Science.gov

Sample records for kappel propeller development

  1. High temperature propellant development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported that the neccessary technology has been developed and demonstrated for the manufacture of heat-sterilizable solid propellants which meet specific ballistic goals. It is shown that: (1) phosphate doping of ammonium perchlorate significantly enhances the thermal stability of the substance; (2) grinding the ammonium perchlorate to reduce particle size further increases thermal stability; and (3) unsaturated polymers such as the polybutadienes can be successfully used in a heat-sterilizable propellant system. Among the topics considered by the study are oxidizers, dopants, binders, and the thermal cycling of 70 lb and 600 lb propellant grains.

  2. [Lieutenant-general V.O.Kappel: last campaign].

    PubMed

    Briniuk, I Iu

    2012-02-01

    The article is devoted to the last days of life and illness of one of commanders of the White movement, lieutenant-general Vladimir Oskarovich Kappel (1883-1920). Professional soldier, Nicholas Military Academy graduate, participant of the World War 1, Kappel was one of the staunch opponents of Soviet power. It is difficult to overemphasize Kappel's role in the armed struggle against Bolshevism in Volga region and Siberia in 1918-1919. He deserved reputation of the most talented and respected generals in the army of Admiral Kolchak. Kappel died January 26, 1920, his death was recorded on the death certificate, signed by temporarily seconded to the staff of East-precision front by the Russian doctor and the doctor Ryabov Romanian AK-tier Danets. The cause of the death of General called bilateral lung fever.

  3. Development of a Passively Varying Pitch Propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzen, Stearns Beamon

    Small general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial systems are often equipped with sophisticated navigation, control, and other avionics, but retain propulsion systems consisting of retrofitted radio control and ultralight equipment. Consequently, new high performance airframes often rely on relatively primitive propulsive technology. This trend is beginning to shift with recent advances in small turboprop engines, fuel injected reciprocating engines, and improved electric technologies. Although these systems are technologically advanced, they are often paired with standard fixed pitch propellers. To fully realize the potential of these aircraft and the new generation of engines, small propellers which can efficiently transmit power over wide flight envelopes and a variety of power settings must be developed. This work demonstrates a propeller which passively adjusts to incoming airflow at a low penalty to aircraft weight and complexity. This allows the propeller to operate in an efficient configuration over a wide flight envelope, and can prevent blade stall in low-velocity / highly-loaded thrust cases and over-speeding at high flight speeds. The propeller incorporates blades which pivot freely on a radial axis and are aerodynamically tailored to attain and maintain a pitch angle yielding favorable local blade angles of attack, matched to changing inflow conditions. This blade angle is achieved through the use of reflexed airfoils designed for a positive pitching moment, comparable to those used on many tailless flying wings. By setting the axis of rotation at a point forward of the blade aerodynamic center, the blades will naturally adjust to a predetermined positive lift 'trim' condition. Then, as inflow conditions change, the blade angle will automatically pivot to maintain the same angle with respect to incoming air. Computational, wind tunnel, and flight test results indicate that the extent of efficient propeller operation can be increased dramatically as

  4. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  5. Ariane-5 solid-propellant stage development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigou, Jacques

    1992-03-01

    The development status of the solid propellant engine (P230) of the Ariane-5 launcher is described. Large new industrial plants were built in Europe and Guiana for the development and manufacture of the solid-booster stage and are now operational. A product assurance policy, specific and common to the companies that are involved in the engine's development, was defined and will be implemented. The paper describes the production cycles for the charged segments, the igniter, and the nozzle for P230 engine, as well as the process of engine integration and testing. Consideration is also given to the engine thrust capability, the launcher flight control, and the interfaces. The the major engine development tests are described.

  6. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  7. Solid propellants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  8. Development of Ammonium Perchlorate + Aluminium Base Solid Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Norazila; Ali, Wan Khairuddin Wan

    2010-06-01

    Rocket propellant has been identified as a component that played an important role in the development of rockets. The ejected material in rocket propulsion is due to material called propellant. Without propellant, a rocket cannot be launched. Due to this reason, many have started to conduct research on new chemical compound of propellant with new technique if needed. The objectives of this study are to study the thermo-chemistry aspect of the composition and to determine the burning characteristics parameters. For this reason, this dissertation presented a detail preparation of developing a solid propellant using Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, Aluminum (Al) as fuel and Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) as the binder. To determine the propellant performance such as burning rate, testing was conducted. From testing result the propellant composition oxidizer-fuel (76/11) at pressure 110 Psi gave the maximum burning rate. From test results the empirical constant, `a' and pressure exponent `n' were calculated for each different propellant compositions.

  9. Numerical simulations in the development of propellant management devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Diana; Winkelmann, Yvonne; Dreyer, Michael

    Propellant management devices (PMDs) are used for positioning the propellant at the propel-lant port. It is important to provide propellant without gas bubbles. Gas bubbles can inflict cavitation and may lead to system failures in the worst case. Therefore, the reliable operation of such devices must be guaranteed. Testing these complex systems is a very intricate process. Furthermore, in most cases only tests with downscaled geometries are possible. Numerical sim-ulations are used here as an aid to optimize the tests and to predict certain results. Based on these simulations, parameters can be determined in advance and parts of the equipment can be adjusted in order to minimize the number of experiments. In return, the simulations are validated regarding the test results. Furthermore, if the accuracy of the numerical prediction is verified, then numerical simulations can be used for validating the scaling of the experiments. This presentation demonstrates some selected numerical simulations for the development of PMDs at ZARM.

  10. Development of a solvent processed insensitive propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trask, R.; Costa, E.; Beardell, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of low vulnerability propellants are studied which are distinguished by whether the binder is a rubber, such as polyurethane or CTBN, or a plasticizable polymer such as ethyl cellulose or cellulose acetate. The former propellants are made by a partial cure extrusion process while the latter are made by the conventional solvent process. Emphasis is given to a cellulose binder (plasticizer) RDX composition. The type of binder used, the particle size of the RDX and the presence of small quantities of nitrocellulose in the solvent processed compositions have important influences on the mechanical and combustion characteristics of the propellant. The low temperature combustion is of particular concern because of potential breakup of the grains that can lead to instability.

  11. Development of a solid propellant viscoelastic dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufferd, W. L.; Fitzgerald, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study to develop a dynamic response model for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant are presented. An extensive literature survey was conducted, from which it was concluded that the only significant variables affecting the dynamic response of the SRM propellant are temperature and frequency. Based on this study, and experimental data on propellants related to the SRM propellant, a dynamic constitutive model was developed in the form of a simple power law with temperature incorporated in the form of a modified power law. A computer program was generated which performs a least-squares curve-fit of laboratory data to determine the model parameters and it calculates dynamic moduli at any desired temperature and frequency. Additional studies investigated dynamic scaling laws and the extent of coupling between the SRM propellant and motor cases. It was found, in agreement with other investigations, that the propellant provides all of the mass and damping characteristics whereas the case provides all of the stiffness.

  12. Recent Developments in Chemically Reactive Sensors for Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D.; Mast, Dion J.; Baker, David L.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Propellant system leaks can pose a significant hazard in aerospace operations. For example, a leak in the hydrazine supply system of the shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) has resulted in hydrazine ignition and fire in the aft compartment of the shuttle. Sensors indicating the location of a leak could provide valuable information required for operational decisions. WSTF has developed a small, single-use sensor for detection of propellant leaks. The sensor is composed of a thermistor bead coated with a substance which is chemically reactive with the propellant. The reactive thermistor is one of a pair of closely located thermistors, the other being a reference. On exposure to the propellant, the reactive coating responds exothermically to it and increases the temperature of the coated-thermistor by several degrees. The temperature rise is sensed by a resistive bridge circuit, and an alarm is registered by data acquisition software. The concept is general and has been applied to sensors for hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, unsym-dimethylhydrazine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, and dinitrogen tetroxide. Responses of these sensors to humidity, propellant concentration, distance from the liquid leak, and ambient pressure levels arc presented. A multi-use sensor has also been developed for hydrazine based on its catalytic reactivity with noble metals.

  13. How Mathematics Propels the Development of Physical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Martin, Taylor; Pfaffman, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Three studies examined whether mathematics can propel the development of physical understanding. In Experiment 1, 10-year-olds solved balance scale problems that used easy-to-count discrete quantities or hard-to-count continuous quantities. Discrete quantities led to age typical performances. Continuous quantities caused performances like those of…

  14. JANNAF 30th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Meeting. Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. L. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 30th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee Meeting, held on 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The papers presented herein reflect work performed in the areas of green energetic materials (GEM) development; liquid and gel propellant development; propellant surveillance and aging; and propellant chemistry test methods.

  15. Microreactor Development for Martian In-Situ Propellant Production

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Hu, Jianli; Sanders, J.; Baird, S.

    2007-01-30

    The second part of the Martian In-situ Propellant Production (MIPPS) system reviews the development of the Sabatier Reactor (SR). The microchannel SR had integrated cooling channels as well as reaction channels. It was <100cc in volume. The reactor utilized a proprietary catalyst. When operated at 400oC 70-80% CO2 conversion was achieved which enabled ~0.0125 kg CH4/hr production, or 1/8th the target mission. The modular design of the microchannel reactors would enable simple scale up to full scale production for the proposed mission.

  16. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2005-09-01

    An in situ propellant production (ISPP) plant on future Mars robotic missions can produce oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) that can be used for propellant for the return voyage. By producing propellants from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) brought from Earth, the initial mass launched in low Earth orbit can be reduced by 20% to 45%, as compared to carrying all of the propellant for a round-trip mission to the Mars surface from Earth. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used microchannel architecture to develop a Mars-based In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system. This three year research and development effort focused on process intensification and system miniaturization of three primary subsystems: a thermochemical compressor, catalytic reactors, and components for separating gas phases from liquid phases. These systems were designed based on a robotic direct return mission scenario, but can be scaled up to human flight missions by simply numbering up the microchannel devices. The thermochemical compression was developed both using absorption and adsorption. A multichannel adsorption system was designed to meet the full-scale CO2 collection requirements using temperature swing adsorption. Each stage is designed to achieve a 10x compression of CO2. A compression ratio to collect Martian atmospheric CO2 at ~0.8 kPa and compress it to at least 100 kPa can be achieved with two adsorption stages in series. A compressor stage incorporates eight thermally coupled adsorption cells at various stages in the adsorption/desorption cycle to maximize the recuperation of thermal energy and provide a nearly continuous flow of CO2 to the downstream reactors. The thermochemically compressed CO2 is then mixed with hydrogen gas and fed to two reactors: a Sabatier Reaction unit and a Reverse Water/Gas Shift unit. The microchannel architecture allows better heat control than is possible in an adiabatic system, resulting in significantly higher conversion. The

  17. Development of a short pulsed solid propellant plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guman, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The experimental results are summarized that were obtained in the development of a Teflon solid propellant pulsed plasma thruster. The feasibility was established of storing and feeding solid propellant in the form of an open circular loop into an operational thruster. This technique was verified to be practical by feeding over 20 inches of Teflon into a micro-thruster over an accumulated life test of 1858 hours. High energy density capacitors were evaluated under vacuum conditions when the capacitor is coupled directly to a plasma thruster. Numerous early capacitor failures were encountered. It was concluded that essentially all of the failures encountered in a vacuum environment are due to an internal electrical breakdown that will occur inside a capacitor that is not truly hermetically sealed. A steady input power significantly in excess of 130 watts can safely be tolerated if heat conduction can be provided to a sink whose temperature is about 16 C. A vacuum life test of the capacitor bank was carried out while discharging into a milli-lb. (milli-Newton) type pulsed plasma thruster. More than 1500 hours of vacuum testing of this milli-Newton type system has been accumulated without any capacitor problems. Recommendations are made for future capacitor designs.

  18. Development of HAN-based Liquid Propellant Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatsune, K.; Izumi, J.; Tsutaya, H.; Furukawa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Many of propellants that are applied to the conventional spacecraft propulsion system are toxic propellants. Because of its toxicity, considering the environmental pollution or safety on handling, it will be necessary to apply the "green" propellant to the spacecraft propulsion system. The purpose of this study is to apply HAN based liquid propellant (LP1846) to mono propellant thruster. Compared to the hydrazine that is used in conventional mono propellant thruster, HAN based propellant is not only lower toxic but also can obtain higher specific impulse. Moreover, HAN based propellant can be decomposed by the catalyst. It means there are the possibility of applying to the mono propellant thruster that can leads to the high reliability of the propulsion system.[1],[2] However, there are two technical subjects, to apply HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster. One is the high combustion temperature. The catalyst will be damaged under high temperature condition. The other is the low catalytic activity. It is the serious problem on application of HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster that is used for attitude control of spacecraft. To improve the catalytic activity of HAN based propellant, it is necessary to screen the best catalyst for HAN based propellant. The adsorption analysis is conducted by Monte Carlo Simulation to screen the catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. The result of analysis shows the Iridium is the best catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. Iridium is the catalyst metal that is used at conventional mono propellant thruster catalyst Shell405. Then, to confirm the result of analysis, the reaction test about catalyst is conducted. The result of this test is the same as the result of adsorption analysis. That means the adsorption analysis is effective in screening the catalyst metal. At the evaluating test, the various types of carrier of catalyst are also compared to Shell 405 to improve catalytic activity. The test result shows the

  19. Development of composite solid propellent using dicyclopentadien binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestone, Stephen Ray

    Through the history of composite solid propellant binders new chemicals are introduced as binders to improve upon the previous generation. Sometimes this is done to improve upon the flaws or shortcomings of a previous binder. Other time it is to meet a new set of requirements desired by industry. Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is a hydrocarbon monomer being considered for its potential as a new binder in the composite propellant industry. The binder of a composite solid propellant is arguably the most important feature of the propellant. It is the binder that provides the majority of the structural characteristics of the propellant while also contributing itself as fuel to the combustion process. A binder in composite propellants must also be able to accept the introduction of a large quantity of solid filler; oxidizer, fuel, and other energetic and non-energetic particles. Many of the composite propellants used in industry today have over 80% of their weight composed of non-binder solid or liquid fillers. These requirements must be met by the binder in some form or fashion to produce a propellant able to compete with binders currently in use. When DCPD is polymerized it produces an extremely tough plastic with excellent tensile and impact strength. Experimentation has found that DCPD is able to support a large quantity of solid materials, over 80% weight of the mixture, while still retaining a great portion of its original strength. When compared to another similarly loaded binder currently used in industry, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), it was found that DCPD composite propellant had nearly 1.5 times the stress capacity while still exhibiting over 75% of the strain capacity of HTPB based composite propellant. In addition it was also shown that DCPD composite propellant allows for tailoring of its mechanical properties with the addition of plasticizers. The DCPD based composite propellant also exhibits a burning rate nearly twice that HTPB. These factors

  20. Bismuth Propellant Feed System Development at NASA-MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA-MSFC has been developing liquid metal propellant feed systems capable of delivering molten bismuth at a prescribed mass flow rate to the vaporizer of an electric thruster. The first such system was delivered to NASA-JPL as part of the Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer (VHITAL) program. In this system, the components pictured were placed in a vacuum chamber and heated while the control electronics were located outside the chamber. The system was successfully operated at JPL in conjunction with a propellant vaporizer, and data was obtained demonstrating a new liquid bismuth flow sensing technique developed at MSFC. The present effort is aimed at producing a feed-system for use in conjunction with a bismuth-fed Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Developing this system is more ambitious, however, in that it is designed to self-contain all the control electronics inside the same vacuum chamber as an operating bismuth-fed thruster. Consequently, the entire system, including an on-board computer, DC-output power supplies, and a gas-pressurization electro-pneumatic regulator, must be designed to survive a vacuum environment and shielded to keep bismuth plasma from intruding on the electronics and causing a shortcircuit. In addition, the hot portions of the feed system must be thermally isolated from the electronics to avoid failure due to high heat loads. This is accomplished using a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of multiple layers of aluminum foil. The only penetrations into the vacuum chamber are an electrically isolated (floating) 48 VDC line and a fiberoptic line. The 48 VDC provides power for operation of the power supplies and electronics co-located with the system in the vacuum chamber. The fiberoptic Ethernet connection is used to communicate user-input control commands to the on-board computer and transmit real-time data back to the external computer. The partially assembled second-generation system is shown. Before testing at Busek, a

  1. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or approximately 1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comparable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an

  2. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (<7000 kPa or ˜1000 psi). A one hour prototype ECU was developed and tested to prove the feasibility of this concept. This was upgraded by the design of a larger supercritical dewar capable of holding 7 Kg of air, a supply which provides a 2 hour duration to the PHE. A third version is being developed to test the feasibility of replacing existing air cooling methodology with a liquid cooled garment for relief of heat stress in this warm Florida environment. Testing of the first one hour prototype yielded data comprobable to the liquid air powered predecessor, but enjoyed advantages of attitude independence and oxygen level stability. Thermal data revealed heat stress relief at least as good as liquid air supplied units. The application of supercritical air technology to this whole body protective ensemble marked an advancement in

  3. Development Activities on an Advanced Propellant Flow Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noci, G.; Siciliano, P.; Fallerini, L.; Kutufa, N.; Rivetti, A.; Galassi, C.; Bruschi, P.; Piotto, M.

    2004-10-01

    A new generation of propellant control equipment for electric propulsion systems is needed in order to improve performance and operating ranges, symplify h/w configuration, reduce mass and dimensions, eliminate mass flow ripple, reduce time response. In this frame, the development of key components, their assembly and experimental investigation/ validation is on-going at Alenia Spazio-Laben/Business Unit Proel Tecnologie ( Proel in the following ) in the frame of an ESA GSTP program. The new components shall support different EP technologies, future EP multi-tasking capability and wide operating ranges. This paper reports about the development effort, its achievements and perspectives. 1. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BOL Beginning of Life CMBR Ceramic multilayer bender ring CTA Constant Temperature Anemometry. DUT Device under test EOL End of Life EP Electric Propulsion GEO Geosyncrhonous Earth Orbit GFCU Gas Flow Control Unit GIT Gridded ion thruster HET Hall Effect Thrusters LEO Low Earth Orbit LPC Low pressure capillary MEOP Maximum Expected Operating Pressure MFS Mass Flow rate Sensor NSSK North-South Station Keeping Pred Reduced pressure Ptank Tank pressure RMT Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster RMTA Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster Assembly ROOV Regulation and On-Off Valve SoW Statement of Work SPT Stationary Plasma Thruster.

  4. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; Hu, Jianli; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Simon, Tom; Romig, Kris A.; Howard, Candice L.

    2006-04-12

    A microchannel-based system is being developed for NASA to produce propellants from atmospheric CO2 on Mars. This system will provide a means of reducing the earth-based launch mass for both sample return and human exploration missions. The atmospheric CO2 will be collected, separated, and compressed with a microchannel thermal swing adsorption system. It will be reacted with hydrogen that has either been electrolyzed from the available subsurface water or brought from earth. Methane and water will be produced by using microchannel Reverse Water Gas Shift and Sabatier reactors. The water will then separated with a microchannel condenser/phase separator and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Feed gases will be separated from the products and recycled. The system design requirements will be presented in this paper. The design and fabrication methods of the microchannel CO2 sorption pump, reactors, and phase separators will be described, and the advantages of microchannel architecture will be delineated for each component. Estimates of system mass and volume will also be provided in comparison to conventional hardware. The testing and integration proposed during this project to meet NASA's Technology Readiness Level 5 will also be presented.

  5. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  6. The ways for development of environmentally safe solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, D. B.; Manelis, G. B.; Nechiporenko, G. N.

    2009-09-01

    The paper considers a wide set of issues concerning the creation of high energetic solid composite propellants causing the minimal polluting effect on the environment. Thereby, the level of toxicity of products of different compositions is discussed and propellants with perchlorates oxidizers are compared with propellants with halogen free oxidizers (mainly, ammonium dinitramide, HMX, CL-20). The main methods for creating compositions having a required performance and the highest energetic characteristics are also under discussion. The dependences of the specific impulse on the mode of formulation arrangement and on the compounds' properties (i.e., formation enthalpy, density, element content) are demonstrated. The main principles for the maximal use of energetic potential of chemical substances are under consideration. These are the proper selection of the binder type which would be optimal for the given mixture of oxidizer with fuel (or energetic) component and the opportunity of using metals and their hydrides (mainly, aluminum hydride (AH)). Main obstacles in using different kinds of compositions, as well as advantages of specific propellants are under consideration as well. A special attention is paid to the interrelationship between the energetic parameter and other performances (thermal stability, combustion law, sensitivity, and compatibility).

  7. Development of a solid propellant microthruster with chamber and nozzle etched on a wafer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K. L.; Chou, S. K.; Ang, Simon S.

    2004-06-01

    The development of a novel solid propellant microthruster is presented. The solid propellant microthruster is an excellent micropropulsion system for high-accuracy station keeping, attitude control, speed adjustment, gravitation compensation and orbit adjustment of microspacecraft. The design and fabrication using microfabrication technologies for the microthruster are demonstrated. Moreover, the experiments for microcombustion and thrust testing are described in detail. Initial tests, using gunpowder and potassium perchlorate as the main components of the solid propellant, have produced 9.11 × 10-5-1.52 × 10-4 N sdot s of total impulse at sea level.

  8. Development of a novel hydroxyl ammonium nitrate based liquid propellant for air-independent propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Joseph Henry

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) liquid propellant employing Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN) as the oxidizer. Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate is a highly acidic aqueous based liquid oxidizer. Therefore, in order to achieve efficient combustion of a propellant using this oxidizer, the fuel must be highly water soluble and compatible with the oxidizer to prevent a premature ignition prior to being heated within the combustion chamber. An extensive search of the fuel to be used with this oxidizer was conducted. Propylene glycol was chosen as the fuel for this propellant, and the propellant given the name RF-402. The propellant development process will first evaluate the propellants thermal stability and kinetic parameters using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The purpose of the thermal stability analysis is to determine the temperature at which the propellant decomposition begins for the future safe handling of the propellant and the optimization of the combustion chamber. Additionally, the thermogram results will provide information regarding any undesirable endotherms prior to the decomposition and whether or not the decomposition process is a multi-step process. The Arrhenius type kinetic parameters will be determined using the ASTM method for thermally unstable materials. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the propellant will be determined by evaluating the decomposition peak temperature over a temperature scan rate ranging from 1°C per minute to 10°C per minute. The kinetic parameters of the propellant will be compared to those of 81 wt% HAN to determine if the HAN decomposition is controlling the overall decomposition of the propellant RF-402. The lifetime of individual droplets will be analyzed using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical technique will involve modeling the lifetime of an individual droplet in a combustion chamber like operating environment

  9. Development of a miniature solid propellant rocket motor for use in plume simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baran, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A miniature solid propellant rocket motor has been developed to be used in a program to determine those parameters which must be duplicated in a cold gas flow to produce aerodynamic effects on an experimental model similar to those produced by hot, particle-laden exhaust plumes. Phenomena encountered during the testing of the miniature solid propellant motors included erosive propellant burning caused by high flow velocities parallel to the propellant surface, regressive propellant burning as a result of exposed propellant edges, the deposition of aluminum oxide on the nozzle surfaces sufficient to cause aerodynamic nozzle throat geometry changes, and thermal erosion of the nozzle throat at high chamber pressures. A series of tests was conducted to establish the stability of the rocket chamber pressure and the repeatibility of test conditions. Data are presented which define the tests selected to represent the final test matrix. Qualitative observations are also presented concerning the phenomena experienced based on the results of a large number or rocket tests not directly applicable to the final test matrix.

  10. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program Development and Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Christopher H.; Deininger, William D.; Joniatis, John; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Spores, Ronald A.; Deans, Matthew; Yim, John T.; Bury, Kristen; Martinez, Jonathan; Cardiff, Eric H.; Bacha, Caitlin E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) is comprised of a cross-cutting team of domestic spacecraft propulsion and storable green propellant technology experts. This TDM is led by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), who will use their BCP- 100 spacecraft to carry a propulsion system payload consisting of one 22 N thruster for primary divert (DeltaV) maneuvers and four 1 N thrusters for attitude control, in a flight demonstration of the AF-M315E technology. The GPIM project has technology infusion team members from all three major market sectors: Industry, NASA, and the Department of Defense (DoD). The GPIM project team includes BATC, includes Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR), Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Edwards AFB (AFRL), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). STMD programmatic and technology oversight is provided by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The GPIM project shall fly an operational AF-M315E green propulsion subsystem on a Ball-built BCP-100 spacecraft.

  11. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  12. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of the development and characteristics of thermal shock resistant hafnia ceramic material for use in solid propellant rocket nozzles are presented. The investigation of thermal shock resistance factors for hafnia based composites, and the preparation and analysis of a model of elastic materials containing more than one crack are reported.

  13. Design and development of a passive propellant management system. [for hydrazine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regnier, W. W.; Hess, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the passive propellant management system program being conducted for the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of this program are to design and develop a hydrazine propellant acquisition system which will acquire propellant in low- or zero-g environments and also retain this propellant under high axially directed accelerations that may be experienced during launch and orbit-to-orbit transfer. The system design requirements were established to satisfy requirements for a large number of potential NASA and military applications, such as orbit-to-orbit shuttles and satellite vehicles. The resulting concept is a multicompartmented tank with independent surface-tension acquisition channels in each compartment. The tank is designed to provide greater than 98% expulsion efficiency when subjected to the simultaneous requirements of acceleration, vibration, and outflow usage. The system design has the unique capability to demonstrate low-g performance in a one-g test environment, and the test program has been structured around this capability.

  14. Simulated Propellant Loading System: Testbed for cryogenic component and control systems research & development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro Medina, J.; Sass, J.; Youney, J.; Schmitz, W.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies in the fields of cryogenic components and control systems are constantly evolving to advance the state of current cryogenic operations that will support future space exploration missions. To meet new demanding requirements, these missions will increasingly rely upon research and development in energy-efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space. The capability to test these technologies is sometimes limited to isolated subsystems with a narrow application spectrum. The initiative to develop the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) is to provide an integrated multipurpose generic testbed to allow dedicated test and evaluation of new technologies in a field environment on a scale that is relevant to launch facility propellant systems. The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center has more than two years of operational experience of using the SPLS to support independent and integrated technology maturation. This paper presents the development of a highly repeatable automated cold flow test sequence that was used in the evaluation and advancement of autonomous control system technologies. A range of other recent applications and capabilities of the SPLS will also be presented in this paper.

  15. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (< 100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum

  16. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  17. Propellant Mass Gauging: Database of Vehicle Applications and Research and Development Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.

    2008-01-01

    Gauging the mass of propellants in a tank in low gravity is not a straightforward task because of the uncertainty of the liquid configuration in the tank and the possibility of there being more than one ullage bubble. Several concepts for such a low-gravity gauging system have been proposed, and breadboard or flight-like versions have been tested in normal gravity or even in low gravity, but at present, a flight-proven reliable gauging system is not available. NASA desired a database of the gauging techniques used in current and past vehicles during ascent or under settled conditions, and during short coasting (unpowered) periods, for both cryogenic and storable propellants. Past and current research and development efforts on gauging systems that are believed to be applicable in low-gravity conditions were also desired. This report documents the results of that survey.

  18. CFD analysis of cloud cavitation on three tip-modified propellers with systematically varied tip geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, K. W.; Andersen, P.

    2015-12-01

    The blade tip loading is often reduced as an effort to restrain sheet and tip vortex cavitation in the design of marine propellers. This CFD analysis demonstrates that an excessive reduction of the tip loading can cause cloud cavitation responsible for much of noise and surface erosion. Detached eddy simulations (DES) are made for cavitating flows on three tip- modified propellers, of which one is a reference propeller having an experimental result from a cavitation tunnel test with a hull model, and the other two are modified from the reference propeller by altering the blade tip loading. DES results have been validated against the experiment in terms of sheet and cloud cavitation. In DES, non-uniform hull wake is modelled by using the inlet flow and momentum sources instead of including a hull model. A 4-bladed Kappel propeller with a smooth tip bending towards the suction side is used as the reference propeller. For the reference propeller, sheet cavitation extends over a whole chord length in the hull wake peak. As the blade gets out of the wake peak, the rear part of sheet cavity is detached in a form of cloud cavitation. For the reference propeller, the tip pitch reduction from the maximum is about 35%. When decreasing the tip pitch reduction to 10%, tip vortex cavitation is formed and cloud cavitation is significantly weakened. When increasing the tip pitch reduction to 60%, sheet cavitation slightly moves to inner radii and cloud cavitation grows larger.

  19. Design and Development of a Two-Axis Thruster Gimbal with Xenon Propellant Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asadurian, Armond

    2010-01-01

    A Two-Axis Thruster Gimbal was developed for a two degree-of-freedom tip-tilt gimbal application. This light weight gimbal mechanism is equipped with flexible xenon propellant lines and features numerous thermal control features for all its critical components. Unique thermal profiles and operating environments have been the key design drivers for this mechanism which is fully tolerant of extreme space environmental conditions. Providing thermal controls that are compatible with flexible components and are also capable of surviving launch vibration within this gimbal mechanism has proven to be especially demanding, requiring creativity and significant development effort. Some of these features, design drivers, and lessons learned will be examined herein.

