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Sample records for karen burns grogan

  1. 3. Brian Grogan, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, EAST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Brian Grogan, Photographer February 1995 BUILDING 990, EAST AND NORTH SIDES. - Presidio of San Francisco, Flammable Storage Building Submarine Mine Depot, Fort Point vicinity, Long Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. The Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, Maria M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Grogan, Willliam L Jr

    2017-06-11

    Two new Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan, A. sirii n. sp. and A. spinosa n. sp., and the previously known A. shannoni (Wirth & Blanton) are described, illustrated and photomicrographs provided of male and female specimens collected from several localities in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia. The similarities and differences between the three Neotropical species are discussed, and a key is provided of the males and females of these three species. The distribution of A. shannoni is extended to the southernmost region of South America.

  3. a Few Lines about Karen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodinskaya, Noemi

    2013-06-01

    Karen had tons of amazing students, and it's unfortunate that they could not contribute to this collection. They would have a lot of marvelous stories to tell, since they spent so many days and nights at Karen's house, enjoying Bella Artemievna's hospitality and kindness. Karen was a difficult person, with many eccentricities, but at the same time he was very kind and forgiving. When people he knew had troubles, he always did whatever he could to help them. I should add, however, that due to the many tragedies he had experienced in his family life, Karen's threshold for what counted as troubles was unusually high, and what others perceived as major problems struck him as the minor complications of everyday life...

  4. An Interview with Karen Glover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karen Glover of Georgia Tech, a key person behind the planning of the Access Services Conference held last fall, and now going into its second year. Glover started working in libraries as a part-time library assistant at her local public library during her high school years. She later became a Circulation…

  5. Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2013-06-01

    One can say that Karen Avetovich Ter-Martirosyan was one of the stars in the brilliant constellation of theoretical physicists dating back to the golden era of Soviet physics: a disciple of Yakov Frenkel and Lev Landau, he was one of the creators of the theory of (soft) strong interactions at high energies...

  6. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  7. An Interview with Karen Glover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karen Glover of Georgia Tech, a key person behind the planning of the Access Services Conference held last fall, and now going into its second year. Glover started working in libraries as a part-time library assistant at her local public library during her high school years. She later became a Circulation…

  8. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... clothing, except clothing imbedded in the burn. Run cool - not cold - water over the burn or hold ... chemicals should be flushed off affected areas with cool running water for 20 minutes or longer or ...

  9. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to ... is. The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity. The person shows signs of shock . The person ...

  10. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock, and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the ...

  11. Karen Hesse: The Rest Is History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a profile of Newbery Award-winning author Karen Hesse, who is best known for her knack for recovering the little-known stories of the past and making them resonate once again in her books. As a meticulous researcher and lover of things from the past, some of Karen Hesse's most well-loved stories have tugged at her sleeve (and…

  12. [Karen Blixen and her physicians].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib

    2002-01-01

    In March 1941, two months after her wedding, Karen Blixen was diagnosed as having syphilis in the second stage. She was treated initially with mercury and later on in Denmark with salvarsan. Years later she received more treatment with mercury, salvarsan and bismuth, but in fact she was cured already in 1915 and told so by her venerologist Carl Rasch. However, she did not believe him, and several physicians, including well-known specialists in internal medicine and neurology told her many years later that she had to accept the diagnosis tabes dorsalis, i.e., syphilis in the third chronic stage. This paper claims, based on her medical records from several hospitals, that her physicians' attitude resulted in the delay of right treatment for her real disease for many years and led to at least one unwarrented surgical procedure (chordotomy). In 1956 she finally received surgical treatment of her stomach ulcer which for many years had caused her attacks of abdominal pain. The procedure was delayed for ten years because of a lumbar sympathectomy, which removes the pain for some years but not the ulcer itself, nor the bout of vomiting. Many doctors (and biographers) have been puzzled by her life-long bowel symptoms. It was often called tropic dysentery, in spite of the fact that this diagnosis was never confirmed by stool analyses. Instead it is suggested that most likely the Baroness caused the symptoms. She misused strong laxatives during her whole adult life. She did not tell her doctors about this until very late in her life and then it was far too late. Many times barium enemas showed a severe chronic condition with dehaustration and dilatation. The reason for her misuse was the fact that she was afraid of gaining too much weight. She used amphetamine during her life in Denmark after her return in 1931 in order to reduce her appetite, and probably she used Chat in Africa. She also constantly smoked cigarettes which in combination with minimal food intake facilitated

  13. A Q & A with Karen Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from the interview of Karen Hughes, under secretary of state for public diplomacy and public affairs. Hughes discusses the Bush administration's effort to attract foreign students to the United States and to send American students overseas. She also talks about what American colleges and universities can do to help.

  14. Speaking Personally--With Karen Cator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview by Gary E. Miller, executive director emeritus of Penn State World Campus, the online distance education campus of The Pennsylvania State University, with Karen Cator, director of the Office of Educational Technology in the United States Department of Education. She brings to the position a mix of corporate and…

  15. Speaking Personally--With Karen Cator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview by Gary E. Miller, executive director emeritus of Penn State World Campus, the online distance education campus of The Pennsylvania State University, with Karen Cator, director of the Office of Educational Technology in the United States Department of Education. She brings to the position a mix of corporate and…

  16. A Q & A with Karen Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from the interview of Karen Hughes, under secretary of state for public diplomacy and public affairs. Hughes discusses the Bush administration's effort to attract foreign students to the United States and to send American students overseas. She also talks about what American colleges and universities can do to help.

  17. The Errors of Karen Franklin's Pretextuality

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In her recent article, Hebephilia: Quintessence of Diagnostic Pretextuality (published in Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2010), Karen Franklin expands on her previous argument that psychologists and psychiatrists should not diagnose as abnormal hebephilia, the sexual preference for early pubescent children. She supports her argument with a series of claims about the contents of the empirical literature and the scientists who produced it. The present document provides fact-checking of those claims, revealing that Franklin's conclusions are based largely on demonstrable falsehoods. PMID:22745581

  18. Keystone Characteristics That Support Cultural Resilience in Karen Refugee Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-01-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social--ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study…

  19. Keystone Characteristics That Support Cultural Resilience in Karen Refugee Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-01-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social--ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study…

  20. Karen Smith: Language Arts Educator of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudelson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article honors Karen Smith, who has been given NCTE's Outstanding Educator in the English Language Arts award for 2009. Through the voices of many colleagues and former students, the article celebrates Karen as a teacher, learner, mentor, collaborator, scholar, storyteller, and visionary thinker and doer.

  1. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-12-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  2. Caring for the Karen. A newly arrived refugee group.

    PubMed

    Power, David V; Moody, Emily; Trussell, Kristi; O'Fallon, Ann; Chute, Sara; Kyaw, Merdin; Letts, James; Mamo, Blain

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, Minnesota has seen an influx of refugees from Burma. Many of these newcomers came from the Karen state and spent time in refugee camps in Thailand before resettling in the United States. To better understand the health needs of this population, the authors of this article conducted chart reviews at a St. Paul family medicine clinic that serves a number of Karen refugees and reviewed formal data from the Minnesota Department of Health's Refugee Health Program. Here, they briefly describe this community, the cultural issues that could affect health care providers' ability to care for Karen patients, and the health concerns of these refugees.

  3. War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw

    2015-04-08

    Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working

  4. November 2011 DMM Podcast: an interview with Karen Steel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excerpts from an interview with Karen Steel, of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, in which she explains how she got hooked on studying deafness in mouse mutants and discusses the importance of mouse genetics for advancing biomedical research. Narrated by Sarah E. Allan. To listen to this podcast, visit http://www.biologists.com/DMM/podcasts/index.html.

  5. Author! Author! Noted Writer of Historical Fiction: Karen Cushman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief biography of author Karen Cushman, best known for the attention to detail and thorough research that goes into her historical novels. Her first two novels, "Catherine, Called Birdy" and "The Midwife's Apprentice" were both Newbery Medal winners. A selected bibliography, as well as a list of related resources, is also…

  6. Karen Hesse: From Grade School Writer to Newbery Medalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses author Karen Hesse's books for children and young adults; suggests ideas for related activities that include appropriate Web sites; and presents an annotated bibliography for books for young readers, books for older readers, audio, video, Web biographical information, print biographical information, and additional sources. (LRW)

  7. Post-Arrival Health Screening in Karen Refugees in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Georgia A.; Sangster, Katrina J.; Maxwell, Ellen L.; McBride, Catherine R. J.; Drewe, Ross H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. Design Retrospective audit of pathology results. Setting Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006–October 2009. Participants 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6–11 years, 12–17 years, 18 years and older). Results Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. Conclusions Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation. PMID:22693599

  8. The body in adolescent diaries. The case of Karen Horney.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Kirsch, Hiltrud Susanna

    2002-01-01

    The role of the body and its functions in the psychic life of the individual has occupied a central place in psychoanalytic thinking and writing. Developmentally, the body and the ego as a psychic organization have an integral, mutual relationship which becomes particularly important during adolescence, when the body matures physically while at the same time cognition, self-reflection, and social relations develop. This contribution presents results of the content analyses, focusing on the body, of 40 diaries written by twenty women during their adolescent years, compared with Karen Horney's adolescent diaries. In contrary to these diaries of the other young women, Karen Horney's adolescent diaries lack a focus on the body. Instead, idealized relationships with teachers are frequently mentioned. Only in the last diary, written at the transition to young adulthood, is the body, with a focus on sexual relations, more prominent. This discrepancy between Horney and female age-mates in normative samples is noteworthy. It is discussed here with emphasis on theoretical approaches about the body in adolescence in psychoanalysis, the importance of body and sexuality in Karen Horney's later life, Horney's contributions to female psychoanalysis, and her relationship with her father.

  9. Burns - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - burns ... The following organizations are good resources for information on burns : Burns Recovered -- brsg.org Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center - Burn Model Systems -- www.msktc.org/burn

  10. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  11. 77 FR 68149 - Karen Paul Holley, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Karen Paul Holley, M.D.; Decision and Order On July 27, 2012, Chief Administrative... Karen Paul Holley, M.D. (Respondent), pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 824(a)(3) and (4) (2006), and to deny...

  12. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  13. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  14. The Role of Digital Literacy Practices on Refugee Resettlement: The Case of Three Karen Brothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, Daniel; Lee, Eunbae

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the social and cultural uses of digital literacies by adolescent immigrants to cope with their new lives in the United States. This case study focuses on three adolescent ethnic Karen brothers. Two years of participant observations in their home and Karen community, accompanied by formal and informal interviews, served as the…

  15. Honoring the Complexities of Our Lives: An Interview with Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Ellen Huntington

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interview with award-winning author Karen Hesse, discussing her writing for children and young adults. Discusses how ideas for particular books arose, as well as the research and writing processes that went into them. Appends reviews of nine books by Karen Hesse. (SR)

  16. Parasitic infections among Karen in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nithikathkul, Choosak; Changsap, Bangon; Wannapinyosheep, Supaporn; Arnat, Naiyana; Kongkham, Somprathana; Benchawattananon, Rachadaporn; Leemingsawat, Somjai

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of intestinal parasitic and malarial infections during a period of low infection among the residents of remote Karen villages in Thailand. Fifty-five males and 64 females, aged 6 months to 70 years, were examined for malaria by thick blood smears using the Giemsa staining technique. Of the 119 subjects, 4 (3.36%) showed positive for malaria with vivax gametocytes. Results suggested that mass screening was not an effective way for diagnosing malaria. Stool samples were examined under a light microscope. The overall intestinal parasitic infection rates were 38.24% in 34 males, and 36.11% in 36 females. These were hookworm (17.14%), Ascaris lumbricoides (7.14%), Trichuris trichiura (1.43%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia spp (1.43%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.43%), Entamaeba coli (10.00%) and Giatdia lamblia (1.43%). The highest (55.55%) and lowest (16.66%) rates of infection were observed in age groups 0-5 and over 45, years respectively. In addition, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found more frequently in children, while hookworms was found similarly in every age group. Results showed that the Karen living along the western border of Thailand possessed high rates of intestinal parasitic infections. Strict monitoring and control programs for these parasites should be implemented.

  17. "Can I Ask That?": Perspectives on Perinatal Care After Resettlement Among Karen Refugee Women, Medical Providers, and Community-Based Doulas.

    PubMed

    LaMancuso, Kate; Goldman, Roberta E; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized the perspectives of Karen refugee women in Buffalo, NY, their medical providers, and Karen interpreters/doulas on perinatal care for Karen women in resettlement. In-depth qualitative interviews with Karen women (14), Karen doulas/interpreters and key informants (8), and medical providers (6) were informed by the social contextual model and focused on women's questions about and opinions of perinatal care in Buffalo and on providers' experiences caring for Karen patients. Karen women expressed gratitude for and understanding of perinatal care in Buffalo, and providers described Karen patients as agreeable but shy. Karen doulas offered an alternative view that exposed women's many questions and concerns, and described how doula training empowered them as patients' advocates. Low self-efficacy, trauma histories, and cultural expectations may contribute to Karen women's seeming agreeability. Doulas/interpreters possess insider knowledge of women's concerns and facilitate communication between patients and the care team.

  18. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brink, Darin R; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A

    2016-02-01

    Karen refugees from Burma are one of the largest refugee groups currently resettling in the USA. Karen people have endured decades of civil war and human rights violations, leaving them more likely to develop serious mental health disorders. There is a noted lack of brief, culturally validated tools present in primary care settings for detecting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Karen refugees. To create the Karen Mental Health Screener, a five-question screening tool used to identify depression and PTSD and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. This validation study was conducted during a primary care visit. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire using a 4-point visual aid and the PTSD and MDD portions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-CV for DSM-IV) as the reference standard. Both the questionnaire and the relevant sections of the SCID-IV were rigorously translated and administered by trained researchers along with a trained Karen interpreter. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine a subset of items that could be used to construct a screener to identify Karen patients who were most likely to have PTSD and/or MDD. A final five-question screener was created with very strong performance characteristics. With a clinical cut score of 4, these items displayed very strong performance characteristics with sensitivity = 0.96, specificity = 0.97, positive predicted value = 0.83 and negative predicted value = 0.99. The Karen Mental Health Screener is a valid measure for detecting PTSD and major depression in Karen people from refugee backgrounds presenting in a primary care setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Neurosyphilis, or chronic heavy metal poisoning: Karen Blixen's lifelong disease.

