protected against I/R-mediated liver injury despite TNF/IL-1beta induction. Similar protection was achieved by administration of the SOD mimetic MnTBAP. In contrast, indiscriminate hepatic GSH depletion by buthionine-sulfoximine before I/R potentiated oxidative stress and decreased both nuclear p65 and Mn-SOD expression levels, increasing TNF/IL-1beta up-regulation and I/R-induced liver damage. Thus, the divergent role of NF-kappaB activation in selective liver cell populations underlies the dichotomy of NF-kappaB in hepatic I/R injury, illustrating the relevance of specifically maintaining NF-kappaB activation in parenchymal cells.

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Guoping; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likelymore » that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.« less

  13. Planktic foraminifer census data from Northwind Ridge cores PI-88-AP P3, PI-88-AR P7 and PI-88-AR P9, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Kevin M.; Poore, Richard Z.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recovered 9 piston cores from the Northwind Ridge in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean from a cruise of the USCGC Polar Star during 1988. Preliminary analysis of the cores suggests sediments deposited on Northwind Ridge preserve a detailed record of glacial and interglacial cycles for the last few hundred-thousand to one million years. This report includes quantitative data on foraminifers and selected sediment size-fraction data in 98 samples from Northwind Ridge core PI-88AR P3, 51 samples from core PI-88-AR P7 and 117 samples from core PI-88-AR P9.

  14. NF-kappaB signaling blockade by Bay 11-7085 during early cardiac morphogenesis induces alterations of the outflow tract in chicken heart.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gutierrez, S; García-Peláez, I; Zentella-Dehesa, A; Ramos-Kuri, M; Hernández-Franco, P; Hernández-Sánchez, F; Rojas, E

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a pleiotropic transcription factor implicated in the regulation of diverse morphologic cardiac alterations, for which the p50 and p65 subunits form the most prevalent dimeric form in the heart. NF-kappaB is inactivated by proteins of the IkappaB family, which trap it in the cytoplasm. It is not known whether NF-kappaB influences cardiac development. Here we investigated the role of NF-kappaB in regulating transcription in chicken heart morphogenesis. Specifically, we tested whether NF-kappaB activation is required for normal formation of the outflow tract (OFT) during a critical stage of heart development. We designed a reporter vector with kappaB binding sites for Rel family members in the promoter, upstream from the cDNA of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). This construct was injected directly into the developing heart of chicken embryos. NF-kappaB activation was subsequently inhibited by administration of the specific pharmacological agent Bay 11-7085. We found that forced NF-kappaB expression was associated with multiple congenital cardiac alterations of the OFT (mainly IVC, DORV and great arteries stenosis). These findings indicate that blockade of NF-kappaB induces apoptosis and is an impor