  20. Thermal Structures Technology Development for Reusable Launch Vehicle Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Natividad, Roderick; Rivers, H. Kevin; Smith, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at the NASA, Langley Research Center (LaRC) for investigating integrated cryogenic propellant tank systems for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) are described. The cryogenic tanks are investigated as an integrated tank system. An integrated tank system includes the tank wall, cryogenic insulation, thermal protection system (TPS) attachment sub-structure, and TPS. Analysis codes are used to size the thicknesses of cryogenic insulation and TPS insulation for thermal loads, and to predict tank buckling strengths at various ring frame spacings. The unique test facilities developed for the testing of cryogenic tank components are described. Testing at cryogenic and high-temperatures verifies the integrity of materials, design concepts, manufacturing processes, and thermal/structural analyses. Test specimens ranging from the element level to the subcomponent level are subjected to projected vehicle operational mechanical loads and temperatures. The analytical and experimental studies described in this paper provide a portion of the basic information required for the development of light-weight reusable cryogenic propellant tanks.

  1. Thermal Structures Technology Development for Reusable Launch Vehicle Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Natividad, Roderick; Rivers, H. Kevin; Smith, Russell

    1998-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center for investigating integrated cryogenic propellant tank systems for a Reusable Launch Vehicle are described. The cryogenic tanks are investigated as an integrated tank system. An integrated tank system includes the tank wall, cryogenic insulation, Thermal Protection System (TPS) attachment sub-structure, and TPS. Analysis codes are used to size the thicknesses of cryogenic insulation and TPS insulation for thermal loads, and to predict tank buckling strengths at various ring frame spacings. The unique test facilities developed for the testing of cryogenic tank components are described. Testing at cryogenic and high-temperatures verifies the integrity of materials, design concepts, manufacturing processes, and thermal/structural analyses. Test specimens ranging from the element level to the subcomponent level are subjected to projected vehicle operational mechanical loads and temperatures. The analytical and experimental studies described in this paper provide a portion of the basic information required for the development of light-weight reusable cryogenic propellant tanks.

  2. Return of the propeller

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Resurrecting the propeller-driven airplane could help save fuel if there is another oil crisis like in the 1970s. This article discusses the new propeller engine, propfans, which are being developed for commercial airplanes. It discusses the three types of propfan engines and the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also tells about the propfan airplanes several companies are developing.

  3. Development of a computerized analysis for solid propellant combustion instability with turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Park, O. Y.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-dimensional numerical model has been developed for the unsteady state oscillatory combustion of solid propellants subject to acoustic pressure disturbances. Including the gas phase unsteady effects, the assumption of uniform pressure across the flame zone, which has been conventionally used, is relaxed so that a higher frequency response in the long flame of a double-base propellant can be calculated. The formulation is based on a premixed, laminar flame with a one-step overall chemical reaction and the Arrhenius law of decomposition with no condensed phase reaction. In a given geometry, the Galerkin finite element solution shows the strong resonance and damping effect at the lower frequencies, similar to the result of Denison and Baum. Extended studies deal with the higher frequency region where the pressure varies in the flame thickness. The nonlinear system behavior is investigated by carrying out the second order expansion in wave amplitude when the acoustic pressure oscillations are finite in amplitude. Offset in the burning rate shows a negative sign in the whole frequency region considered, and it verifies the experimental results of Price. Finally, the velocity coupling in the two-dimensional model is discussed.

  4. Development of a small vortex shedding flow meter for hypergolic propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E. C.; Restrepo, J. A.

    A vortex shedding flow meter was developed to measure flow rates of hypergolic propellants with no moving parts. The inside diameter of the flow meter (0.41 in.) was smaller than any present commercially availabe meter. Experiments were run to determine the best shape and size of the shedder bar and the best position of the pressure sensor relative to the shedder bar. Problems encountered and overcome in the development of the flow meter were described. The volume flow rate through the meter was linear, with vortex-shedding frequency to within 1 percent of the full scale reading (15 gallons/min. The pressure drop through the meter at full scale was 12.6 psi. Static pressure requirements to prevent cavitation were also discussed.

  5. Development of the MC3462A pyrotechnic - propellant actuated reefing line cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    A pyrotechnic-propellant actuated reefing line cutter was developed to sever a 60 kN loaded Kevlar parachute reefing line cord. Dereefing occurs after a time interval of approximately 0.875 second which is provided by an electronic timer module that is an integral part of the cutter. Other design features include a hermetically sealed actuator which is threaded and O-ring sealed into the body, a stainless steel solid cylindrical cutter blade having an attached elastomer obturator that provides a reliable dynamic gas seal throughout the blade stroke and teflon inserts having a semi-circular configuration which are used to center and shroud the reefing line of the design. Variation in the average function time for the cutter is less than 4% at temperature extremes of -55/sup 0/C and 80/sup 0/C. Average depth of penetration of the blade into the aluminum anvil of the cutter is 2 mm.

  6. Technology Development for Hydrogen Propellant Storage and Transfer at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Krenn, Angela; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a major user of liquid hydrogen. In particular, NASA's John F. Kennedy (KSC) Space Center has operated facilities for handling and storing very large quantities of liquid hydrogen (LH2) since the early 1960s. Safe operations pose unique challenges and as a result NASA has invested in technology development to improve operational efficiency and safety. This paper reviews recent innovations including methods of leak and fire detection and aspects of large storage tank health and integrity. We also discuss the use of liquid hydrogen in space and issues we are addressing to ensure safe and efficient operations should hydrogen be used as a propellant derived from in-situ volatiles.

  7. Developments in low-gravity cryogenic propellant acquisition and thermal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development programs are described for two low-gravity cryogenic propellant acquisition systems: a full-screen liner system, and a refillable start-tank. First, based on experimental LH2 screen flow data, the fluid-dynamic characteristics of an integrated screen/thermodynamic vent system were analyzed for a design compared to 17.5 cu fg supercritical life-support systems, and for a Tug orbital LH2/LQ2 resupply system. Second, the analysis, design, fabrication, and test of a 10 cu ft, annular-screen start-tank with a wall-mounted thermodynamic vent was performed. The test program demonstrated that the system expelled LH2 against 1-g and performed properly over a range of conditions.

  8. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  9. Development and Testing of a Green-Propellant Micro-Hybrid Thruster with Electrostatic Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Judson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As early as 1937 German scientists at Peenemunde experimented with highly unstable fuel blends of nitrous oxide (N2O) and ethanol. These early tests mostly resulted in explosions and destroyed rocket engines. More recently several companies have developed experimental nitrous oxide fuel blends (NOFB) with Isp exceeding 300 sec. Although NOFBx has recently been cleared for tests on the International Space Station, this propellant remains highly experimental and has not been cleared for commercial transport by the US DOT. Recent work by Karabeyoglu et al. has raised concerns about the safety risks of mixing hydrocarbons with N2O. Liquid oxidizer/fuel blends are highly explosive and require extreme care in transport and servicing. By adding small amounts of a liquid organic fuel such as alcohol or a hydrocarbon, the odds of an explosive decomposition event are significantly increased.iv The proposed solution mitigates the explosion hazards of NOFB by separating the oxidizer from the hydrocarbon fuel formed as of a small cylindrical section of ABS thermoplastic. As N2O vapor flows across the grain segment, current enters a 1000 VDC high-tension lead in the ABS fuel grain and produces an inductive spark that vaporizes a small amount of the material. The ablated fuel vapor plus residual energy from the spark seed a localized exothermic N2O dissociation that produces sufficient heat to initiate combustion. The process is also effective when gaseous oxygen is used. A low TRL (2-3) prototype demonstrating the feasibility of controlled hydrocarbon-seeding was recently tested at Utah State University.v The unit features a miniature 2.5 cm ABS fuel grain fabricated using a Stratasys Dimension 3-D printer. The 9-N thruster was pulse-fired up to 27 consecutive times on a single ABS grain segment. Ignition was achieved by as little as 12-15 Joules energy input. This value is contrasted with the typical 30-minute pre-heat requirement for the ECAPS LMP-103S ADN-based monopropellant

  10. Results of an Advanced Development Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David

    2004-01-01

    A zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage concept was recently tested in a thermally relevant low-earth orbit environment, an important development in the effort to apply this concept to flight projects. Previous efforts documented the benefits of ZBO for launch vehicle upper stages in a low-earth orbit (LEO). Central to that analysis is a ZBO Cryogenic Analysis Tool that estimates the performance of each component and the ZBO system. This test is essential to the validation of that tool, and was the first flight representative configuration tested in a thermally representative environment. The test article was comprised of a spherical 1.4 m diameter insulated propellant tank, with a submerged mixer, a cryogenic heat pipe, flight design cryocooler, and a radiator. All were enclosed in a thermal shroud and inserted into and tested in a vacuum chamber that simulated an LEO thermal environment. Thermal and pressure control tests were performed at sub-critical LN2 temperatures and approximately 2 atmospheres pressure. The cold side of the ZBO system performed well. In particular, the heat pipe performed better than expected, which suggests that the cryocooler could be located further from the tank than anticipated, i.e. on a spacecraft bus, while maintaining the desired efficiency. Also, the mixer added less heat than expected. The tank heating rate through the insulation was higher than expected; also the temperatures on the cryocooler hot side were higher than planned. This precluded the cryocooler from eliminating the boil-off. The results show the cryocooler was successful at removing 6.8 W of heat at approximately 75 K and 150 W of input power, with a heat rejection temperature of 311 K. The data generated on the ZBO components is essential for the upgrade of the ZBO Cryogenic Analysis Tool to more accurately apply the concept to future missions.

  11. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  12. Application of theory to propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. G.; Morgan, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various theories concerning propeller design are discussed. The use of digital computers to obtain specific blade shapes to meet appropriate flow conditions is emphasized. The development of lifting-line and lifting surface configurations is analyzed. Ship propulsive performance and basic propeller design considerations are investigated. The characteristics of supercavitating propellers are compared with those of subcavitating propellers.

  13. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model is derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. A computer program is developed to solve the time-dependent equations, and is applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. In the case of nitramine propellants the cratering of the burning surface associated with combustion above break-point pressures augments the effective burning rate as deduced from the closed vessel experiment. Low pressure combustion is significantly affected by the ignition process and, in the case of nitramine propellants, by the developing and changing surface structure. Thus, burning rates deduced from the closed vessel experiment may or may not agree with those measured in the equilibrium strand burner. Series of T burner experiments are performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP)propellants. Although ash produced by more fuel rich propellants could have provided mechanical suppression, results from clean-burning propellants permit the conclusion that HMX reduces the acoustic driving.

  14. Development of a Two-Stage Mars Ascent Vehicle Using In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Laurel; Vaughan, David

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) and Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) present two main challenges for the advancement of Mars science. MSR would demonstrate Mars lift-off capability, while ISRU would test the ability to produce fuel and oxidizer using Martian resources, a crucial step for future human missions. A two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) concept was developed to support sample return as well as in-situ propellant production. The MAV would be powered by a solid rocket first stage and a LOX-propane second stage. A liquid second-stage provides higher orbit insertion reliability than a solid second stage as well as a degree of complexity eventually required for manned missions. Propane in particular offers comparable performance to methane without requiring cryogenic storage. The total MAV mass would be 119.9 kg to carry an 11 kg payload to orbit. The feasibility of in-situ fuel and oxidizer production was also examined. Two potential schemes were evaluated for production capability, size and power requirements. The schemes examined utilize CO2 and water as starting blocks to produce LOX and a propane blend. The infrastructure required to fuel and launch the MAV was also explored.

  15. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model was derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. The model incorporates the nitramine combustion mechanisms. A computer program was developed to solve the time dependent equations, and was applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. It is found that the rate of pressurization in the closed vessel is insufficient at pressures of interest to augment the burning rate by time dependent processes. Series of T-burner experiments were performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellants. It is found that the inclusion of HMX consistently renders the propellant more stable.

  16. Numerical simulation of shrouded propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for the evaluation of the performance characteristics of a shrouded propeller. Using this model, a computational study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of a propeller by encasing it in a shroud. The propeller blade was modeled by a segmented bound vortex positioned along the span of the blade at its quarter-chord-line. The shroud was modeled by a number of discrete vortex rings. Due to the mutual dependence of shroud and propeller vortex strengths and the propeller vortex wake an iterative scheme was employed. Three shroud configurations were considered: a cylindrical and two conical shrouds. The computed performance of the shrouded propeller was compared with that of a free propeller of identical propeller geometry. The numerical results indicated that the cylindrical shroud outperformed the conical shroud configurations for the cases considered. Furthermore, when compared to the free propeller performance, the cylindrical shroud showed a considerable performance enhancement over the free propeller. However, the improvements were found to decrease with an increase in the advance ratio and to virtually diminish at advance ratios of about 2.5.

  17. Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

    2002-01-01

    conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team

  18. Performance optimization of marine propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Sup; Choi, Young-Dal; Ahn, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Myoung-Sup; Jang, Hyun-Gil

    2010-12-01

    Recently a Wide Chord Tip (WCT) propeller has been developed and applied to a commercial ship by STX Offshore & Shipbuilding. It is reported that the WCT propeller significantly reduces pressure fluctuations and also ship's noise and vibration. On the sea trial, vibration magnitude in the accommodations at NCR was measured at 0.9mm/sec which is only 10% of international allowable magnitude of vibration (9mm/sec). In this paper, a design method for increasing performance of the marine propellers including the WCT propeller is suggested. It is described to maximize the performance of the propeller by adjusting expanded areas of the propeller blade. Results show that efficiency can be increased up to over 2% through the suggested design method.

  19. Development of hybrid method for the prediction of underwater propeller noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Hanshin; Suh, Jung-Chun; Lee, Soogab

    2005-11-01

    Noise reduction and control is an important problem in the performance of underwater acoustic systems and in the habitability of the passenger ship for crew and passenger. Furthermore, sound generated by a propeller is critical in underwater detection and it is often related to the survivability of the vessel especially for military purpose. This paper presents a numerical study on the non-cavitating and blade sheet cavitation noises of the underwater propeller. A brief summary of numerical method with verification and results are presented. The noise is predicted using time-domain acoustic analogy. The flow field is analyzed with potential-based panel method, and then the time-dependent pressure and sheet cavity volume data are used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the far-field acoustics. Noise characteristics are presented according to noise sources and conditions. Through this study, the dominant noise source of the underwater propeller is analyzed, which will provide a basis for proper noise control strategies.

  20. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  1. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  2. Space shuttle seal material and design development for earth storable propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a program to investigate and characterize seal materials suitable for space shuttle storable propellant systems are given. Two new elastomeric materials were identified as being potentially superior to existing state-of-the art materials for specific sealing applications. These materials were AF-E-124D and AF-E-411. AF-E-124D is a cured perfluorinated polymer suitable for use with dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizer, and hydrazine base fuels. AF-E-411 is an ethylene propylene terpolymer material for hydrazine base fuel service. Data are presented relative to low and high temperature characteristics as well as propellant exposure effects. Types of data included are: mechanical properties, stress strain curves, friction and wear characteristics, compression set and permeability. Sealing tests with a flat poppet-seal valve were conducted for verification of sealing capability. A bibliography includes over 200 references relating to seal design or materials and presents a concise tabulation of the more useful seal design data sources.

  3. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  4. Environmentally compatible solid rocket propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacox, James L.; Bradford, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Hercules' clean propellant development research is exploring three major types of clean propellant: (1) chloride-free formulations (no chlorine containing ingredients), being developed on the Clean Propellant Development and Demonstration (CPDD) contract sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) low HCl scavenged formulations (HCl-scavenger added to propellant oxidized with ammonium perchlorate (AP)); and (3) low HCl formulations oxidized with a combination of AN and AP (with or without an HCl scavenger) to provide a significant reduction (relative to current solid rocket boosters) in exhaust HCl. These propellants provide performance approaching that of current systems, with less than 2 percent HCl in the exhaust, a significant reduction (greater than or equal to 70 percent) in exhaust HCl levels. Excellent processing, safety, and mechanical properties were achieved using only readily available, low cost ingredients. Two formulations, a sodium nitrate (NaNO3) scavenged HTPB and a chloride-free hydroxy terminated polyether (HTPE) propellant, were characterized for ballistic, mechanical, and rheological properties. In addition, the hazards properties were demonstrated to provide two families of class 1.3, 'zero-card' propellants. Further characterization is planned which includes demonstration of ballistic tailorability in subscale (one to 70 pound) motors over the range of burn rates required for retrofit into current Hercules space booster designs (Titan 4 SRMU and Delta 2 GEM).

  5. Lunar/Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Technology: Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The mission strategy used in the ISPP Roadmap for human exploration in the 21st Century is still very preliminary, but covers human exploration of both the Moon and Mars. The mission strategy for lunar exploration begins with a simple, short term lunar surface stay in 2003. The first mission would last only a few days and consist primarily of existing technology; however, long duration landers and habitats, and nuclear transfer stages would be demonstrated on other missions. For missions to Mars, human exploration would begin with the launch of an unmanned habitat and return stage in 2009 to support the first human mission to Mars in 2011. The 2009 return lander would include an ISPP plant to produce the propellant needed for ascent from the Mars surface before the first human crew left Earth in 2011. Robotic orbiters and landers to help define the environment and surface conditions as well as perform engineering demonstrations of key technologies are also an integral part of these mission strategies.

  6. The Source of Propeller Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsthausen, W

    1937-01-01

    A two blade propeller of 40 cm diameter and zero pitch was explored for its noise development; it could be whirled up to 17,000 rpm - i.e., a tip speed of 355 meters/second. To obtain the power loss N(sub m) of the propeller for comparison with the produced acoustical power N(sub A) the engine performance characteristics were measured with and without propeller. The result is the sought-for relation c, that is, curve c' after correction with the engine efficiency.

  7. New Propellants and Cryofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  8. Development and Application of Tools to Characterize the Oxidative Degradation of AP/HTPB/Al Propellants in a Propellant Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celina, Mathew; Minier, Leanna; Assink, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative thermal aging of a crosslinked hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) polyurethane rubber was studied at temperatures between 25 C and 125 C. Changes in tensile elongation, mechanical hardening, polymer network properties, density, O2 permeation, and molecular chain dynamics were investigated as a function of age. The techniques used include solvent swelling, detailed modulus profiling, and NMR relaxation measurements. The Arrhenius methodology, which normally assumes a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data, is critically evaluated by using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption measurements. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of these oxidation rates is observed to be similar to previous results found for other rubber materials that have been evaluated by this technique. Preliminary gel/network properties suggest that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures. The effect on the oxidation rate of the binder when other constituents found in propellants are present, such as ammonium perchlorate, plasticizer and aluminum powder, is presented.

  9. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  10. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  11. The screw propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1980-07-01

    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  12. Lead-Free Propellant for Propellant Actuated Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's CAD/PAD Department has been working to remove toxic compounds from our products for about a decade. In 1992, we embarked on an effort to develop a lead-free double base propellant to replace that of a foreign sole source. At the time there were availability concerns. In 1995, the department developed a strategic proposal to include a wider range of products. Efforts included such efforts as removing lead sheathing from linear explosives and replacing lead azide and lead styphnate compounds. This paper will discuss efforts specifically related to developing non-leaded double base propellant for use in various Propellant Actuated Devices (PADs) for aircrew escape systems. The propellants can replace their leaded counterparts, mitigating lead handling, processing, or toxic exposure to the environment and personnel. This work eliminates the use of leaded compounds, replacing them with a more environmentally benign metal-organic salt. Historically double-base propellants have held an advantage over other families of energetic materials through their relative insensitivity of the burning rate to changes in temperature and pressure. This desirable ballistic effect has been obtained with the use of a lead-organic salt alone or in a physical mixture with a copper-organic salt, or more recently with a lead-copper complex. These ballistic modifiers are typically added to the double-base 'paste' prior to gelatinization on heated calendars or one type or another. The effect of constant burning rate over a pressure range is called a 'plateau' while an even more beneficial effect of decreasing burning rate with increasing pressure is termed a 'mesa.' The latter effect results in very low temperature sensitivity of the propellant burning rate. Propellants with such effects are ideal tactical rocket motor propellants. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and personnel safety due to the metal's toxic

  13. Electrochemical corrosion studies in low conductivity propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, G. D.; Moran, C. M.; Distefano, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is investigating the possibility of developing advanced electrochemical techniques as accelerated compatibility tests for metal/propellant systems which overcome the problems associated with the low conductivity of the liquid propellants (e.g., hydrazines, nitrogen tetroxide). Both DC techniques and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are being evaluated. Progress has been made in experiments involving stainless steel with hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants.

  14. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  15. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  16. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  17. Asbestos Free Insulation Development for the Space Shuttle Solid Propellant Rocket Motor (RSRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Larry D.; Eddy, Norman F.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Asbestos has been used for many years as an ablation inhibitor in insulating materials. It has been a constituent of the AS/NBR insulation used to protect the steel case of the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) since its inception. This paper discusses the development of a potential replacement RSRM insulation design, several of the numerous design issues that were worked and processing problems that were resolved. The earlier design demonstration on FSM-5 (Flight Support Motor) of the selected 7% and 11% Kevlar(registered) filled EPDM (KF/EPDM) candidate materials was expanded. Full-scale process simulation articles were built and FSM-8 was manufactured using multiple Asbestos Free (AF) components and materials. Two major problems had to be overcome in developing the AF design. First, bondline corrosion, which occurred in the double-cured region of the aft dome, had to be eliminated. Second, KF/EPDM creates high levels of electrostatic energy (ESE), which does not readily dissipate from the insulation surface. An uncontrolled electrostatic discharge (ESD) of this surface energy during many phases of production could create serious safety hazards. Numerous processing changes were implemented and a conductive paint was developed to prevent exposed external insulation surfaces from generating ESE/ESD. Additionally, special internal instrumentation was incorporated into FSM-8 to record real-time internal motor environment data. These data included inhibitor insulation erosion rates and internal thermal environments. The FSM-8 static test was successfully conducted in February 2000 and much valuable data were obtained to characterize the AF insulation design.

  18. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  19. Propeller/wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

  20. Thrust engine and propellant exhaust arrangement therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Retallick, F.D.

    1981-01-27

    A nuclear engine and nozzle arrangement are described for a nuclear rocket comprising a cluster of elongated fissile fuel bearing and high temperature capacity modules suitably supported in a pressure vessel. The modules have a plurality of coolant-propellant channels extending therethrough, a convergent - divergent nozzle structure of fixed cross-sectional dimensions secured to the end portion of each of said modules, a divergent-only unitary skirt member connected directly to the propellant exit end of said modular cluster in series with and diverging from the divergent ends of said convergent-divergent nozzle structures. The modules are formed to conduct a compressible propellant therethrough at sub-sonic velocities, said nozzle structures being formed to develop supersonic velocities of the propellant and said divergent-only skirt being formed to develop further the supersonic velocities of said propellant.

  1. Propellant Technologies: A Persuasive Wave of Future Propulsion Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Ianovski, Leonid S.; Carrick, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can be used to reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs. Advanced propellant technologies can make the space vehicles safer, more operable, and higher performing. Five technology areas are described: Monopropellants, Alternative Hydrocarbons, Gelled Hydrogen, Metallized Gelled Propellants, and High Energy Density Materials. These propellants' benefits for future vehicles are outlined using mission study results and the technologies are briefly discussed.

  2. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  3. The theory of the screw propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1922-01-01

    Given here is a brief review of the fundamental principles of the propeller slip-stream theory and its further development through later researches, which demonstrate the connection between the propeller slip-stream theory and Frounde's so-called 'propeller blade theory.' The propeller slip-stream theory, especially in its improved form, now gives us the basis for determining the mutual influence of the parts of the blade, so that, in calculating the shape of the blade, we can get along with certain section characteristics, which have been determined once and for all. It is argued that new theories present the possibility of investigating the phenomena in the vicinity of the propeller, allowing us to calculate its action on the basis of fewer experimental values.

  4. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  5. Computational modeling of magnetically actuated propellant orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, John I.

    1996-01-01

    Unlike terrestrial applications where gravity positions liquid at the 'bottom' of the tank, the location of liquid propellant in spacecraft tanks is uncertain unless specific actions are taken or special features are built into the tank. Some mission events require knowledge of liquid position prior to a particular action: liquid must be positioned over the tank outlet prior to starting the main engines and must be moved away from the tank vent before vapor can be released overboard to reduce pressure. It may also be desirable to positively position liquid to improve propulsion system performance: moving liquid away from the tank walls will dramatically decrease the rate of heat transfer to the propellant, suppressing the boil-off rate, thereby reducing overall mission propellant requirements. The process of moving propellant to a desired position is referred to as propellant orientation or reorientation. Several techniques have been developed to positively position propellant in spacecraft tanks and each technique imposes additional requirements on vehicle design. Propulsive reorientation relies on small auxiliary thrusters to accelerate the tank. The inertia of the liquid causes it to collect in the aft-end of the tank if the acceleration is forward. This technique requires that additional thrusters be added to the vehicle, that additional propellant be carried in the vehicle, and that an additional operational maneuver be executed. Another technique uses Liquid Acquisition Devices (LAD's) to positively position propellants. These devices rely on surface tension to hold the liquid within special geometries (i.e. vanes, wire-mesh channels, start-baskets). While avoiding some of the penalties of propulsive orientation, this technique requires the addition of complicated hardware inside the propellant tank and performance for long duration missions is uncertain. The subject of the present research is an alternate technique for positively positioning liquid within

  6. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  7. Liquid propellant densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

  8. Runtime and Pressurization Analyses of Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chung P.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-element unstructured CFD has been utilized at NASA SSC to carry out analyses of propellant tank systems in different modes of operation. The three regimes of interest at SSC include (a) tank chill down (b) tank pressurization and (c) runtime propellant draw-down and purge. While tank chill down is an important event that is best addressed with long time-scale heat transfer calculations, CFD can play a critical role in the tank pressurization and runtime modes of operation. In these situations, problems with contamination of the propellant by inclusion of the pressurant gas from the ullage causes a deterioration of the quality of the propellant delivered to the test article. CFD can be used to help quantify the mixing and propellant degradation. During tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. It should be noted that traditional CFD modeling is inadequate for such simulations because the fluids in the tank are in a range of different sub-critical and supercritical states and elaborate phase change and mixing rules have to be developed to accurately model the interaction between the ullage gas and the propellant. We show a typical run-time simulation of a spherical propellant tank, containing RP-1 in this case, being pressurized with room-temperature nitrogen at 540 R. Nitrogen

  9. The E-3 Test Facility at Stennis Space Center: Research and Development Testing for Cryogenic and Storable Propellant Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazos, John T.; Chandler, Craig A.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader a broad overview of the current upgraded capabilities of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center E-3 Test Facility to perform testing for rocket engine combustion systems and components using liquid and gaseous oxygen, gaseous and liquid methane, gaseous hydrogen, hydrocarbon based fuels, hydrogen peroxide, high pressure water and various inert fluids. Details of propellant system capabilities will be highlighted as well as their application to recent test programs and accomplishments. Data acquisition and control, test monitoring, systems engineering and test processes will be discussed as part of the total capability of E-3 to provide affordable alternatives for subscale to full scale testing for many different requirements in the propulsion community.

  10. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  11. Characterization of booster-rocket propellants and their simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A series of shock-loading experiments on a composite and an energietic propellant and there simulants was conducted on a light-gas gun. The initial objectives were to obtain Hugoniot data, to investigate the pressure threshold at which a reaction occurs, and to measure spall threshold at various impact velocities. The Hugoniot data measured for the propellants fit the Hugoniot curves provided by the manufacturer of the propellants extremely well and the Hugoniot curves developed for the simulants matched those of the propellants. Threshold pressures to initiate reactions in the composite and energetic propellants were found to be 40 and 3 kbars, respectively. In spall tests, the composite propellant and its simulant exhibited spall strengths around 0.25 and 0.18 kbar, respectively. The energetic propellant and its simulant were somewhat stronger with spall strengths just above 0.33 and 0.22 kbar. 12 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  13. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic model for pressurization and cryogenic propellant conditions during all mission phases of any liquid rocket based vehicle has been developed and validated. The model assumes the propellant tanks to be divided into five nodes and also implements an empirical correlation for liquid stratification if desired. The five nodes include a tank wall node exposed to ullage gas, an ullage gas node, a saturated propellant vapor node at the liquid-vapor interface, a liquid node, and a tank wall node exposed to liquid. The conservation equations of mass and energy are then applied across all the node boundaries and, with the use of perfect gas assumptions, explicit solutions for ullage and liquid conditions are derived. All fluid properties are updated real time using NIST Refprop.1 Further, mass transfer at the liquid-vapor interface is included in the form of evaporation, bulk boiling of liquid propellant, and condensation given the appropriate conditions for each. Model validation has proven highly successful against previous analytic models and various Saturn era test data and reasonably successful against more recent LH2 tank self pressurization ground test data. Finally, this model has been applied to numerous design iterations for the Altair Lunar Lander, Ares V Core Stage, and Ares V Earth Departure Stage in order to characterize Helium and autogenous pressurant requirements, propellant lost to evaporation and thermodynamic venting to maintain propellant conditions, and non-uniform tank draining in configurations utilizing multiple LH2 or LO2 propellant tanks. In conclusion, this model provides an accurate and efficient means of analyzing multiple design configurations for any cryogenic propellant tank in launch, low-acceleration coast, or in-space maneuvering and supplies the user with pressurization requirements, unusable propellants from evaporation and liquid stratification, and general ullage gas, liquid, and tank wall conditions as functions of time.