    PubMed

    Weismann, K

    1995-01-01

    Since the 1490s, the treatment of syphilis has consisted of heavy metals--first mercurial and later arsenic and bismuth preparations. Tabes dorsalis, as described by Duchenne in the 1850s, is made up of various characteristic neurologic symptoms. "Gastric crises," sudden stabbing pains followed by vomiting and diarrhea, was originally included by Duchenne, but later, syphilologists disputed its relevance to syphilis. Poisoning by heavy metals, including mercury, may produce similar pain reactions and tabes-like neurologic symptoms. According to an earlier published pathography, the Danish author Karen Blixen (1885-1962), also known under the pseudonym Isak Dinesen, suffered from a lifelong disease described as tabes dorsalis. She got syphilis in 1914 and took mercury pills for a year, after which she experienced a severe mercurial intoxication. The Wassermann reaction (WR) in peripheral blood was positive only once, in 1915, before treatment with arsphenamine (Salvarsan), which she received during hospitalization in Copenhagen in 1915 to 1916. Her spinal fluid was examined several times from 1915 to 1956. Apart from an increased number of cells in 1915, the fluid remained unremarkable and the WR was always negative. It was postulated that her illness, ending with a cachectic state, was the result of heavy metal poisoning from the various treatments and not a monosymptomatic tabes dorsalis with negative serology.

  20. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  1. Burn Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... a resource to the community. Learn more The Burn Institute reaches thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs and the ...

  2. The Case of Three Karen Refugee Women and Their Children: Literacy Practices in a Family Literacy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadros, Sabrina; Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of research about the Karen, one of 135 ethnic groups from Myanmar limits literacy educators charged with educating this refugee population in public schools. In this case study the authors explore the literacy practices of Karen families when at school and in their homes and within an ESL family literacy program. The case of these…

  3. The Case of Three Karen Refugee Women and Their Children: Literacy Practices in a Family Literacy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadros, Sabrina; Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of research about the Karen, one of 135 ethnic groups from Myanmar limits literacy educators charged with educating this refugee population in public schools. In this case study the authors explore the literacy practices of Karen families when at school and in their homes and within an ESL family literacy program. The case of these…

  4. Burn Wise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  5. Burns (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...

  6. Unlocking Families' Potential: A Conversation with Karen L. Mapp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    Karen L. Mapp--former Deputy Superintendent for Family and Community Engagement for Boston's schools and noted researcher and author on how schools can partner with families--talks with "EL" editor Naomi Thiers on the need to approach engaging family caregivers in students' learning in a new way, starting with emphasizing active…

  7. Unbalanced Nature, Unbounded Bodies, and Unlimited Technology: Ecocriticism and Karen Traviss' Wess'har Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Heather I.

    2010-01-01

    While nature is often claimed to be a space of harmonized balance or an antidote to the chaos of the modern world, we need a more grounded assessment of nature as endlessly changing and much less predictable than we like to assume. In this essay, I explore Karen Traviss' provocative exploration of unbalanced nature and unbounded bodies in her…

  8. Meet Karen Dilka, Executive Director of the Council on Education of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, at the annual Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Convention in Louisville, the author had the pleasure of meeting and then dining with Dr. Karen Dilka, executive director of the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED). Dilka also contributed as the on-site liaison and local arrangements chairperson for the Division for…

  9. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  10. The influence of administrative leadership: an interview with Dr Karen S. Hill.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karen S; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated a commitment to patient care leadership and innovation in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Karen Hill, DNP, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN, chief operating officer and chief nursing officer of Baptist Health in Lexington, Kentucky, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nursing Administration.

  11. An Education Rooted in Two Worlds: The Karen of Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odochao, Jonni; Nakashima, Douglas; Vaddhanaphuti, Chayan

    2006-01-01

    In Karen culture, the family is traditionally the basic unit for the education of the child. In the early 1970s, when Jonni Odochao began to notice that children could not relate to their elders or respect them, he surmised that the problem stemmed from the modern education system and its increasing influence upon youth values, behaviour and ways…

  12. Unbalanced Nature, Unbounded Bodies, and Unlimited Technology: Ecocriticism and Karen Traviss' Wess'har Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Heather I.

    2010-01-01

    While nature is often claimed to be a space of harmonized balance or an antidote to the chaos of the modern world, we need a more grounded assessment of nature as endlessly changing and much less predictable than we like to assume. In this essay, I explore Karen Traviss' provocative exploration of unbalanced nature and unbounded bodies in her…

  13. An Education Rooted in Two Worlds: The Karen of Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odochao, Jonni; Nakashima, Douglas; Vaddhanaphuti, Chayan

    2006-01-01

    In Karen culture, the family is traditionally the basic unit for the education of the child. In the early 1970s, when Jonni Odochao began to notice that children could not relate to their elders or respect them, he surmised that the problem stemmed from the modern education system and its increasing influence upon youth values, behaviour and ways…

  14. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  15. Nations Within. American Indian Scholar Karen Gayton Swisher Envisions Effective Education for All Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Rosa Hernandez

    1997-01-01

    An interview with American Indian educator Karen Gayton Swisher explores the learning styles of American Indian children and the application of ideas about these learning styles in the programs at Haskell Indian Nations University. Native American children should be taught from a constructivist, rather than a deficit, point of view. (SLD)

  16. Pullin' It All Together Karen Dunne: One Woman Workin' Too Hard. Report Series 2.16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, John

    This portrait of a high school literature classroom is one of a series of several such portraits which depict diverse classroom settings of high school literature, and which result from the second year of a teacher-research project in the greater Albany, New York area. This article portrays teacher Karen Dunne and her tenth-grade class of average…

  17. Newbery Medal Winner Karen Hesse Brings Billie Jo's Voice "Out of the Dust."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interview with children's author Karen Hesse, discussing such things as how she chose writing as a career, her use of figurative language and her skillful crafting of dialog, where her book ideas come from, and her latest projects. (SR)

  18. Consider the Source: Feminism and Point of View in Karen Hesse's "Stowaway" and "Witness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2003-01-01

    Notes how Karen Hesse strays from her typical pattern of exploring gender issues to provide a look at patriarchal culture from within, in one case, and from multiple points of view in the other, ultimately strengthening the feminist pulse that beats within her earlier works. Concludes that in "Stowaway" and "Witness," the voice of a boy and the…

  19. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  20. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  1. Cement Burns

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munir; Moynagh, M.; Lawlor, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cement burns account for relatively few admissions to a burn unit; however, these burns deserve separate consideration because of special features of diagnosis and management. Cement burns, even though potentially disabling, have rarely been reported in literature. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted with cement burns injuries to the national burns unit at the St James's Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, over a 10-year period for the years 1996–2005. Results: A total of 46 patients with cement burns were admitted. The majority of patients were aged 16–74 years (mean age = 32 years). Eighty-seven percent of injuries occurred in an industrial and 13% in a domestic setting. The upper and lower extremities were involved in all the patients, and the mean total body surface area affected was 6.5%. The mean length of hospital stay was 21 days with a range of 1–40 days. Thirty-eight (82%) were surgically managed involving debridement and split-thickness skin graft (SSG) and four (9%) were conservatively managed. A further four did not have data available. Conclusion: Widespread inexperience in dealing with this group of cement burns patients and delays in referral to burns unit highlights the potential for greater levels of general awareness and knowledge in both prevention and treatment of these burns. As well, early debridement and split-thickness skin grafting at diagnosis constitutes the best means of reducing the high socioeconomic costs and allows for early return to work. PMID:18091981

  2. Partners in a Great Adventure: Karen Bersche--Alliance Library System, East Peoria, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As early as junior high school, after she had gone to see The Music Man and came out idolizing Marian, Karen Bersche knew she was destined for librarianship. But she didn't get around to it until after she got a degree in counseling, started her family, and opened her own daycare center. She has more than made up for lost time since, first as…

  3. Partners in a Great Adventure: Karen Bersche--Alliance Library System, East Peoria, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As early as junior high school, after she had gone to see The Music Man and came out idolizing Marian, Karen Bersche knew she was destined for librarianship. But she didn't get around to it until after she got a degree in counseling, started her family, and opened her own daycare center. She has more than made up for lost time since, first as…

  4. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... by burn injury. Donate today The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care ... local burn center or hospital. © 2017 American Burn Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  6. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving.

  7. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  8. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  9. Burn Wise - Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  10. Burn Wise - Educational Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  11. Prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Finis Harris

    2002-01-01

    This presentation on prescribed burning is a cooperative effort of the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station and Kisatchie National Forest; Louisiana State University Agricultural Center; and the Joint Fire Science Program. The CD includes three methods of delivery: slides, Power Point presentation, and script only.

  12. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it…

  13. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it…

  14. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma…

  15. Burn Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

  16. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a

  17. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Sukkho, Treetip; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2015-04-09

    Digestive system disorders have a substantial effect on worldwide morbidity and mortality rates, including in Thailand, where the majority of the rural areas have a lack of proper sanitation and awareness about disease prevention. This has led to the prevalence of different types of digestive diseases. Karen people in Thailand still use medicinal plants as first aid remedies in treating these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed at documenting the plants used to cure and prevent different types of digestive system disorders by Karen people of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from six key informants and 172 non-specialist informants regarding their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity Level (FL) values. The study revealed that 36 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 genera and 24 families were used to treat digestive system disorders. The most prevalent plant families were Zingiberaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and Fabaceae (4 species). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for 32.6% of the plants, followed by the bark (18.6%). About 60% of the administrations were given orally by potion (60%) and consumption as food was also indicated (14%). The highest ICF values were recorded for carminative disorders, stomachaches, geographic tongue, constipation, appetite stimulants and food poisoning (1.00 each) indicating the best agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants that were used to treat aliments in these categories. The highest fidelity level values were recorded for Punica granatum (100.00), Psidium guajava (95.45), and Gymnopetalum integrifolium (90.91) showing conformity of knowledge on species with the best healing potential. Medicinal plants still play an important role among Karen culture. The present information on these medicinal plants, which have

  18. Burn Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    areas involving large areas of skin the patient is exposed to death first from shock . . .’’ [10]. In describing the pathophysiology leading to the shock...state seen in burns he postulated that various irritants , mental and physical, caused vasomotor paresis leading to accumulation of blood in the...resuscitation volumes. Subsequent studies suggested a decrease in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Oda et al., in 2006, published their experience

  19. Karen Horney's "resigned person" heralds DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Muller, R J

    1993-01-01

    It is shown here that what Karen Horney called the resignation solution to the problem of basic anxiety leads to psychopathology very similar to DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both the "resigned person" and the borderline personality show instability of self-image, social relationships, and mood, and live out the associated deficits with similar styles. While not specifically using the term "splitting", Horney showed how alternating expansive and self-effacing trends can coexist in the resigned person, and how these oscillations in self-other-world constitution influence the resigned person's behavior in a way similar to borderline splitting. Horney's descriptive and psychodynamic analysis of the resignation phenomenon elaborates and gives additional credibility to DSM-III-R's BPD as a diagnostic category.

  20. Board chairman John Makel on cutting services versus diversification. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    Makel, J

    1990-01-01

    John Makel, chairman of the board of the Memorial Health Alliance of Mount Holly, NJ, and vice-president and regional trust office manager, First Fidelity Bank, NA-New Jersey, Moorestown, began his tenure on the board of the Memorial Hospital of Burlington County, NJ, in 1975. He has been chairman of the alliance since 1983. Makel has been involved in diversification and divestment decisions since 1979, when the alliance was formed. It now includes a 402-bed acute care hospital--the Memorial Hospital of Burlington County--a 120-bed long-term care facility, and a home health care agency that makes approximately 70,000 home care visits a year The alliance's 30-member board, under the active leadership of a 13-member executive committee, governs each of the three affiliates. Recently, Trustee managing editor Karen Gardner talked with Makel to learn how the board has approached the difficult decisions involved in cutting services versus diversification.

  1. Preliminary psychometric properties of a measure of Karen Horney's Tridimensional theory in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Estey, Alisa J; Neuzil, Paula J

    2011-04-01

    This study established the psychometric properties of a child and adolescent version of the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI), which assesses psychoanalyst Karen Horney's theory of neurotic types. Parents of 302 children (ages 5 to 17 years; median age = 12.0 years) completed the new 45-item version of the HCTI and the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (CPNI) about their children. The three main scales (Compliance, Aggression, and Detachment) had good internal scale reliability and excellent test-retest reliability. Principal components analysis supported Horney's three dimensions and a six-component substructure. There was also sufficient construct validity with personality disorder scales from the CPNI with the three HCTI dimensions and their six components. The implications of the findings are discussed for Horneyan theory. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  3. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  4. "Here nobody holds your heart": metaphoric and embodied emotions of birth and displacement among Karen women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Niner, Sara; Kokanovic, Renata; Cuthbert, Denise; Cho, Violet

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to explore the ways in which displaced Karen mothers expressed emotions in narrative accounts of motherhood and displacement. We contextualized and analyzed interview data from an ethnographic study of birth and emotions among 15 displaced Karen mothers in Australia. We found that women shared a common symbolic language to describe emotions centered on the heart, which was also associated with heart "problems." This, along with hypertension, collapsing, or a feeling of surrender were associated responses to extremely adverse events experienced as displaced peoples. A metaphoric schema of emotional terms centered on the heart was connected to embodied expressions of emotion related to illness of the heart. This and other embodied responses were reactions to overwhelming difficulties and fear women endured due to their exposure to political conflict and global inequity. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  5. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  6. Extremely High Prevalence of Metronidazole-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains in Mountain People (Karen and Hmong) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Chaithongrat, Supakarn; Uchida, Tomahisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to survey the prevalence, patterns of antibiotic resistance, and clinical factors associated with antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori among the Karen and Hmong mountain people of Thailand. We recruited dyspeptic patients in the Maesod district, Tak Province, Thailand. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and three antral gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease tests and culture. An epsilometer was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and tetracycline (TET). A total of 291 subjects were enrolled; 149 (51.2%) were infected with H. pylori. Helicobacter pylori infection was present in 47.1% of Thai, 51.7% of Karen, and 58.7% of Hmong subjects. Antibiotic resistance was present in 75.8% including AMX (0.8%), TET (0%), CLR (5.6%), MNZ (71.8%), CIP (19.4%), LVX (19.4%), and multidrug resistance in 21.8%. Karen subjects had the highest prevalence of MNZ resistance (84.6%), and Hmong subjects had the highest prevalence of fluoroquinolone (27.3%) and multidrug (34.1%) resistance. MNZ plus fluoroquinolone (14.5%) was the most common multidrug resistance. There was no association between clinical factors and antibiotic resistance. MNZ resistance was prevalent, whereas fluoroquinolone- and multidrug-resistant H. pylori infections are important problems in mountain people of Thailand. PMID:26880772

  7. High contrast high intensity petawatt J-KAREN-P laser facility at QST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Sakaki, Hironao; Dover, Nicholas P.; Kondo, Kotaro; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Sagisaka, Akito; Fukuda, Yuji; Nishitani, Keita; Miyahara, Takumi; Ogura, Koichi; Alkhimova, Mariya A.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Faenov, Anatoly Y.; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Koga, James; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-05-01

    We report on the J-KAREN-P laser facility at QST, which can provide PW peak power at 0.1 Hz on target. The system can deliver short pulses with an energy of 30 J and pulse duration of 30 fs after compression with a contrast level of better than 1012. Such performance in high field science will give rise to the birth of new applications and breakthroughs, which include relativistic particle acceleration, bright x-ray source generation, and nuclear activation. The current achieved laser intensity on target is up to > 9x1021 Wcm-2 with an energy of 9 J on target. The interaction with a 3 to 5- μm stainless steel tape target provides us electrons with a typical temperature of more than 10 MeV and energetic proton beams with typical maximum energies of > 40 MeV with good reproducibility. The protons are accelerated in the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime, which is suitable for many applications including as an injector into a beamline for medical use, which is one of our objectives.

  8. Heritability of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria in a Karen population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phimpraphi, Waraphon; Paul, Richard; Witoonpanich, Bhee; Turbpaiboon, Chairat; Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon; Louicharoen, Chalisa; Casademont, Isabelle; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kaewkunwal, Jaranit; Sura, Thanyachai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies concerning malaria host genetics have focused on individual genes that confer protection against rather than susceptibility to malaria. Establishing the relative impact of genetic versus non-genetic factors on malaria infection and disease is essential to focus effort on key determinant factors. This relative contribution has rarely been evaluated for Plasmodium falciparum and almost never for Plasmodium vivax. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in a Karen population of 3,484 individuals in a region of mesoendemic malaria, Thailand from 1998 to 2005. The number of P. falciparum and P. vivax clinical cases and the parasite density per person were determined. Statistical analyses were performed to account for the influence of environmental factors and the genetic heritability of the phenotypes was calculated using the pedigree-based variance components model. The genetic contribution to the number of clinical episodes resulting from P. falciparum and P. vivax were 10% and 19% respectively. There was also moderate genetic contribution to the maximum and overall parasite trophozoite density phenotypes for both P. falciparum (16%&16%) and P. vivax (15%&13%). These values, for P. falciparum, were similar to those previously observed in a region of much higher transmission intensity in Senegal, West Africa. Although environmental factors play an important role in acquiring an infection, genetics plays a determinant role in the outcome of an infection with either malaria parasite species prior to the development of immunity.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  10. Burn Wise - Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within this site you will find information for consumers to make informed decisions about what it means to burn wise. And partners will learn about how they can work with EPA to bring cleaner-burning appliances to market.

  11. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  12. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... all clothes that have the chemical on them. Cool the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice ... caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until ...

  13. Burning and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extended metaphor of "burnout" as it applies to the teaching profession. Examines three ancient Celtic invocations for the better tending of fires, which reveal ways that teachers can burn with enthusiasm without burning out from apathy. (RL)

  14. Burn Wise Funding

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working with federal, state, tribal and local agencies to find and promote viable funding options to replace wood-burning appliances with cleaner home heating. Includes Guide to Financing Options for Wood-burning Appliance Changeouts.

  15. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  16. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  17. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  18. Burns - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/burns.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  19. Optimization of burn referrals.

    PubMed

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2014-05-01

    Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark. We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines. The overtriage was highest among patients suffering of burns due to scalding and these were mostly children below 2 years of age. An overtriage of referred burn injured patient was found and 30% of the referred patients were treated as outpatients. A telemedicine solution may be useful in the evaluation of burn injured patients before transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... and Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  1. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  2. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  3. Trout Creek 1999 Burn

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2008-01-01

    A small prescribed fire near the mouth of Trout Creek in Strawberry Valley, Wasatch County, Utah, on the Uinta National Forest provided an opportunity to compare production and vascular plant composition in unburned and burned areas. At four years post burn, production of herbaceous plants was about four times greater in the burned area than in the unburned area. Most...

  4. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed

    Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described.

  5. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.

  6. Burn mortality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Qader, Ari Raheem

    2012-08-01

    Mortality rates are important outcome parameters after burn, and can serve as objective end points for quality control. Causes of death after severe burn have changed over time. In a prospective study, eight hundred and eighty-four burn patients were admitted to the Burns and Plastic surgery Hospital in Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq in 2009. Age, gender, nationality, cause of burn, extent of injury, cause of death and mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed, 338 (38.2%) were male and 546 (61.8%) were female. The highest number of cases occurred in January, with the highest short period incidence occurring in April. Out of 884 cases, 260 persons died. Burn injuries were more frequent and larger with higher mortality in females than in males. Flame was the major cause of burns. Self-inflicted burns were noted mainly in young women. A large number of burns which affect children and females, occur in the domestic setting and could have been prevented. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs for health education relating to prevention of burn injuries focusing on the domestic setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Burns in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Samnia, Roya; Garadaghi, Abasad; Kianvar, Hadi

    2006-03-01

    A 9-year prospective study of burns in pregnant women hospitalized at the Sina hospital burn center was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of pregnant patients. Fifty-one patients (27.45% self-inflicted, 72.55% unintentional) were identified and stratified by age, burn size, presence or absence of inhalation injury, trimester of pregnancy, maternal and fetal mortality, and cause of burn. The mean patient age was 24.2 years. There were 20 maternal deaths and 23 fetal deaths. The majority of which (maternal: 13 and fetal: 13) were among self-inflicted burned pregnant women. The mean burn size was 37.7%, and was significantly larger for nonsurvivors of mother than survivors (68.8% versus 17.6%; p<0.001). In the 51 pregnant women, as the total burned body surface area exceeds 40%, both maternal and fetal mortality reaches 100%. Inhalation injuries were strongly associated with large burns, and were presents in all suicide patients. Kerosene ignition (68.6% of all patients, 100% of self-inflicted patients) was the most common type of burn. Large burn size was the strongest predictor of mortality of mother and fetus followed by the presence of inhalation injury.

  8. [The pain from burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  9. Interview with a quality leader: Karen H. Timmons on education and consultation with Joint Commission Resources. Interview by Susan V. White.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Karen H

    2009-01-01

    In this interview, Karen Timmons of the Joint Commission Resources Inc. (JCR) responds to questions about the role JCR plays in promoting patient safety and quality in the international community. Ms. Timmons describes the types of services provided by JCR including strategies, approaches, and challenges. She concludes with recent work examples and some personal perspectives.

  10. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  11. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-10-01

    To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. Descriptive case series. All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem.

  12. [Treatment of mass burns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y

    1999-07-01

    Present paper aims at summing up the experience from 42 cases over a four year period(1993-1997) in ten events of mass burn casualties. 42 cases were analyzed retrospectively, in whom 15 cases sustained III degree burn over 50% TBSA. Among them 7 cases had III degree burn over 70% and 3 cases with III degree burn over 90%. One case (70% TBSA) died of acute respiratory distress syndrome on third postburn day. Another (III degree 70%) died of acute renal failure on seventh postburn day. The remaining 40 cases were successfully cured. Experiences gained in burn care in these ten mass casualties included: sending forward the medical expertise to the site of disaster; airlifting to accelerate transportation, adequate resuscitation in shock stage; early massive excision of eschar and skin grafting; control of burn infection; prevention of Curling ulcer hemorrhage, emphasis on supportive therapy; and the establishment of a skin bank.

  13. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. One Burn, One Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    for supporting burn treatment has induced a rethinking of current medical documentation processes of burns, especially with respect to the Lund...Browder burn diagram. In the past, the lack of comparability, scientific evalu- ation possibilities, and as a consequence, missing medical evidence in...to interested parties after registration. To that end, a protected (everyone is able to read the content, one has to register to edit) wiki (www

  15. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  16. Burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices.

  17. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  18. Piloting community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault in conflict-affected Karen State of eastern Burma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the challenges to ensuring facility-based care in conflict settings, the Women’s Refugee Commission and partners have been pursuing a community-based approach to providing medical care to survivors of sexual assault in Karen State, eastern Burma. This new model translates the 2004 World Health Organization’s Clinical Management of Rape Survivors facility-based protocol to the community level through empowering community health workers to provide post-rape care. The aim of this innovative study is to examine the safety and feasibility of community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault to contribute to building an evidence base on alternative models of care in humanitarian settings. Methods A process evaluation was implemented from July-October 2011 to gather qualitative feedback from trained community health workers, traditional birth attendants, and community members. Two focus group discussions were conducted among the highest cadre health care workers from the pilot and non-pilot sites. In Karen State, eight focus group discussions were convened among traditional birth attendants and 10 among women and men of reproductive age. Results Qualitative feedback contributed to an understanding of the model’s feasibility. Pilot site community health workers showed interest in providing community-based care for survivors of sexual assault. Traditional birth attendants attested to the importance of making this care available. Community health workers were deeply aware of the need to maintain confidentiality and offer compassionate care. They did not raise safety as an excess concern in the provision of treatment. Conclusions Data speak to the promising “feasibility” of community-based post-rape care. More time, awareness-raising, and a larger catchment population are necessary to answer the safety perspective. The pilot is an attempt to translate facility-based protocol to the community level to offer solutions for settings where

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. Zinc burns: a rare burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Juan, A; Ramon, P; Santoyo, F; Alonso, S

    2000-08-01

    A patient was presented with significant burns resulting from a workplace accident in a zinc production unit. This occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of zinc bleed under high pressure. The patient sustained burns to the face, body, and hands and suffered significant injury to the left cornea. Computed imaging revealed solid particles in the ethmoid sinus and also in the right nasal fossa, dissecting the right lacrimal duct. Photographic documentation is presented. This injury was potentially preventable and resulted from poor observance of safety procedures.

  1. Nutrition of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis

    2004-01-01

    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  2. Pain in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  3. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  4. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    PubMed

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain, burning mouth Syndrome (BMS) is defined as a burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membrane in the absence of clinical signs or laboratory findings. The etiology is unknown and presents a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. The management of BMS is still not satisfactory. The prognosis is poor and the burning sensation can last for many years causing a dramatic impact on the patient's quality of life. It is important to distinguish between true BMS and symptomatic burning sensation which occurs when the burning sensation is secondary to a local or systemic pathologic condition. Currently, there are no defined diagnostic criteria for BMS. A diagnosis is usually reached by exclusion of other diseases. This may lead to misdiagnoses, presenting an obstacle to successful treatment.

  6. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypercoagulability after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Van Haren, Robert M; Thorson, Chad M; Valle, Evan J; Busko, Alexander M; Guarch, Gerardo A; Andrews, David M; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2013-07-01

    Hypercoagulability is a homeostatic response to trauma, but relatively little information is available about coagulation changes after burn injury. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that burn patients are hypercoagulable at admission and/or during recovery. A prospective observational trial was conducted at an American Burn Association verified Burn Center. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed on blood drawn from indwelling catheters upon admission and weekly for those who remained hospitalized. Routine and special coagulation tests were performed on stored samples. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range). Twenty-four patients (88% male) were enrolled, with a median age of 49 (20) years and a median total body surface area burn of 29% (23%); 21 experienced thermal burns (4 inhalational injuries), and 3 had electrical burns. There were no significant differences in TEG or coagulation assays between patients with thermal versus electrical burn injury, but there were significant differences between men versus women and between those with or without inhalational injury. Sixteen patients had repeat samples 1 week after intensive care unit admission. The repeat TEG was more hypercoagulable (all p < 0.05). Fibrinogen and natural anticoagulation proteins (protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III) were also increased (all p < 0.05). Two patients (8%) developed venous thromboembolism (VTE); TEG reaction time, fibrinogen, and partial thromboplastin time were decreased (all p < 0.05) at admission compared with those with no VTE. All changes occurred despite pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. There was no significant correlation between TEG and total body surface area or between TEG and fluid balance. In general, burn patients have normal coagulation parameters at admission but become hypercoagulable during recovery. However, those who are hypercoagulable at admission may have an increased risk of VTE. Additional monitoring and/or thromboprophylaxis may be

  8. Burn encephalopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Mohnot, D; Snead, O C; Benton, J W

    1982-07-01

    Among 287 children with burns treated over a recent two-year period, 13 (5%) showed evidence of encephalopathy. The major clinical symptoms were an altered sensorium and seizures. The majority of symptoms began later than 48 hours after the burn and were accompanied by multiple metabolic aberrations including hypocalcemia. Three children had a relapsing course, and 1 had temporarily enlarged cerebral ventricles. Eleven children improved to normal. In the majority of instances, burn encephalopathy probably reflects central nervous system dysfunction resulting from complex metabolic, hematological, and hemodynamic abnormalities rather than from a single metabolic abnormality.

  9. Microsurgical Burn Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Seth, Akhil K; Friedstat, Jonathan S; Orgill, Dennis P; Pribaz, Julian J; Halvorson, Eric G

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of burn-related wounds requires consideration of several factors, including defect size, available donor sites, exposure of critical structures, and the ultimate functional and aesthetic result of reconstruction. Although skin grafts and locoregional flaps are workhorses in burn reconstruction, they have inherent limitations that can directly impact reconstructive outcomes. Microsurgical free tissue transfer represents a viable option for the reconstruction of burn-related wounds in certain patients. Each anatomic region of the body has unique challenges that must be addressed to achieve a successful reconstruction. Therefore, the choice of free flap must be individualized to the wound and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  11. Burning by prescription in chaparral

    Treesearch

    Lisle R. Green

    1981-01-01

    Prescribed burning is frequently suggested for reducing conflagration costs in chaparral. Preparation for a prescribed burn includes environmental impact reports, approval by higher levels of authority, and a burn plan. After objectives are stated, the prescription can be written. Elements of the burn prescription reflect fuel, weather, and other factors that determine...

  12. Management of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  14. Burns Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the horizon for burn research? Improving methods for wound healing and tissue repair offer tremendous opportunities to enhance ... various aspects of the recovery process, such as wound healing and tissue repair. An important goal of this ...

  15. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  16. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918-925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

  17. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  18. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  19. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  20. Accidental burns during surgery.