  14. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  15. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  16. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  17. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  18. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  19. Electromechanical propellant control system actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill; Weir, Rae Ann

    1990-01-01

    New control mechanism technologies are currently being sought to provide alternatives to hydraulic actuation systems. The Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for this purpose. Through this effort, an in-house designed electromechanical propellant valve actuator has been assembled and is presently being evaluated. This evaluation will allow performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulics systems. The in-house design consists of the following hardware: a three-phase brushless motor, a harmonic drive, and an output spline which will mate with current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant control valves. A resolver and associated electronics supply position feedback for the EMA. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. Frequency response testing has been performed with further testing planned as hardware and test facilities become available.

  20. Aircraft control by propeller cyclic blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, J.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is developed for aircraft control obtained from the propeller forces and moments generated by blade angle variation during a blade revolution. The propeller blade is pitched harmonically one cycle per propeller revolution which results in vehicle control forces and moments, termed cyclic-control. Using a power series respresentation of an arbitrary function of cyclic-blade angle, cyclic-control theory is developed which leads to exact solutions in terms of derivatives of steady-state thrust and power with respect to blade angle. An alternative solution, when the cyclic-blade angle function is limited to a sinusoidal cycle, is in terms of Bessel functions. An estimate of non-steady azimuth angle change or lag is presented. Cyclic-control analysis applied to the counter-rotating propeller shows that control forces or moments can be uniquely isolated from each other. Thus the dual rotor, in hovering mode, has propulsion without rotor tilt or moments, or, when in propeller mode at the tail of an air ship or submarine, vehicle control with no vehicle movement. Control isolation is also attainable from three or more propellers in-line.

  1. Propellant Readiness Level: A Methodological Approach to Propellant Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John A.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2010-01-01

    A methodological approach to defining propellant characterization is presented. The method is based on the well-established Technology Readiness Level nomenclature. This approach establishes the Propellant Readiness Level as a metric for ascertaining the readiness of a propellant or a propellant combination by evaluating the following set of propellant characteristics: thermodynamic data, toxicity, applications, combustion data, heat transfer data, material compatibility, analytical prediction modeling, injector/chamber geometry, pressurization, ignition, combustion stability, system storability, qualification testing, and flight capability. The methodology is meant to be applicable to all propellants or propellant combinations; liquid, solid, and gaseous propellants as well as monopropellants and propellant combinations are equally served. The functionality of the proposed approach is tested through the evaluation and comparison of an example set of hydrocarbon fuels.

  2. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~<500m in size) have been indirectly identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring. In this paper we present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B

  3. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, R R; Kamale, P J; Shaikh, M A R; Shelar, S D; Kumar, K Sunil; Singh, Amarjit

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 degrees C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 microm HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  4. Controlled expedient disposal of excess gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M R; Thiboutot, S; Walsh, M E; Ampleman, G

    2012-06-15

    The expedient field disposal of excess gun propellants on the ground is an integral part of live-fire training in many countries. However, burning excess propellant in the field will leave significant quantities of energetic residues and heavy metals in the environment. Compounds such as dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin and metals such as lead will leach into the soil column, eventually migrating to groundwater. Contamination of the environment will lead to high remediation costs and the possible loss of the training facility. After investigating the contamination at several propellant disposal sites, a portable propellant burn pan was developed and tested. The pan was transported to training sites where excess propellant was loaded and burned in a controlled manner. Up to 120 kg of excess single-base propellant charges have been burned during two series of tests at a consumption rate of greater than 99.9%. Less than 0.03% of the energetic material was recovered outside the burn pan. Recovered lead is largely contained within the pan. The turnover rate for burns is 15 min. The residues can be collected following cool-down for proper disposal.

  5. Solid propellant environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Le, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the Solid Propellant Environmental Issues (SPEI) project is to demonstrate environmentally acceptable technologies that will enhance the continued production of solid rocket motors (SRMs) by complying with current and anticipated environmental regulations. Phase 1 of the project identifies current and anticipated environmental regulations that may affect SRMs manufacturing in the future and identify emerging process technologies which comply with these regulations. Phase 2 of the project established a baseline database by fabricating a 363 kg motor using the current manufacturing process. In Phase 3, environmentally acceptable process technologies were evaluated, ranked, and selected for demonstration using criteria developed by the team. The results for Phase 1--3 have previously been presented. This paper will present data obtained to date on Phase 4. In Phase 4, the alternate process technologies were evaluated for compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and waste minimization/pollution prevention. The best performing candidate for each application area was selected for demonstration. The selected process technologies will be inserted into the baseline manufacturing process from Phase 2. The new manufacturing process will be demonstrated and evaluated through the scale-up and fabrication of two 363 kg solid rocket motors.

  6. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  7. An unsteady Euler scheme for the analysis of ducted propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient unsteady solution procedure has been developed for analyzing inviscid unsteady flow past ducted propeller configurations. This scheme is first order accurate in time and second order accurate in space. The solution procedure has been applied to a ducted propeller consisting of an 8-bladed SR7 propeller with a duct of NACA 0003 airfoil cross section around it, operating in a steady axisymmetric flowfield. The variation of elemental blade loading with radius, compares well with other published numerical results.

  8. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  9. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings [5, 8]. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~ 100m in size) have been identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images [10, 7, 9, 11]. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring [6, 2]. In this paper we present our new results about by now classical A ring propellers and more enigmatic B ring population. Due to the presence of self-gravity wakes the analysis of propeller brightness in ISS images always bears some ambiguity [7, 9] and consequently the exact morphology of propellers is not a settled issue. In 2008 we obtained a fortunate Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation of the largest A ring propeller Bleriot. Utilizing Cassini ISS images we obtain Bleriot orbit and demonstrate that UVIS Persei Rev42 occultation did cut across Bleriot about 100km downstream from the center. The occultation itself shows a prominent partial gap and higher density outer flanking wakes, while their orientation is consistent with a downstream cut. While in the UVIS occultation the partial gap is more prominent than the flanking wakes, the features mostly seen in Bleriot images are actually flanking wakes. One of the most interesting aspects of the A ring propellers are their wanderings, or longitudinal deviations from a pure circular orbit [11]. We numerically investigated the possibility of simple moon

  10. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  11. Propeller pitch change mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, P.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes an aircraft propulsion system. It comprises: a first turbine carrying a first set of propeller blades; a second turbine carrying a second set of propeller blades; a gear system carried by the first turbine for changing pitch of the first set of propeller blades, which includes a pair of ring gears, both coaxial with the first turbine; a first set of planet gears which engage both ring gears and which induce pitch change when the planet gears rotate; a sun gear which drives the planet gears; a second set of planet gears which are carried by a planet gear carrier affixed to the second turbine and which drive the sun gear in order to change pitch by causing relative motion between the sung ear and the first turbine; and means for preventing a change in speed of the planet gear carrier from causing a change in pitch.

  12. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  13. Optimum propeller wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, R. J.; Archer, R. D.

    1983-12-01

    The Prandtl-Betz-Theodorsen theory of heavily loaded airscrews has been adapted to the design of propeller windmills which are to be optimized for maximum power coefficient. It is shown that the simpler, light-loading, constant-area wake assumption can generate significantly different 'optimum' performance and geometry, and that it is therefore not appropriate to the design of propeller wind turbines when operating in their normal range of high-tip-speed-to-wind-speed ratio. Design curves for optimum power coefficient are presented and an example of the design of a typical two-blade optimum rotor is given.

  14. Active synchrophasing of propeller unbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaptein, Dick

    1992-01-01

    The results of a survey are presented to reduce the inflight propeller unbalance vibrations in the cabin of the Fokker 50 airplanes. Several approaches have been investigated. Active synchrophasing of the unbalance vibrations of both propellers appears to be successful.

  15. Ducted propeller design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    The theory and implementation of the design of a ducted propeller blade are presented and discussed. Straightener (anti-torque) vane design is also discussed. Comparisons are made to an existing propeller design and the results and performance of two example propeller blades are given. The inflow velocity at the propeller plane is given special attention and two dimensionless parameters independent of RPM are discussed. Errors in off-design performance are also investigated. 11 refs., 26 figs.

  16. Propeller Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    This picture shows a general view of the Propeller Research Tunnel engine room under construction. Workmen were installing the two submarine diesel engines that would power the PRT. The room was constructed of concrete with corrugated metal siding and roofing with the intention of making the engine room as fireproof as possible.

  17. Silicone containing solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small amount, for example 1% by weight, of a liquid silicone oil to a metal containing solid rocket propellant provides a significant reduction in heat transfer to the inert nozzle walls. Metal oxide slag collection and blockage of the nozzle are eliminated and the burning rate is increased by about 5% to 10% thus improving ballistic performance.

  18. Green Propellant Loading Demonstration at U.S. Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, Henry W.; Miller, Joseph T.; Bacha, Caitlin E.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Loading Demonstration (GPLD) was conducted December 2015 at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), leveraging work performed over recent years to bring lower toxicity hydrazine replacement green propellants to flight missions. The objective of this collaboration between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), WFF, the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), and Ecological Advanced Propulsion Systems (ECAPS) was to successfully accept LMP-103S propellant at a U.S. Range, store the propellant, and perform a simulated flight vehicle propellant loading. NASA GSFC Propulsion (Code 597) managed all aspects of the operation, handling logistics, preparing the procedures, and implementing the demonstration. In addition to the partnership described above, Moog Inc. developed an LMP-103S propellant-compatible titanium rolling diaphragm flight development tank and loaned it to GSFC to act as the GPLD flight vessel. The flight development tank offered the GPLD an additional level of flight-like propellant handling process and procedures. Moog Inc. also provided a compatible latching isolation valve for remote propellant expulsion. The GPLD operation, in concert with Moog Inc. executed a flight development tank expulsion efficiency performance test using LMP-103S propellant. As part of the demonstration work, GSFC and WFF documented Range safety analyses and practices including all elements of shipping, storage, handling, operations, decontamination, and disposal. LMP-103S has not been previously handled at a U.S. Launch Range. Requisite for this activity was an LMP-103S Risk Analysis Report and Ground Safety Plan. GSFC and WFF safety offices jointly developed safety documentation for application into the GPLD operation. The GPLD along with the GSFC Propulsion historical hydrazine loading experiences offer direct comparison between handling green propellant versus safety intensive, highly toxic hydrazine propellant. These described motives initiated the GPLD operation

  19. Green Propellant Landing Demonstration at U.S. Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, Henry W.; Miller, Joseph T.; Bacha, Caitlin E.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Loading Demonstration (GPLD) was conducted December 2015 at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), leveraging work performed over recent years to bring lower toxicity hydrazine replacement green propellants to flight missions. The objective of this collaboration between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), WFF, the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), and Ecological Advanced Propulsion Systems (ECAPS) was to successfully accept LMP-103S propellant at a U.S. Range, store the propellant, and perform a simulated flight vehicle propellant loading. NASA GSFC Propulsion (Code 597) managed all aspects of the operation, handling logistics, preparing the procedures, and implementing the demonstration. In addition to the partnership described above, Moog Inc. developed an LMP-103S propellant-compatible titanium rolling diaphragm flight development tank and loaned it to GSFC to act as the GPLD flight vessel. The flight development tank offered the GPLD an additional level of flight-like propellant handling process and procedures. Moog Inc. also provided a compatible latching isolation valve for remote propellant expulsion. The GPLD operation, in concert with Moog Inc. executed a flight development tank expulsion efficiency performance test using LMP-103S propellant. As part of the demonstration work, GSFC and WFF documented Range safety analyses and practices including all elements of shipping, storage, handling, operations, decontamination, and disposal. LMP-103S has not been previously handled at a U.S. Launch Range. Requisite for this activity was an LMP-103S Risk Analysis Report and Ground Safety Plan. GSFC and WFF safety offices jointly developed safety documentation for application into the GPLD operation. The GPLD along with the GSFC Propulsion historical hydrazine loading experiences offer direct comparison between handling green propellant versus safety intensive, highly toxic hydrazine propellant. These described motives initiated the GPLD operation

  20. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Stepping Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Fikes, John C.

    2005-01-01

    An In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) is an important stepping stone to provide the capability to preposition, store, manufacture, and later use the propellants for Earth-Neighborhood campaigns and beyond. An in-space propellant depot will provide affordable propellants and other similar consumables to support the development of sustainable and affordable exploration strategies as well as commercial space activities. An in-space propellant depot not only requires technology development in key areas such as zero boil-off storage and fluid transfer, but in other areas such as lightweight structures, highly reliable connectors, and autonomous operations. These technologies can be applicable to a broad range of propellant depot concepts or specific to a certain design. In addition, these technologies are required for spacecraft and orbit transfer vehicle propulsion and power systems, and space life support. Generally, applications of this technology require long-term storage, on-orbit fluid transfer and supply, cryogenic propellant production from water, unique instrumentation and autonomous operations. This paper discusses the reasons why such advances are important to future affordable and sustainable operations in space. This paper also discusses briefly R&D objectives comprising a promising approach to the systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation of an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot. The success of a well-planned and orchestrated approach holds great promise for achieving innovation and revolutionary technology development for supporting future exploration and development of space.

  1. Low-g propellant gaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, George

    1987-09-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate technology for low gravity propellant gaging on future geostationary satellites is described. Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low gravity tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were: (1) an ultrasonic point sensor system, (2) a nucleonic gaging system, (3) an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and (4) an ultrasonic flowmeter. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and the nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment.

  2. Constitutive equations for solid propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Oezuepek, S.; Becker, E.B.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical behavior of the Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) propellant is studied from a phenomenological point of view. Motivated by the study of the experimental data three initially isotropic constitutive models have been developed. All models represent the effect of strain rate, superimposed hydrostatic pressure, and cyclic loading on the stress and dilatation response of the material. A particular emphasis is given to the prediction of volume dilatation. The model resulting in the best representation of the available data is calibrated using only a few tests. The predictions of the model are compared with experiments for several loading conditions not used in the calibration.

  3. Analysis of propellant feedline dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holster, J. L.; Astleford, W. J.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical model and corresponding computer program for studying disturbances of liquid propellants in typical engine feedline systems were developed. The model includes the effects of steady turbulent mean flow, the influence of distributed compliances, the effects of local compliances, and various factors causing structural-hydraulic coupling. The computer program was set up such that the amplitude and phase of the terminal pressure/input excitation is calculated over any desired frequency range for an arbitrary assembly of various feedline components. A user's manual is included.

  4. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  5. Cold solid propellant motor has stop-restart capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket is kept and fired at low temperatures in launch vehicles or spacecraft. The motor is capable of developing a specific impulse comparable to that of liquid propellant motors, is started, stopped, and restarted, and is stored in space without solar radiation causing hot spots on the motor casing.

  6. Summary of recent NASA propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelson, D. C.; Mitchell, G. A.; Bober, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced high speed propellers offer large performance improvements for aircraft that cruise in the Mach 0.7 to 0.8 speed regime. At these speeds, studies indicate that there is a 15 to near 40 percent block fuel savings and associated operating cost benefits for advanced turboprops compared to equivalent technology turbofan powered aircraft. Recent wind tunnel results for five eight to ten blade advanced models are compared with analytical predictions. Test results show that blade sweep was important in achieving net efficiencies near 80 percent at Mach 0.8 and reducing nearfield cruise noise about 6 dB. Lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are under development and some results are compared with propeller force and probe data. Also, analytical predictions are compared with some initial laser velocimeter measurements of the flow field velocities of an eight bladed 45 swept propeller. Experimental aeroelastic results indicate that cascade effects and blade sweep strongly affect propeller aeroelastic characteristics. Comparisons of propeller nearfield noise data with linear acoustic theory indicate that the theory adequately predicts nearfield noise for subsonic tip speeds, but overpredicts the noise for supersonic tip speeds.

  7. Summary of recent NASA propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelson, D. C.; Mitchell, G. A.; Bober, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced high-speed propellers offer large performance improvements for aircraft that cruise in the Mach 0.7 to 0.8 speed regime. At these speeds, studies indicate that there is a 15 to near 40 percent block fuel savings and associated operating cost benefits for advanced turboprops compared to equivalent technology turbofan powered aircraft. Recent wind tunnel results for five eight to ten blade advanced models are compared with analytical predictions. Test results show that blade sweep was important in achieving net efficiencies near 80 percent at Mach 0.8 and reducing nearfield cruise noise by about 6 dB. Lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are under development and some results are compared with propeller force and probe data. Also, analytical predictions are compared with some initial laser velocimeter measurements of the flow field velocities of an eightbladed 45 swept propeller. Experimental aeroelastic results indicate that cascade effects and blade sweep strongly affect propeller aeroelastic characteristics. Comparisons of propeller near-field noise data with linear acoustic theory indicate that the theory adequately predicts near-field noise for subsonic tip speeds but overpredicts the noise for supersonic tip speeds.

  8. Experimental and analytical study of cryogenic propellant boiloff to develop and verify alternate pressurization concepts for Space Shuttle external tank using a scaled down tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, K. M.; Jones, S.; Meredith, T.

    1993-01-01

    Self pressurization by propellant boiloff is experimentally studied as an alternate pressurization concept for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET). The experimental setup used in the study is an open flow system which is composed of a variable area test tank and a recovery tank. The vacuum jacketed test tank is geometrically similar to the external LOx tank for the Space Shuttle. It is equipped with instrumentation to measure the temperature and pressure histories within the liquid and vapor, and viewports to accommodate visual observations and Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements of fluid velocities. A set of experiments were conducted using liquid Nitrogen to determine the temperature stratification in the liquid and vapor, and pressure histories of the vapor during sudden and continuous depressurization for various different boundary and initial conditions. The study also includes the development and calibration of a computer model to simulate the experiments. This model is a one-dimensional, multi-node type which assumes the liquid and the vapor to be under non-equilibrium conditions during the depressurization. It has been tested for a limited number of cases. The preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the simulations is determined by the accuracy of the heat transfer coefficients for the vapor and the liquid at the interface which are taken to be the calibration parameters in the present model.

  9. Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Brad R.

    2004-02-01

    The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

  10. Holographic investigation of solid propellant combustion particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellin, P. J.

    1983-12-01

    This investigation continued the development of a method for obtaining high quality holograms of the combustion products from aluminized solid rocket motor propellants burned in a two-dimensional motor to provide a cross-flow environment. The use of glass side plates as a motor casing provided both a convenient construction technique and allowed good quality holograms to be obtained. At combustion pressures above 500 psia and propellant slab thicknesses greater than 0.080 inches, the timing of the laser pulse during the burn was found to be critical, since an extremely short time interval existed between the establishment of steady state slab burning and the generation of too much smoke/combustion products to permit laser penetration. As desired operating pressures increase and aluminum powder particle sizes decrease, it will probably be necessary to use thinner propellant slabs.

  11. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  12. Propellers and windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Newnham, J.H.

    1983-04-12

    The present invention provides a propeller or windmill blank comprising a planar sheet of material having markings defining, or being shaped to have, a central or hub region and two blades extending in opposite directions along imaginary lines; and wherein the blank has a marking or line of preferential folding inclined to the first mentioned lines which, when the blank is bent therealong, will result in pitch being applied to the blades.

  13. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  14. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  15. A study of liquid propellant autoignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. H.; Gibbs, A. G.; Lessor, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Data and theory pertinent to the autoignition of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants were reviewed. Physical models of the processes supporting or contributing to autoignition were developed. Emphasis was placed on the description of the physical environment and its relationship to the autoignition phenomenon.

  16. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of a Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Steadman, Todd

    1998-01-01

    An unsteady finite volume procedure has been developed to predict the history of pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of the pressurant and propellant during the expulsion of the propellant from a tank. The time dependent mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are solved at the ullage space. The model accounts for the change in the ullage volume due to expulsion of the propellant. It also accounts for the heat transfer from the tank wall and propellant to the ullage gas. The procedure was incorporated in the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The results of several test cases were then compared with a published correlation of pressurant requirements for a given displacement of propellant. The agreement between the predictions and the correlation was found to be satisfactory.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of a Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Steadman, Todd

    1999-01-01

    An unsteady finite volume procedure has been developed to predict the history o pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of the pressurant and propellant during the expulsion of the propellant from a tan. The time dependent mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are solved at the ullage space. The model accounts for the change in the ullage volume due to expulsion of the propellant. It also accounts for the heat transfer from the tank wall and propellant to the ullage gas. The procedure was incorporated in the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The results of several test cases were then compared with a published correlation of pressurant requirements for a given displacement of propellant. The agreement between the predictions and the correlation was found to be satisfactory.

  19. Helium Saturation of Liquid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Moran, Clifford M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is in three areas which are: (1) techniques were devised for achieving the required levels of helium (He) saturation in liquid propellants (limited to monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)); (2) the values were evaluated for equilibrium solubilities of He in liquid propellants as currently used in the industry; and (3) the He dissolved in liquid propellants were accurately measured. Conclusions drawn from these studies include: (1) Techniques for dissolving He in liquid propellants depending upon the capabilities of the testing facility (Verification of the quantity of gas dissolved is essential); (2) Until greater accuracy is obtained, the equilibrium solubility values of He in MMH and NTO as cited in the Air Force Propellant Handbooks should be accepted as standard (There are still enough uncertainties in the He saturation values to warrant further basic experimental studies); and (3) The manometric measurement of gas volume from a frozen sample of propellant should be the accepted method for gas analysis.

  20. Study of the supersonic propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabri, Jean; Siestrunck, Raymond

    1953-01-01

    In this paper a propeller having all sections operating at supersonic speeds is designated a supersonic propeller regardless of flight speed. Analyses assume subsonic flight speeds but very high rotational speeds. A very elementary analysis of the efficiency of a jet-propeller system is presented. A propeller analysis based on conventional vortex blade element theory is presented and reduced to a single point method which leads to an expression for optimum advance ratio in terms of hub-tip diameter ratio and airfoil fineness ratio. An expression for propeller efficiency in terms of advance ratio, hub-tip diameter ratio, and airfoil thickness ratio is also presented. Use is made of theoretical airfoil characteristics at supersonic speeds. A study of blade section interference, blade shock and expansion fields, at supersonic section speeds is presented. An example taken indicates that an efficiency of seventy percent can be obtained with a propeller having a tip Mach number of 2.3.

  1. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  2. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  3. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  4. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  5. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  6. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  7. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  8. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  9. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  10. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  11. Propellant Management and Conditioning within the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. M.; McDonald, J. P.; Hedayat, A.; Knight, K. C.; Champion, R. H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34 hypersonic flight vehicle is currently under development by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital). The Main Propulsion ystem as been designed around the liquid propellant Fastrac rocket engine currently under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper presents analyses of the MPS subsystems used to manage the liquid propellants. These subsystems include the propellant tanks, the tank vent/relief subsystem, and the dump/fill/drain subsystem. Analyses include LOX tank chill and fill time estimates, LOX boil-off estimates, propellant conditioning simulations, and transient propellant dump simulations.

  12. Composite propellant combustion modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of theoretical and experimental studies of composite propellant combustion. The theoretical investigations include a model of the combustion of a nonmetallized ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellant (noting time scales for vapor-phase combustion and the condensed phase) and response functions in pressure-coupled oscillations. The experimental studies are discussed with reference to scale-modeling apparatus, flame standoff distance versus velocity as a function of pressure, and results from T-burner firings of a nonmetallized AP/polysulfide propellant. Research applications including problems with nitramine propellants, the feasibility of stop-restart rockets with salt quench, and combustion problems in large boosters are outlined.

  13. Propeller Analysis from Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    The operation of the propeller is analyzed by the use of the distribution of forces along the radius, combined with theoretical equations. The data were obtained in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel on a 4-foot-diameter, two-blade propeller, operating in front of four body shapes, ranging from a small shaft to support the propeller to conventional NACA cowling. A method of estimating the axial and the rotational energy in the wake as a fractional part of the propeller power is given. A knowledge of the total thrust and torque is necessary for the estimation.

  14. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  15. 78 FR 41283 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2010-17-11R1 Dowty Propellers... (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Dowty Propellers R408/6-123-F/17... to revise AD 2010-17-11, Amendment 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010). That AD applies to...

  16. 78 FR 9005 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2010-17-11 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), Dowty Propellers... 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Dowty Propellers (formerly.... Discussion On August 5, 2010, we issued AD 2010-17-11, Amendment 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010),...

  17. 78 FR 18255 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. Propeller blade retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Simon, III, Victor H. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns the mounting of propeller blades to a ring-shaped rotor. The blades are of the variable pitch type, and the shank of each blade extends through a respective hole in the rotor. Each hole contains an annular shelf which is fastened to the wall of the hole and surrounds each shank. Each shank bears a pair of bearing races which sandwich the annular shelf in order to connect the blade to the rotor. Bearing rollers are positioned between the annular shelf and the bearing races.

  19. Circulation control propellers for general aviation, including a BASIC computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Braslow, A. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing variable pitch propeller mechanisms with circulation control (Coanada effect) propellers on general aviation airplanes was examined. The study used a specially developed computer program written in BASIC which could compare the aerodynamic performance of circulation control propellers with conventional propellers. The comparison of aerodynamic performance for circulation control, fixed pitch and variable pitch propellers is based upon the requirements for a 1600 kg (3600 lb) single engine general aviation aircraft. A circulation control propeller using a supercritical airfoil was shown feasible over a representative range of design conditions. At a design condition for high speed cruise, all three types of propellers showed approximately the same performance. At low speed, the performance of the circulation control propeller exceeded the performance for a fixed pitch propeller, but did not match the performance available from a variable pitch propeller. It appears feasible to consider circulation control propellers for single engine aircraft or multiengine aircraft which have their propellers on a common axis (tractor pusher). The economics of the replacement requires a study for each specific airplane application.

  20. An Overview of Combustion Mechanisms and Flame Structures for Advanced Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckstead, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) and cyclotretamethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are two solid ingredients often used in modern solid propellants. Although these two ingredients have very similar burning rates as monopropellants, they lead to significantly different characteristics when combined with binders to form propellants. Part of the purpose of this paper is to relate the observed combustion characteristics to the postulated flame structures and mechanisms for AP and HMX propellants that apparently lead to these similarities and differences. For AP composite, the primary diffusion flame is more energetic than the monopropellant flame, leading to an increase in burning rate over the monopropellant rate. In contrast the HMX primary diffusion flame is less energetic than the HMX monopropellant flame and ultimately leads to a propellant rate significantly less than the monopropellant rate in composite propellants. During the past decade the search for more energetic propellants and more environmentally acceptable propellants is leading to the development of propellants based on ingredients other than AP and HMX. The objective of this paper is to utilize the more familiar combustion characteristics of AP and HMX containing propellants to project the combustion characteristics of propellants made up of more advanced ingredients. The principal conclusion reached is that most advanced ingredients appear to burn by combustion mechanisms similar to HMX containing propellants rather than AP propellants.

  1. Velocity field measurements in the wake of a propeller model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, R.; Kumar, A. Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Turboprop configurations are being revisited for the modern-day regional transport aircrafts for their fuel efficiency. The use of laminar flow wings is an effort in this direction. One way to further improve their efficiency is by optimizing the flow over the wing in the propeller wake. Previous studies have focused on improving the gross aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. It is known that the propeller slipstream causes early transition of the boundary layer on the wing. However, an optimized design of the propeller and wing combination could delay this transition and decrease the skin friction drag. Such a wing design would require the detailed knowledge of the development of the slipstream in isolated conditions. There are very few studies in the literature addressing the requirements of transport aircraft having six-bladed propeller and cruising at a high propeller advance ratio. Low-speed wind tunnel experiments have been conducted on a powered propeller model in isolated conditions, measuring the velocity field in the vertical plane behind the propeller using two-component hot-wire anemometry. The data obtained clearly resolved the mean velocity, the turbulence, the ensemble phase averages and the structure and development of the tip vortex. The turbulence in the slipstream showed that transition could be close to the leading edge of the wing, making it a fine case for optimization. The development of the wake with distance shows some interesting flow features, and the data are valuable for flow computation and optimization.

  2. Cryogenic Propellant Depot Experiments, Demonstrations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic Propellant Depots have been assessed over many years in terms of architectures, system configuration trades, related technologies, economic assessments, etc., to enable more ambitious and affordable human and robotic exploration of the Earth Neighborhood and beyond. These activities have identified architectures and concepts that produce, preposition and store propellants in space for exploration and commercial space activities. Commonalities across mission scenarios for these architecture definitions, depot concepts, technologies, and operations were identified that also best satisfy the Vision of Space Exploration. The Boeing Company supported the NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by conducting Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies. The primary objectives were: (1) determine high leverage propellant depot concepts and related technologies; (2) identify commonalities across mission scenarios of depot concepts, technologies, and operations; (3) determine the best depot concepts and key technology requirements and (4) identify technology development needs including definition of ground and space demonstration requirements. This presentation briefly summarizes potential ground and flight experiments and demonstrations as well as discusses various commercial and exploration applications of Cryogenic Propellant Depots.