    PubMed

    Demir, Erhan; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Pallua, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of intraoperative burns during standard procedures, to discuss their possible causes and warning signs and to provide recommendations for prevention and procedures to follow after their occurrence. A total of 19 patients associated with intraoperative burn accidents were treated surgically and analyzed after a mean follow-up of 5 +/- 3.5 months. Review included retrospective patient chart analysis, clinical examination, and technical device and equipment testing. A total of 15 patients recently underwent cardiac surgery, and 4 pediatric patients recovered after standard surgical procedures. A total of 15 patients had superficial and 4 presented with deep dermal or full-thickness burns. The average injured TBSA was 2.1 +/- 1% (range, 0.5-4%). Delay between primary surgery and consultation of plastic surgeons was 4.5 +/- 3.4 days. A total of 44% required surgery, including débridment, skin grafting or musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flaps, and the remaining patients were treated conservatively. Successful durable soft-tissue coverage of the burn region was achieved in 18 patients, and 1 patient died after a course of pneumonia. Technical analysis demonstrated one malfunctioning electrosurgical device, one incorrect positioned neutral electrode, three incidents occurred after moisture under the negative electrode, eight burns occurred during surgery while fluid or blood created alternate current pathways, five accidents were chemical burns after skin preparation with Betadine solution, and in one case, the cause was not clear. The surgical team should pay more attention to the probability of burns during surgery. Early patient examination and immediate involvement of plastic and burn surgeons may prevent further complications or ease handling after the occurrence.

  1. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  2. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  3. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  4. Smartphone applications in burns.

    PubMed

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

    2013-07-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care.

  6. Emerging Infections in Burns

    PubMed Central

    Branski, Ludwik K.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed; Rivero, Haidy; Jeschke, Marc G.; Sanford, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who suffer severe burns are at higher risk for local and systemic infections. In recent years, emerging resistant pathogens have forced burn care providers world wide to search for alternative forms of treatment. Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and various fungal strains have been the major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Multi-drug-resistant S. aureus remains the major cause of gram-positive burn wound infections world wide. Treatment strategies include rigorous isolation protocols and new types of antibiotics where necessary. Methods We reviewed 398 severely burned patients (burns >40% total body surface area [TBSA]) admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2006. Patients who did not contract multi-drug-resistant gram-negative organisms during their hospital course and received our standard antibiotic regimen—vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam—served as controls (piperacillin/tazobactam; n = 280). The treatment group consisted of patients who, during their acute hospital stay, developed infections with multi-drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens and were treated with vancomycin and colistin for at least three days (colistin; n = 118). Results Gram-negative organisms continue to cause the most severe infections in burn patients. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections of burns. Patients who required colistin therapy had a significantly larger average total and full-thickness burn than patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin, and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the colistin group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the colistin and piperacillin/tazobactam groups in the incidence of neurotoxicity, hepatic toxicity, or nephrotoxicity. The main fungal pathogens in burn patients are Candida

  7. A system that 'walks the talk'. Using improved community health status for CEO evaluation and compensation. Interview by Karen Gardner.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, J C; Billings, R W

    1994-04-01

    Crozer-Keystone Health System, with corporate headquarters in Media, PA, is relatively new. The system was formed in 1990 to integrate four hospitals--roughly 1,160 acute care beds--five long-term care facilities, skilled nursing facilities and personal care facilities. According to President and CEO John C. McMeekin, the system comprises "very aggressive" programs in senior wellness, geriatric care, women's and children's health, behavioral medicine and psychiatric substance abuse. And it also has a large managed care organization that was undertaken as part of a joint venture with members of the hospitals' medical staff. The system is still defining itself, and perhaps that's why it has been willing to venture into an area that is virtually unique among health care organizations: using community health status indicators as part of the CEO's annual evaluation and compensation. Recently, Trustee editor Karen Gardner spoke to McMeekin and board Chairman Richard W. Billings about a major community needs assessment project that the system undertook in 1991 and how it is using the results of that study.

  8. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Eiko; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Maeda, Yuko; Wongchai, Siriporn; Kada, Akiko; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Hayami, Yoko; Kihara, Masahiro

    2009-05-15

    The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  9. [Burn child specificity].

    PubMed

    Plancq, M C; Goffinet, L; Duquennoy-Martinot, V

    2016-10-01

    Burn is still a frequent accident in children and particularly occurs in young children under 4years. The majority were caused by hot liquids (scalds) with mixed-dermal burns and is commonly treated conservatively with surgery performed at 10-15 days post-injury after healing of superficial burn. Patients with burns greater than 10% need early fluid resuscitation and adequate nutritional support to avoid deepening with infection, improve healing and survival. Hypovolemic shock could be very abrupt in children. Prophylactic prevention of infection and optimization of healing before 21 days improve quality of scar. Management with rehabilitation team is more important in children than in adults because hypertrophic scar and retraction can restrain growth and function particularly for palmar hand burns occurring at the beginning of walking. Follow-up is essential during the growth to assess scar tension requiring secondary surgery. Better knowledge of injury mechanisms should facilitate education and prevention programs and decrease the incidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Tar burns in the southwest.

    PubMed

    Schiller, W R

    1983-07-01

    The burns which result from contact of human skin with hot tar may be quite serious in proportion to the body surface area involved. Although tending toward partial thickness burns, patchy areas of full thickness skin loss are commonly observed. The use of petrolatum-based ointments on the burn initially to dissolve the tar into the dressings seems like the most efficient and humane method of tar removal. Subsequently, care of the wound is like that of any other burn. Tar burns involving greater than 10 per cent of the body surface area are likely to be the most serious and require intravenous fluid resuscitation. Many tar burns appear to be preventable.

  11. Infection in Burns

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, William; Herndon, David N.; Tanksley, Jessica; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Developments in critical care and surgical approaches to treating burn wounds, together with newer antimicrobial treatments, have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality rates associated with this injury. Methods: Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Results: Several resistant organisms have emerged as the maleficent cause of invasive infection in burn patients, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, non-albicans Candida spp., and Aspergillus. Advances in antimicrobial therapies and the release of new classes of antibiotics have certainly added to the armamentarium of therapeutic resources for the clinician. Conclusion: Strict infection control measures, constant wound surveillance with regular sampling of tissues for quantitative culture, and early excision and wound closure remain the principal adjuncts to control of invasive infections in burn patients. PMID:26978531

  12. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  13. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable.

  14. [Polytraumatized burn injury victims].

    PubMed

    Ziegenthaler, H; Neumann, U; Fritzsche, U; Sühnel, B

    2005-09-01

    Most polytraumatized burn injury persons aged 30-40 years who have suffered a burn or a burn-like injury are stigmatized by serious functional deficits, temporary loss of their social independence, injury-associated psychological reactions of different levels, and unusual reversible deficits in their higher cortical functions. The result is a prolonged stage of acute treatment and rehabilitation as well as very often the lifelong need for highly specialized care by physicians and other medical professionals. Accordingly, the deficits in any individual case are high and in spite of the low case rate (approximately 300-400 cases/ year) these accidents have a high impact on society as a whole, resulting in a significant financial burden for the social security system, insurance funds, and pension funds.

  15. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  16. Fast burning propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

    1987-07-21

    A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

  17. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  19. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2010-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by burning of the oral mucosa, with or without dysgeusia and xerostomia, in the setting of no underlying systemic disease or identifiable abnormalities on physical examination or laboratory testing. BMS disproportionately affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown; no single treatment has proven universally successful. In light of these shortcomings, having a practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with BMS can improve both patient quality of life and physician satisfaction.

  20. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Blog Taking Care of Yourself at Phoenix World Burn Congress 3 Oct 2017 Imagine this: a ... Menu Get Support Find Resources Our Programs Phoenix World Burn Congress Get Involved Ways to Give Who ...

  1. [Burns in an aeronautic environment].

    PubMed

    Rigotti, G

    1979-10-27

    Following an examination of the aetiology of burns in aeronautic environments, the physiopathology, classification and general and local treatment of the burn case is discussed. Special mention is then made of aircraft as an extremely useful means of transport.

  2. Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

  3. Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2004-09-01

    Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections.

  4. Burn Wise Outreach Materials for Retailers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  5. Burn Wise Educational Materials for Businesses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  6. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Johnson DW, Pruitt BA Jr. Ef- fect of ambient temperature on heat production and heat loss in burn patients. J Appl Physiol 1975;38:593–7. 13. Dvir...R, Parker RS, Rodriguez JL. Carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in patients after burn injury. J Burn Care Rehabil 1997;18:269–78; discus- sion...In response, review by the FDA of novel therapies has led to Guidance for Industry: chronic cutaneous ulcer and burn wounds—developing products

  7. Treating and Preventing Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you can make certain everyone has gotten out of the burning area. Teach your children to stop, drop, and roll on the ground if their clothing catches fire. Avoid smoking​ indoors . Do not leave food ... home. It is best to store them outside the home, out of children's reach, and away from heat or ...

  8. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  9. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  10. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  11. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  12. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  13. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  14. Burn and Scald Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry oven mitts or potholders. Hot cookware can heat moisture in a potholder or hot pad, resulting in a scald burn. • Wear short, close-fitting or tightly rolled sleeves when cooking. • Have a “kid-free zone” of at least 3 feet around the stove. ...

  15. Burn Care in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    tent configuration and later occupied Ibn Sina Hospital, in the international zone in Baghdad, Iraq. In the tent configura- tion, the 28th CSH provided...at Ibn Sina Hos- pital continuously. In a relatively austere general hospital environment, burn care has been provided with a focus on the

  16. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  17. [Burns with lighter gas].

    PubMed

    Davidsen, M T

    1993-06-28

    Attention is drawn to a particularly dangerous party activity. Balloons filled with lighter gas so as to float are used for party decorations. A case of hand burn caused by accidentally lighting such a balloon with a cigarette is reported. The method is strongly advised against, it is a much better idea to use helium for such purposes.

  18. [Burns in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Rodríguez, R; Domínguez Amillo, E; Soto Beauregard, C; Díaz González, M; López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros Mar, Z; Tovar Larrucea, J A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to know the epidemiology of burns in teenagers. Burn patients over 11 years old admitted in our Institution in the last 10 years were included. Etiology, burn size, hospital stay, quirurgical interventions and long term sequelae were registered. One thousand and eight patients were admitted, 89 were over 11 years (8.8%), 70.7% were boys and 29.3% girls. Fire was the principal agent in 58 cases (65.1%), due to fireworks in 13 (22.4%), alcohol in 7 (12%), explosion of flammable containers (spray) in 4 (6.8%) and gasoline in 3 (5.2%). Fireworks injuries and spray explosions affected face and hand in 88% cases. The median hospital stay was 8 days after admission (1 to 90). 83.1% required surgical treatment with mean of 1.8 +/- 1.4 interventions and 21.3% had long-term sequelaes that required at least one surgical intervention. Fire is the main cause of burns in adolescents. Fireworks injuries represented a quarter of that lesions, and highlights paint spray explosions as new causative agents. Considering the high morbidity in this age group, with permanent functional and aesthetic sequelae, prevention campaigns are needed to reduce such accidents.

  19. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  1. Hypocupremia in a major burn.

    PubMed

    Brian, J E; Caldwell, F T; Woody, R C; Bowser-Wallace, B H

    1987-03-01

    Trace element deficiency in burns is an area which apparently has not been investigated. We recently encountered a severely burned patient with profound copper depletion. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and delayed healing may have been secondary to this deficiency. Further study is needed to clearly delineate the role of acquired copper deficiency in recovering burned patients.

  2. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  3. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome: update.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José

    2014-06-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research.

  5. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  6. A cycle of terms implicit in the idea of medicine: Karen Ann Quinlan as a rhetorical icon and the transvaluation of the ethics of euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Robert Wade

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I examine competing characterizations of Karen Ann Quinlan's life and the role these characterizations played in shaping public attitudes toward euthanasia and medicine in America. I discuss the reasons Quinlan's coma brought forth radically contrasted narratives about who she was by applying Burke's (1961) cycle of terms implicit in the idea of order. I compare the manner in which traditional life-sanctity advocates spoke about her with the narratives and counternarratives offered by the family and the social innovators who would challenge those traditionalist assumptions.

  7. The year in burns 2011.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  8. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  9. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  10. MALIGNANT DEGENERATION IN BURN SCARS

    PubMed Central

    Castañares, Salvador

    1961-01-01

    The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars. Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13691372

  11. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging.

    PubMed

    Krezdorn, N; Limbourg, A; Paprottka, F J; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R; Vogt, P M

    2016-09-30

    Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours.

  12. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  13. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  14. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  15. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  16. Prescribed burning symposium

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1971-01-01

    The custom of annual burning of the woods from Colonial times onward is a subject of more interest, perhaps, to ecologists and social scientists than it is to foresters. The important point to us is that it had become a well-settled folkway by the time large-scale lumbering began in the southern pineries about 1890. Before this lumbering began, the light annual fires...

  17. Burn scar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Feng, Chung-Ho; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

    2010-11-01

    Since Jean-Nicolas Marjolin reported carcinoma arising in post-traumatic scars in 1828, the term 'Marjolin ulcer' has been applied to malignant changes in burn scars. Although many papers have been published already in this field, there are few reports from Oriental people. From 1989 to 2008, there were 11 cases noted as burn scar carcinoma in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Ten were reported as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the one was verrucous carcinoma. Most of the cases occurred in the extremities (10/11). Ten cases underwent an operation initially with wide excision and skin graft or local flap for coverage. Forefoot amputation was performed in one patient. One patient received above-knee amputation and adjuvant therapy because recurrent verrucous carcinoma occurred 2 years later. One patient suffered from a new lesion 8 years later and another case had inguinal lymph node metastasis 8 months later. Five patients were lost to follow-up and six cases were tumor-free during the follow-up period. Most scar malignancies are SCC while other cell types are rarer. The casual association between burn injuries and a later risk of basal cell carcinoma is questionable. Owing to poor prognosis in advanced scar cancer, the best treatment for scar carcinoma is to prevent the scar from developing repeated ulceration by performing aggressive initial burn wound care: early grafting by surgeons and daily scar care with regular follow-up for patients. This may be why a lower incidence has been noted in recent years.

  18. [Clinical aspects of corneal burns].

    PubMed

    Borderie, V

    2004-12-01

    Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal burns mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe burns are caustic burns, which should be classified as burns caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and burns caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic burns induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal burns induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic burns. Radiation-related burns can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical burns are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification.

  19. Antiseptics for burns.

    PubMed

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-07-12

    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  20. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  1. Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter; Brammah, Susan; Wills, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Following a burn, the wound may become colonized and septic complications may ensue. Many organisms, commonly isolated from burn wounds produce biofilms, which are defined as a collection of organisms on a surface surrounded by a matrix. Biofilms are associated with development of antibiotic resistant organisms and are refractory to the immune system. The presence of biofilm in the burn wound has not been documented. A study was undertaken using light and electron microscopy to determine the presence of biofilm in the burn wound. Specific stains were used to detect the presence of micro-organisms and associated carbohydrate, a major constituent of the biofilm matrix. A concurrent microbiological study of the burn wound was also carried out. Biofilm was detected in ulcerated areas of the burn wound. Bacterial wound invasion with mixed organisms was also commonly detected. The finding of biofilm in the burn wound has significance in our understanding of burn wound sepsis and supports the evidence for early excision and closure of the burn wound. Due to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm associated sepsis and the difficulty in disrupting biofilm it has implications for the future development of wound care dressings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip

    2008-09-01

    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA.