  3. Cryogenic Propellant Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Carlberg, E.; Feller, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    Lunar missions under consideration would benefit from incorporation of high specific impulse propellants such as LH2 and LO2, even with their accompanying boil-off losses necessary to maintain a steady tank pressure. This paper addresses a cryogenic propellant boil-off reduction system to minimize or eliminate boil-off. Concepts to do so were considered under the In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Project. Specific to that was an investigation of cryocooler integration concepts for relatively large depot sized propellant tanks. One concept proved promising—it served to efficiently move heat to the cryocooler even over long distances via a compressed helium loop. The analyses and designs for this were incorporated into NASA Glenn Research Center's Cryogenic Analysis Tool. That design approach is explained and shown herein. Analysis shows that, when compared to passive only cryogenic storage, the boil-off reduction system begins to reduce system mass if durations are as low as 40 days for LH2, and 14 days for LO2. In addition, a method of cooling LH2 tanks is presented that precludes development issues associated with LH2 temperature cryocoolers.

  4. Minuteman 3: Stage 3 propellant fire characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J C

    1994-06-20

    We have completed an experimental program to diagnose and characterize the thermal environment of a solid rocket propellant fire burning in ambient atmospheric conditions. This work has been conducted as part of the Defense Nuclear Agency`s probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Minuteman III (MMIII) weapon system. The goals of this study are two-fold; (1) to provide a description of a propellant fire in sufficient detail so as to allow system response models to predict the outcome of various hypothetical accident, scenarios and, (2) to identify diagnostics that could be used in a large-scale test fire of MMIII stage 3 motor. The study has been performed burning SRAM II and MMIII stage 3 propellant (ANB-3066), in chimneys ranging in size from 18 cm to 53 cm (twenty-one inches) in diameter. Several methods have been used to determine and confirm temperature measurements including thermometry, radiometry, and ultrasonic thermal sensing. Temperature profiles with peaks in excess of 2300{degree} C have been measured. Temperature measurements have been used in conjunction with inverse modeling to determine heat flux characteristics. The regression rate for ANB-3066 (under ambient conditions) has also been determined. Finally, at a very cursory level, we have studied the characteristics of aluminum oxide deposits as well as some materials responses to these fires. We have also addressed the initial efforts on development of diagnostics, problems encountered in controlling the burning of propellants, in taking radiometric measurements, and the survivability of materials in the fire.

  5. Phytotreatment of propellant contamination.

    PubMed

    Riefler, R Guy; Medina, Victor F

    2006-05-01

    Nitroglycerine (NG) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are propellants often found in soil and groundwater at military firing ranges. Because of the need for training with live ammunition, control or cleanup of these contaminants may be necessary for the continued use of these firing ranges. One inexpensive approach for managing sites exposed to these contaminants is the use phytoremedation, particularly using common or native grasses. In this study, the uptake of NG and 2,4-DNT from water by three common grasses, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus escalantus), yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca), and common rush (Juncus effusus), was investigated using hydroponic reactors. Rapid removal from solution by all grasses was observed, with yellow nutsedge removal rates being the highest. NG or 2,4-DNT accumulated in the tissues in all of the plants, except yellow foxtail did not accumulate NG. Higher concentrations were observed in killed roots, demonstrating the presence of plant-based enzymes actively transforming the contaminants. Yellow nutsedge was also grown in 2,4-DNT spiked soil. Significant uptake into the plants roots and leaves was observed and concentrations in the soil decreased rapidly, although 2,4-DNT concentration also decreased in the unplanted controls. In summary, the three grasses tested appear to be good candidates for phytoremediation of propellant contamination.

  6. Recent Advancements in Propellant Densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Next-generation launch vehicles demand several technological improvements to achieve lower cost and more reliable access to space. One technology area whose performance gains may far exceed others is densified propellants. The ideal rocket engine propellant is characterized by high specific impulse, high density, and low vapor pressure. A propellant combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) is one of the highest performance propellants, but LH2 stored at standard conditions has a relatively low density and high vapor pressure. Propellant densification can significantly improve this propellant's properties relative to vehicle design and engine performance. Vehicle performance calculations based on an average of existing launch vehicles indicate that densified propellants may allow an increase in payload mass of up to 5 percent. Since the NASA Lewis Research Center became involved with the National Aerospace Plane program in the 1980's, it has been leading the way in making densified propellants a viable fuel for next-generation launch vehicles. Lewis researchers have been working to provide a method and critical data for continuous production of densified hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  8. Propeller aircraft interior noise model: User's manual for computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, E. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program entitled PAIN (Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise) has been developed to permit calculation of the sound levels in the cabin of a propeller-driven airplane. The fuselage is modeled as a cylinder with a structurally integral floor, the cabin sidewall and floor being stiffened by ring frames, stringers and floor beams of arbitrary configurations. The cabin interior is covered with acoustic treatment and trim. The propeller noise consists of a series of tones at harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Input data required by the program include the mechanical and acoustical properties of the fuselage structure and sidewall trim. Also, the precise propeller noise signature must be defined on a grid that lies in the fuselage skin. The propeller data are generated with a propeller noise prediction program such as the NASA Langley ANOPP program. The program PAIN permits the calculation of the space-average interior sound levels for the first ten harmonics of a propeller rotating alongside the fuselage. User instructions for PAIN are given in the report. Development of the analytical model is presented in NASA CR 3813.

  9. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  10. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  11. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  12. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  13. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  14. Propellant Chemistry for CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Anderson, P. G.; Cheng, Gary C.

    1996-01-01

    Current concepts for reusable launch vehicle design have created renewed interest in the use of RP-1 fuels for high pressure and tri-propellant propulsion systems. Such designs require the use of an analytical technology that accurately accounts for the effects of real fluid properties, combustion of large hydrocarbon fuel modules, and the possibility of soot formation. These effects are inadequately treated in current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes used for propulsion system analyses. The objective of this investigation is to provide an accurate analytical description of hydrocarbon combustion thermodynamics and kinetics that is sufficiently computationally efficient to be a practical design tool when used with CFD codes such as the FDNS code. A rigorous description of real fluid properties for RP-1 and its combustion products will be derived from the literature and from experiments conducted in this investigation. Upon the establishment of such a description, the fluid description will be simplified by using the minimum of empiricism necessary to maintain accurate combustion analyses and including such empirical models into an appropriate CFD code. An additional benefit of this approach is that the real fluid properties analysis simplifies the introduction of the effects of droplet sprays into the combustion model. Typical species compositions of RP-1 have been identified, surrogate fuels have been established for analyses, and combustion and sooting reaction kinetics models have been developed. Methods for predicting the necessary real fluid properties have been developed and essential experiments have been designed. Verification studies are in progress, and preliminary results from these studies will be presented. The approach has been determined to be feasible, and upon its completion the required methodology for accurate performance and heat transfer CFD analyses for high pressure, tri-propellant propulsion systems will be available.

  15. Propeller pitch change actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kusiak, E.H.

    1988-06-28

    An apparatus is described for adjusting the pitch of a variable pitch propeller blade characterized by: an actuator for setting the pitch of the propeller blade the actuator having; a rotatable screw for setting propeller pitch, a nut mounted for longitudinal motion along the screw as the screw is rotated, means for connecting the nut to the propeller blade to adjust the pitch of the propeller blade as the screw rotates, and a rotatable means mounted within the nut for locking the nut against longitudinal motion if the rotatable means is not rotating with the longitudinal motion of the nut and for allowing the nut to move longitudinally if the rotatable means is rotating with the longitudinal motion of the nut.

  16. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  17. Atomic hydrogen propellants: Historical perspectives and future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-02-01

    Atomic hydrogen, a very high density free-radical propellant, is anticipated to generate a specific impulse of 600-1500 lb-f sec/lb-mass performance; this may facilitate the development of unique launch vehicles. A development status evaluation is presently given for atomic hydrogen investigations. It is noted that breakthroughs are required in the production, storage, and transfer of atomic hydrogen, before this fuel can become a viable rocket propellant.

  18. Atomic hydrogen propellants: Historical perspectives and future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, a very high density free-radical propellant, is anticipated to generate a specific impulse of 600-1500 lb-f sec/lb-mass performance; this may facilitate the development of unique launch vehicles. A development status evaluation is presently given for atomic hydrogen investigations. It is noted that breakthroughs are required in the production, storage, and transfer of atomic hydrogen, before this fuel can become a viable rocket propellant.

  19. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy

    There exists wide ranging research interest in high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants as a potential replacement for existing industry standard fuels for liquid rocket engines. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research Lab, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center each either recently concluded or currently has ongoing programs in the synthesis and development of these potential new propellants. In order to perform conceptual designs using these new propellants, most conceptual rocket engine powerhead design tools (e.g. NPSS, ROCETS, and REDTOP-2) require several thermophysical properties of a given propellant over a wide range of temperature and pressure. These properties include enthalpy, entropy, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. Very little thermophysical property data exists for most of these potential new HEDM propellants. Experimental testing of these properties is both expensive and time consuming and is impractical in a conceptual vehicle design environment. A new technique for determining these thermophysical properties of potential new rocket engine propellants is presented. The technique uses a combination of three different computational methods to determine these properties. Quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics are used to model new propellants at a molecular level in order to calculate density, enthalpy, and entropy. Additivity methods are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity and thermal conductivity of new propellants. This new technique is validated via a series of verification experiments of HEDM compounds. Results are provided for two HEDM propellants: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). In each case, the new technique does a better job than the best current computational methods at accurately matching the experimental data of the HEDM compounds of interest. A case study is provided to help quantify the vehicle level impacts of using HEDM

  20. Air propellers and their environmental problems on ACV's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soley, D. H.

    The development of ACV blade protection against erosion, both on the propeller blade faces and leading edge, is considered. Polyurethane spray coating is now the standard protection applied to all Dowty Rotol propellers, with thicknesses from 0.015-0.020 on aircraft, and up to 0.080 on the ACV. The bolt-on guard reduced leading edge replacement time by 50 percent, and makes possible replacement in all weather conditions. Typical damage and repairs to ACV blades are discussed, and the propeller installation on the LCAC craft being built for the U.S. Navy is addressed.

  1. In-space propellant logistics. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The prephase A conceptual project planning data as it pertains to the development of the selected logistics module configuration transported into earth orbit by the space shuttle orbiter. The data represents the test, implementation, and supporting research and technology requirements for attaining the propellant transfer operational capability for early 1985. The plan is based on a propellant module designed to support the space-based tug with cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen propellants. A logical sequence of activities that is required to define, design, develop, fabricate, test, launch, and flight test the propellant logistics module is described. Included are the facility and ground support equipment requirements. The schedule of activities are based on the evolution and relationship between the R and T, the development issues, and the resultant test program.

  2. New delivery systems and propellants.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, M

    1999-01-01

    The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countries of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth) of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada - Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  3. A review of research in low earth orbit propellant collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lake A.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2015-05-01

    This comprehensive review examines the efforts of previous researchers to develop concepts for propellant-collecting spacecraft, estimate the performance of these systems, and understand the physics involved. Rocket propulsion requires the spacecraft to expend two fundamental quantities: energy and propellant mass. A growing number of spacecraft collect the energy they need to execute propulsive maneuvers in-situ with solar panels. In contrast, every spacecraft using rocket propulsion has carried all of the propellant mass needed for the mission from the ground, which limits the range and mission capabilities. Numerous researchers have explored the concept of collecting propellant mass while in space. These concepts have varied in scale and complexity from chemical ramjets to fusion-driven interstellar vessels. Research into propellant-collecting concepts occurred in distinct eras. During the Cold War, concepts tended to be large, complex, and nuclear powered. After the Cold War, concepts transitioned to solar power sources and more effort has been devoted to detailed analysis of specific components of the propellant-collecting architecture. By detailing the major contributions and limitations of previous work, this review concisely presents the state-of-the-art and outlines five areas for continued research. These areas include air-compatible cathode technology, techniques to improve propellant utilization on atmospheric species, in-space compressor and liquefaction technology, improved hypersonic and hyperthermal free molecular flow inlet designs, and improved understanding of how design parameters affect system performance.

  4. Analytical determination of propeller performance degradation due to ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is capable of computing propeller performance for clean, glaze, or rime iced propeller configurations, thereby providing a mechanism for determining the degree of performance degradation which results from a given icing encounter. The inviscid, incompressible flow field at each specified propeller radial location is first computed using the Theodorsen transformation method of conformal mapping. A droplet trajectory computation then calculates droplet impingement points and airfoil collection efficiency for each radial location, at which point several user-selectable empirical correlations are available for determining the aerodynamic penalities which arise due to the ice accretion. Propeller performance is finally computed using strip analysis for either the clean or iced propeller. In the iced mode, the differential thrust and torque coefficient equations are modified by the drag and lift coefficient increments due to ice to obtain the appropriate iced values. Comparison with available experimental propeller icing data shows good agreement in several cases. The code's capability to properly predict iced thrust coefficient, power coefficient, and propeller efficiency is shown to be dependent on the choice of empirical correlation employed as well as proper specification of radial icing extent.

  5. Propellant removal from rocket motors containing double-base compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Hruby, J.; Larson, R.; Lipkin, J.; Long, B.; Schoenfelder, C.

    1992-01-01

    The uncertain environmental consequences and regulations associated with using open burning/open detonation for the disposal of energetic materials are forcing both manufacturers and users to examine alternative disposal technologies. In general, these alternatives involve a material removal operation followed by processing steps that lead to reuse of valuable constituents and/or disposal of waste. While a number of post-removal processing options appear to be viable, the initial step of removing an energetic material, such as a solid rocket motor propellant, from its container remains a significant technological challenge. Large rocket motors containing highly energetic propellant, hazard class 1.1, are of particular concern because of their inherent handling hazards. We will describe the results of a study using thermal cycling to increase the surface area of inert propellant formulations. The propellant removal method studied employs thermal cycling to cryogenic temperatures (cryocycling). Using inert propellants and liquid nitrogen we have demonstrated that this process produces multiple cracks throughout the bulk of the grain. The properties of the actual and inert propellants are being measured, and a model is being developed to relate experiments on inert material to actual propellant. Possible methods to increase thermal gradients, crack propagation and initiation are also presented.

  6. Propellers: Theory and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.

    2007-12-01

    The question on the origin and evolution of planetary rings is one of the prominent unsolved problems of planetary sciences with direct implications for planet-forming processes in preplanetary disks. The recent detection of four propeller-shaped features in Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al., 2006) proved the presence of large boulder-sized moonlets in the rings (Spahn & Sremcevic, 2000). Their very existence favors a ring creation in a catastrophic disruption of an icy satellite (Sremcevic et al., 2007) rather than a co-genetic origin with Saturn, since bodies of this size can hardly have accreted inside the rings. Here we will review the current state of theoretical modeling and Cassini observations.

  7. Micarta propellers I : materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    Here, values for tension, compression edgewise of laminations, and transverse flatwise of laminations are given for Micarta made with various kinds of sheet material. The corresponding values for white oak are given for comparison. It was found by destructive and service tests that Micarta made with a good grade of cotton duck will give satisfactory service with most designs. In propellers having detachable blades, it is desirable that the root of the blade be of a small cross section to decrease the weight of the metal hub. Here the use of the special fabric or wood veneer offers advantages due to greater tensile strength. These materials, especially the wood veneer, produce stiffer blades than duck. This is also a value in controllable and reversible pitch designs where it is desirable that the plan form of the blades be symmetrical.

  8. Surge instability on a cavitating propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duttweiler, Mark Edward

    2001-11-01

    The present study details results from experiments investigating a surge instability on a cavitating propeller. Initially, the stable behavior of the propeller is explored, and the nature and extent of the cavitation is documented at various experimental conditions, including propeller yaw. The cavitation surge instability is first explored through visual observation of the cavitation on the propeller blades and in the tip vortices. Particular note is made of similarities between the behavior of the re-entrant jets and that noted by other investigators. It is also observed that the nature of the instability is closely related to the partial cavity instability observed on single, two-dimensional hydrofoils. The flow conditions that lead to instability are determined and it is shown that onset corresponds to a specific configuration of attached cavity lengths on an individual propeller blade. Pressure measurements are obtained from transducers within the experimental facility, and the acoustic signature of the instability is identified. The magnitude of the fluctuating pressures is very large, presumably capable of producing severe hull vibration. A simple model is developed based on cavity volume estimates obtained from high speed video footage, and the predictions of the model are compared with the experimentally obtained pressures. To assess the significance of the surrounding facility in initiating and sustaining the instability, a model is developed for the experimental facility dynamics. The predictions of this model are then compared with an experimentally determined facility response to a volumetric excitation imposed by an oscillating piston. To quantify the response of the cavitation to fluctuations in test section conditions, quasistatic estimates are obtained for the cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor of the propeller. These parameters have previously been employed in developing system transfer functions for cavitating pumps. Finally, a model

  9. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  10. Influence of fuselage on propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troller, Theodor

    1928-01-01

    In the present paper I shall not consider the problem of the best arrangement of airplane and propeller, but only a simple method for designing a propeller for a given arrangement of airplane parts. The inflow to the propeller and hence the efficiency of the propeller is affected most by the fuselage.

  11. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  12. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  13. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  15. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  16. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  17. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  18. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate must give each variable pitch propeller an...

  19. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  20. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  1. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate only shall give each variable pitch propeller...

  2. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  3. The vortex interaction in a propeller/stator flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. T.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex interaction encounered in the flow field of a propeller and a stator has been investigated using smoke flow visualization. A stator at angle of attack was used to generate a line vortex which interacted with the helical vortex filaments generated by a propeller. Changes in the relative vortex strengths and vortex rotational directions yielded several distinct vortex structures. Axial flow in the vortex cores is determined to influence the development of the vortex interaction.

  4. Computational Modeling of Magnetically Actuated Propellant Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, John I.

    1996-01-01

    sufficient performance to support cryogenic propellant management tasks. In late 1992, NASA MSFC began a new investigation in this technology commencing with the design of the Magnetically-Actuated Propellant Orientation (MAPO) experiment. A mixture of ferrofluid and water is used to simulate the paramagnetic properties of LOX and the experiment is being flown on the KC-135 aircraft to provide a reduced gravity environment. The influence of a 0.4 Tesla ring magnet on flow into and out of a subscale Plexiglas tank is being recorded on video tape. The most efficient approach to evaluating the feasibility of MAPO is to compliment the experimental program with development of a computational tool to model the process of interest. The goal of the present research is to develop such a tool. Once confidence in its fidelity is established by comparison to data from the MAPO experiment, it can be used to assist in the design of future experiments and to study the parameter space of the process. Ultimately, it is hoped that the computational model can serve as a design tool for full-scale spacecraft applications.

  5. Investigation of propellant flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebman, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical, electromechanical, and fluidic concepts were studied as propellant flow control system for oxygen/hydrogen attitude control thrusters. A mechanical flow controller was designed, fabricated, and tested with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen over a range of inlet pressures and temperatures. Results of these tests are presented along with a discussion of a flight-weight design. Also presented are recommendations for further design and development. A detailed coverage of the fluidics investigation is included.

  6. Active Control of Cryogenic Propellants in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William

    2011-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space. This requires development of active control systems to mitigate the effect of heat leak. This work summarizes current state of the art, proposes operational design strategies and presents options for future architectures. Scaling and integration of active systems will be estimated. Ideal long range spacecraft systems will be proposed with Exploration architecture benefits considered.

  7. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  8. Propellant gaging for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazietti, A. J.; Orton, G. F.; Schreib, R.

    1986-06-01

    Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low-g tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were an ultrasonic point sensor system, a nucleonic gaging system, an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and an ultrasonic flowmeter. The first three systems provide a direct measurement of propellant quantity remaining, while the fourth system integrates (totalizes) the propellant flow to the engines and infers propellant remaining based on a known initial propellant load. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment. These systems offer high end-of-life accuracy potential, are nonintrusive (external to the tanks and feedlines), and are low in risk because of their good technology base. The Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment has been assembled and passed flight certification testing in late April 1986.

  9. Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    The Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU) is being designed to support spacecraft liquid propellant operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Eastern Test Range (ETR). The GPTU will have a 500 gallon capacity and be Department Of Transportation (DOT) approved for over-the-road transportation of hypergolic propellants. The use of these containers will allow the users to increase efficiency and reduce the following costs: design/construction, transportation (to/from the launch site), propellant transfer operations, and decontamination operations. The user also acquires the flexibility of transporting to an offsite location for processing or storage without obtaining special exemptions or permits. These containers will incorporate their own quantity gaging and temperature sensing systems, and be integrated onto a transport trailer which contains work platforms and a fluid transfer system.

  10. Propeller speed and phase sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collopy, Paul D. (Inventor); Bennett, George W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A speed and phase sensor counterrotates aircraft propellers. A toothed wheel is attached to each propeller, and the teeth trigger a sensor as they pass, producing a sequence of signals. From the sequence of signals, rotational speed of each propeller is computer based on time intervals between successive signals. The speed can be computed several times during one revolution, thus giving speed information which is highly up-to-date. Given that spacing between teeth may not be uniform, the signals produced may be nonuniform in time. Error coefficients are derived to correct for nonuniformities in the resulting signals, thus allowing accurate speed to be computed despite the spacing nonuniformities. Phase can be viewed as the relative rotational position of one propeller with respect to the other, but measured at a fixed time. Phase is computed from the signals.

  11. Self-Propelled Hovercraft Based on Cold Leidenfrost Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meng; Ji, Xing; Feng, Shangsheng; Yang, Qingzhen; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Leidenfrost phenomenon of liquid droplets levitating and dancing when placed upon a hot plate due to propulsion of evaporative vapor has been extended to many self-propelled circumstances. However, such self-propelled Leidenfrost devices commonly need a high temperature for evaporation and a structured solid substrate for directional movements. Here we observed a "cold Leidenfrost phenomenon" when placing a dry ice device on the surface of room temperature water, based on which we developed a controllable self-propelled dry ice hovercraft. Due to the sublimated vapor, the hovercraft could float on water and move in a programmable manner through designed structures. As demonstrations, we showed that the hovercraft could be used as a cargo ship or a petroleum contamination collector without consuming external power. This phenomenon enables a novel way to utilize programmable self-propelled devices on top of room temperature water, holding great potential for applications in energy, chemical engineering and biology. PMID:27338595

  12. Self-Propelled Hovercraft Based on Cold Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meng; Ji, Xing; Feng, Shangsheng; Yang, Qingzhen; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The Leidenfrost phenomenon of liquid droplets levitating and dancing when placed upon a hot plate due to propulsion of evaporative vapor has been extended to many self-propelled circumstances. However, such self-propelled Leidenfrost devices commonly need a high temperature for evaporation and a structured solid substrate for directional movements. Here we observed a “cold Leidenfrost phenomenon” when placing a dry ice device on the surface of room temperature water, based on which we developed a controllable self-propelled dry ice hovercraft. Due to the sublimated vapor, the hovercraft could float on water and move in a programmable manner through designed structures. As demonstrations, we showed that the hovercraft could be used as a cargo ship or a petroleum contamination collector without consuming external power. This phenomenon enables a novel way to utilize programmable self-propelled devices on top of room temperature water, holding great potential for applications in energy, chemical engineering and biology.

  13. Self-Propelled Hovercraft Based on Cold Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Ji, Xing; Feng, Shangsheng; Yang, Qingzhen; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Leidenfrost phenomenon of liquid droplets levitating and dancing when placed upon a hot plate due to propulsion of evaporative vapor has been extended to many self-propelled circumstances. However, such self-propelled Leidenfrost devices commonly need a high temperature for evaporation and a structured solid substrate for directional movements. Here we observed a “cold Leidenfrost phenomenon” when placing a dry ice device on the surface of room temperature water, based on which we developed a controllable self-propelled dry ice hovercraft. Due to the sublimated vapor, the hovercraft could float on water and move in a programmable manner through designed structures. As demonstrations, we showed that the hovercraft could be used as a cargo ship or a petroleum contamination collector without consuming external power. This phenomenon enables a novel way to utilize programmable self-propelled devices on top of room temperature water, holding great potential for applications in energy, chemical engineering and biology. PMID:27338595

  14. Instrumented propellant block test and stress analysis comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Richard E.; Perkins, Steven E.

    1992-02-01

    There is an on-going need to experimentally measure bond stresses in both termination stress and low-gradient stress areas of solid propellant rocket motors employing composite cases and having complex geometries. These measurements are needed to verify the finite element-predicted structural margins and environmental operating limits for these advanced tactical, strategic, and space motors. Chemical Systems Division undertook a program to develop stress transducers usable in low stress gradient regions and in termination, or high stress gradient, regions. The various transducers were evaluated in propellant blocks tested in tension and compression in the laboratory prior to being placed into structural test vehicles. Finite element analyses of the propellant test blocks were also performed to predict transducer response. The results of the instrumented propellant block tests are presented.

  15. Ignition of a granular propellant bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wildegger-Gaissmaier, A.E.; Johnston, I.R.

    1996-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is reported on the ignition process of a low vulnerability ammunition (LOVA) propellant bed in a 127-mm (5-in) bore gun charge. The theoretical investigation was with a two-phase flow interior ballistics code and the model predictions showed the marked influence the igniter system can have on pressure wave development, flame spreading, and the overall interior ballistics performance. A number of different igniter systems were investigated in an empty and propellant-filled gun simulator. Pressure, flame spreading, and high-speed film records were used to analyze the ignition/combustion event. The model predictions for flame spreading were confirmed qualitatively by the experimental data. Full-scale instrumented gun firings were conducted with the optimized igniter design. Pressure waves were not detected in the charge during the firings. Model predictions on overall interior ballistics performance agreed well with the firing data.

  16. Rocket Propellants Engine Design/Operations/Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    2002-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Astronautics Operations (LMA) was competitively awarded a contract May 21, 2001 for next generation launch system architecture definition and technology maturation. The Second Generation Launch Vehicle Program objectives include reducing the technical and programmatic risk of proceeding to full scale development of the system by establishing requirements for the next generation launch system and maturing critical technologies needed by the system. LMA will conduct analyses and trades to optimize the architecture ETO elements including configuration, conceptual designs, and preliminary operations definition. To fully understand the engine and propellant trades were conducted by LMA to yield the optimized architecture system from the operability, reliability, safety, and cost perspectives. A government/industry team addressed the required trade studies, the parameters and weighting factors, and the most critical trades were addressed. This report summarizes the participation of JCM Consulting, Inc. in the propellant trade study.

  17. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  18. Electromagnetic Pumps for Conductive-Propellant Feed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in high-power electric thrusters for application in nuclear-electric propulsion systems. Two of the most promising thrusters utilize liquid metal propellants: the lithium-fed magnetoplasmadynamic thruster and the bismuth-fed Hall thruster. An important element of part of the maturation of these thrusters will be the development of compact, reliable conductive-propellant feed system components. In the present paper we provide design considerations and experimental calibration data for electromagnetic (EM) pumps. The role of an electromagnetic pump in a liquid metal feed system is to establish a pressure gradient between the propellant reservoir and the thruster - to establish the requisite mass flow rate. While EM pumps have previously been used to a limited extent in nuclear reactor cooling loops, they have never been implemented in electric propulsion (EP) systems. The potential benefit of using EM pumps for EP are reliability (no moving parts) and the ability to precisely meter the propellant flow rate. We have constructed and tested EM pumps that use gallium, lithium, and bismuth propellants. Design details, test results (pressure developed versus current), and material compatibility issues are reported. It is concluded that EM pumps are a viable technology for application in both laboratory and flight EP conductive-propellant feed systems.

  19. Prediction of span loading of straight-wing/propeller combinations up to stall. [propeller slipstreams and wing loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcveigh, M. A.; Gray, L.; Kisielowski, E.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the spanwise lift distribution on straight-wing/propeller combinations. The method combines a modified form of the Prandtl wing theory with a realistic representation of the propeller slipstream distribution. The slipstream analysis permits calculations of the nonuniform axial and rotational slipstream velocity field of propeller/nacelle combinations. This nonuniform field was then used to calculate the wing lift distribution by means of the modified Prandtl wing theory. The theory was developed for any number of nonoverlapping propellers, on a wing with partial or full-span flaps, and is applicable throughout an aspect ratio range from 2.0 and higher. A computer program was used to calculate slipstream characteristics and wing span load distributions for a number of configurations for which experimental data are available, and favorable comparisons are demonstrated between the theoretical predictions and the existing data.