  3. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  4. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  5. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  6. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  7. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Janom, H H

    2014-03-31

    Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures.

  8. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  9. CAD tool for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images.

  10. [The organization of burn care].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  11. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  12. Rehabilitation of the Burned Hand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    sites of burn injury ,1 and proper management is essential to assure that optimal functional recovery is achieved. Although each hand represents less...than 3% of the total body surface area, burns to the hand are considered serious injuries and should be referred to a burn center.2 The thin, highly...studies. PROBLEMS TOANTICIPATE A thorough understanding of the effect of thermal injury on the structures of the hand can minimize or even avoid many

  13. Rehabilitation after a burn injury.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, Michael; Cowan, April; Whitehead, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Burn rehabilitation is a serious undertaking, and to produce the best outcomes, it demands the special attention of the entire medical team. A significant burn injury may lead to functional and aesthetic limitations along with psychosocial issues affecting the quality of life for the person who has the injury. Burn rehabilitation professionals specialize in assisting patients to achieve optimal functional outcomes at the completion of the rehabilitative process.

  14. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  15. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk.

  16. SystemBurn

    SciTech Connect

    Josh Lothian, Jeff Kuehn

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would be recorded from the power panels within the computer room.

  17. Tokamak burn control

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, G.T.

    1988-06-01

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome.

  19. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  20. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  1. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.Y.; Dunham, D.M.; Supp, D.M.; Sen, C.K.; Powell, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. Methods A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200 ± 5 °C) and pressed into the skin for 40 s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40 s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3 lbs with a constant contact time of 40 s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). Results The custom burn device

  2. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M

    2016-03-01

    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  3. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  4. Burning Fuel Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

  5. [Burns and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rochet, J M; Hareb, F

    2002-03-01

    Necessary principles of rehabilitation for burn patient are based on empirical findings recently corroborated by discoveries about healing pathophysiology. Risks are assessable immediately from the extensive, depth and situation of the burns, problems appear only if the dermis is affected: retraction, hypertrophy and losses of substances. To cutaneous problems it is necessary to add those linked to the prolonged immobilization and to complications of the resuscitation. To be effective, re-education has to be precocious, continuously suited to cicatricial processing and to the different therapeutic steps: resuscitation, surgical treatment, processing in a re-education and rehabilitation center, steady at home and processing of the sequelae. The processing rests on the repressive cloth port 23/24 hours during more of a year, the port of orthesis of immobilization and segmental posture (to stretch the dermis permanently) and the mobilization of articulations to avoid their stiffening. The cooperation of the patient is essential, it needs the share of therapies as well as the totality of problems and difficulties met by the patient, that they are physical, psychological, social, family or occupational. The steady has to be insured by a pluridisciplinarity team during at least the two necessary years for the cicatricial maturation.

  6. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

  7. Burning Fuel Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

  8. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  9. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  10. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  11. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  12. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  13. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  14. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  15. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  16. Minor burn management: potions and lotions

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first aid for burns is to run cold water over the burn for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface area using the rule of nines. Consult a burn unit if more than 5% of the total body surface area is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep burns and burns to special areas, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical burns should also be assessed by a burn unit. For minor burns, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As burns are tetanus prone, check the patient’s immunisation status. Burns that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a burn unit. The burn unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640

  17. Animal models in burn research.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

    2014-09-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research.

  18. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  19. Ammonia emissions from biomass burning

    Treesearch

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Philip J. Riggan

    1988-01-01

    Measurements in the plumes from seven forest fires show that the concentrations of NH3 were considerably in excess of ambient values. Calculation of NH3 emissions from the fires, based on the ratio of NH3/CO in the plumes and emissions of CO from biomass burning, suggest that biomass burning may be a...

  20. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  1. Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

  2. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  3. The biology of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  4. The year in burns 2013.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  5. Assessment and management of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Martyn; Swales, Beverley

    Burns are a common injury in the UK. Most burns are limited in size and depth and are therefore suitable for management in the community. Primary care and non-specialist clinicians need to understand initial assessment of the burn and when referral to a specialist burns unit is indicated. Successful treatment of minor burns and ongoing care of severe burns in the community requires careful selection of dressings to support wound healing and achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

  6. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor".

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M

    2014-06-30

    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  7. Pediatric burns: Kids' Inpatient Database vs the National Burn Repository.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Tahereh; Evans, Tyler A; Sood, Rajiv; Hartman, Brett C; Hadad, Ivan; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2016-04-01

    Burn injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Burn Repository (NBR) are two large national databases that can be used to evaluate outcomes and help quality improvement in burn care. Differences in the design of the KID and NBR could lead to differing results affecting resultant conclusions and quality improvement programs. This study was designed to validate the use of KID for burn epidemiologic studies, as an adjunct to the NBR. Using the KID (2003, 2006, and 2009), a total of 17,300 nonelective burn patients younger than 20 y old were identified. Data from 13,828 similar patients were collected from the NBR. Outcome variables were compared between the two databases. Comparisons revealed similar patient distribution by gender, race, and burn size. Inhalation injury was more common among the NBR patients and was associated with increased mortality. The rates of respiratory failure, wound infection, cellulitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection were higher in the KID. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders demonstrated similar mortality rate but significantly longer length of stay for patients in the NBR. Despite differences in the design and sampling of the KID and NBR, the overall demographic and mortality results are similar. The differences in complication rate and length of stay should be explored by further studies to clarify underlying causes. Investigations into these differences should also better inform strategies to improve burn prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  9. Outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  10. Functional Outcomes Following Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Parry, Ingrid; Richard, Reginald

    Major advances in functional recovery following burn injury over the last ten years include the development of conceptual framework for disability assessment and its application burn recovery, the description of the long-term outcomes in the burn population, and progress in basic science research leading to new treatments that improve long-term functional outcomes. Future tasks and challenges include the development of common data elements and standards for burn recovery in order to measure and optimize the path toward functional recovery. The development of patient-reported outcome measures with benchmarks for recovery over time has the potential to improve patient-provider communication and quality of patient-centered care. The study of burn recovery should include an examination of resiliency along with the study of disabilities following burn injury. Better understanding of the mechanisms, impact and modulation of hypermetabolism and inflammation following burn injury is essential to improve functional recovery. Continued basic science and clinical research must focus on scar modulation and skin replacements and address recalcitriant problems such as heterotopic ossification. Health tracking technologies should be leveraged to understand and optimize physical therapy interventions.

  11. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  12. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

  13. The true cost of burn.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chris S; Maitz, Peter K M

    2012-11-01

    It is difficult to define the true cost of a burns injury, however there has always been a consensus that the costs associated with burns care are high. This study aims to achieve an accurate calculation of the cost of acute burns care in an Australian context. A retrospective review of 20 adult burn patients treated at our Centre was performed. An itemized price list was prepared based on items, services and equipment actually utilized in the care of burns patients. Case records were reviewed for a count of quantities to calculate costs for each item. Regression analysis was performed to produce a cost vs %TBSA curve for cost prediction. A cost breakdown was also performed for analysis of the most significant areas of expenditure and their trends with %TBSA. The cost calculated for an average adult burns patient was AU$71,056 (US$73,532). The total cost of all 20 patients was AU$2,449,112 (US$2,534,464). %TBSA injured was confirmed as the primary determinant of cost. Hospital length of stay, operative costs, dressings and staffing were found to be the most significant components of cost and increased most prominently with %TBSA. Compared to our findings, expenditure for prevention and education programs is minimal. There is limited conclusive evidence that changes in management protocols have had successful impact on the cost of burns treatment. Future progress in burns management may effect factors such as hospital length of stay, however until such changes, resource allocation should recognize the importance of prevention and its success at reduction of injury severity for real reductions in cost of burns care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  15. Efficacy of moist exposed burn ointment on burns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Qi; Yip, Tsui-Pik; Hui, Irene; Lai, Vincy; Wong, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we sought to test the medical efficacy of a Chinese medical herb product, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), on wound healing rate and infection control in burn injury. Standardized deep burn wounds were created on the back skin of rats by applying a hot brass bar for 12 to 18 seconds. MEBO was applied four times per day and compared with petroleum jelly, silver sulfadiazine, and dry exposure therapy. Under such a controlled setting, although MEBO had a better wound healing rate than the dry exposure treatment, it did not show the medical advantage statistically, as has been claimed, over the other two treatments (P > .05), either in terms of wound healing rate or bacterial control. We conclude that the MEBO is not suitable for deep burn wound treatment, particularly when infection is a concern.

  16. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    PubMed Central

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  18. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  19. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  3. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  4. Colonization of burn wounds in Ain Shams University Burn Unit.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Salah; Mabrouk, Amr; Maher, Ashraf

    2003-05-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 70 burned patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, with the aim to verify the pattern of microbial colonization of burn wounds. Throughout the study period starting from 1 June 1999 till 31 May 2001, 281 sampling procedures (surface swabs) were performed from the burn wounds. A total of 301 microbial isolates were grown in cultures. Eight different species of bacteria, and only one species of Candida (C. albicans) were detected. There was no incidence of recovery of anaerobic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%), then Escherichia coli (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (11.6%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8.3%), Enterobacter species (6.6%), and lastly Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (5.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Studying the time-related changes in burn wound microbial colonization showed an initial predominance of gram-positive cocci upon admission (70.7%) over gram-negative bacilli (27.6%). During the first 5 days, gram-negative bacilli started to predominate (55.7%) over gram-positive cocci (40.3%). Burn wound sampling performed starting from the sixth day onwards, revealed further prevalence of gram-negative bacilli (72.7%) over gram-positive cocci (22.7%). As for Candida albicans, there was a gradual increase in the frequency of its recovery as time elapsed from admission. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  5. Prescribed burning in the North Central States.

    Treesearch

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  6. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  7. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  8. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  11. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  12. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  13. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  15. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  17. Effect of crib dimensions on burning rate

    Treesearch

    S. McAllister; M. Finney

    2013-01-01

    The burning rate of unconfined cribs has long been identified to occur in two regimes: the densely-packed regime where the burning rate is proportional to the crib porosity and the loosely-packed regime where the burning rate is independent of porosity. Though the cribs used to define these burning regimes were primarily cubic in dimension, there are seemingly endless...

  18. Prescribed burning weather in Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Rodney W. Sando

    1969-01-01

    Describes the weather patterns in northern Minnesota as related to prescribed burning. The prevailing wind direction, average wind speed, most persistent wind direction, and average Buildup Index are considered in making recommendations.

  19. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    ... amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and in photochemical models of the atmosphere. ... Location:  Central & South America, Africa, Tropical Asia Spatial Coverage:  Central & South America, ...

  20. Burn Scars Across Southern California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-26

    Brush fires consumed nearly 750,000 acres across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these false-color images from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  1. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  2. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

  3. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  4. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  5. Getting beyond burning dirt

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

  6. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  7. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  8. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  9. Candidiasis in the Burned Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Candidemia was present in 52 patients and 76.9% of these died. Candida infection was seen as a preterminal phenomenon, coincident with a generalized...8217andid, burn wound infection 75; may be required (16l. Bacterial sepsis, topical antimicro- also had candidemia . Considering all sources, a total of...manifested candidemia and burn wound inva- (-8) sion bv other noncandidal fungal organisms. Candidemia Colonization always preceded invasive sepsis, but 80’r

  10. Andean Altiplano, Amazon Basin burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view is centered over Lake Poopo, Bolivia, in the central Andean Altiplano, (20.0S, 65.0W) with a view looking northeast into the lower elevations of Bolivia and Brazil. Extensive dry seasonal burning in the Amazon Basin produces a thick haze which is trapped in the lower atmosphere by a stable air layer. The clarity difference in the scene is caused by the Andes Mountains extending above the haze into cleaner upper atmosphere air. Amazon Basin burning

  11. Early coagulopathy of major burns.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Wasiak, Jason; Cameron, Peter A; O'Reilly, Gerard; Dobson, Hannah; Cleland, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology and time-course of coagulopathy post major burns are inadequately understood. The aims of this study were to review the incidence of acute coagulopathy post major burns, potential contributing factors associated with this coagulopathy and outcome of patients who developed early coagulopathy. A retrospective review of all patients with major burns (≥20% total body surface area (TBSA)) presenting to a tertiary burns referral centre was conducted. Data on demographic, injury characteristics and fluid resuscitation practices were recorded and tested for association with coagulopathy (INR>1.5 or aPTT>60 s) at hospital presentation and within 24 h of burns injury. Mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and blood and blood product usage were primary endpoints. There were 99 patients who met the inclusion criteria with 36 (16) %TBSA burns. Coagulopathy was present in only three patients on presentation, but 37 (37%) patients developed early onset (within 24 h of injury) coagulopathy. Early onset coagulopathy was independently associated with %TBSA burnt (p<0.001) and volume of fluid administered (p=0.005). Early onset coagulopathy was associated with higher volumes of blood and blood product administration, ICU admission and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Post major burns, a very low proportion of patients presented with coagulopathy, but a substantial proportion of patients developed coagulopathy within 24 h. This and the association of coagulopathy with the volume of fluid resuscitation suggest dilution as a major cause of the early coagulopathy of major burns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiac output after burn injury.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, J. M.; Shakespeare, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output after burn injury has been measured by the non-invasive method of impedance plethysmography. An initial study of 143 normal subjects was undertaken in order to investigate variations in cardiac output with age. Fifteen patients were monitored during resuscitation after extensive burns. Fourteen patients showed a depression of stroke volume below the lower limits of the normal range, derived from the initial study on normal people. PMID:6691694

  13. Infectious Complications After Burn Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    and burn wound Epidemiology of infection sepsis’ through the use of effective topical antimicrobial agents and timely excision and grafting have...and early closure of the burn woundthe epidemiology of infection have occurred, resulting in have become standard practice; at the same time, the a...airway and gastrointestinal tract. vasive wound infection , endocarditis , or suppurative Perioperative antibiotic use. thrombophlebitis are common causes

  14. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Insensate skin and chronic medical illness such as diabetes mellitus were common risk factors. The scald potential from hydrotherapy in patients with...anesthetized, unconscious, or immobilized patients by the use of hydrotherapy , heating blankets, hot water bonlcs, or other warm- 272 Bnrillo cr a/ ing de...Hwang JC, Himel HN, Edlich RF. Bilateral amputations foUowing hydrotherapy t:lnk burns in a. paraplegic patient. Burns 1995;21:70-L 53. Simonsen K

  15. Reconstruction of the pediatric burned hand.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert L

    2009-11-01

    Though the hand constitutes only 3% of the total body surface area, a burned hand is a major injury. Reconstruction of the burned hand is key to the overall rehabilitation of the burned patient. Whether an isolated injury, or part of burns to a large overall body surface area, loss of the hand represents a major functional impairment. The American Burn Association recognizes the importance of the burned hand by designating it a major injury. In addition, loss of the hand constitutes a 57% loss of function for the whole person. Thus, successful management of the burned hand is important.

  16. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  17. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  18. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  19. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  20. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  1. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek

    2016-02-01

    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (P<0.001). Burn depth increased marginally from cephalic to caudal in non-debrided burns, but showed no statistical differences for these locations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. How to manage burns in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268745

  3. Neurologic and musculoskeletal complications of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jeffery C; Qu, Huaguang David

    2011-05-01

    As more people survive burn injuries, there is an increasing focus on managing the complications of burn injuries with the ultimate goal of improving survivors' quality of life. Musculoskeletal and neurologic sequelae are significant complications of burn injury. Electrical injury is a subcategory of burns with multiple musculoskeletal and neurologic complications. Knowledge of these complications helps clinicians provide optimal long-term care for burn survivors and enables survivors to attain maximal recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regimes of Helium Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-01

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Döring (ZND) detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of ~108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than ~106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at ~107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below ~107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than ~104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at ~5×104 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction.

  5. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  6. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-07-23

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tweens feel the burn: "salt and ice challenge" burns.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Lauren O; Bell, Derek E

    2016-05-01

    To review our institution's experience with frostbite injury secondary to "salt and ice challenge" (SIC) participation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of intentional freezing burns from 2012 to 2014. Demographics, depth and location of burn, total body surface area of burn, treatment, time to wound healing, length of stay, complications, and motives behind participation were analyzed. Five patients were seen in the emergency department for intentional freezing burns that resulted from SIC (all females; mean age: 12.3 years; range age: 10.0-13.2 years). Mean total body surface area was 0.408%. Salt and ice was in contact with skin for >10 min for two patients, >20 min for two patients, and an unknown duration for one patient. Complications included pain and burn scar dyschromia. Four patients cited peer pressure and desire to replicate SIC as seen on the Internet as their motivation in attempting the challenge. SIC has become a popular, self-harming behavior among youths. Increased public education, and provider and parent awareness of SIC are essential to address this public health concern.

  8. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Rivara, Frederick P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N; Sharar, Sam R; Esselman, Peter C; Bulger, Eileen M; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2012-01-01

    Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  9. LA50 in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  10. LA50 in burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  11. [Multiple trauma and burns].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A; Caparrós Fernández de Aguilar, T; Blesa Malpica, A

    2000-01-01

    Patients with multiple injuries and burns are the paradigm of critically-ill patients. Their cases are acute, severe and, fortunately, reversible in a large number of situations. The severe aggressions leading to this kind of condition is the rigger for a maelstrom of inflammatory mediators, metabolic and neuro-endocrinal response, leading to an acceleration in the combustion of the injured organ. This "internal combustion" process takes nourishment from organic reserves, using them up and thus producing dysfunctions in various organs. This is where nutritional support has a role, always remedying the metabolic response to inflammation and attempting to modify it. For this reason, nutritional support plays an undisputed part in the treatment of such patients. This nutritional support, so necessary in situations with a high degree of stress, must be individually tailored in terms of quantity and quality to the process and to the patient in question. Thus, adapting the support to requirements appears as a priority of nutritional assessment. While it is important to provide nourishment to needy patients, it is just as important if not more so to avoid over-nourishment. Indirect calorimetry continues to be the most accurate indicator for determining the needs of each patient and, in view of the lack of knowledge of this technique mainly as a result of economic factors, many different methods and formulas have been proposed to attempt to carry out these adjustments. The characteristics and distribution of the macronutrients will be connected with the pathologies to be treated. And finally, the route for providing this nourishment seems ever more clearly to be as prompt first-line administration through the digestive tube. There are situations in which parenteral support will complement or replace the enteral route when the latter is insufficient or unavailable; in certain circumstances, the parenteral route even seems to be superior to enteral support, as in the case of

  12. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  13. [Occupational related burns in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Y M; Tchicaya, A F; Aka, I N; Konan, K A H; Wognin, S B; Yéboué-Kouamé, B Y; Bonny, J S

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-related burns are important issue for public health area because of its socioeconomic impact for enterprises, victims and society. We performed this study in order to define the epidemiological characteristics of these accidents. We used a retrospective study that concerned occupation-related burns notified as work accident at the national insurance fund (CNPS) for private sector in Côte d'Ivoire. 363 files were selected. Men workers (95.6 %) and the age category from 20 to 39 (71 %) were more concerned. Most of victims were skilled workers (40.4 %) and unskilled workers (36.6 %). Burns occurred mainly in industrial sector than in others (70.8 %). Heat sources were involved in 238 cases of burns (65.6 %). Injuries were mostly superficial. Total temporary disability duration less than or equal to 28 days concerned 252 workers (70.4 %) and after effects with permanent partial disability concerned 64 workers. Most of victims return at the same workstation without modification (98.9 %). Prevention measures should be implemented in high burn risk factories through a program focused on fire safety, electric safety and chemical safety.

  14. Topical management of facial burns.

    PubMed

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as “an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions.” BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  17. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  18. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  19. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

  20. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  1. [Ergotherapy of severely burned patients].

    PubMed

    Nickerl, U; Resag, I

    1995-04-01

    Occupational therapy for severely burned patients includes individual exercise programmes, activities of daily living (ADL), assessment of the need for technical aids, splinting and pressure bandages, as well as psychological and social support. There are different focal points in the three stages of treatment. In the burn-care unit (first stage), if necessary, the patient is provided with splints. At this time the first contact is made. In the burn-care ward (second stage), the occupational therapy is focused on individual exercise programmes, dynamic splinting, ADL, and preparation for discharge from hospital. In the outpatient department (third stage), the aims of occupational therapy are: providing the patients with pressure bandages, checking of splints, assessment of the need for technical aids and special support if the patients have difficulties at home and work.

  2. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  3. Treatment of burns in children.

    PubMed

    Herndon, D N; Thompson, P B; Desai, M H; Van Osten, T J

    1985-10-01

    Decreases in mortality from major thermal injury over the last 20 years have been due to advances in resuscitation, control of infection, support of the hypermetabolic response, and early closure of the burn wound. Of these advances in burn care, early wound closure has progressed the most in the last five years. The restoration of the protective functions of the skin is of primary importance to the recovery of the burn patient. Biologic dressings (pigskin, amnion, human skin allograft) when applied to fully debrided, relatively uncontaminated wounds have been shown to adhere to the wound surface, reduce the wound colony counts, limit fluid and protein loss, reduce pain, and increase the rate of epithelialization over that obtained with application of topical antimicrobial agents.

  4. Leukoencephalopathy associated with extensive burns.

    PubMed Central

    Gregorios, J B

    1982-01-01

    Unusual neuropathological changes were observed in two cases following extensive burns. These consisted of perivascular areas of demyelination distributed symmetrically in the brain and affecting the white matter predominantly. One case in addition had widespread petecchial and ring haemorrhages characteristic of brain purpura. Both patients sustained second and third degree burns in greater than 50% of the body surface area, developed metabolic acidosis, sepsis, disturbance in consciousness and multiple episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest prior to death. A toxic metabolic state related to a burn toxin released from the damaged tissue or from bacterial action to the tissue in addition to low platelet level is proposed as the major pathogenetic factor in the development of the neurological symptoms and the patients' demise. Images PMID:6754873

  5. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  6. Iron metabolism in burned children.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, J A; Ibáñez, L; Ras, M R; Aulesa, C; Vinzo, J; Iglesias, J; Carol, J

    1999-07-01

    The administration of iron supplementation in children with burns has been a subject of controversy. Recent studies argue against its use in the acute phase of stress. To assess whether iron metabolism parameters show significant differences in the acute phase and the recovery phase of burn, 21 patients (age range: 17 months to 13 years) with burns of more than 10% of body surface who had not received blood transfusions or iron supplementation were studied. Sideraemia, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation index (TSI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed both in the acute and the recovery phase after burn. Sideraemia, transferrin, and TSI were significantly lower in the acute than in the recovery phase (17.3 +/- 3 vs 53.8 +/- 6.6 microg/dL, 190.5 +/- 15 vs 287.9 +/- 14.3 mg/dL and 7.7 +/- 1.3 vs 15.4 +/- 1.6%, P < 0.0001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.0006, respectively) while plasma ferritin and CRP were significantly higher (84.7 +/- 8.8 vs 43.1 +/- 8.5 ng/mL and 9.5 +/- 1.5 vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/dL, P = 0.016 and P < 0.0001, respectively). When the above parameters were analysed based on age (< or = 2 years, > 2 years), the observed differences persisted. Hyposideraemia is a frequent finding in the acute phase of paediatric burns and is accompanied by increased ferritin levels and decreased transferrin concentrations. The low iron values tend to recover without the use of iron supplementation suggesting an endogenous block of iron release in the acute phase and indicates that iron therapy should be not recommended in the initial period of stress of the burned patient.

  7. Acute kidney injury after burn.

    PubMed

    Clark, Audra; Neyra, Javier A; Madni, Tarik; Imran, Jonathan; Phelan, Herb; Arnoldo, Brett; Wolf, Steven E

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and morbid complication after severe burn, with an incidence and mortality as high as 30% and 80%, respectively. AKI is a broad clinical condition with many etiologies, which makes definition and diagnosis challenging. The most recent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus guidelines defined stage and severity of AKI based on changes of serum creatinine and urine output (UOP) across time. Burn-related kidney injury is typically classified as early (0-3days after injury) or late (4-14days after injury). Early burn AKI is typically due to hypovolemia, poor renal perfusion, direct cardiac suppression from TNF-alpha, and precipitation of denatured proteins, while late AKI is often due to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and nephrotoxic drugs. Diagnosis can be difficult as UOP and biochemical markers can be relatively normal even with significant renal injury. A sensitive and specific biomarker for the early diagnosis of AKI is sorely needed, and multiple potential biomarkers are being investigated. For treatment, the reversal of the underlying cause is the first intervention. The advent of renal replacement therapy has significantly improved the mortality of burn patients with AKI and should be initiated early if injury progresses despite initial maneuvers. Unfortunately, no beneficial pharmacologic agents have been identified, despite multiple investigations. Of burn patients who survive AKI, the vast majority do not receive long-term hemodialysis and they are generally thought to have a good renal prognosis although this view is shifting. Preliminary data in the burn population suggest that AKI may confer an increased risk of end-stage renal disease and long-term all-cause mortality, but further research is needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Contemporary perspectives on psychosomatics in Germany: A commentary on Karen Gubb's paper, "Psychosomatics today: a review of contemporary theory and practice".

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Karen Gubb's (2013) review focuses on contemporary developments in psychoanalytic theory and practice in relation to psychosomatics, starting with some historical remarks, and Paris School with the Attachment approach. This paper examines the question of how the German scene fits into the issues raised in Gubb's discussion. From a historical point of view, psychosomatic thinking had already come into existence at the beginning of the twentieth century in internal medicine, influenced not only by Freud's ideas, but also by holistic philosophical approaches, anthropology, and semiotic systems theory as well. Psychosomatics is still under the influence of psychodynamic thinking, but as a required subject for all medical students, it is currently more involved in inpatient treatment settings than in psychoanalyses in the classical couch setting. Research projects using standardized questionnaires, neuroimaging, and other empirical methods have also proved that these treatments are as effective as therapy based on psychoanalytic concepts like alexithymia or the Attachment approach. In addition, qualitative methods have been implemented to grasp the fine-grained conscious and unconscious processes in the inner life of patients and in the verbal and nonverbal interaction phenomena of therapies. To sum up: Recent developments in psychoanalytic theory, which begin to overcome the differences among psychoanalytic schools in favor of re-erecting a common psychoanalytic understanding like that demonstrated in Gubb's article, fit together in bridging the gap between insights from classical psychoanalyses and results from empirical research.

  9. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p < 0.001). The nitrogenous balance improved, changing from -5.4 in the second week to positive values by the fourth and fifth weeks of treatment. Tolerance to the enteral

  10. Clean-Burning Diesel Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    nm radiation. 28 * S 8. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Analysis Diesel particulate is collected on 20 inch by 20 inch (50.8 cm) Pallflex filters...RD-Ri52 66 CLEN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINES(U) SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST i1’,. SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LRB H E DIETZMRNN DEC 84...111.2 IIII2,,- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ./ . ... . HFPfROW CED AT G;OVERNMENT F)(PENSE CLEAN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINESjt PHASE II INTERIM REPORT

  11. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    PubMed

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  13. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American Burn Association...colloid or saline solutions. Clin Sci 1964; 26:429–43. 21. Markley K, Bocanegra M, Bazan A, et al. Clinical evaluation of saline solution therapy in

  14. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    Treesearch

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large...

  15. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline.

  16. Management of burns in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sittah, G.S.; Chahine, F.M.; Janom, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population. Surgical and medical interventions used for the management of geriatric burns remain a field of controversy and ongoing debate. Improvement of burn management with reduction in mortality in this age group warrants addressing survivors’ quality of life, with a special focus on rehabilitation and support. PMID:28289356

  17. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  18. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  19. [Progress in individual identification of burned bones].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-dong; Ren, Fu; Xing, Rui-xian; Pei, Lin-guo

    2009-02-01

    The burned bone DNA test have became more and more important in identifying the individuals and paternity involved in the fire, explosion disasters as well as burn corpse crimes. As an important genetic marker system, STR has been widely used in forensic individual identification, paternity test and other fields. In this article, the influence of burned temperature and time to STR typing was reviewed, the choice of STR locus and DNA extraction methods were discussed about burned bones.

  20. Subeschar Treatment of Burn-Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Reprinted from the Archives of Surgery March 1983. Volume 118 Copyright 1983, American Medical Association Subeschar Treatment S AUG 2 9%3: of Burn ...with biotic treatment of histologically confirmed burn -wound burns (average size, 33% of the total body surface [TBS]). infection. Wound infection...developed In 19, who subsequently ware treated with subeschar antibiotics. The average burn size In PATIENTS AND METHODS those 19 patients was 63% of the

  1. Topical antimicrobial agents for burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2009-10-01

    Because burns destroy the barrier against invading bacteria, topical antimicrobial agents have been developed to minimize the proliferation of bacteria and other microorganisms. The topical treatment depends on the depth of burns. The goal for superficial burns is to optimize re-epithelialization. For deep burns, topical antimicrobial agents should be used to minimize microbial growth until the wound is grafted. This article introduces a strategy for the rational use of these agents.