  20. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of A Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and test data validation of the thermal model that is the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented to validate the model are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade of the thermal vacuum test data, and was found to be relatively insensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed, however, to refine the thermal model to further improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank. Temperatures predictions in this portion were found to be 2-2.5 degrees Centigrade lower than the test data. A road map to apply the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  1. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  2. Unsteady blade pressure measurements on a model counterrotation propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    In an exploratory effort an advanced counterrotation propeller instrumented with blade-mounted pressure transducers was tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff and landing speed of Mach 0.20. The propeller's aft diameter was reduced to investigate possible noise reductions resulting from reduced blade row interaction with the tip vortex. The propeller was tested at three blade row spacings at fixed blade setting angles, at the maximum blade row spacing at higher blade setting angles and at propeller axis angles attack to the flow up to + or - 16 deg. A limited number of unsteady blade surface pressure measurements were made on both rotors of the model counterrotation propeller. Emphasis was placed on determining the effects of rotor-rotor interactions on the blade surface pressures. A unique method of processing the pressure signals was developed that enables even weak interaction waveforms and spectra to be separated from the total signal. The interaction on the aft rotor was many times stronger than that on the forward rotor. The fundamental rotor interaction tone exhibited complicated behavior but generally increased with rotational speed and blade setting angle and decreased with rotor spacing. With the propeller axis at an angle to the flow, the phase response of the aft rotor appeared to be significantly affected by the presence of the forward rotor.

  3. Simulating the Composite Propellant Manufacturing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Suzanne; Love, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    There is a strategic interest in understanding how the propellant manufacturing process contributes to military capabilities outside the United States. The paper will discuss how system dynamics (SD) has been applied to rapidly assess the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a specific composite propellant production complex. These facilities produce a commonly used solid propellant with military applications. The authors will explain how an SD model can be configured to match a specific production facility followed by a series of scenarios designed to analyze operational vulnerabilities. By using the simulation model to rapidly analyze operational risks, the analyst gains a better understanding of production complexities. There are several benefits of developing SD models to simulate chemical production. SD is an effective tool for characterizing complex problems, especially the production process where the cascading effect of outages quickly taxes common understanding. By programming expert knowledge into an SD application, these tools are transformed into a knowledge management resource that facilitates rapid learning without requiring years of experience in production operations. It also permits the analyst to rapidly respond to crisis situations and other time-sensitive missions. Most importantly, the quantitative understanding gained from applying the SD model lends itself to strategic analysis and planning.

  4. Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III; Scott, W.S.

    1995-02-01

    One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.

  5. New high energetic composite propellants for space applications: refrigerated solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franson, C.; Orlandi, O.; Perut, C.; Fouin, G.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.; Calabro, M.

    2009-09-01

    Cryogenic solid propellants (CSP) are a new kind of chemical propellants that use frozen products to ensure the mechanical resistance of the grain. The objective is to combine the high performances of liquid propulsion and the simplicity of solid propulsion. The CSP concept has few disadvantages. Storability is limited by the need of permanent cooling between motor loading and firing. It needs insulations that increase the dry mass. It is possible to limit significantly these drawbacks by using a cooling temperature near the ambient one. It will permit not to change the motor materials and to minimize the supplementary dry mass due to insulator. The designation "Refrigerated Solid Propellant" (RPS) is in that case more appropriate as "Cryogenic Solid Propellant." SNPE Matériaux Energétiques is developing new concept of composition e e with cooling temperature as near the ambient temperature as possible. They are homogeneous and the main ingredients are hydrogen peroxide, polymer and metal or metal hydride, they are called "HydroxalaneTM." This concept allows reaching a high energy level. The expected specific impulse is between 355 and 375 s against 315 s for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) / ammonium perchlorate (AP) / Al composition. However, the density is lower than for current propellants, between 1377 and 1462 kg/m3 compared to around 1800 kg/m3 . This is an handicap only for volume-limited application. Works have been carried out at laboratory scale to define the quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process to realize sample and small grain in a safer manner. To assess the process, a small grain with an internal bore had been realized with a composition based on aluminum and water. This grain had shown very good quality, without any defect, and good bonding properties on the insulator.

  6. A theoretical evaluation of aluminum gel propellant two-phase flow losses on vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Donn C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a hydrocarbon/Al/O2(gaseous) fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed to study secondary atomization effects on propellant combustion. This chamber model was coupled with a two dimensional, two-phase flow nozzle code to estimate the two-phase flow losses associated with solid combustion products. Results indicate that moderate secondary atomization significantly reduces propellant burnout distance and Al2O3 particle size; however, secondary atomization provides only moderate decreases in two-phase flow induced I(sub sp) losses. Despite these two-phase flow losses, a simple mission study indicates that aluminum gel propellants may permit a greater maximum payload than the hydrocarbon/O2 bi-propellant combination for a vehicle of fixed propellant volume. Secondary atomization was also found to reduce radiation losses from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls, primarily through reductions in propellant burnout distance.

  7. A theoretical evaluation of aluminum gel propellant two-phase flow losses on vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Donn C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1993-11-01

    A one-dimensional model of a hydrocarbon/Al/O2(gaseous) fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed to study secondary atomization effects on propellant combustion. This chamber model was coupled with a two dimensional, two-phase flow nozzle code to estimate the two-phase flow losses associated with solid combustion products. Results indicate that moderate secondary atomization significantly reduces propellant burnout distance and Al2O3 particle size; however, secondary atomization provides only moderate decreases in two-phase flow induced I(sub sp) losses. Despite these two-phase flow losses, a simple mission study indicates that aluminum gel propellants may permit a greater maximum payload than the hydrocarbon/O2 bi-propellant combination for a vehicle of fixed propellant volume. Secondary atomization was also found to reduce radiation losses from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls, primarily through reductions in propellant burnout distance.

  8. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  9. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  10. Propeller propulsion integration, phase 1. [conducted in langley 30 by 60 foot full scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.; Koenig, K.; Miley, S. J.; Mcwhorter, J.; Wells, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography was compiled of all readily available sources of propeller analytical and experimental studies conducted during the 1930 through 1960 period. A propeller test stand was developed for the measurement of thrust and torque characteristics of full scale general aviation propellers and installed in the LaRC 30 x 60 foot full scale wind tunnel. A tunnel entry was made during the January through February 1980 period. Several propellers were tested, but unforseen difficulties with the shaft thrust torque balance severely degraded the data quality.

  11. RSRM Propellant Grain Geometry Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Endicott, Joni B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is composed of viewgraphs about the RSRM propellant grain geometry modification project, which hopes to improve personnel and system safety by modifying propellant grain geometry to improve structural factors of safety. Using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis to determine blend radii required to reduce localized stresses, and ballistic predictions to ensure that the ballistics, ignition transient and Block Model have not been adversely affected, the project hopes to build and test FSM-10 with a new design, and determine flight effectivity pending successful test evaluation.

  12. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  13. Solid Propellant Grain Structural Integrity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural properties of solid propellant rocket grains were studied to determine the propellant resistance to stresses. Grain geometry, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and failure modes are discussed along with design criteria and recommended practices.

  14. 78 FR 45052 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... considered the comment received. Hartzell Propeller, Inc. supports the NPRM (78 FR 18255, dated March 26... specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18255). The NPRM... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...

  15. An analysis for high speed propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance prediction. Volume 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program, the Propeller Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Analysis (PANPER), was developed for the prediction and analysis of the performance and airflow of propeller-nacelle configurations operating over a forward speed range inclusive of high speed flight typical of recent propfan designs. A propeller lifting line, wake program was combined with a compressible, viscous center body interaction program, originally developed for diffusers, to compute the propeller-nacelle flow field, blade loading distribution, propeller performance, and the nacelle forebody pressure and viscous drag distributions. The computer analysis is applicable to single and coaxial counterrotating propellers. The blade geometries can include spanwise variations in sweep, droop, taper, thickness, and airfoil section type. In the coaxial mode of operation the analysis can treat both equal and unequal blade number and rotational speeds on the propeller disks. The nacelle portion of the analysis can treat both free air and tunnel wall configurations including wall bleed. The analysis was applied to many different sets of flight conditions using selected aerodynamic modeling options. The influence of different propeller nacelle-tunnel wall configurations was studied. Comparisons with available test data for both single and coaxial propeller configurations are presented along with a discussion of the results.

  16. Note on the Effects of First-Order Aerodynamic Loads on Propeller Shaft Loads with Emphasis on Counterrotating Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Vernon L.; McCloud, John L., III; Yaggy, Paul F.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation of the 1XP excitation of inclined single-rotation propellers has indicated a new concept for determining propeller shaft forces and moments of an inclined propeller. This report presents preliminary results, in particular to the counterrotating propeller.

  17. Fatal propeller injuries: three autopsy case reports.

    PubMed

    Ihama, Yoko; Ninomiya, Kenji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

    2009-10-01

    Most propeller injuries occur at water recreational facilities such as those with provision for water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving. Propeller injuries resulting from nautical accidents can be fatal. The sharp blades of propellers rotating at high speeds cause multiple and serious injuries such as deep laceration, chop wounds, bone fractures and mutilation of extremities. We present the autopsy reports of three people who died after colliding with boat propellers.

  18. Micarta propellers IV : technical methods of design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used in design of Micarta propellers. The most direct method for working out the design of a Micarta propeller is to start with the diameter and blade angles of a wooden propeller suited for a particular installation and then to apply one of the plan forms suitable for Micarta propellers. This allows one to obtain the corresponding blade widths and to then use these angles and blade widths for an aerodynamic analysis.

  19. Towards a renewal of the propeller in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, D.; Jacquet, P.

    1985-01-01

    The reasons for reconsidering the propeller for aircraft propulsion, the areas of application, and necessary developments are considered. Rising fuel costs and an increasing theoretical and experimental data base for turboprop engines have demonstrated that significant cost savings can be realized by the use of propellers. Propellers are well-suited to powering aircraft traveling at speeds up to Mach 0.65. Work is progressing on the development of a 150 seat aircraft which has a cruise speed of Mach 0.8, powered by a turboprop attached to an engine of 15,000 shp. Aeroelasticity analyses ae necessary in order to characterize the behavior of thin profile propfan blades, particularly to predict the oscillations through the entire functional range. High-power reducers must be developed, and the level of cabin noise must be controlled to less than 90 dB. Commercial applications are predicted for turboprops in specific instances.

  20. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  1. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  2. Aerosol propellant interference with clinical mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, E D; Sivarajan, M

    1991-04-01

    Metered dose inhalers containing halogenated propellants may interfere with mass spectrometer quantitation of halogenated inhalation anesthetics. We identify the propellant(s) in a commercially available metered dose inhaler that caused erroneous mass spectrometer readings. In addition, we identify the causes of different types of interference in different mass spectrometers. PMID:2072131

  3. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  4. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  5. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  6. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  7. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  8. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  9. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  10. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  11. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  12. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  13. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  14. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section 189... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  15. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  16. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  17. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  19. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  20. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  1. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  2. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  3. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  4. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  5. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  7. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  8. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  9. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  10. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  12. Micarta Propellers II : Method of Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    The methods used in manufacturing Micarta propellers differ considerably from those employed with wood propellers on account of the hardness of the materials. The propellers must be formed accurately to size in a mold and afterwards balanced without the customary trimming of the material from the tips. Described here are the pressing and molding processes, filing, boring, balancing, and curing.

  13. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  14. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMDs), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LADs), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  15. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMD's), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD's), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity of these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  16. The Propeller and the Frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Blériot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 year period over which Blériot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  17. Novel sequences propel familiar folds.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Zahra; Paoli, Massimo

    2002-04-01

    Recent structure determinations have made new additions to a set of strikingly different sequences that give rise to the same topology. Proteins with a beta propeller fold are characterized by extreme sequence diversity despite the similarity in their three-dimensional structures. Several fold predictions, based in part on sequence repeats thought to match modular beta sheets, have been proved correct.

  18. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-20

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of {approx}4 years, similar to the {approx}3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  19. Propeller dynamic and aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of propeller blade dynamics are considered including those factors which are exciting the blades and the dynamic response of the blades to the excitations. Methods for treating this dynamic system are described and problems are discussed which may arise with advanced turboprop designs employing thin, swept blades.

  20. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration For Long Duration In-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Motil, Susan M.; Kortes, Trudy F.; Taylor, William J.; McRight, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    The high specific impulse of cryogenic propellants can provide a significant performance advantage for in-space transfer vehicles. The upper stages of the Saturn V and various commercial expendable launch vehicles have used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants; however, the application of cryogenic propellants has been limited to relatively short duration missions due to the propensity of cryogens to absorb environmental heat resulting in fluid losses. Utilizing advanced cryogenic propellant technologies can enable the efficient use of high performance propellants for long duration missions. Crewed mission architectures for beyond low Earth orbit exploration can significantly benefit from this capability by developing realistic launch spacing for multiple launch missions, by prepositioning stages and by staging propellants at an in-space depot. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Office of the Chief Technologist is formulating a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission to mitigate the technical and programmatic risks of infusing these advanced technologies into the development of future cryogenic propellant stages or in-space propellant depots. NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. This mission will test and validate key cryogenic technological capabilities and has the objectives of demonstrating advanced thermal control technologies to minimize propellant loss during loiter, demonstrating robust operation in a microgravity environment, and demonstrating efficient propellant transfer on orbit. The status of the demonstration mission concept development, technology demonstration planning and technology maturation activities in preparation for flight system development are described.

  1. A Practical, Affordable Cryogenic Propellant Depot Based on ULA's Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; O'Neil, Gary; Pitchford, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Mankind is embarking on the next step in the journey of human exploration. We are returning to the moon and eventually moving to Mars and beyond. The current Exploration architecture seeks a balance between the need for a robust infrastructure on the lunar surface, and the performance limitations of Ares I and V. The ability to refuel or top-off propellant tanks from orbital propellant depots offers NASA the opportunity to cost effectively and reliably satisfy these opposing requirements. The ability to cache large orbital quantities of propellant is also an enabling capability for missions to Mars and beyond. This paper describes an option for a propellant depot that enables orbital refueling supporting Exploration, national security, science and other space endeavors. This proposed concept is launched using a single EELV medium class rocket and thus does not require any orbital assembly. The propellant depot provides cryogenic propellant storage that utilizes flight proven technologies augmented with technologies currently under development. The propellant depot system, propellant management, flight experience, and key technologies are also discussed. Options for refueling the propellant depot along with an overview of Exploration architecture impacts are also presented.

  2. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  3. Propellant Analysis and Distillation Unit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Michelle H.; Spangler, Cindy; Barrera, Louis K.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) routinely operates hypergolic propulsion systems. Some of the onsite activities include performing long duration studies on the operational life of these systems. A few of them have been in use for over twenty years. During this span of time contamination has built up in the propellant and some of the distribution infrastructure. This study investigated the nature of this contamination, the pathology of its generation, and developed a process for removal of the contamination that was cost efficient with minimal waste generation.

  4. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  5. Analysis and test for space shuttle propellant dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. L.; Demchak, L. J.; Tegart, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to develop an analytical model capable of predicting the dynamic interaction forces on the Shuttle External Tank, due to large amplitude propellant slosh during RTLS separation. The report details low-g drop tower and KC-135 test programs that were conducted to investigate propellant reorientation during RTLS. In addition, the development of a nonlinear finite element slosh model (LAMPS2, two dimensional, and one LAMPS3, three dimensional) is presented. Correlation between the model and test data is presented as a verification of the modeling approach.

  6. Electromagnetic Pumps for Conductive-Propellant Feed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Thomas E.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dehoyos, Amado

    2005-01-01

    Prototype electromagnetic pumps for use with lithium and bismuth propellants were constructed and tested. Such pumps may be used to pressurize future electric propulsion liquid metal feed systems, with the primary advantages being the compactness and simplicity versus alternative pressurization technologies. Design details for two different pumps are described: the first was designed to withstand (highly corrosive) lithium propellant, and t he second was designed to tolerate the high temperature required to pump liquid bismuth. Both qualitative and quantitative test results are presented. Open-loop tests demonstrated the capability of each device to electromagnetically pump its design propellant (lithium or bismuth). A second set of tests accurately quantified the pump pressure developed as a function of current. These experiments, which utilized a more easily handled material (gallium), demonstrated continuously-adjustable pump pressure levels ranging from 0-100 Torr for corresponding input current levels of 0-75 A. While the analysis and testing in this study specifically targeted lithium and bismuth propellants, the underlying design principles should be useful in implementing liquid metal pumps in any conductive-propellant feed system.

  7. Recent Advances and Applications in Cryogenic Propellant Densification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review several historical cryogenic test programs that were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio over the past fifty years. More recently these technology programs were intended to study new and improved denser forms of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic rocket fuels. Of particular interest are subcooled cryogenic propellants. This is due to the fact that they have a significantly higher density (eg. triple-point hydrogen, slush etc.), a lower vapor pressure and improved cooling capacity over the normal boiling point cryogen. This paper, which is intended to be a historical technology overview, will trace the past and recent development and testing of small and large-scale propellant densification production systems. Densifier units in the current GRC fuels program, were designed and are capable of processing subcooled LH2 and L02 propellant at the X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) scale. One final objective of this technical briefing is to discuss some of the potential benefits and application which propellant densification technology may offer the industrial cryogenics production and end-user community. Density enhancements to cryogenic propellants (LH2, LO2, CH4) in rocket propulsion and aerospace application have provided the opportunity to either increase performance of existing launch vehicles or to reduce the overall size, mass and cost of a new vehicle system.

  8. Effects of Proplet on Propeller Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. H.; Song, W. P.; Yang, X. D.

    2011-09-01

    Many studies have proved the validation of winglets on improving aerodynamic efficiency. Similar to winglet, a suitable proplet can improve the efficiency of a propeller. The effect of proplet on propeller performance is investigated in this paper. With a cell-centered finite-volume scheme, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved on a chimera grid system to simulate the flow around propeller to obtain the aerodynamic performance. A propeller designed for high altitude at 20 km with a diameter of 6.8 m is used as a baseline propeller. The effect of chord length and incidence angle of proplet tip on 8the efficiency of the propeller are also considered. The simulation results demonstrate that a proper proplet leads to weaker blade tip vortex, which is helpful to improve the efficiency of the propeller.

  9. Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetta, J. G.; Hochstein, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    developing a correlation that was independent of fluid volume and tank geometry. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the magnetic Bond number is an effective dimensionless parameter for modeling and understanding such systems. Further, this study supports the conclusion that magnetic storage appears to be a viable emerging technology for cryogenic propellant management systems that merits further computational investigation and space-based experimentation to establish the technology base required for future spacecraft design.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Method for Spacecraft Propellant Slosh Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Powers, Joseph F.; Yang, Hong Q.

    2015-01-01

    A scalable computational approach to the simulation of propellant tank sloshing dynamics in microgravity is presented. In this work, we use the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to approximate the behavior of two-phase, single-component isothermal flows at very low Bond numbers. Through the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state and a modified multiple relaxation time (MRT) collision operator, the proposed method can simulate thermodynamically consistent phase transitions at temperatures and density ratios consistent with typical spacecraft cryogenic propellants, for example, liquid oxygen. Determination of the tank forces and moments relies upon the global momentum conservation of the fluid domain, and a parametric wall wetting model allows tuning of the free surface contact angle. Development of the interface is implicit and no interface tracking approach is required. Numerical examples illustrate the method's application to predicting bulk fluid motion including lateral propellant slosh in low-g conditions.

  11. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-09-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  12. Aeroelastic analysis for propellers - mathematical formulations and program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.; Johnson, S. A.; Chi, R. M.; Gangwani, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical development is presented for a specialized propeller dedicated version of the G400 rotor aeroelastic analysis. The G400PROP analysis simulates aeroelastic characteristics particular to propellers such as structural sweep, aerodynamic sweep and high subsonic unsteady airloads (both stalled and unstalled). Formulations are presented for these expanded propeller related methodologies. Results of limited application of the analysis to realistic blade configurations and operating conditions which include stable and unstable stall flutter test conditions are given. Sections included for enhanced program user efficiency and expanded utilization include descriptions of: (1) the structuring of the G400PROP FORTRAN coding; (2) the required input data; and (3) the output results. General information to facilitate operation and improve efficiency is also provided.

  13. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  14. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1997-01-01

    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  15. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, D. C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary atomization and ignition characteristics of aluminum/hydrocarbon gel propellants were investigated. Models of gel droplet shell formation were applied to aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon propellants to examine the effects of solid loading and ultimate particle size on the minimum droplet diameter permitting secondary atomization. A one-dimensional model of a gel-fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed. A model for radiant heat transfer from hot aluminum oxide particles to the chamber walls is included. A two-dimensional, two-phase nozzle code was used to estimate nozzle two-phase losses and overall engine performance.

  16. A model for the burning rates of composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical model of the steady-state burning of composite solid propellants is presented. An improved burning rate model is achieved by incorporating an improved AP monopropellant model, a separate energy balance for the binder in which a portion of the diffusion flame is used to heat the binder, proper use of the binder regression rate in the model, and a model for the combustion of the energetic binder component of CMDB propellants. Also, an improved correlation and model of aluminum agglomeration is developed which properly describes compositional trends.

  17. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

  18. Processing solid propellants for recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.

    1994-05-01

    Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  19. Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloznalis, P. J.; Lupien, R.; Sudbay, M.; Dangelo, M.; Perry, B.; Vidal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology to transfer safely and easily fluids in microgravity is necessary to extend the duration of future space missions. The absence of gravity in space causes fluids to behave much differently than on Earth, making propellant resupply extremely difficult. The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of the satellites being designed for refueling. The GRO's thrusters are fueled by the monopropellant hydrazine that as a vapor is unstable above 200 F. This has a major impact on refueling system design and operation. A system using high pressure gas and flexible diaphragms to transfer propellant from a supply vehicle to the GRO was proposed and designed. A ground-based system utilizing the transfer technique of ullage recompression was built to investigate the process.

  20. Applicability Study of Composite Laminates to the Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive application of light weight composite materials is one of the major technical challenges for drastic reduction of structural weight of the planned reusable launch vehicles (RLV) and space planes. Cryogenic propellant tanks are the dominating structural components of the vehicle structure and thus the application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) to these components is one of the most promising but challenging technologies for achieving the aimed goal of weight reduction. Research effort has been made to scrutinize the cryogenic mechanical performance of currently available candidates of CFRP material systems suitable for use under cryogenic conditions. Seven different types of material systems of CFRP are chosen and are experimentally and analytically evaluated to discuss their applicability to the liquid propellant tanks and to provide basic information for material selections. Static tensile tests were conducted with quasi-isotropic laminates to acquire static strengths, both under cryogenic and room temperatures. The development of matrix cracks and free-edge delaminations were also experimentally investigated and were compared with the numerical calculations. Interlaminar fracture toughness at cryogenic temperature was also evaluated to investigate the damage susceptibility of the materials. The decrease in matrix crack onset stresses observed in the laminate performance experiments suggested that the propellant leakage may be a key issue when applying CFRP to the propellant tanks, as well as the durability concern. Thus the propellant leakage under matrix crack accumulation was simulated by the gas helium leakage tests. Leakage model was also developed and successfully applied to the prediction of the propellant leakage. Preliminary results of adhesive joint tests under cryogenic conditions will also be referred to.

  1. Propeller Study. Part 2: the Design of Propellers for Minimum Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Woan, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The design of propellers which are efficient and yet produce minimum noise requires accurate determinations of both the flow over the propeller. Topics discussed in relating aerodynamic propeller design and propeller acoustics include the necessary approximations and assumptions involved, the coordinate systems and their transformations, the geometry of the propeller blade, and the problem formulations including the induced velocity, required in the determination of mean lines of blade sections, and the optimization of propeller noise. The numerical formulation for the lifting-line model are given. Some applications and numerical results are included.

  2. Alternate propellant program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A.; West, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    Candidate propellant systems for the shuttle booster solid rocket motor (SRM), which would eliminate, or greatly reduce, the amount of HCl produced in the exhaust of the shuttle SRM were investigated. Ammonium nitrate was selected for consideration as the main oxidizer, with ammonium perchlorate and the nitramine, cyclo-tetramethylene-tetranitramine as secondary oxidizers. The amount of ammonium perchlorate used was limited to an amount which would produce an exhaust containing no more than 3% HCl.

  3. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  4. Self-propelled Leidenfrost droplets.

    PubMed

    Linke, H; Alemán, B J; Melling, L D; Taormina, M J; Francis, M J; Dow-Hygelund, C C; Narayanan, V; Taylor, R P; Stout, A

    2006-04-21

    We report that liquids perform self-propelled motion when they are placed in contact with hot surfaces with asymmetric (ratchetlike) topology. The pumping effect is observed when the liquid is in the Leidenfrost regime (the film-boiling regime), for many liquids and over a wide temperature range. We propose that liquid motion is driven by a viscous force exerted by vapor flow between the solid and the liquid. PMID:16712160

  5. Self-Propelled Leidenfrost Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, H.; Alemán, B. J.; Melling, L. D.; Taormina, M. J.; Francis, M. J.; Dow-Hygelund, C. C.; Narayanan, V.; Taylor, R. P.; Stout, A.

    2006-04-01

    We report that liquids perform self-propelled motion when they are placed in contact with hot surfaces with asymmetric (ratchetlike) topology. The pumping effect is observed when the liquid is in the Leidenfrost regime (the film-boiling regime), for many liquids and over a wide temperature range. We propose that liquid motion is driven by a viscous force exerted by vapor flow between the solid and the liquid.

  6. High performance N2O4/amine elements. [propellant tests of hypergolic rocket propellants used in Space Shuttle Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, A. Y.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that cause reactive stream separation, commonly called blowapart, for hypergolic propellants. The investigation was limited to a N2O4/MMH propellant combination and to a range of engine-operating conditions applicable to the space tug and space shuttle attitude control and orbital maneuvering engines. Primary test variables were: chamber pressure (1 to 20 atm), fuel injection temperature (283 to 400 K)m and propellant injection velocity (9 to 50 m/s). The injector configuration studied was the unlike doublet. The reactive stream separation experiments were conducted using special combustors designed to permit photography of the near-injector spray combustion flow field. Analysis of color motion pictures provided the means of determining the occurrence of reactive stream separation.

  7. Hall-Effect Thruster Utilizing Bismuth as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James; Gasdaska, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Robin, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-model Hall-effect spacecraft thruster was developed that utilizes bismuth as the propellant. Xenon was used in most prior Hall-effect thrusters. Bismuth is an attractive alternative because it has a larger atomic mass, a larger electron-impact-ionization cross-section, and is cheaper and more plentiful.

  8. Advanced technologies available for future solid propellant grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thépénier, Jean; Fonblanc, Gilles

    2001-03-01

    Significant advances have been made during the last decade in several fields of solid propulsion: the advances have enabled new savings in the motor development phase and recurring costs, because they help limit the number of prototypes and tests. The purpose of the paper is to describe the improvements achieved by SNPE in solid grain technologies, making these technologies available for new developments in more efficient and reliable future SRMs: new energetic molecules, new solid propellants, new processes for grain manufacturing, quick response grain design tools associated with advanced models for grain performance predictions. Using its expertise in chemical synthesis, SNPE develops new molecules to fit new energetic material requirements. Tests based on new propellant formulations have produced good results in the propellant performance/safety behavior ratio. New processes have been developed simultaneously to reduce the manufacturing costs of the new propellants. In addition, the grain design has been optimized by using the latest generation of predictive theoretical tools supported by a large data bank of experimental parameters resulting from over 30 years' experience in solid propulsion: Computer-aided method for the preliminary grain design Advanced models for SRM operating and performance predictions

  9. Advanced propeller noise prediction in the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Spence, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The time domain code ASSPIN gives acousticians a powerful technique of advanced propeller noise prediction. Except for nonlinear effects, the code uses exact solutions of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with exact blade geometry and kinematics. By including nonaxial inflow, periodic loading noise, and adaptive time steps to accelerate computer execution, the development of this code becomes complete.

  10. A Text-Messaging and Pedometer Program to Promote Physical Activity in People at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Development of the PROPELS Follow-On Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Katie; Sutton, Stephen; Hardeman, Wendy; Troughton, Jacqui; Yates, Tom; Griffin, Simon; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represent a promising strategy for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. The PROPELS trial investigates whether structured group-based education alone or supplemented with a follow-on support program combining self-monitoring with pedometers and tailored text-messaging is effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity among people at high risk of T2DM. Objective This paper describes the iterative development of the PROPELS follow-on support program and presents evidence on its acceptability and feasibility. Methods We used a modified mHealth development framework with four phases: (1) conceptualization of the follow-on support program using theory and evidence, (2) formative research including focus groups (n=15, ages 39-79 years), (3) pre-testing focus groups using a think aloud protocol (n=20, ages 52-78 years), and (4) piloting (n=11). Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach, with findings from each phase informing subsequent phases. Results The first three phases informed the structure, nature, and content of the follow-on support program, including the frequency of text messages, the need for tailored content and two-way interaction, the importance of motivational messages based on encouragement and reinforcement of affective benefits (eg, enjoyment) with minimal messages about weight and T2DM risk, and the need for appropriate language. The refined program is personalized and tailored to the individual’s perceived confidence, previous activity levels, and physical activity goals. The pilot phase indicated that the program appeared to fit well with everyday routines and was easy to use by older adults. Conclusions We developed a feasible and innovative text messaging and pedometer program based on evidence and behavior change theory and grounded in the experiences, views, and needs of people at high diabetes risk. A large scale trial is testing the effectiveness of this 4-year

  11. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turns, S. R.; Mueller, D. C.; Scott, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Research designed to develop detailed knowledge of the secondary atomization and ignition characteristics of aluminum slurry propellants was started. These processes are studied because they are the controlling factors limiting the combustion efficiency of aluminum slurry propellants in rocket applications. A burner and spray rig system allowing the study of individual slurry droplets having diameters from about 10 to 100 microns was designed and fabricated. The burner generates a near uniform high temperature environment from the merging of 72 small laminar diffusion flames above a honeycomb matrix. This design permits essentially adiabatic operation over a wide range of stoichiometries without danger of flashback. A single particle sizing system and velocimeter also were designed and assembled. Light scattered from a focused laser beam is related to the particle (droplet) size, while the particle velocity is determined by its transit time through the focal volume. Light from the combustion of aluminum is also sensed to determine if ignition was achieved. These size and velocity measurements will allow the determination of disruption and ignition times as functions of drop sizes and ambient conditions.

  12. Quantitative computer representation of propellant processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, M. D.; Nikravesh, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    With the technology currently available for the manufacture of propellants, it is possible to control the variance of the total specific impulse obtained from the rocket boosters to within approximately five percent. Though at first inspection this may appear to be a reasonable amount of control, when it is considered that any uncertainty in the total kinetic energy delivered to the spacecraft translates into a design with less total usable payload, even this degree of uncertainty becomes unacceptable. There is strong motivation to control the variance in the specific impulse of the shuttle's solid boosters. Any small gains in the predictability and reliability of the booster would lead to a very substantial payoff in earth-to-orbit payload. The purpose of this study is to examine one aspect of the manufacture of solid propellants, namely, the mixing process. The traditional approach of computational fluid mechanics is notoriously complex and time consuming. Certain simplifications are made, yet certain fundamental aspects of the mixing process are investigated as a whole. It is possible to consider a mixing process in a mathematical sense as an operator, F, which maps a domain back upon itself. An operator which demonstrates good mixing should be able to spread any subset of the domain completely and evenly throughout the whole domain by successive applications of the mixing operator, F. Two and three dimensional models are developed and graphical visualization two and three dimensional mixing processes are presented.

  13. Manned Mars missions using propellant from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. ); Redd, L.R. )

    1993-01-10

    .A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

  14. Thermodynamic Vent System Applied as Propellant Delivery System for Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Responding to a request from the Air Force, NASA Lewis Research Center engineers designed a combination pressure control and propellant delivery system based on thermodynamic vent system (TVS) technology. The Air Force is designing a new type of orbit transfer vehicle that uses energy from sunlight to both propel and power the vehicle. Because this vehicle uses propellant at a substantially slower rate than higher-energy rockets, it needed the Lewis-developed TVS technology for long-duration storage of cryogen propellants. Lewis engineers, in conjunction with industry partners, showed how this TVS technology could also be used to deliver propellant to the thruster. The Air Force has now begun the ground test demonstration phase. After successful completion of ground testing, the Air Force plans to use this technology in a space flight as early as 1999.

  15. Prediction of high speed propeller flow fields using a three-dimensional Euler analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bober, L. J.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

    1983-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of classical propeller theory, a computer program, NASPROP-E, was developed which solves for the flow field surrounding a multibladed propeller and axisymmetric nacelle combination using a finite difference method. The governing equations are the three dimensional unsteady Euler equations written in a cylindrical coordinate system. They are marched in time until a steady state solution is obtained. The Euler equations require no special treatment to model the blade work vorticity. The equations are solved using an implicit approximate factorization method. Numerical results are presented which have greatly increased the understanding of high speed propeller flow fields. Numerical results for swirl angle downstream of the propeller and propeller power coefficient are higher than experimental results. The radial variation of coefficient are higher than experimental results. The radial variation of swirl angle, however, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The predicted variation of power coefficient with blade angle agrees very well with data.

  16. Modeling of heat generation in ammonia-treated solid rocket propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Raun, R.L.; Isom, K.B.

    1995-06-01

    With the end of the Cold War, safe, environmentally sound separation, recycling, and disposal of ingredients in solid rocket propellants and munitions has become a national priority. One approach to demilitarize solid rocket propellants is treatment with ammonia. Ammonia extracts the oxidizers ammonium perchlorate and HMX, yielding a solid reside that is more suitable for incineration and less sensitive to impact and other modes of accidental initiation. Ammonia treatment of nitroglycerin-containing propellants is complicated by an exothermic reaction between ammonia and nitroglycerin. If not removed, the heat generated by this reaction can cause propellant ignition. To help design safe treatment processes, a model for the ammonia-propellant reaction was developed, which integrates transient energy and species conservation equations to simulate ammonia diffusion, heat generation, and heat flow in a propellant and in the solid residue resulting from ammonia treatment. It was calibrated using residue thickness and thermocouple data for one propellant. The calibrated model was used to predict conditions leading to ignition of thin propellant strips. The results agree well with experimental observations.

  17. Summary and recent results from the NASA advanced High Speed Propeller Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Mikkelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced high-speed propellers offer large performance improvements for aircraft that cruise in the Mach 0.7 to 0.8 speed regime. The current status of the NASA research program on high-speed propeller aerodynamics, acoustics, and aeroelastics is described. Recent wind tunnel results for five 8- to 10-blade advanced models are compared with analytical predictions. Test results show that blade sweep was important in achieving net efficiencies near 80 percent at Mach 0.8 and reducing near-field cruise noise by dB. Lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are under development and some initial lifting line results are compared with propeller force and probe data. Some initial laser velocimeter measurements of the flow field velocities of an 8-bladed 45 deg swept propeller are shown. Experimental aeroelastic results indicate that cascade effects and blade sweep strongly affect propeller aeroelastic characteristics. Comparisons of propeller near-field noise data with linear acoustic theory indicate that the theory adequate predicts near-field noise for subsonic tip speeds but overpredicts the noise for supersonic tip speeds. Potential large gains in propeller efficiency of 7 to 11 percent at Mach 0.8 may be possible with advanced counter-rotation propellers.

  18. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready...

  19. 14 CFR 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reinforcement near propellers. 25.875....875 Reinforcement near propellers. (a) Each part of the airplane near the propeller tips must be... propeller. (b) No window may be near the propeller tips unless it can withstand the most severe ice...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready...

  2. 14 CFR 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reinforcement near propellers. 25.875....875 Reinforcement near propellers. (a) Each part of the airplane near the propeller tips must be... propeller. (b) No window may be near the propeller tips unless it can withstand the most severe ice...

  3. 14 CFR 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reinforcement near propellers. 25.875....875 Reinforcement near propellers. (a) Each part of the airplane near the propeller tips must be... propeller. (b) No window may be near the propeller tips unless it can withstand the most severe ice...

  4. 14 CFR 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reinforcement near propellers. 25.875....875 Reinforcement near propellers. (a) Each part of the airplane near the propeller tips must be... propeller. (b) No window may be near the propeller tips unless it can withstand the most severe ice...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 23.1149... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) If there are propeller... propeller; and (2) Simultaneous control of all propellers. (b) The controls must allow ready...

  7. 14 CFR 25.875 - Reinforcement near propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reinforcement near propellers. 25.875....875 Reinforcement near propellers. (a) Each part of the airplane near the propeller tips must be... propeller. (b) No window may be near the propeller tips unless it can withstand the most severe ice...

  8. The History of Solid-Propellant Rocketry: What We Do and Do Not Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Contributions to the evolution of solid-propellant rocketry have come from a variety of sources. World War II research on large solids enabled one company to capitalize on work in the area of castable double-base propellants. Separate development of castable composite propellants led to production of Polaris and Minuteman powerplants. Pivotal to the development of these missiles were Edward Hall's advocacy of the Minuteman missile within the Air Force and contract funding to resolve problems. The discovery that adding large amounts of aluminum significantly increased the specific impulse of a castable composite propellant further aided large-missile technology. These separate lines of research led to the development of large solid-propellant motors and boosters. Many more discoveries went into the development of large solid-propellant motors. Ammonium perchlorate replaced potassium perchlorate as an oxidizer in the late 1940's, and binders were developed. Discoveries important in the evolution of large solid-propellant motors appear to have resulted from innovators' education and skills, an exposure to contemporary problems, an awareness of theory but a willingness not to let it dictate empirical investigations, and proper empirical techniques. Other important contributions are the adequate funding and exchange of information. However, many questions remain about these and other innovations.

  9. Measuring Combustion Advance in Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Set of gauges on solid-propellant rocket motor with electrically insulating case measures advance of combustion front and local erosion rates of propellant and insulation. Data furnished by gauges aid in motor design, failure analysis, and performance prediction. Technique useful in determining propellant uniformity and electrical properties of exhaust plum. Gauges used both in flight and on ground. Foilgauge technique also useful in basic research on pulsed plasmas or combustion of solids.

  10. A Computational Investigation for Determining the Natural Frequencies and Damping Effects of Diaphragm-Implemented Spacecraft Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahen, Brian; Bernier, Adrien; Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marsell, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Spin-stabilization maneuvers are typically performed by spacecraft entering low-earth orbit to maintain attitude stability. These maneuvers induce periodic fluid movement inside the spacecraft's propellant tank known as fuel slosh, which is responsible for creating forces and moments on the sidewalls of the propellant tank. These forces and moments adversely affect spin-stabilization and risk jeopardizing the mission of the spacecraft. Therefore, propellant tanks are designed with propellant management devices (PMD's) such as barnes or diaphragms which work to counteract the forces and moments associated with fuel slosh. However, despite the presence of PMD's, the threat of spin-stabilization interference still exists should the propellant tank be excited at its natural frequency. When the fluid is excited at its natural frequency, the forces and moments acting on the propellant tank are amplified and may result in destabilizing the spacecraft. Thus, a computational analysis is conducted concerning diaphragm-implemented propellant tanks excited at their natural frequencies. Using multi-disciplinary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, computational models are developed to reflect potential scenarios that spacecraft propellant tanks could experience. By simulating the propellant tank under a wide array of parameters and variables including fill-level, gravity and diaphragm material and shape, a better understanding is gained as to how these parameters individually and collectively affect liquid propellant tanks and ultimately, spacecraft attitude dynamics.

  11. Wet air oxidation of propellant wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.; Copa, W.M.; Deitrich, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Wet Air Oxidation studies have been conducted on a number of propellant wastewaters, to assess destruction levels of specific propellant components. OTTO fuel, used as a torpedo propellant, and hydrazine based rocket fuels were propellants of interest. OTTO fuel wastewaters contain substantial amounts of propylene glycol dinitrate. Hydrazine based rocket fuel wastewaters contain hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. Laboratory Wet Air Oxidation studies on OTTO fuel wastewaters indicated that a 99+ percent destruction of propylene glycol dinitrate can be achieved at an oxidation temperature of 280/sup 0/C.

  12. Catalytic ignitor for regenerative propellant gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the ignitor and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  13. Catalytic Ignitor for Regenerative Propellant Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the igniter and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  14. The design of propeller blade roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, G

    1942-01-01

    Predicated on the assumption of certain normal conditions for engine and propeller, simple expressions for the static and dynamic stresses of propeller blade roots are evolved. They, in combination with the fatigue strength diagram of the employed material, afford for each engine power one certain operating point by which the state of stress serving as a basis for the design of the root is defined. Different stress cases must be analyzed, depending on the vibration tendency of engine and use of propeller. The solution affords an insight into the possible introduction of different size classes of propeller.

  15. Low speed propellers: Impact of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivity studies performed to evaluate the potential of several advanced technological elements on propeller performance, noise, weight, and cost for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Studies indicate that the application of advanced technologies to general aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft an average of ten percent, meeting current regulatory noise limits. Through the use of composite blade construction, up to 25 percent propeller weight reduction can be achieved. This weight reduction in addition to seven percent propeller efficiency improvements through application of advanced technologies result in four percent reduction in direct operating costs, ten percent reduction in aircraft acquisition cost, and seven percent lower gross weight for general aviation aircraft.

  16. Combustion of Gas-Permeable Gun Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxiang; Yang, Weitao; Ying, Sanjiu; Peng, Jinhua

    2015-07-01

    Foamed propellants prepared by supercritical fluid foaming show considerably high burning rates due to their porous structures. To further investigate combustion of foamed propellants, quenched combustion experiments and closed-vessel experiments were carried out, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe their porous morphology. The SEM images show that foamed propellant grains exhibit a porous core and compact skin. The research results show that the porous core is first burned out and the compact skin is burned out at the later burning stage. The results also demonstrate that pore size exerts an important effect on the burning behaviors of foamed propellants.

  17. Environmentally Compliant Disposal Method for Heavy Metal Containing Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, M. W.; Erickson, E. D.; Byrd, E. R.; Crispin, K. W. R.; Ferguson, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT An environmentally friendly, cost effective technology has been developed and demonstrated by a team of Naval Air Warfare Center and Lockheed Martin personnel to dispose of Shillelagh solid rocket motor propellants. The Shillelagh is a surface to surface anti-tank weapon approaching the end of its service life. The current demilitarization process employs open detonation, but the presence of lead stearate in the N5 propellant grain motivated the need for the development of an environmentally friendly disposal method. Contained burning of the propellant followed by propellant exhaust processing was chosen as the disposal methodology. The developmental test bed, completed in February 1998, is inexpensive and transportable. Contained burning of Shillelagh propellants posed two technical hurdles: 1) removal of the sub micron lead and cadmium particulate generated during combustion, and 2) secondary combustion of the significant quantifies of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. A firing chamber with a stepped nozzle, air injection, and active ignition was developed to combust the carbon monoxide and hydrogen in real time. The hot gases and particulates from the combustion process are completely contained within a gas holder. The gases are subsequently cooled and routed through a treatment facility to remove the heavy metal particulate. Results indicate that the lead and cadmium particulates are removed below their respective detection limits (2 micro-g/cu m & 0.2 micro-g/cu m) of the analytical procedures employed and that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen levels have been reduced well below the lower flammability limits. Organic concentrations, principally benzene, are I ppm or less. A semi-automated machine has been developed which can rapidly prepare Shillelagh missiles for the contained burn facility. This machine allows the contained burn technology to be more competitive with current open bum open detonation disposal rates.

  18. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  19. a Viscoelastic Fracture Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.

    2007-12-01

    A viscoelastic kinetics (VEK) model for deformation and damage in solid rocket propellant has been previously developed and correlated to an extensive set of experiments to determine mechanical properties. Ultimately, VEK will be extended to perform coupled damage and reaction modeling of XDT during propellant impacts. There are two types of damage considered in VEK: 1) decohesion at particle/binder interfaces, and 2) scission of the binder. The first type of damage leads to formation of essentially spherical voids around the decohered particles, and development of a model for the surface area that supports combustion is rather straightforward. The second type of damage leads to formation of propellant rubble, and the fineness depends on the impact stresses. Thus, a kinetic fracture model describing surface area generation due to scission damage has been added to the VEK model. To obtain data on the surface area generated, 25 mm L/D = 1 propellant samples were fired into steel target plates at various velocities, and the resultant fragments were collected and burned in a combustion bomb. The total surface area generated was then estimated for each impacted sample. The upgraded VEK model is used to simulate the 25 mm impact experiments and is correlated to the combustion bomb data.

  20. A Viscoelastic Fracture Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Erik R.

    2007-06-01

    A viscoelastic kinetics (VEK) model for deformation and damage in solid rocket propellant has been previously developed and correlated to an extensive set of experiments to determine mechanical properties. Ultimately, VEK will be extended to perform coupled damage and reaction modeling of XDT during propellant impacts. There are two types of damage considered in VEK: 1) decohesion at particle/binder interfaces, and 2) scission of the binder. The first type of damage leads to formation of essentially spherical voids around the decohered particles, and development of a model for the surface area that supports combustion is rather straightforward. The second type of damage leads to formation of propellant rubble, and the fineness depends on the impact stresses. Thus, a kinetic fracture model describing surface area generation due to scission damage has been added to the VEK model. To obtain data on the surface area generated, 25 mm L/D=1 propellant samples were fired into steel target plates at various velocities, and the resultant fragments were collected and burned in a combustion bomb. The total surface area generated was then estimated for each impacted sample. The upgraded VEK model is used to simulate the 25 mm impact experiments and is correlated to the combustion bomb data.

  1. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  2. Aerodynamic Design of a Propeller for High-Altitude Balloon Trajectory Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Richard; Somers, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a propeller for the trajectory control of a high-altitude, scientific balloon has been performed using theoretical methods developed especially for such applications. The methods are described. Optimum, nonlinear chord and twist distributions have been developed in conjunction with the design of a family of airfoils, the SE403, SE404, and SE405, for the propeller. The very low Reynolds numbers along the propeller blade fall in a range that has yet to be rigorously investigated, either experimentally or theoretically.

  3. Generalized Advanced Propeller Analysis System (GAPAS). Volume 2: Computer program user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, L.; Crawford, D. R.; Kosmatka, J. B.; Swigart, R. J.; Wong, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Generalized Advanced Propeller Analysis System (GAPAS) computer code is described. GAPAS was developed to analyze advanced technology multi-bladed propellers which operate on aircraft with speeds up to Mach 0.8 and altitudes up to 40,000 feet. GAPAS includes technology for analyzing aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic performance of propellers. The computer code was developed for the CDC 7600 computer and is currently available for industrial use on the NASA Langley computer. A description of all the analytical models incorporated in GAPAS is included. Sample calculations are also described as well as users requirements for modifying the analysis system. Computer system core requirements and running times are also discussed.

  4. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Potential Commercial and Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that in-space cryogenic propellant depots are technically feasible given continued technology development and that there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geo-synchronous-orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process requires large amounts of power which is enabled by Space Solar Power technologies. Recent analysis indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  5. Current State-of-the-Art of HNF Based Composite Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciucci, A.; Frota, O.; Welland, W.; van der Heijden, A.; Leeming, B.; Bellerby, J.; Brotzu, A.

    2004-10-01

    In this frame Vega, with its first three solid stages, will include a number of advanced technological solutions. Further improvements are being considered for evolutions of Ariane 5 in the medium term. The main activities currently performed for the development of HNF-based propellants are presented. The objectives and approach adopted are described. The results obtained on the HNF decomposition mechanism and on the re- and co-crystallisation of HNF with potential propellant ingredients are presented. The experimental activities for the screening of a number of HNF-based propellant candidates are discussed. Current limitations and open points are identified, and the future steps for consolidating the interest and feasibility of an HNF-based propellant development are indicated. For the long term, possible improvements could be achieved through the use of high energetic materials, including oxidiser and/or binders, in advanced propellant formulations. While still paying attention to the cost of the raw material, these formulations offer the advantage of an increased specific impulse, which has a positive impact on the cost of the loaded motor case. The European Space Agency has been pursuing research and technology development activities on HNF and HNF-based propellants to investigate their interest and feasibility for possible future space applications. These propellants seem to offer the potential for performance improvements, and for providing clean exhaust gases.

  6. Effects of propellant composition variables on acceleration-induced burning-rate augmentation of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    This work was conducted to define further the effects of propellant composition variables on the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation of solid propellants. The rate augmentation at a given acceleration was found to be a nonlinear inverse function of the reference burning rate and not controlled by binder or catalyst type at a given reference rate. A nonaluminized propellant and a low rate double-base propellant exhibited strong transient rate augmentation due to surface pitting resulting from the retention of hot particles on the propellant surface.

  7. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  8. Materials characterization of propellants using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Propellant characteristics for solid rocket motors were not completely determined for its use as a processing variable in today's production facilities. A major effort to determine propellant characteristics obtainable through ultrasonic measurement techniques was performed in this task. The information obtained was then used to determine the uniformity of manufacturing methods and/or the ability to determine non-uniformity in processes.

  9. Recovery of aluminum from composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, G. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Aluminum was recovered from solid rocket propellant containing a small amount of oxidizer by depolymerizing and dissolving propellant binders (containing functional or hydrolyzable groups in a solution of sodium methoxide) in an alcohol solvent optionally containing an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon co-solvent. The solution was filtered to recover substantially all the aluminum in active form.

  10. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each... acceptable functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  11. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  12. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  13. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section 189.191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons...

  14. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  15. Composite Solid Propellant Predictability and Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Reports are presented at the meeting at the University of Arizona on the study of predictable and reliable solid rocket motors. The following subject areas were covered: present state and trends in the research of solid propellants; the University of Arizona program in solid propellants, particularly in mixing (experimental and analytical results are presented).

  16. Destruction of propellant magazine, November 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, N. H.

    1984-08-01

    Details on the destruction of a propellant magazine are given. The properties of single base propellants are discussed. Although single base propellants have been around for one hundred years, production of this type of propellant in Australia only commenced during World War 2 when appropriate plant and know how were provided under the Lend Lease Scheme. Most of the single base propellants made at Mulwala Explosives Factory have been of the IMR type i.e., single perforated tubular granules with their surface coated with DNT for use in small to medium calibre ammunition. Since production started at Mulwala Explosives Factory in 1944 some fourteen different versions of style of propellant have been manufactured. Four versions only were made up until 1957 and these were identified with an IMR type number matching the US propellants from which they were copied. New varieties introduced since 1957 have been identified with an AR aeries number commencing with AR2001 - the original Australian 7.62 mm rifle propellant.

  17. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  18. A Cis-Lunar Propellant Infrastructure for Flexible Path Exploration and Space Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a space infrastructure concept that exploits lunar water for propellant production and delivers it to users in cis-lunar space. The goal is to provide responsive economical space transportation to destinations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and enable in-space commerce. This is a game changing concept that could fundamentally affect future space operations, provide greater access to space beyond LEO, and broaden participation in space exploration. The challenge is to minimize infrastructure development cost while achieving a low operational cost. This study discusses the evolutionary development of the infrastructure from a very modest robotic operation to one that is capable of supporting human operations. The cis-lunar infrastructure involves a mix of technologies including cryogenic propellant production, reusable lunar landers, propellant tankers, orbital transfer vehicles, aerobraking technologies, and electric propulsion. This cislunar propellant infrastructure replaces Earth-launched propellants for missions beyond LEO. It enables users to reach destinations with smaller launchers or effectively multiplies the user s existing payload capacity. Users can exploit the expanded capacity to launch logistics material that can then be traded with the infrastructure for propellants. This mutually beneficial trade between the cis-lunar infrastructure and propellant users forms the basis of in-space commerce.

  19. Electrochemically powered self-propelled electrophoretic nanosubmarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumera, Martin

    2010-09-01

    In the past few years, we have witnessed rapid developments in the realization of the old nanotechnology dream, autonomous nanosubmarines. These nanomachines are self-powered, taking energy from their environment by electrocatalytic conversion of chemicals present in the solution, self-propelled by flux of the electrons within the submarine and the hydronium ions on the surface of the nanosub, powering it in the direction opposite to that of the flux of the hydronium. These nanosubmarines are responsive to external fields, able to follow complex magnetic patterns, navigate themselves in complex microfluidic channels, follow chemical gradients, carry cargo, and communicate with each other. This minireview focuses on a discussion of the fundamentals of the electrophoretic mechanism underlying the propulsion of this sort of nanosub, as well as a demonstration of the proof-of-concept capabilities of nanosubmarines.In the past few years, we have witnessed rapid developments in the realization of the old nanotechnology dream, autonomous nanosubmarines. These nanomachines are self-powered, taking energy from their environment by electrocatalytic conversion of chemicals present in the solution, self-propelled by flux of the electrons within the submarine and the hydronium ions on the surface of the nanosub, powering it in the direction opposite to that of the flux of the hydronium. These nanosubmarines are responsive to external fields, able to follow complex magnetic patterns, navigate themselves in complex microfluidic channels, follow chemical gradients, carry cargo, and communicate with each other. This minireview focuses on a discussion of the fundamentals of the electrophoretic mechanism underlying the propulsion of this sort of nanosub, as well as a demonstration of the proof-of-concept capabilities of nanosubmarines. In memory of Karel Zeman, Czech animator, who encouraged thousands of young people into science and technology, on the occasion of the 100th

  20. Crusader solid propellant best technical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, V.; Bader, G.; Dolecki, M.; Krupski, S.; Zangrando, R.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Solid Propellant Resupply Team is to develop Crusader system concepts capable of automatically handling 155mm projectiles and Modular Artillery Charges (MACs) based on system requirements. The system encompasses all aspects of handling from initial input into a resupply vehicle (RSV) to the final loading into the breech of the self-propelled howitzer (SPH). The team, comprised of persons from military and other government organizations, developed concepts for the overall vehicles as well as their interior handling components. An intermediate review was conducted on those components, and revised concepts were completed in May 1995. A concept evaluation was conducted on the finalized concepts, from both a systems level and a component level. The team`s Best Technical Approach (BTA) concept was selected from that evaluation. Both vehicles in the BTA have a front-engine configuration with the crew situated behind the engine-low in the vehicles. The SPH concept utilizes an automated reload port at the rear of the vehicle, centered high. The RSV transfer boom will dock with this port to allow automated ammunition transfer. The SPH rearm system utilizes fully redundant dual loaders. Active magazines are used for both projectiles and MACs. The SPH also uses a nonconventional tilted ring turret configuration to maximize the available interior volume in the vehicle. This configuration can be rearmed at any elevation angle but only at 0{degree} azimuth. The RSV configuration is similar to that of the SPH. The RSV utilizes passive storage racks with a pick-and-place manipulator for handling the projectiles and active magazines for the MACs. A telescoping transfer boom extends out the front of the vehicle over the crew and engine.

  1. ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size

  2. SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.

  3. Handbook on Hypergolic Propellant Discharges and Disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, T. E.; Sivik, H. E.; Thomas, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of all treatment methods formerly or currently used in treating chemical wastes is assessed with emphasis on the disposal of hypergolic propellants. Maximum focus is on the space shuttle propellants MMH and N2O4. Except for hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, all the propellants are nitrogen based and can be potentially reduced to valuable plant nutrients. In theory, all the propellants can be reduced to carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, except of fuming nitric acid which contains a small amount of fluorine. Appendices cover: (1) a general design criteria for disposal ponds; (2) thermal aspects of reaction in dilute solution; (3) gas bubble growth, detachment, and rise (4) absorption scrubber fundamentals and descriptions; (5) separation of a propellant vapor from a helium stream by permeation; and (6) atmospheric emission limits.

  4. Storage of solid propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udlock, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    A test program is described which determines the extent of physical property changes that result from extended space exposure. Primary emphasis was placed on determining the effects of space vacuum. Solid propellants were stored and their physical properties tested in a vacuum and in a dry environment. The storage caused significantly greater increases in the propellants' modulus and maximum tensile strength than occurred in parallel ambient stored samples. The data indicate that the loss of trace amounts of residual moisture from cured propellant is the apparent cause of the observed propellant property changes. Therefore, initial screening tests were carried out under dry storage conditions. Upon completion of the dry storage tests, appropriate propellant samples are exposed to an actual space environment using the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  5. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  6. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  7. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  8. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  9. Fault Detection and Diagnosis Techniques for Liquid-Propellant Rocket Propellant Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wua, Jianjun; Tanb, Songlin

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis plays a pivotal role in the health-monitoring techniques for liquid- propellant rocket engines. This paper firstly gives a brief summary on the techniques of fault detection and diagnosis utilized in liquid-propellant rocket engines. Then, the applications of fault detection and diagnosis algorithms studied and developed to the Long March Main Engine System(LMME) are introduced. For fault detection, an analytical model-based detection algorithm, a time-series-analysis algorithm and a startup- transient detection algorithm based on nonlinear identification developed and evaluated through ground-test data of the LMME are given. For fault diagnosis, neural-network approaches, nonlinear-static-models based methods, and knowledge-based intelligent approaches are presented. Keywords: Fault detection; Fault diagnosis; Health monitoring; Neural networks; Fuzzy logic; Expert system; Long March main engines Contact author and full address: Dr. Jianjun Wu Department of Astronautical Engineering School of Aerospace and Material Engineering National University of Defense Technology Changsha, Hunan 410073 P.R.China Tel:86-731-4556611(O), 4573175(O), 2219923(H) Fax:86-731-4512301 E-mail:jjwu@nudt.edu.cn

  10. Computational survey of representative energetic materials as propellants for microthruster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Brian; Stec, Daniel, III

    2007-04-01

    Microthrusters are critical for the development of terrestrial micromissiles and nano air vehicles for reconnaissance, surveillance, and sensor emplacement. With the maturation of MEMS manufacturing technology, the physical components of the thrusters can be readily fabricated. The thruster type that is the most straightforward is chemical combustion of a propellant that is ignited by a heating element giving a single shot thrust. Arrays of MEMS manufactured thrusters can be ganged to give multiple firings. The basic model for such a system is a solid rocket motor. The desired elements for the propellant of a chemical thruster are high specific impulse (I sp), high temperature and pressure, and low molecular weight combustion gases. Since the combustion chamber of a microthruster is extremely small, the propellant material must be able to ignite, sustain and complete its burn inside the chamber. The propellant can be either a solid or a liquid. There are a large number of energetic materials available as candidates for a propellant for microthrusters. There has been no systematic evaluation of the available energetic materials as propellant candidates for microthrusters. This report summarizes computations done on a series of energetic materials to address their suitabilities as microthruster propellants.