  2. Cortisol and Corticotrophin in Burned Patients,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    BASIL A. PRUITT, JR., M.D., AND ARTHUR D. MASON, JR., M.D. < In a study of 36 men burned in a fire, based on sequential early morning samples, plasma ...cortisol concentration was elevated in proportion to burn size. Plasma corticotrophin (ACTH) was not correlated with burn size, suggesting that factors...in proportion to burn size. Although plasma cortisol Was positively correlated with metabolic rate and with temperature, this appeared to result from a

  3. "First aid" for burned watersheds

    Treesearch

    J. S. Krammes; L. W. Hill

    1963-01-01

    Most of the vegetative cover on the San Dimas Experimental Forest was destroyed by a wildfire in 1960. Following the fire an emergency research program was initiated to test several "first -aid" treatments aimed at reducing flood and erosion damage from burned watersheds. This paper summarizes first - and second-year results of the research program.

  4. Soil alkalinity on recent burns

    Treesearch

    Robert Marshall; Clarence. Averill

    1928-01-01

    During late July and early August, 1926, the Kaniksu National Forest in northern Idaho experienced its most severe fire damage since the advent of the white man in that region. About 125,000 acres were burned as a result of the conflagrations. The destroyed forests consisted largely of western white pine (Pinus mionticola), western larch (Larix occidentalis), Douglas...

  5. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work.

  6. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep them out of reach of children.Preventing hot water burns in your homeTest the water temperature before you or your children get into the ... the faucet handles during a bath.Set the temperature on your water heater ... or vaporizers. If you use hot-steam vaporizers, keep them out of the reach ...

  7. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect solution...of the degradation-resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings...Identified membrane stiffness as a critical parameter for a successful cornea -protective membrane and quantitatively assessed this parameter

  8. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect... cornea as is done in amniotic membrane transplantation . However we proposed and, have now tested, an alternative method for securing the... cornea of burn patients that were produced in Year 1. Major findings: Established that 2 and 3 layer crosslinked amniotic membrane composites are more

  9. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients.

  10. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  11. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  12. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  14. Burns Cliff in Color Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-10

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured a sweeping stereo image of Burns Cliff after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of Endurance Crater in November 2004. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  15. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  16. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  17. The treatment of extensively burned patients and {beta} irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Zhong Yi; Lu Xing An; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang

    1994-12-31

    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds and {beta} injured burns are introduced. The article introduces also the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns.

  18. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  20. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  1. Ice nuclei emissions from biomass burning

    Treesearch

    Markus D. Petters; Matthew T. Parsons; Anthony J. Prenni; Paul J. DeMott; Sonia M. Kreidenweis; Christian M. Carrico; Amy P. Sullivan; Gavin R. McMeeking; Ezra Levin; Cyle E. Wold; Jeffrey L. Collett; Hans Moosmuller

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbonaceous aerosol in many regions of the world. When present, biomass burning particles may affect the microphysical properties of clouds through their ability to function as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. We report on measurements of the ice nucleation ability of biomass burning particles performed on laboratory-...

  2. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  3. Musculoskeletal management of the severely burned child.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J. R.; Eakins, B.; Gosen, J.; Green, S.; Morton, M.

    1976-01-01

    Aggressive management of severe burns minimizes contractures and helps to maintain muscle tone, joint function and psychological well-being. The positioning, activity and exercise programs, splinting and bandaging, and skin care of burned children carried out by the burns team at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto is outlined. PMID:782680

  4. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open burning. 52.273 Section 52.273... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.273 Open burning. (a) The following rules or portions of rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open...

  5. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open burning. 52.273 Section 52.273... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.273 Open burning. (a) The following rules or portions of rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open...

  6. Hardwood control using pelleted herbicides and burning

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1982-01-01

    Treatments using combinations of pelletized herbicides with prescribe burning were tested for planting site preparation on steep terrain (>35% slopes) in the Alabama Piedmont. Mixed forests of southern pines, oaks, and hickories occupied areas before logging. Three burning treatments (no-burn, pre- and post-harvest) were applied randomly among three 4-acre major...

  7. Effects of agricultural burning on nesting waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural burning in an intensively farmed region within Manitoba's pothole district is shown to affect the nesting activities of ground-nesting ducks. All species, except Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), preferred unburned nest cover, although success was higher in burned areas, where predators may have exerted less influence. Attitudes of farmers, burning chronology, and nest destruction by fires are also reported.

  8. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  9. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Love burns: An essay about bride burning in India.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Rajni K; Heimbach, David

    2004-01-01

    Each year in countries like India, thousands of young women are burned to death or afflicted with fatal burns. They are victims of dowry deaths. The husband and/or in-laws have determined that the dowry, a gift given from the daughter's parents to the husband, was inadequate and therefore attempt to murder the new bride to make the husband available to remarry or to punish the bride and her family. Unfortunately, this is a domestic issue that is often ignored or minimized, and the prosecution is often inadequate. This review article illustrates various scenarios of dowry deaths, investigates different predispositions, summarizes the current legislation, and proposes solutions to this problem. One hopes that the exposure of this problem may curtail its rampant, yet well-hidden, prevalence.

  11. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P < 0.05) per TBSA burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P < 0.05). The authors report their promising experience with a newly implemented protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  12. Preparation of Partial-Thickness Burn Wounds in Rodents Using a New Experimental Burning Device.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Michiharu; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogino, Shuichi; Jinno, Chizuru; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kawai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    The manual application of hot water or hot metal to an animal's skin surface is often used to prepare burn wound models. However, manual burn creation is subject to human variability. We developed a new device that can control the temperature, time, and pressure of contact to produce precise and reproducible animal burn wounds and investigated the conditions required to prepare various burn wounds using our new device. We prepared burn wounds on F344 rats using 3 contact times 2, 4, and 10 seconds using a stamp heated to 80°C. We observed the wound-healing process macroscopically and histologically and evaluated the burn depth using a laser speckle contrast-imaging device, which evaluated the blood flow of the wound. The changes in the burned area over time, tissue perfusion of the burn wounds, histological evaluation of the burn depth by hematoxylin-eosin and azocarmine and aniline blue staining, and the epithelialization rate (the ratio of the epithelialized area to the wound length) were evaluated on histological sections. Results indicated that the burn wounds prepared with contact times of 2, 4, and 10 seconds corresponded to superficial dermal burns, deep dermal burns, and full-thickness burns, respectively. We demonstrated that partial- and full-thickness burn wounds can be precisely and reproducibly created with our new automated burning device.

  13. Epidemiology of Burn Injury and Demography of Burn Care Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Urine Output Airvay Blood gases E - T Tube Medications: Analgesics or sedatives Tetanus Antibiotics Other Meds Escharotomies: Arms Legs Chest Wound Care ...catheter placement ormonitoring difficult and also severely restrict87 one’s ability to carry out emergency thera- Nasogastric tube : 33 peutic interventions...eight, and care and transfer closely coordinated with placement of a thoracostomy tube and tra- the receiving physician. The burn flight team cheostomy

  14. Burning Rate Transitions for HMX Burned as a Binderless Propellant,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    have shown that the regression attains velocities up to 6000 cm/s at high pressure , with pressure exponents as low as 0.3, depending on sample...base of the charge, extremely high burn rate propellant (several thou- sand cm/s or more depending on gun pressure and muzzle velocity desired) is...experiments were carried out, the calculated flame heights range from 17 to 700 cm, depending on particle size and pressure . Thus, it is not surprising that

  15. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  16. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical antimicrobials in pediatric burn wound management.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti P; Vasquez, Sylvia A; Granick, Mark S; Rhee, Samuel T

    2008-07-01

    Burn trauma continues to injure an estimated 1 million children each year in the United States alone, with many more injuries suffered worldwide. Several decades ago, advances in acute burn wound management, including development of topical antimicrobials, dramatically improved outcomes in pediatric burn injuries. However, infection remains the leading cause of burn wound mortality. With increasing antibiotic resistance in many medical centers, precise selection of topical antimicrobial therapy has grown in importance for pediatric burn management. Effective choice and application of topical antimicrobials require correct classification of burn wounds, appropriate understanding of the process of burn wound sepsis, and accurate identification of pathogens for individual patients as well as for their surrounding environment. This article examines the current and evolving role of topical antimicrobials in pediatric burn wound management. Burn wound classification, the biologic process of burn wound sepsis, wound cultures with pathogen profiling, and evaluations of commonly used topical antimicrobials are reviewed. Newer biologically active occlusive (bio-occlusive) and hybrid products are examined in the context of topical antimicrobial therapy and their increasing role in pediatric burn wound management.

  18. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  19. Towards a national burns disaster plan.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A D; Price, C E; Wallis, L A; Rode, H

    2011-11-30

    The International Society for Burns Injuries (ISBI) has published guidelines for the management of multiple or mass burns casualties, and recommends that 'each country has or should have a disaster planning system that addresses its own particular needs.' The need for a national burns disaster plan integrated with national and provincial disaster planning was discussed at the South African Burns Society Congress in 2009, but there was no real involvement in the disaster planning prior to the 2010 World Cup; the country would have been poorly prepared had there been a burns disaster during the event. This article identifies some of the lessons learnt and strategies derived from major burns disasters and burns disaster planning from other regions. Members of the South African Burns Society are undertaking an audit of burns care in South Africa to investigate the feasibility of a national burns disaster plan. This audit (which is still under way) also aims to identify weaknesses of burns care in South Africa and implement improvements where necessary.

  20. Occupational burns treated in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Audrey A; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L

    2015-03-01

    Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15-24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    PubMed

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Adult campfire burns: two avenues for prevention.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthew B; Heimbach, David M; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Loren H; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-01-01

    Campfires are a common component of outdoor festivities. Pediatric campfire burns have been well described. Adult campfire injuries also are common and have several important distinguishing characteristics. We performed a retrospective review of adult patients admitted with campfire burns to our burn center from July 1998 to July 2003. Medical records were reviewed with attention to mechanism of injury, intoxication level, burn size, and surgeries performed. A total of 27 patients with this injury were treated as inpatients over the course of the study period. Two distinct mechanisms of injury emerged: 1) contact with the campfire and 2) flash/flame injuries from igniting the fire. Eighty-one percent (13/16) of patients who sustained contact burns were intoxicated, as compared with 11% (1/11) of those who sustained flash/flame injuries. Nearly half of the patients with contact burns and more than half the patients with flash/flame burns required excision and grafting.

  4. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  5. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients.

  6. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  7. Civilian blast-related burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J.N.; Tan, A.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit’s burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5. Age range was 12-84 years, (mean=33 years). Total body surface area (%TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25% to 60%, (median=1%). The most common burn injury was flame (31/42, 73.8%). Gas explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (19 cases; 45.2%). 7/42 cases (16.7%) had full ATLS management pre-transfer to the burns unit. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 0-43 (median=2). 17/42 (40.4%) patients required admission. 37/36 (88.1%) patients were managed conservatively of which 1 patient later required surgery due to deeper burns. 5/42 (11.9%) patients required surgical management at presentation and these were noted to be burns with >15% TBSA requiring resuscitation. One case required emergency escharotomies and finger amputations. All patients survived their burn injuries. Blast-related burn injuries are generally uncommon in the civilian setting. Following proper assessment, most of these cases can be deemed as minor injuries and managed conservatively. Improvement in burns management education and training at local emergency departments would provide efficient patient care and avoid unnecessary referrals to a burns unit. PMID:27857651

  8. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  9. Toxic emissions from open burning.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Iino, Fukuya

    2010-06-01

    This review compiled the data from recent actual and simulation studies on toxic emissions from open burning and categorized into sources, broadly as biomass and anthropogenic fuels. Emission factors, in mass of pollutant per mass of material being burned, and actual concentrations, in mass of pollutant per unit volume have been compared based on source classifications. In addition to gaseous emissions, this review presents the updated data on emissions to air in the form of particulate matter, and emissions to soil and water environment. Data from forest fires, accidental fires such as vehicle fires, house fires, and unintentional landfill fires are included in this review as well as combustion involving traditional and recreational activities.

  10. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  11. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea’s defense mechanisms and subsequent events that may lead to cornea opacification and the need for cornea transplant . Currently these patients...cornea’s defense mechanisms and subsequent events that may lead to cornea opacification and the need for cornea transplant . Currently these patients...resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings: Identified

  13. Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomass fires are both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The natural trigger is lightning, which leads to mid- and high-latitude fires and episodes of smoke and pollution associated with them. Lightning is also prominent in tropical regions when the dry season gives way to the wet season and lightning in convective systems ignites dry vegetation. Atmospheric consequences of biomass fires are complex. When considering the impacts of fires for a given ecosystem, inputs of fires must be compared to other process that emit trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. Other processes include industrial activity, fires for household purposes and biogenic sources which may themselves interact with fires. That is, fires may promote or restrict biogenic processes. Several books have presented various aspects of fire interactions with atmospheric chemistry and a cross-disciplinary review of a 1992 fire-oriented experiment appears in SAFARI: The Role of southern African Fires in Atmospheric and Ecological Environments. The IGAC/BIBEX core activity (see acronyms at end of Chapter) has sponsored field campaigns that integrate multiple aspects of fires ground-based measurements with an ecological perspective, atmospheric measurements with chemical and meteorological components, and remote sensing. This Chapter presents two aspects of biomass fires and the environment. Namely, the relationship between biomass burning and ozone is described, starting with a brief description of the chemical reactions involved and illustrative measurements and interpretation. Second, because of the need to observe biomass burning and its consequences globally, a summary of remote sensing approaches to the study of fires and trace gases is given. Examples in this Chapter are restricted to tropical burning for matters of brevity and because most burning activity globally is within this zone.

  14. Insulin and the Burned Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    ence of this phenomenon after severe burn is well recognized by all experienced practitioners. Overall glucose cellular up- take is not decreased...ventilation in undernourished patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 126:5–8 35. Gore DC, Chinkes DL, Hart DW, et al: Hy- perglycemia exacerbates muscle...to hepatic triglyceride produc- tion. J Clin Invest 1998; 101:2233–2239 50. Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Wolf SE, et al: Insulin but not growth hormone

  15. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    PubMed

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  16. [Tap-water scald burns].