  11. Propel: Tools and Methods for Practical Source Code Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansouri-Samani, Massoud; Mehlitz, Peter; Markosian, Lawrence; OMalley, Owen; Martin, Dale; Moore, Lantz; Penix, John; Visser, Willem

    2003-01-01

    The work reported here is an overview and snapshot of a project to develop practical model checking tools for in-the-loop verification of NASA s mission-critical, multithreaded programs in Java and C++. Our strategy is to develop and evaluate both a design concept that enables the application of model checking technology to C++ and Java, and a model checking toolset for C++ and Java. The design concept and the associated model checking toolset is called Propel. It builds upon the Java PathFinder (JPF) tool, an explicit state model checker for Java applications developed by the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames Research Center. The design concept that we are developing is Design for Verification (D4V). This is an adaption of existing best design practices that has the desired side-effect of enhancing verifiability by improving modularity and decreasing accidental complexity. D4V, we believe, enhances the applicability of a variety of V&V approaches; we are developing the concept in the context of model checking. The model checking toolset, Propel, is based on extending JPF to handle C++. Our principal tasks in developing the toolset are to build a translator from C++ to Java, productize JPF, and evaluate the toolset in the context of D4V. Through all these tasks we are testing Propel capabilities on customer applications.

  12. Propellant isolation shutoff valve program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis and design effort directed to advancing the state-of-the-art of space storable isolation valves for control of flow of the propellants liquid fluorine/hydrazine and Flox/monomethylhydrazine is discussed. Emphasis is on achieving zero liquid leakage and capability of withstanding missions up to 10 years in interplanetary space. Included is a study of all-metal poppet sealing theory, an evaluation of candidate seal configurations, a valve actuator trade-off study and design description of a pneumo-thermally actuated soft metal poppet seal valve. The concepts and analysis leading to the soft seal approach are documented. A theoretical evaluation of seal leakage versus seal loading, related finishes and yield strengths of various materials is provided. Application of a confined soft aluminum seal loaded to 2 to 3 times yield strength is recommended. Use of either an electro-mechanical or pneumatic actuator appears to be feasible for the application.

  13. High performance storable propellant resistojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    From 1965 until 1985 resistojets were used for a limited number of space missions. Capability increased in stages from an initial application using a 90 W gN2 thruster operating at 123 sec specific impulse (Isp) to a 830 W N2H4 thruster operating at 305 sec Isp. Prior to 1985 fewer than 100 resistojets were known to have been deployed on spacecraft. Building on this base NASA embarked upon the High Performance Storable Propellant Resistojet (HPSPR) program to significantly advance the resistojet state-of-the-art. Higher performance thrusters promised to increase the market demand for resistojets and enable space missions requiring higher performance. During the program three resistojets were fabricated and tested. High temperature wire and coupon materials tests were completed. A life test was conducted on an advanced gas generator.

  14. Physiological response to aerosol propellants.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, R D; Newton, P E; Baretta, E D; Herrmann, A A; Forster, H V; Soto, R J

    1978-01-01

    Acute exposures to isobutane, propane, F-12, and F-11 in concentrations of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for periods of 1 min to 8 hr did not produce any untoward physiological effects as determined by the methods employed which included serial EKG's and continuous monitoring of modified V5 by telemetry during exposure. Repetitive exposures to these four propellants were also without measurable untoward physiological effect with the exception of the eight male subjects repetitively exposed to 1000 ppm, F-11, who did show minor decrements in several of the cognitive tests. Of particular importance is the observation that none of the subjects showed any decrement in pulmonary function or alteration in cardiac rhythm as the result of exposure to concentrations of the gases or vapors far greater than encountered in the normal use of aerosol products in the home. PMID:214300

  15. Launch vehicle performance using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Powell, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellant propulsion systems are considered as replacements for the solid rocket boosters and liquid sustainer stages on the current launch vehicles: both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Titan 4. Liquid rocket boosters for the STS were analyzed as replacements for current solid rocket boosters. These boosters can provide a liquid propulsion system within the volume constraints of a solid rocket booster. A replacement for the Space Shuttle Main Engines using metallized O2/H2/Al was studied. The liquid stages of the Titan 4 were also investigated; the Aerozine-50 (A-50) fuel was replaced with metallized storable A-50/Al. A metallized propellant is similar to a traditional liquid propellant. However, it has metal particles, such as aluminum, that are suspended in a gelled fuel, such as hydrogen, RP-1, A-50 or monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The fuels then undergo combustion with liquid oxygen or nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). These propellants provide options for increasing the performance of existing launch vehicle chemical propulsion systems by increasing fuel density or specific impulse or both. These increases in density and specific impulse can significantly reduce the propulsion system liftoff weight and allow a liquid rocket booster to fit into the same volume as an existing solid rocket booster. Also, because gelled fuels are akin to liquid propellants, metallized systems can provide enhanced controllability over solid propulsion systems. Gelling of the propellant also reduces the sensitivity to impacts and consequently reduces the propellant explosion hazard.

  16. Launch vehicle performance using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Powell, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellant propulsion systems are considered as replacements for the solid rocket boosters and liquid sustainer stages on the current launch vehicles: both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Titan 4. Liquid rocket boosters for the STS were analyzed as replacements for current solid rocket boosters. These boosters can provide a liquid propulsion system within the volume constraints of a solid rocket booster. A replacement for the Space Shuttle Main Engines using metallized 02/H2/A1 was studied. The liquid stages of the Titan 4 were also investigated; the Aerozine-50 (A-50) fuel was replaced with metallized storable A-50/A1. A metallized propellant is similar to a traditional liquid propellant. However, it has metal particles, such as aluminum, that are suspended in a gelled fuel, such as hydrogen, RP-1, A-50 or monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The fuels then undergo combustion with liquid oxygen or nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). These propellants provide options for increasing the performance of existing launch vehicle chemical propulsion systems by increasing fuel density or specific impulse or both. These increases in density and specific impulse can significantly reduce the propulsion system liftoff weight and allow a liquid rocket booster to fit into the same volume as an existing solid rocket booster. Also, because gelled fuels are akin to liquid propellants, metallized systems can provide enhanced controllability over solid propulsion systems. Gelling of the propellant also reduces the sensitivity to impacts and consequently reduces the propellant explosion hazard.

  17. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  18. Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

  19. LAM actuated propellant flow control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Cust, Kevin M.

    1992-02-01

    An advanced design LAM (limited angle motor) positions an integral flow control element for bi-level flow control of storable propellants. The LAM incorporates permanent magnet latching to maintain the flow control element in either the low or high flow position without continuous electrical energization. The LAM stator and rotor are fully sheathed within stainless steel. This construction method permits the LAM to control storable propellants without using dynamic seals to isolate the LAM from the propellants. All welded construction prevents external leakage. The design concept selection rationale and the computer FEA (finite element analysis) methods employed to optimize design characteristics are presented. Correlations of analyses to test results are described.

  20. Particle behavior in solid propellant rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, D. W.; Diloreto, V. D.; Dubrov, E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of holography, high speed motion pictures, light scattering measurements, and post-fire particle collection/scanning electron microscopic examination to study the combustion of composite solid propellants is discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the different experimental techniques for obtaining two-phase flow characteristics within the combustion environment of a solid propellant grain are evaluated. Combustion bomb studies using high speed motion pictures and post-fire residue analysis were completed for six low metal content propellants. Resolution capabilities and the relationships between post-fire residue and motion picture data are determined. Initial testing using a holocamera together with a 2D windowed motor is also described.

  1. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J.

    1995-05-01

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  2. High-pressure burning rate studies of solid rocket propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, A. I.; Ford, K. P.; Wheeler, C. J.

    2013-03-01

    Increased rocket motor performance is a major driver in the development of solid rocket propellant formulations for chemical propulsion systems. The use of increased operating pressure is an option to improve performance potentially without the cost of reformulation. A technique has been developed to obtain burning rate data across a range of pressures from ambient to 345 MPa. The technique combines the use of a low loading density combustion bomb with a high loading density closed bomb technique. A series of nine ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellants were used to demonstrate the use of the technique, and the results were compared to the neat AP burning rate "barrier". The effect of plasticizer, oxidizer particle size, catalyst, and binder type were investigated.

  3. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b)...

  5. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1)...

  8. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will assure safe operation under normal operating conditions. (b) Propellers not controllable in...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b)...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will assure safe operation under normal operating conditions. (b) Propellers not controllable in...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 25.1153... Accessories § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller feathering control for each propeller. The control must have means to prevent its inadvertent operation. (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control...

  18. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result...

  19. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control...

  1. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by...

  2. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result...

  3. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by...

  4. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result...

  5. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control...

  7. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...

  8. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by...

  9. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain...

  10. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...

  11. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1)...

  13. 14 CFR 35.16 - Propeller critical parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller critical parts. 35.16 Section 35... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.16 Propeller critical parts. The integrity of each propeller critical part identified by the safety analysis required by § 35.15 must be...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1)...

  15. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result...

  16. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain...

  17. 14 CFR 35.5 - Propeller ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller ratings and operating limitations... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.5 Propeller ratings and operating limitations. (a) Propeller ratings and operating limitations must: (1) Be established by the applicant and approved by...

  18. 14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...

  19. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will assure safe operation under normal operating conditions. (b) Propellers not controllable in...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1149 - Propeller speed and pitch controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch controls. 25.1149... Accessories § 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. (a) There must be a separate propeller speed and pitch control for each propeller. (b) The controls must be grouped and arranged to allow— (1)...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1153 - Propeller feathering controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller feathering controls. 23.1153... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. If there are propeller feathering controls installed, it must be possible to feather each propeller separately. Each control...

  2. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will assure safe operation under normal operating conditions. (b) Propellers not controllable in...

  3. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33... Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) General. The propeller speed and pitch must be limited to values that will assure safe operation under normal operating conditions. (b) Propellers not controllable in...

  4. Propellant grain dynamics in aft attach ring of shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical technique for implementing simultaneously the temperature, dynamic strain, real modulus, and frequency properties of solid propellant in an unsymmetrical vibrating ring mode is presented. All dynamic parameters and sources are defined for a free vibrating ring-grain structure with initial displacement and related to a forced vibrating system to determine the change in real modulus. Propellant test data application is discussed. The technique was developed to determine the aft attach ring stiffness of the shuttle booster at lift-off.

  5. Conceptual design of an orbital propellant transfer experiment. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Bassett, C. E.; Merino, F.; Siden, L. E.; Bradley, R. E.; Carr, E. J.; Parker, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The OTV configurations, operations and requirements planned for the period from the 1980's to the 1990's were reviewed and a propellant transfer experiment was designed that would support the needs of these advanced OTV operational concepts. An overall integrated propellant management technology plan for all NASA centers was developed. The preliminary cost estimate (for planning purposes only) is $56.7 M, of which approximately $31.8 M is for shuttle user costs.

  6. Propeller Tests to Determine the Effect of Number of Blades at Two Typical Solidities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesley, E P

    1939-01-01

    Propellers with equal total blade area, but with different numbers, were tested at Stanford University. The tests show generally that, for equal total blade area, propellers with the larger number of blades absorb the greater power and, provided hubs have equal drag, develop the higher efficiency. It is shown that the differences found are in agreement, qualitatively, with what might be predicted from simple blade-element theory.

  7. Robust method of trapping self-propelling particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacubtan, Roger Joseph L.; Confesor, Mark Nolan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to collect self-propelling particles (SPP) is an essential requirement for possible use of SPP in technological applications. In this paper we proposed a novel way of trapping SPP's, through guided trapping of SPP's in V-shaped trap. We performed brownian dynamic simulation via a modified Escape and Predation model developed by L. Angelani (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012) to assess the validity of the proposed trapping method.

  8. On the design and test of a low noise propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of noise and performance of general aviation propellers was performed. Research was done in three areas: The acoustic and aerodynamic theory of general aviation propellers, wind tunnel tests of three one-quarter scale models of general aviation propellers, and flight test of two low noise propellers. The design and testing of the second propeller is reviewed. The general aerodynamic considerations needed to design a new propeller are described. The design point analysis of low noise propellers is reviewed. The predicted and measured noise levels are compared.

  9. Space Resource Requirements for Future In-Space Propellant Production Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Fikes, John; Roy, Stephanie; Henley, Mark W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 studies were conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the technical requirements and commercial potential for propellant production depots in low Earth orbit (LEO) to support future commercial, NASA, and other Agency missions. Results indicate that propellant production depots appear to be technically feasible given continued technology development, and there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process utilizes large amounts of power, therefore a depot derived from advanced space solar power technology was defined. Results indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  10. Portable propellant cutting assembly, and method of cutting propellant with assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A. (Inventor); Hoskins, Shawn W. (Inventor); Payne, Brett D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A propellant cutting assembly and method of using the assembly to cut samples of solid propellant in a repeatable and consistent manner is disclosed. The cutting assembly utilizes two parallel extension beams which are shorter than the diameter of a central bore of an annular solid propellant grain and can be loaded into the central bore. The assembly is equipped with retaining heads at its respective ends and an adjustment mechanism to position and wedge the assembly within the central bore. One end of the assembly is equipped with a cutting blade apparatus which can be extended beyond the end of the extension beams to cut into the solid propellant.

  11. 46 CFR 171.050 - Intact stability requirements for a mechanically propelled or a nonself-propelled vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... propelled or a nonself-propelled vessel. 171.050 Section 171.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... PASSENGERS Large Vessels § 171.050 Intact stability requirements for a mechanically propelled or a nonself-propelled vessel. Each vessel must be shown by design calculations to have a metacentric height (GM) in...

  12. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.

  13. Propellant-powered actuator for gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makowski, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrazine operated monopropellant generators are used for spacecraft rocket engines and propellant pressurization systems. Measured work output of monopropellant actuators compares favorably with output of squib-type actuators.

  14. Active cooling requirements for propellant storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent NASA and DOD mission models have indicated future needs for orbital cryogenic storage and supply systems. Two thermal control systems which show the greatest promise for improving propellant storage life were evaluated. One system was an open cycle thermodynamic vent type with a refrigeration system for partial hydrogen reliquefaction located at the LH2 tank and a vapor cooled shield for integrated and non-integrated tank designs to reduce boiloff. The other was a closed system with direct refrigeration at the LH2 tank. A reversed Brayton cycle unit was baselined for the propellant processor. It is concluded that: (1) reliquefaction systems are not attractive for minimizing propellant boiloff; (2) open cycle systems may not be economically attractive for long term storage; (3) a number of refrigeration systems are available to assist in the long term storage of cryogenic propellants; and (4) shields can significantly improve the performance of mechanical coolers.

  15. Wind-driven propellers (or "windmills")

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1923-01-01

    Wind-driven propellers are much used as sources of power for equipment such as radios. This report establishes the principles involved and acquaints the reader with rules for design of such windmills.

  16. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalysts are presented.

  17. Welcome to the Saclay Propeller Testing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The history, organization, purpose, and activities of the Saclay Propeller Testing Center is described. A list is provided of all facilities, current and planned, and the types of tests done in each facility are summarized.

  18. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalyst are presented.

  19. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-01-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of supersonic propellers with realistic blade geometries is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large-blade-count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with a full numerical integration indicate that the levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations also show that, for high speed propellers, the noise radiated by the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with the noise radiated by the blade thickness and loading sources. Results from a preliminary application of the theory indicate that the peak noise level generated by a supersonic propeller initially increases with increasing tip helical Mach number, but is eventually reaches a plateau and does not increase further. The predicted trend shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  20. An asymptotic theory of supersonic propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1992-01-01

    A theory for predicting the noise field of a propeller with a realistic blade geometry is presented. The theory, which utilizes a large blade count approximation, provides an efficient formula for predicting the radiation of sound from all three sources of propeller noise. Comparisons with full numerical integration indicate that the noise levels predicted by this formula are quite accurate. Calculations based on this method also show that the radiation from the Lighthill quadrupole source is rather substantial when compared with thickness and loading noise for high speed propellers. A preliminary application of the theory to the problem of the sensitivity of the peak noise levels generated by a supersonic propeller to the variations in its tip helical Mach number has produced a trend that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Research on the statically thrusting propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhuth, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for calculating the induced flow at propeller blades were analyzed by treating the wake formation as an initial problem in time. An unsteady vortex lattice technique was applied to the wake formation and the vortex core size was studied.

  2. Parametric Optimization of Ares I Propellant Slosh Characteristics Using Frequency Response Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel technique for developing propellant slosh damping requirements with respect to the stability characteristics of large flexible launch vehicles is presented. A numerical algorithm is devised which allows an automated software program to rapidly converge to pseudo-optimal solutions that minimize required propellant slosh damping for multiple tanks while maintaining constraints on the frequency response characteristics of a particular open-loop plant transfer function. An implementation of the algorithm using a high-order linear model of the Ares I plant dynamics considers all relevant dynamic interactions of flexible body modes, propellant slosh, and nozzle inertia effects. A high-resolution propellant damping requirements table is produced that can be used for baffle design. The method is demonstrated to provide exceptional speed and accuracy when compared with the alternative human-in-the-loop approach.

  3. Thermal Optimization of an On-Orbit Long Duration Cryogenic Propellant Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honour, Ryan; Kwas, Robert; O'Neil, Gary; Kutter, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A Cryogenic Propellant Depot (CPD) operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) could provide many near term benefits to NASA's space exploration efforts. These benefits include elongation/extension of spacecraft missions and requirement reduction of launch vehicle up-mass. Some of the challenges include controlling cryogenic propellant evaporation and managing the high costs and long schedules associated with the new development of spacecraft hardware. This paper describes a conceptual CPD design that is thermally optimized to achieve extremely low propellant boil-off rates. The CPD design is based on existing launch vehicle architecture, and its thermal optimization is achieved using current passive thermal control technology. Results from an integrated thermal model are presented showing that this conceptual CPD design can achieve propellant boil-off rates well under 0.05% per day, even when subjected to the LEO thermal environment.

  4. Thermal Optimization and Assessment of a Long Duration Cryogenic Propellant Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honour, Ryan; Kwas, Robert; O'Neil, Gary; Kutter, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    A Cryogenic Propellant Depot (CPD) operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) could provide many near term benefits to NASA space exploration efforts. These benefits include elongation/extension of spacecraft missions and reduction of launch vehicle up-mass requirements. Some of the challenges include controlling cryogenic propellant evaporation and managing the high costs and long schedules associated with new spacecraft hardware development. This paper describes a conceptual CPD design that is thermally optimized to achieve extremely low propellant boil-off rates. The CPD design is based on existing launch vehicle architecture, and its thermal optimization is achieved using current passive thermal control technology. Results from an integrated thermal model are presented showing that this conceptual CPD design can achieve propellant boil-off rates well under 0.05% per day, even when subjected to the LEO thermal environment.

  5. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-08-01

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells.

  6. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells. PMID:27503336

  7. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells. PMID:27503336

  8. Deformable Self-Propelled Micro-Object Comprising Underwater Oil Droplets.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Asami, Arisa; Ueno, Naoko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Asakura, Kouichi; Toyota, Taro

    2016-08-09

    The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells.

  9. Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Matt; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Gill, Walt

    2008-04-15

    This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

  10. Users' manual for the Langley high speed propeller noise prediction program (DFP-ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tarkenton, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Dunn-Farassat-Padula Advanced Technology Propeller (DFP-ATP) noise prediction program which computes the periodic acoustic pressure signature and spectrum generated by propellers moving with supersonic helical tip speeds is described. The program has the capacity of predicting noise produced by a single-rotation propeller (SRP) or a counter-rotation propeller (CRP) system with steady or unsteady blade loading. The computational method is based on two theoretical formulations developed by Farassat. One formulation is appropriate for subsonic sources, and the other for transonic or supersonic sources. Detailed descriptions of user input, program output, and two test cases are presented, as well as brief discussions of the theoretical formulations and computational algorithms employed.

  11. Propellant for the NASA Standard Initiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl; Tipton, Bill, Jr.; Dutton, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses processes employed in manufacturing zirconium-potassium perchlorate propellant for the NASA standard initiator. It provides both a historical background on the NSI device-detailing problem areas and their resolution--and on propellant blending techniques. Emphasis is placed on the precipitation blending method. The findings on mixing equipment, processing, and raw materials are described. Also detailed are findings on the bridgewire slurry operation, one of the critical steps in the production of the NASA standard initiator.

  12. The general efficiency curve for air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.

  13. Temperature automation for a propellant mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Wilson, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis and installation of an automatic temperature controller on a propellant mixer is presented. Ultimately, the entire mixing process will come under automation, but since precise adherence to the temperature profile is very difficult to sustain manually, this was the first component to be automated. Automation is not only important for producing a uniform product, but it is necessary for envisioned space-based propellant production.

  14. Ignition and combustion characteristics of metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turns, Stephen R.; Mueller, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations focusing on secondary atomization and ignition characteristics of aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon slurry propellants were conducted. Experimental efforts included the application of a laser-based, two-color, forward-scatter technique to simultaneously measure free-flying slurry droplet diameters and velocities for droplet diameters in the range of 10-200 microns. A multi-diffusion flame burner was used to create a high-temperature environment into which a dilute stream of slurry droplets could be introduced. Narrowband measurements of radiant emission were used to determine if ignition of the aluminum in the slurry droplet had occurred. Models of slurry droplet shell formation were applied to aluminum/liquid hydrocarbon propellants and used to ascertain the effects of solids loading and ultimate particle size on the minimum droplet diameter that will permit secondary atomization. For a 60 weight-percent Al slurry, the limiting critical diameter was predicted to be 34.7 microns which is somewhat greater than the 20-25 micron limiting diameters determined in the experiments. A previously developed model of aluminum ignition in a slurry droplet was applied to the present experiments and found to predict ignition times in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. A model was also developed that predicts the mechanical stress in the droplet shell and a parametric study was conducted. A one-dimensional model of a slurry-fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed. This model includes the processes of liquid hydrocarbon burnout, secondary atomization, aluminum ignition, and aluminum combustion. Also included is a model for radiant heat transfer from the hot aluminum oxide particles to the chamber walls. Exercising this model shows that only a modest amount of secondary atomization is required to reduce residence times for aluminum burnout, and thereby maintain relatively short chamber lengths. The model also predicts

  15. Lead-Free Double-Base Propellant for the 2.75 Inch Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magill, B. T.; Nauflett, G. W.; Furrow, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The current MK 66 2.75 inch Rocket Motor double-base propellant contains the lead-based ballistic modifier LC-12-15 to achieve the desired plateau and mesa burning rate characteristics. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and for personal safety due to the metal's toxic nature when introduced into the atmosphere by propellant manufacture, rocket motor firing, and disposal. Copper beta-resorcylate (copper 2,4-di-hydroxy-benzoate) was successfully used in propellant as a simple modifier in the mid 1970's. This and other compounds have also been mixed with lead salts to obtain more beneficial ballistic results. Synthesized complexes of lead and copper compounds soon replaced the mixtures. The complexes incorporate the lead, copper lack of organic liquids, which allows for easier propellant processing. About ten years ago, the Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), initiated an effort to develop a lead-free propellant for use in missile systems. Several lead-free propellant candidate formulations were developed. About five years ago, NSWC, in conjunction with Alliant Techsystems, Radford Army Ammunition Plant, continued ballistic modifier investigations. A four component ballistic modifier system without lead for double-base propellants that provide adequate plateau and mesa burn rate characteristics was developed and patented. The ballistic modifier's system contains bismuth subsalicylate, 1.5 percent; copper salicylate, 1.0 percent, copper stannate, 0.77 percent; and carbon black, 0.1 percent. Action time and impulse data obtained through multiple static firings indicate that the new lead-free double-base propellant, while not a match for NOSIH-AA-2, will be a very suitable replacement in the 2.75 inch Rocket Motor. Accelerated aging of the double-base propellant containing the lead-free ballistic modifier showed that it had a much higher rate of stabilizer depletion than the AA-2. A comprehensive study showed that an

  16. Microgravity Propellant Tank Geyser Analysis and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Randall J.; Hochstein, John I.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An established correlation for geyser height prediction of an axial jet inflow into a microgravity propellant tank was analyzed and an effort to develop an improved correlation was made. The original correlation, developed using data from ethanol flow in small-scale drop tower tests, uses the jet-Weber number and the jet-Bond number to predict geyser height. A new correlation was developed from the same set of experimental data using the jet-Weber number and both the jet-Bond number and tank-Bond number to describe the geyser formation. The resulting correlation produced nearly a 40% reduction in geyser height predictive error compared to the original correlation with experimental data. Two additional tanks were computationally modeled in addition to the small-scale tank used in the drop tower testing. One of these tanks was a 50% enlarged small-scale tank and the other a full-scale 2 m radius tank. Simulations were also run for liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Results indicated that the new correlation outperformed the original correlation in geyser height prediction under most circumstances. The new correlation has also shown a superior ability to recognize the difference between flow patterns II (geyser formation only) and III (pooling at opposite end of tank from the bulk fluid region).

  17. Heat sterilizable solid-propellant development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    The binders tested were polyurethanes made from two hydroxy-terminated polybutadienes, R-45 and Butarez HT, one hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer, Hycar 1300X 17, and a hydroxy-terminated prepolymer, Esterdiol 560, made from the dimerized fatty acid Empol 1010. The isocyanates used most extensively were isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a polymeric diisocyanate, DDI. Stress relaxation was used to examine the chemical changes that took place in the binder when subjected to the sterilization temperatures. The thermal stability of the oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate (AP), was tested by thermogravimetry in the isothermal and nonisothermal modes. The effect of particle size, recrystallization, moisture content, and doping on the heat stability of AP could be evaluated by this method. The volatile degradation products, obtained when AP samples were aged at 135 C for prolonged periods, were analyzed by mass spectroscopy.

  18. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  19. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  20. A Study on New Composite Thermoplastic Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahara, Takehiro; Nakayama, Masanobu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Katoh, Kazushige; Miyazaki, Shigehumi; Maruizumi, Haruki; Hori, Keiichi; Morita, Yasuhiro; Akiba, Ryojiro

    Efforts have been paid to realize a new composite propellant using thermoplastics as a fuel binder and lithium as a metallic fuel. Thermoplastics binder makes it possible the storage of solid propellant in small blocks and to provide propellants blocks into rocket motor case at a quantity needed just before use, which enables the production facility of solid propellant at a minimum level, thus, production cost significantly lower. Lithium has been a candidate for a metallic fuel for the ammonium perchlorate based composite propellants owing to its capability to reduce the hydrogen chloride in the exhaust gas, however, never been used because lithium is not stable at room conditions and complex reaction products between oxygen, nitrogen, and water are formed at the surface of particles and even in the core. However, lithium particles whose surface shell structure is well controlled are rather stable and can be stored in thermoplastics for a long period. Evaluation of several organic thermoplastics whose melting temperatures are easily tractable was made from the standpoint of combustion characteristics, and it is shown that thermoplastics propellants can cover wide range of burning rate spectrum. Formation of well-defined surface shell of lithium particles and its kinetics are also discussed.

  1. Photographic Combustion Characterization of LOX/Hydrocarbon Type Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using high speed photography to identify potential combustion anomalies (pops, fuel freezing, reactive stream separation (RSS), carbon formation) were demonstrated. Combustion evaluation criteria were developed for evaluating, characterizing, and screening promising low cost propellant combination(s) and injector element(s) for long life, reusable engine systems. Carbon formation and RSS mechanisms and trends were identified by using high speed color photography at speeds up to 6000 frames/sec. Single element injectors were tested with LOX/RP-1, LOX/Propane, LOX/Methane and LOX/Ammonia propellants. Tests were conducted using seven separate injector elements. Five different conventionally machined elements were tested: OFO Triplet; Rectangular Unlike Doublet (RUD); Unlike Doublet (UD); Like on Lke Doublet (LOL-EDM); and Slit Triplet.

  2. Nano and micro architectures for self-propelled motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Jemish; Ma, Xing; Katuri, Jaideep; Simmchen, Juliane; Stanton, Morgan M.; Trichet-Paredes, Carolina; Soler, Lluís; Sanchez, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Self-propelled micromotors are emerging as important tools that help us understand the fundamentals of motion at the microscale and the nanoscale. Development of the motors for various biomedical and environmental applications is being pursued. Multiple fabrication methods can be used to construct the geometries of different sizes of motors. Here, we present an overview of appropriate methods of fabrication according to both size and shape requirements and the concept of guiding the catalytic motors within the confines of wall. Micromotors have also been incorporated with biological systems for a new type of fabrication method for bioinspired hybrid motors using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The 3D printed hybrid and bioinspired motors can be propelled by using ultrasound or live cells, offering a more biocompatible approach when compared to traditional catalytic motors.

  3. Homogenization Issues in the Combustion of Heterogeneous Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Buckmaster, J.; Jackson, T. L.; Massa, L.

    2002-01-01

    We examine random packs of discs or spheres, models for ammonium-perchlorate-in-binder propellants, and discuss their average properties. An analytical strategy is described for calculating the mean or effective heat conduction coefficient in terms of the heat conduction coefficients of the individual components, and the results are verified by comparison with those of direct numerical simulations (dns) for both 2-D (disc) and 3-D (sphere) packs across which a temperature difference is applied. Similarly, when the surface regression speed of each component is related to the surface temperature via a simple Arrhenius law, an analytical strategy is developed for calculating an effective Arrhenius law for the combination, and these results are verified using dns in which a uniform heat flux is applied to the pack surface, causing it to regress. These results are needed for homogenization strategies necessary for fully integrated 2-D or 3-D simulations of heterogeneous propellant combustion.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann Method for Spacecraft Propellant Slosh Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Powers, Joseph F.; Yang, Hong Q

    2015-01-01

    A scalable computational approach to the simulation of propellant tank sloshing dynamics in microgravity is presented. In this work, we use the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to approximate the behavior of two-phase, single-component isothermal flows at very low Bond numbers. Through the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state and a modified multiple relaxation time (MRT) collision operator, the proposed method can simulate thermodynamically consistent phase transitions at temperatures and density ratios consistent with typical spacecraft cryogenic propellants, for example, liquid oxygen. Determination of the tank forces and moments is based upon a novel approach that relies on the global momentum conservation of the closed fluid domain, and a parametric wall wetting model allows tuning of the free surface contact angle. Development of the interface is implicit and no interface tracking approach is required. A numerical example illustrates the method's application to prediction of bulk fluid behavior during a spacecraft ullage settling maneuver.

  5. Scaling relationships for mercury and gaseous propellant ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A model describing the doubly charged ion densities in argon and xenon ion thrusters is presented. Doubly charged ions are shown to be produced in significant numbers from both the neutral and singly ionized states. Doubly-to-singly charged ion density ratios calculated using this model are compared to experimental values of this ratio measured in the 15 cm multipole thruster using both propellants. Agreement between theory and experiment is shown to be good. Using this doubly charged ion model, and a similar one obtained previously for mercury, together with the constant neutral loss rate theory, Child's current density law and accelerator grid fabrication limitations, a set of scaling relationships are developed. These relationships show the propellant utilizations, thrust densities and discharge power levels that can be expected as thruster diameter and/or specific impulse are increased and doubly charged ion densities are held at acceptably low values.

  6. Nuclei and propeller cavitation inception

    SciTech Connect

    Gindroz, B.; Billet, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Propeller cavitation inception tests were conducted in the Grand Tunnel Hydrodynamique (GTH) of the Bassin d`Essaid des Carenes. Both acoustic and visual cavitation inception were determined for leading-edge sheet, travelling bubble, and tip vortex. These data were obtained for specific water quality conditions. The water quality was determined from cavitation susceptibility meter measurements for degassed water (maximum liquid tension, few nuclei), low injection rate of microbubbles (medium liquid tension, low nuclei concentration), medium injection rate of microbubbles (medium liquid tension, high nuclei concentration) and high injection rate of microbubbles (minimum liquid tension, high nuclei concentration). Results clearly demonstrate a different influence of water quality for each type of cavitation. Little variation in cavitation inception index for a significant increase in liquid tension and microbubble size distribution was found for leading-edge sheet; however, tip vortex cavitation inception index decreased significantly for an increase in liquid tension. In addition, a dependency on event rate was determined for tip vortex cavitation inception.

  7. Applications for Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der List, M.; van Vliet, L. D.; Sanders, H. M.; Put, P. A. G.; Elst, J. W. E. C.

    2004-10-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Bradford Engineering B.V. conducted, in corporation with the Dutch research institute TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory (PML) a SME study for ESA-ESTEC for the identification of spaceflight applications and on-ground demonstration of Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology. This innovative technology has been developed by TNO-PML while Bradford Engineering also brought in its experience in spaceflight hardware development and manufacturing. The Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology allows for pure gas generation at ambient temperatures, as opposed to conventional solid propellant gas generators. This makes the SPCGG technology interesting for a wide range of terrestrial spaceflight applications. During the first part of the study, a variety of potential applications have been identified and three applications were selected for a more detailed quantitative study. In the third phase a ground demonstration was performed successfully for a cold gas propulsion system application. During the actual demonstration test, 10 cool gas generators were mounted and all operated successfully in sequence, demonstrating good repeatability of the produced amount of gas and pressure.

  8. A Method for Incorporating Changing Structural Characteristics Due to Propellant Mass Usage in a Launch Vehicle Ascent Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Launch vehicles consume large quantities of propellant quickly, causing the mass properties and structural dynamics of the vehicle to change dramatically. Currently, structural load assessments account for this change with a large collection of structural models representing various propellant fill levels. This creates a large database of models complicating the delivery of reduced models and requiring extensive work for model changes. Presented here is a method to account for these mass changes in a more efficient manner. The method allows for the subtraction of propellant mass as the propellant is used in the simulation. This subtraction is done in the modal domain of the vehicle generalized model. Additional computation required is primarily for constructing the used propellant mass matrix from an initial propellant model and further matrix multiplications and subtractions. An additional eigenvalue solution is required to uncouple the new equations of motion; however, this is a much simplier calculation starting from a system that is already substantially uncoupled. The method was successfully tested in a simulation of Saturn V loads. Results from the method are compared to results from separate structural models for several propellant levels, showing excellent agreement. Further development to encompass more complicated propellant models, including slosh dynamics, is possible.

  9. 76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-04-02, amendment 39-16602 (76 FR..., FR2183, FR2187, FR2262, FR2276 through FR2279 inclusive, FR 2398, FR2449 to FR2958 inclusive, FR20010710... Propellers Model 247F Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  10. Mission demonstration concept for the long-duration storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, C.; Deininger, W.; Ingram, K.; Schweickart, R.; Unruh, B.

    This paper describes an experimental platform that will demonstrate the major technologies required for the handling and storage of cryogenic propellants in a low-to-zero-g environment. In order to develop a cost-effective, high value-added demonstration mission, a review of the complete mission concept of operations (CONOPS) was performed. The overall cost of such a mission is driven not only by the spacecraft platform and on-orbit experiments themselves, but also by the complexities of handling cryogenic propellants during ground-processing operations. On-orbit storage methodologies were looked at for both passive and active systems. Passive systems rely purely on isolation of the stored propellant from environmental thermal loads, while active cooling employs cryocooler technologies. The benefit trade between active and passive systems is mission-dependent due to the mass, power, and system-level penalties associated with active cooling systems. The experimental platform described in this paper is capable of demonstrating multiple advanced micro-g cryogenic propellant management technologies. In addition to the requirements of demonstrating these technologies, the methodology of propellant transfer must be evaluated. The handling of multiphase liquids in micro-g is discussed using flight-heritage micro-g propellant management device technologies as well as accelerated tank stratification for access to vapor-free or liquid-free propellants. The mission concept presented shows the extensibility of the experimental platform to demonstrate advanced cryogenic components and technologies, propellant transfer methodologies, as well as the validation of thermal and fluidic models, from subscale tankage to an operational architecture.

  11. Design issues for propulsion systems using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Rapp, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants that contain metal particles. These particles are suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Aluminum is used as the metal additive. The addition of metal to conventional propellants can increase their specific impulse and their density over conventional propellants, and consequently, the payload delivered on Mars and lunar transportation vehicles, Earth-to-Orbit vehicles and upper stages for robotic planetary missions. Gelled fuels also provide increased safety during accidental propellant leakage or spills. To take full advantage of these potential performance increases, there are changes that must be made to the vehicle design. The differences are discussed between metallized propellant and traditional liquid propellants and their effect on the propulsion system design. These differences include the propellant density, mixture ratio, engine performance, and propellant rheology. Missions related to the Space Exploration Initiative are considered as design examples to illustrate these issues.

  12. A Mechanistic Study of Delayed Detonation in Impact Damaged Solid Rocket Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, E. R.; Rosenberg, J. T.

    2002-07-01

    One method of hazard assessment for mass detonable solid rocket propellants consists of impacting right circular cylinders of propellant end-on into thick steel witness plates at varying impact velocities. A detonation that occurs within one shock traversal of the cylinder length is termed a prompt detonation or a shock-to-detonation transition (SDT). At lower velocities, some propellants detonate at times later than one shock transit, typically 1-5 shock transits. Because no mechanism for delayed detonation has been fully confirmed and accepted by the detonation physics community, these low-velocity detonations are referred to as unknown-to-detonation transitions (XDTs). A leading theory, however, is that prior to detonation mechanically induced damage sensitizes the material through the formation of internal porosity which provides new mechanical reaction initiation sites (hot spots) and enhanced internal burn surface. To study this phenomenology, we have developed the Coupled Damage and Reaction (CDAR) model, implemented it in the CTH shock physics code, and simulated propellant impact experiments. The CDAR model fully couples viscoelastic-viscoplastic deformation, tensile damage, porosity evolution, reaction initiation, and grain burning to model the increased reactivity of the propellant. In this paper, CDAR simulations of propellant damage in spall and Taylor impact tests are presented and compared to experiment. An XDT experiment is also simulated, and implications regarding damage mechanisms and hydrodynamic processes leading to XDT are discussed.

  13. Modeling and simulation of a class of liquid propellant engine pressurization systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, H.; Nassirharand, Amir; Mohseni, M.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a new approach for modeling a class of pressurization systems for liquid propellant engines is presented. High pressure gas stored in special capsules is injected in a controlled way onto the gas volume on top of the propellant tanks. Instantaneous pressure and temperature values of propellant tanks and the capsules are computed. The computed constitutive values are compared with experimental results. The modeling approach accounts for variations of pressure and density of the pressurant inside the capsules and propellant tanks. It also accounts for heat transfer between pressurant and its surroundings. Equations for determination of the pressurant shut-down time are developed. Similarly, equations for determination of the propellant pump inlet pressure are also derived. The final governing equations are in terms of a set of differential equations that are numerically solved using the modified Euler method. The primary application of this research is to determine the pressurization system exit pressure. In case of turbo-pump feed systems, this work may be used to detect the occurrence of the cavitation phenomenon in the pumps. The method is limited to: (1) thermally insulated propellant tanks and (2) use of several storage capsules that are made of insulating composite material (i.e., exit mass flow rate is small, pressurant is stored at high pressure and low volume, temperature variations are small, and pressure drop in the capsules is not appreciable).

  14. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  15. A MEMS-based solid propellant microthruster array for space and military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaalane, A.; Chemam, R.; Houabes, M.; Yahiaoui, R.; Metatla, A.; Ouari, B.; Metatla, N.; Mahi, D.; Dkhissi, A.; Esteve, D.

    2015-12-01

    Since combustion is an easy way to achieve large quantities of energy from a small volume, we developed a MEMS based solid propellant microthruster array for small spacecraft and micro-air-vehicle applications. A thruster is composed of a fuel chamber layer, a top-side igniter with a micromachined nozzle in the same silicon layer. Layers are assembled by adhesive bonding to give final MEMS array. The thrust force is generated by the combustion of propellant stored in a few millimeter cube chamber. The micro-igniter is a polysilicon resistor deposited on a low stress SiO2/SiNx thin membrane to ensure a good heat transfer to the propellant and thus a low electric power consumption. A large range of thrust force is obtained simply by varying chamber and nozzle geometry parameters in one step of Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Experimental tests of ignition and combustion employing home made (DB+x%BP) propellant composed of a DoubleBase and Black-Powder. A temperature of 250 °C, enough to propellant initiation, is reached for 40 mW of electric power. A combustion rate of about 3.4 mm/s is measured for DB+20%BP propellant and thrust ranges between 0.1 and 3,5 mN are obtained for BP ratio between 10% and 30% using a microthruster of 100 μm of throat wide.

  16. Research into the propeller strut for high speed outboard motor

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Takashi; Sunayama, Yoshihiko

    1995-12-31

    For better performance of outboard motors for high speed craft, improvement in the performance of the propeller strut located ahead of the propeller is indispensable in addition to ameliorating the performance of the screw propeller itself. Thus, it is extremely important to reduce the drag of the propeller strut, which accounts for the predominant portion of the submerged parts of the motor and hull when the craft is running at high speed and to improve the propeller efficiency in the wake of the propeller strut. This paper, taking up two different shapes of the propeller strut, compares the performances of the propeller placed in the wake of the propeller strut in tank tests, and discusses the drag of the propeller strut. The two propeller strut shapes are that of a 70% scaled down model of the propeller strut Suzuki`s 200 PS outboard motor and its improved version. The propeller used in the experiment is one having super cavitating blades with the Pseudo-Kirchhoff nose, whose performance the authors have been analyzing systematically. Detailed comparison was further made of the drags of the differently shaped propeller struts by means of computational fluid dynamics.

  17. The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Mission and Connecting to the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, Brian; Bilen, Sven; Hoyt, Rob; Stone,Nobie; Vaughn, Jason; Fuhrhop, Keith; Krause, Linda; Khazanov, George; Johnson, Les

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase of launch system size.and cost.with delta-V makes missions that require large total impulse cost prohibitive. Led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, a team from government, industry, and academia has developed a flight demonstration mission concept of an integrated electrodynamic (ED) tethered satellite system called PROPEL: "Propulsion using Electrodynamics". The PROPEL Mission is focused on demonstrating a versatile configuration of an ED tether to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation, enable new classes of missions currently unaffordable or infeasible, and significantly advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to an operational level. We are also focused on establishing a far deeper understanding of critical processes and technologies to be able to scale and improve tether systems in the future. Here, we provide an overview of the proposed PROPEL mission. One of the critical processes for efficient ED tether operation is the ability to inject current to and collect current from the ionosphere. Because the PROPEL mission is planned to have both boost and deboost capability using a single tether, the tether current must be capable of flowing in both directions and at levels well over 1 A. Given the greater mobility of electrons over that of ions, this generally requires that both ends of the ED tether system can both collect and emit electrons. For example, hollow cathode plasma contactors (HCPCs) generally are viewed as state-of-the-art and high TRL devices; however, for ED tether applications important questions remain of how efficiently they can operate as both electron collectors and emitters. Other technologies will be highlighted that are being investigated as possible alternatives to the HCPC such as Solex that generates a plasma cloud from a solid material (Teflon) and electron emission (only) technologies such as cold-cathode electron field emission or photo-electron beam generation (PEBG) techniques.

  18. Liquid propellant stimulation of shallow Appalachian Basin wells

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, S.C.; Benson, G.R.

    1984-09-01

    Stimulation trials have been conducted on more than thirty oil and/or gas wells in the Appalachian Basin by the Otto Torpedo Co. with a new liquid propellant developed by Hercules Incorporated called RE-FLO 403. A dense pourable oil unaffected by water of hydrostatic pressures up to 400 Psi, RE-FLO 403 liquid propellant differs from high explosives in that it is not cap-sensitive and exhibits a detonation velocity and shock wave energy like a solid propellant. However, it differs from solid propellants in that it does not require center priming or water-tight containers and generates a high gaseous expansion energy per unit volume like an explosive. As applied in conventional soft-metal torpedo well shooting by the Otto Torpedo Co. coupled with either a liquid or gravel confinement, RE-FLO 403 gave short post-treatment clean-out times. In most cases, pumping was resumed within 1-2 days. Twenty-five of the first thirty wells stimulated with RE-FLO 403 showed fair to excellent improvement in yield. At the end of 30 days production the combined output of eleven new wells was 4041 barrels of oil and 89MCF of gas per day. The combined output of nine previously hydro-fracked wells had improved from 3-4 barrels of oil and 6-8 MCF of gas per day to 9-10 barrels of oil and 34MCF of gas per day and the combined output of three previously shot wells had improved from 12 to 4-5 barrels per day at the end of 30 days.

  19. Self-propelled droplet behavior during condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bei; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Self-propelled droplet motion has applications in various engineering fields such as self-cleaning surfaces, heat transfer enhancement, and anti-icing methods. A superhydrophobic surface was fabricated using two simultaneous chemical reactions with droplet condensation experiments performed on the horizontal superhydrophobic surface to characterize the droplet behavior. The droplet behavior is classified into three types based on their motion features and leftover marks as immobile droplet coalescence, self-propelled droplet jumping, and self-propelled droplet sweeping. This study focuses on the droplet sweeping that occurs due to the ultra-small rolling angle of the superhydrophobic surface, where the resulting droplet sweeps along the surface, merging with all the droplets it meets and leaving a long, narrow, clear track with a large droplet at the end of the track. An easy method is developed to predict the droplet sweeping direction based on the relative positions of the droplets just before coalescence. The droplet sweeping always absorbs dozens of droplets and is not limited by the surface structures; thus, this sweeping has many useful applications. In addition, the relationships between the droplet behavior and the number of participating droplets are also analyzed statistically.

  20. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  1. Combustion response modeling for composite solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A computerized mathematical model of the combustion response function of composite solid propellants was developed with particular attention to the contributions of the solid phase heterogeneity. The one-dimensional model treats the solid phase as alternating layers of ammonium perchlorate and binder, with an exothermic melt layer at the surface. Solution of the Fourier heat equation in the solid provides temperature and heat flux distributions with space and time. The problem is solved by conserving the heat flux at the surface from that produced by a suitable model of the gas phase. An approximation of the BDP flame model is utilized to represent the gas phase. By the use of several reasonable assumptions, it is found that a significant portion of the problem can be solved in closed form. A method is presented by which the model can be applied to tetramodal particle size distributions. A computerized steady-state version of the model was completed, which served to validate the various approximations and lay a foundation for the combustion response modeling. The combustion response modeling was completed in a form which does not require an iterative solution, and some preliminary results were acquired.

  2. Tanker Argus: Re-supply for a LEO Cryogenic Propellant Depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Germain, B.; Olds, J.; Kokan, T.; Marcus, L.; Miller, J.

    The Argus reusable launch vehicle (RLV) concept is a single-stage-to-orbit conical, winged bodied vehicle powered by two liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen supercharged ejector ramjets. The 3rd generation Argus launch vehicle utilizes advanced vehicle technologies along with a Maglev launch assist track. A tanker version of the Argus RLV is envisioned to provide an economical means of providing liquid fuel and oxidizer to an orbiting low-Earth orbit (LEO) propellant depot. This depot could then provide propellant to various spacecraft, including reusable orbital transfer vehicles used to ferry space solar power satellites to geo-stationary orbit. Two different tanker Argus configurations were analyzed. The first simply places additional propellant tanks inside the payload bay of an existing Argus reusable launch vehicle. The second concept is a modified Argus RLV in which the payload bay is removed and the vehicle propellant tanks are stretched to hold extra propellant. An iterative conceptual design process was used to design both Argus vehicles. This process involves various disciplines including aerodynamics, trajectory analysis, weights &structures, propulsion, operations, safety, and cost/economics. The payload bay version of tanker Argus, which has a gross mass of 256.3MT, is designed to deliver a 9.07MT payload to LEO. This payload includes propellant and the tank structure required to secure this propellant in the payload bay. The modified, pure tanker version of Argus has a gross mass of 218.6MT and is sized to deliver a full 9.07MT of propellant to LEO. The economic analysis performed for this study involved the calculation of many factors including the design/development and recurring costs of each vehicle. These results were used along with other economic assumptions to determine the "per kilogram" cost of delivering propellant to orbit. The results show that for a given flight rate the "per kilogram" cost is cheaper for the pure tanker version of Argus

  3. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  4. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William

    2012-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  5. Light-activated self-propelled colloids

    PubMed Central

    Palacci, J.; Sacanna, S.; Kim, S.-H.; Yi, G.-R.; Pine, D. J.; Chaikin, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Light-activated self-propelled colloids are synthesized and their active motion is studied using optical microscopy. We propose a versatile route using different photoactive materials, and demonstrate a multiwavelength activation and propulsion. Thanks to the photoelectrochemical properties of two semiconductor materials (α-Fe2O3 and TiO2), a light with an energy higher than the bandgap triggers the reaction of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and produces a chemical cloud around the particle. It induces a phoretic attraction with neighbouring colloids as well as an osmotic self-propulsion of the particle on the substrate. We use these mechanisms to form colloidal cargos as well as self-propelled particles where the light-activated component is embedded into a dielectric sphere. The particles are self-propelled along a direction otherwise randomized by thermal fluctuations, and exhibit a persistent random walk. For sufficient surface density, the particles spontaneously form ‘living crystals’ which are mobile, break apart and reform. Steering the particle with an external magnetic field, we show that the formation of the dense phase results from the collisions heads-on of the particles. This effect is intrinsically non-equilibrium and a novel principle of organization for systems without detailed balance. Engineering families of particles self-propelled by different wavelength demonstrate a good understanding of both the physics and the chemistry behind the system and points to a general route for designing new families of self-propelled particles. PMID:25332383

  6. Energetic residues from field disposal of gun propellants.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael R; Walsh, Marianne E; Hewitt, Alan D

    2010-01-15

    Military training with howitzers and mortars produces excess propellant that is burned on the training range and can result in point sources containing high concentrations of unreacted propellant constituents. Propellants contain energetic compounds such as nitroglycerin (NG) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), both of which are found at firing positions and propellant disposal areas. To quantify the mass of residue remaining from the field-expedient disposal of propellants, two mortar propellants and one howitzer propellant were burned under different field conditions. These conditions included burning on a snow pack, at the bottom of a snow pit, and in a pan surrounded by snow for the mortar propellants and on dry and wet sand for the howitzer propellant. For the mortar propellant, the energetics (NG) remaining after burning in the bowl, on frozen ground, and on snow were 0.21%, 5.2% and 18%, respectively. For the howitzer propellant, the difference in energetics (2,4-DNT) remaining after disposal on wet and dry sand was <0.1%, with the overall residue rate of around 1%, similar to that for the mortar propellant burned in an open container. These tests demonstrate that environmental factors, especially in winter, can play a significant role in the effectiveness of field-expedient disposal of propellants.

  7. Energetic residues from field disposal of gun propellants.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael R; Walsh, Marianne E; Hewitt, Alan D

    2010-01-15

    Military training with howitzers and mortars produces excess propellant that is burned on the training range and can result in point sources containing high concentrations of unreacted propellant constituents. Propellants contain energetic compounds such as nitroglycerin (NG) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), both of which are found at firing positions and propellant disposal areas. To quantify the mass of residue remaining from the field-expedient disposal of propellants, two mortar propellants and one howitzer propellant were burned under different field conditions. These conditions included burning on a snow pack, at the bottom of a snow pit, and in a pan surrounded by snow for the mortar propellants and on dry and wet sand for the howitzer propellant. For the mortar propellant, the energetics (NG) remaining after burning in the bowl, on frozen ground, and on snow were 0.21%, 5.2% and 18%, respectively. For the howitzer propellant, the difference in energetics (2,4-DNT) remaining after disposal on wet and dry sand was <0.1%, with the overall residue rate of around 1%, similar to that for the mortar propellant burned in an open container. These tests demonstrate that environmental factors, especially in winter, can play a significant role in the effectiveness of field-expedient disposal of propellants. PMID:19758750

  8. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  9. APEX 3D Propeller Test Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    A low Reynolds number, high subsonic mach number flight regime is fairly uncommon in aeronautics. Most flight vehicles do not fly under these aerodynamic conditions. However, recently there have been a number of proposed aircraft applications (such as high altitude observation platforms and Mars aircraft) that require flight within this regime. One of the main obstacles to flight under these conditions is the ability to reliably generate sufficient thrust for the aircraft. For a conventional propulsion system, the operation and design of the propeller is the key aspect to its operation. Due to the difficulty in experimentally modeling the flight conditions in ground-based facilities, it has been proposed to conduct propeller experiments from a high altitude gliding platform (APEX). A preliminary design of a propeller experiment under the low Reynolds number, high mach number flight conditions has been devised. The details of the design are described as well as the potential data that will be collected.

  10. Propelling Exploration to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    As the Constellation Program enters its fourth year, the Ares Projects have made substantial progress toward sending human explorers beyond Earth orbit. The Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will take six astronauts or cargo to the International Space Station or four astronauts to rendezvous with Ares V for missions to the Moon, is the first human-rated vehicle NASA has developed in over 30 years. Since the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005, the Ares Projects have completed a successful system requirements review, system definition review, and preliminary design review for the Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I elements are well into development, beginning with the Shuttle-derived, five-segment solid rocket motor that will provide first-stage propulsion. The first stage team has poured its first production simulation article motor and will be pouring and firing the first five-segment development motor in 2009. Large-scale tooling has been installed and tested to produce propellant tanks for the liquid-fuel upper stage at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama. The initial upper stage units and main propulsion test article will be manufactured and tested at MSFC before transferring to Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana. The upper stage engine team has completed powerpack testing using Apollo J-2 heritage hardware and begun construction of a new altitude test stand at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The flight and integrated testing group has designed and built hardware for the Ares I-X test flight scheduled for 2009, as well as begun refurbishing existing infrastructure to support ground testing. Additionally, a base configuration has been selected for the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will send the Altair lunar lander and Orion to the Moon. Today, the Ares Projects are well on the way to building America s next generation of exploration-capable launch vehicles.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of Cryogenic Propellant Tank for Integrated Vehicle Fluid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.

  12. Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication, and test efforts were performed for the existing OF2/B2H6 regeneratively cooled lK (4448 N) thrust chamber to illustrate simultaneous B2H6 fuel and OF2 oxidizer cooling and to provide results for a gaseous propellant condition injected into the combustion chamber. Data derived from performance, thermal and flow measurements confirmed predictions derived from previous test work and from concurrent analytical study. Development data derived from the experimental study were indicated to be sufficient to develop a preflight thrust chamber demonstrator prototype for future space mission objectives.

  13. Fluid Behavior in a Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Some of the earliest concerns about fluid behavior in microgravity was the management of propellants in spacecraft tanks as they orbited the Earth. On the ground, gravity pulls a fluid to a bottom of a tank (ig, left). In orbit, fluid behavior depends on surface tension, viscosity, wetting effects with the container wall, and other factors. In some cases, a propellant can wet a tank and leave a large gas bubbles in the center (ug, right). Similar probelms can affect much smaller experiments using fluids in small spaces. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  14. Contribution to the theory of propeller vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, F

    1930-01-01

    This report presents a calculation of the torsional frequencies of revolving bars with allowance for the air forces. Calculation of the flexural or bonding frequencies of revolving straight or tapered bars in terms of the angular velocity of revolution. Calculation on the basis of Rayleigh's principle of variation. There is also a discussion of error estimation and the accuracy of results. The author then provides an application of the theory to screw propellers for airplanes and the discusses the liability of propellers to damage through vibrations due to lack of uniform loading.

  15. Rocket thrust variation with foamed liquid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, G

    1957-01-01

    An analysis is presented on a method for varying rocket thrust by varying the bulk density of the propellants. This density variation was accomplished by uniformly dispersing an inert, insoluble gas in the liquid propellants. Only qualitative agreement with theory was obtained from preliminary experiments with a 1000-pound-thrust ammonia - nitric acid rocket engine; the required experimental gas-flow rates were two to six times greater than those predicted by theory. It was demonstrated, however, that this method of rocket-thrust variation is feasible.

  16. Aerodynamic interaction between propellers and wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David; Lee, Alex K. H.; Sullivan, John P.

    1988-01-01

    A combined computational/experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the time-averaged interactive performance of a propeller and wing in tractor configuration at Mach 0.1 and Re=470,000, based on a wind tunnel model wing chord of 8 in. Wing angle-of-attack was varied from 0 to +13 deg, and propeller advance ratio ranged from 2.4 (windmilling) to 1.1 (maximum power). Both a semiempirical model and a vortex lattice simulation were used in the computational analysis. Good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment.

  17. Material Compatibility with Space Storable Propellants. Design Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uney, P. E.; Fester, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of spacecraft for interplanetary missions is the compatibility of storage materials with the propellants. Serious problems can arise because many propellants are either extremely reactive or subject to catalytic decomposition, making the selection of proper materials of construction for propellant containment and control a critical requirement for the long-life applications. To aid in selecting materials and designing and evaluating various propulsion subsystems, available information on the compatibility of spacecraft materials with propellants of interest was compiled from literature searches and personal contacts. The compatibility of both metals and nonmetals with hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, nitrated hydrazine, and diborance fuels and nitrogen tetroxide, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, and Flox oxidizers was surveyed. These fuels and oxidizers encompass the wide variety of problems encountered in propellant storage. As such, they present worst case situations of the propellant affecting the material and the material affecting the propellant. This includes material attack, propellant decomposition, and the formation of clogging materials.

  18. A shock wave approach to the noise of supersonic propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Rice, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    To model propeller noise expected for a turboprop aircraft, the pressure ratio across the shock at the propeller tip was calculated and compared with noise data from three propellers. At helical tip Mach numbers over 1.0, using only the tip shock wave, the model gave a fairly good prediction of the noise for a bladed propeller and for a propeller swept for aerodynamic purposes. However for another propeller, which was highly swept and designed to have noise cancellations from the inboard propeller sections, the shock strength from the tip over predicted the noise. In general the good agreement indicates that shock theory is a viable method for predicting the noise from these supersonic propellers but that the shock strengths from all of the blade sections need to be properly included.

  19. Process for the leaching of AP from propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, G. C.; Mcintosh, M. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method for the recovery of ammonium perchlorate from waste solid rocket propellant is described wherein shredded particles of the propellant are leached with an aqueous leach solution containing a low concentration of surface active agent while stirring the suspension.

  20. AEROSOL INDUSTRY SUCCESS IN REDUCING CFC PROPELLANT USAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part I of this report discusses the U.S. aerosol industry's experience in converting from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants to alternative aerosol formulations. Detailed examples of non-CFC formulations are provided for 28 categories of aerosol products. ydrocarbon propellants...