    PubMed

    Belmonte Torras, J A; Marín de la Cruz, D; Gornés Benajam, María B; Gubern Pi, L; Guinot Madridejos, A

    2004-11-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with tap-water scalds admitted to our hospital and review current knowledge on their prevention. We performed a retrospective study of admissions for tap-water scalds. The medical records codified as water-tap scalds (MBDS; CIE-9-CM, 940.0-949.5, E.924.0, E.924.2) of patients admitted to our hospital for more than 24 hours from January 1 to December 31, 2003 were reviewed. The following variables were studied: age, sex, mechanism, extent and degree of burn, localization, length of hospital stay, treatment, requirement for skin grafting, mortality, and sequelae. Twenty-nine patients were treated in our hospital. Sixty-two percent were boys. Age ranged from 3 days to 9 years. Six patients (20.6 %) were aged less than 1 year, 19 (63 %) were aged between 1 and 3 years and four (13.8 %) were aged from 3 to 9 years. Body surface area was 10 % or less in 25 patients and more than 20 % in four. Five patients required skin autografting. In two patients, the scald was produced in the neonatal area of our hospital. The mean length of hospital stay was 12 days, ranging from 1 to 38 days. None of the patients died. One patient suffered severe sequelae. Because of the frequency and severity of the burns reported in this study, pediatricians should increase their efforts in educating families about this type of burn. In addition, effective legislation should be implemented in Spain.

  17. Does pyrogenicity protect burning plants?

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Paul R; Passmore, Heather A; Platt, William J; Myers, Jonathan A; Paine, C E Timothy; Harms, Kyle E

    2010-12-01

    Pyrogenic plants dominate many fire-prone ecosystems. Their prevalence suggests some advantage to their enhanced flammability, but researchers have had difficulty tying pyrogenicity to individual-level advantages. Based on our review, we propose that enhanced flammability in fire-prone ecosystems should protect the belowground organs and nearby propagules of certain individual plants during fires. We base this hypothesis on five points: (1) organs and propagules by which many fire-adapted plants survive fires are vulnerable to elevated soil temperatures during fires; (2) the degree to which burning plant fuels heat the soil depends mainly on residence times of fires and on fuel location relative to the soil; (3) fires and fire effects are locally heterogeneous, meaning that individual plants can affect local soil heating via their fuels; (4) how a plant burns can thus affect its fitness; and (5) in many cases, natural selection in fire-prone habitats should therefore favor plants that burn rapidly and retain fuels off the ground. We predict an advantage of enhanced flammability for plants whose fuels influence local fire characteristics and whose regenerative tissues or propagules are affected by local variation in fires. Our "pyrogenicity as protection" hypothesis has the potential to apply to a range of life histories. We discuss implications for ecological and evolutionary theory and suggest considerations for testing the hypothesis.

  18. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    2012-03-01

    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  19. Disaster planning: the basics of creating a burn mass casualty disaster plan for a burn center.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Conlon, Kathe M; Valenta, Andrea L; Lord, Graydon C; Cairns, Charles B; Holmes, James H; Johnson, Daryhl D; Matherly, Annette F; Sawyer, Dalton; Skarote, Mary Beth; Siler, Sean M; Helminiak, Radm Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the American Burn Association published burn disaster guidelines. This work recognized that local and state assets are the most important resources in the initial 24- to 48-hour management of a burn disaster. Historical experiences suggest there is ample opportunity to improve local and state preparedness for a major burn disaster. This review will focus on the basics of developing a burn surge disaster plan for a mass casualty event. In the event of a disaster, burn centers must recognize their place in the context of local and state disaster plan activation. Planning for a burn center takes on three forms; institutional/intrafacility, interfacility/intrastate, and interstate/regional. Priorities for a burn disaster plan include: coordination, communication, triage, plan activation (trigger point), surge, and regional capacity. Capacity and capability of the plan should be modeled and exercised to determine limitations and identify breaking points. When there is more than one burn center in a given state or jurisdiction, close coordination and communication between the burn centers are essential for a successful response. Burn surge mass casualty planning at the facility and specialty planning levels, including a state burn surge disaster plan, must have interface points with governmental plans. Local, state, and federal governmental agencies have key roles and responsibilities in a burn mass casualty disaster. This work will include a framework and critical concepts any burn disaster planning effort should consider when developing future plans.

  20. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, P; Haile, D; Kohls, E

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total population = 10,183) were interviewed. Questions focused on what to do to put out the fire, what to do for first aid for a burn, the major cause of adult and childhood burns, and a history of burn in any household member. SETTING--The study was conducted at Attat Hospital and in the surrounding Gurage-Chaha Region of West Shoa Province of Ethiopia. STUDY SUBJECTS--There were 271 burn inpatients during the 7 year period from 1983-1989; 163 households were selected for interview; there were no refusals. MAIN RESULTS--During the 7 year period the cost of tertiary inpatient burn treatment at Attat Hospital has been estimated to be US$86,366.72, of which the hospital absorbed 66%. From community based information the cumulative incidence of burns in this population was found to be 5-11%. The absence of a cumulative increase in burns over time in men suggests that female respondents may not fully recall burn histories in adult male household members. The study population possess inadequate knowledge regarding burn prevention and burn first aid. Deleterious traditional compounds were used on 32% of burn patients in the villages. CONCLUSIONS--Since most burns are related to household fires, generally in the domain of women in rural Ethiopia, women's groups may be the most appropriate setting for education on burn prevention and first aid. Burn prevention and first aid education should also be recognised as a priority in schools and in the training of community health workers. PMID:8436886

  1. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  2. Topical treatment for facial burns.

    PubMed

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis J; Van Baar, Margriet E; Hop, M Jenda; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Oen, Irma M M H; Middelkoop, Esther

    2013-01-31

    Burn injuries are an important health problem. They occur frequently in the head and neck region - the area central to a person's identity, that provides our most expressive means of communication. Topical interventions are currently the cornerstone of treatment of partial-thickness burns to the face. To assess the effects of topical interventions on wound healing in people with facial burns of any depth. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 12 November 2012); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 1 2012); Ovid MEDLINE - In-process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (searched November 12, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 45); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 November 2012) for relevant trials. We did not apply date or language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of topical treatment for facial burns were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed and included the references identified by the search strategy. Included trials were assessed using a risk of bias form, and data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet. For dichotomous and continuous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios and mean differences, respectively, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included five RCTs, comprising a total of 119 participants. Two studies compared two different antimicrobial agents and three compared a biological or bioengineered skin substitute with an antimicrobial agent. All studies had small sample sizes and were at high risk of bias. Heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes prevented pooling of data. In three studies time to complete wound healing was significantly shorter for those using a skin substitute than for those using an antibacterial agent, but the quality of the evidence was low. Pain was significantly reduced with the use of skin

  3. Automobile carburetor- and radiator-related burns.

    PubMed

    Renz, B M; Sherman, R

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-nine persons who had sustained automobile engine carburetor- and radiator-related burns were admitted to Grady Memorial Hospital Burn Unit between June 1, 1984 and September 30, 1990. Forty patients with carburetor-priming flame burns had a mean age of 31.5 years, a mean burn size of 13.4% total body surface area, and a mean length of stay of 13.8 days. There were 37 male patients. Four patients had an inhalation injury. Twenty-two surgical procedures were performed on 13 patients. One patient was an innocent bystander, and one patient died. The clothing of 16 patients had ignited, which resulted in larger, deeper burns and in one death. Burns predominantly involved the right sides of the face, head, and torso; the right upper extremity; and the right hand. Thirty-nine patients had scald burns that were associated with uncapping a radiator. These patients had a mean age of 29.6 years, a mean burn size of 8.9% total body surface area, and a mean length of stay of 6.4 days. There were 36 male patients and three innocent bystanders. One autografting procedure was performed, and there were no deaths in this group of patients. The burn-prone person is the young adult male. The circumstances that result in such dangerous behavior are predictable, and resultant burn injuries are preventable.

  4. Muscle Contractile Properties in Severely Burned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaowu; Wolf, Steven E.; Walters, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Burn induces a sustained catabolic response which causes massive loss of muscle mass after injury. A better understanding of the dynamics of muscle wasting and its impact on muscle function is necessary for the development of effective treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either a 40% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn or sham burn, and were further assigned to subgroups at four time points after injury (days 3, 7, 14 and 21). In situ isometric contractile properties were measured including twitch tension (Pt), tetanic tension (Po) and fatigue properties. Body weight decreased in burn and sham groups through day 3, however, body weight in the sham groups recovered and increased over time compared to burned groups, which progressively decreased until day 21 after injury. Significant differences in muscle wet weight and protein weight were found between sham and burn. Significant differences in muscle contractile properties were found at day 14 with lower absolute Po as well as specific Po in burned rats compared to sham. After burn, the muscle twitch tension was significantly higher than the sham at day 21. No significant difference in fatigue properties was found between the groups. This study demonstrates dynamics of muscle atrophy and muscle contractile properties after severe burn; this understanding will aid in the development of approaches designed to reduce the rate and extent of burn induced muscle loss and function. PMID:20381255

  5. One world one burn rehabilitation standard.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, M A; Niszczak, J; Parry, I; Li-Tsang, C W P; Van den Kerckhove, E; Smailes, S; Edgar, D

    2016-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) burns are a huge global health problem resulting in death and devastation to those who survive large burns as they are faced with significant functional limitations that prevent purposeful and productive living. Members of the International Society for Burn Injuries (ISBI) Rehabilitation Committee conducted a needs assessment survey in order to characterize how burn rehabilitation is implemented worldwide and how the international burn rehabilitation community can help improve burn rehabilitation in identified geographic locations which need assistance in rehabilitating burn survivors successfully. The results of this survey indicated that poor and in some cases resource limited environments (RLEs) around the world seem to lack the financial, educational and material resources to conduct burn rehabilitation successfully. It appears that there are vast discrepancies in the areas of education, training and capacity to conduct research to improve the care of burn survivors as evidenced by the variation in responses between the RLEs and developed countries around the globe. In some cases, the problem is not knowledge, skill and ability to practice burn rehabilitation, but rather having the resources to do so due to financial difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  7. Employment outcomes after burn injury: a comparison of those burned at work and those burned outside of work.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jeffrey C; Bassi, Sharon; Ryan, Colleen M

    2011-01-01

    This study compares employment rates and barriers to return to work in subjects burned at work with those burned outside of work. Further, this study examines the influence of electrical etiology on return to work outcomes. The electronic records of burn survivors treated at a Regional Burn Center outpatient clinic from 2001 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria included employment at the time of burn injury and age of 18 years or older. Demographic and medical data were collected. Documentation of barriers to return to work was reviewed and classified into eight categories. Return to employment was grouped into four time intervals: 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 12, and greater than 12 months after injury. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of unemployment at greater than 1 year for subjects burned at work, outside of work, and those burned at work without electric injury. The authors identified 197 patients for inclusion in the study. Their age was 37 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM), and TBSA burned was 16 ± 1%. Fifty percent of subjects were burned at work. Electric etiology was seen only in those burned at work (n = 24). Forty-four percent (n = 43) of subjects injured at work remained unemployed at 1 year compared with 22% (n = 22) of subjects injured outside of work. The most frequent employment barriers included pain (72%), neurologic problems (62%), and psychiatric problems (53%) for those burned at work; and pain (63%), neurologic problems (59%), and impaired mobility (54%) for those burned outside of work. Significant predictors of unemployment at greater than 12 months included burn at work, pain, impaired mobility, other medical problems, and inpatient rehabilitation (P < .05). When the electrical injury subjects are removed from the analysis, significant predictors of unemployment at 12 months include burn at work, pain, inpatient rehabilitation, and length of stay (P < .05). Burn survivors experience multiple complex

  8. [High voltage electrical burns as a risk factor for mortality among burn patients].

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorff, Günther; García-Huidobro, M Angélica; Nachari, Isaac; Atenas, Omar; Whittle, Sandra; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    Electrical burns are associated with complications and may aggravate burned patients. To evaluate the effect of electrical burns in mortality and length of stay in a critical care unit for burn patients. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 182 patients aged 15 to 90 years, admitted to an intensive care unit for burn patients. The length of stay and mortality of 14 patients that suffered electric burns was compared with the features of 168 patients with other type of burns. Patients with electrical burns were younger, had a lower percentage of total body surface burnt and had a lower frequency of inhalatory injuries than their counterparts with other type of burns. Mortality rate among patients with electric or other types of burns was similar (three and 49 patients, respectively). Intensive care unit stay was also similar. A multivariate analysis showed that high voltage electric burns were an independent risk factor for death with an odds ratio of 12 (95% confidence intervals 1.8-79.4). High voltage electric burns are an independent risk factor for death among burn patients.

  9. Burn disasters in shooting range areas.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Fatih; Oksüz, Sinan; Yüksel, Fuat

    2008-08-06

    Shooting range injuries are generally caused by ballistic accidents, and so far no burn disaster has been reported. In this article we reported a disaster caused by a gunpowder explosion in an indoor shooting range area in Istanbul, Turkey. Fourteen injured people were evacuated from the scene. Our burn center accepted 7 of them. Of the 7 injured people, 2 who were accepted by our burn center, and 3 people who were admitted by another center died. It is clearly identified how this mechanism of injury differs from that of usual burn injuries, due to both the high temperature generated, and the combination of hot and toxic gases produced by the explosion. We described the features of burn injury, and possible reasons of burn disasters.

  10. Self-inflicted burns: a sporadic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Abid; Gowar, John P

    2004-12-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a regular cause of admission to burn units. Historically, a full moon has been associated with mental instability. Circadian rhythms and seasonal changes are known to influence human affect. Such cosmic effects, however, have not yet been studied for self-inflicted burns. In this regard, the results of a retrospective analysis of 184 self-inflicted burns admitted during a 20-year period to the Birmingham Burns Centre are presented. The analysis fails to show a connection between the timing of self-inflicted burns and cosmic events. Such incidents are random, not influenced by the day of the week, first or second half of the month, seasonal variation or phase of the lunar cycle.

  11. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  12. Burns as a model of SIRS.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Punam

    2009-06-01

    Thermal injury following burns is a common clinical condition. Excessive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following burns leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Development of in vivo experimental models of burns over the past 50 years have facilitated the study of the effects of thermal injury on physiological and immunological parameters in the pathogenesis of burns and associated systemic organ damage. Using these models, researchers have established the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-2 and substance P in burns and associated systemic organ damage. The rationale of this chapter is to present an overview of different experimental animal models, both rodents as well as large animals, of burns and associated SIRS and the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this condition as well as in pathogenesis of the resultant MODS.

  13. The status of statewide burn prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Hammond, J

    1993-01-01

    Successful programs in injury prevention can focus on changing an individual's attitude and behavior or on creating and amending the environment to reduce the likelihood of injury. To investigate the latter approach as it pertains to burn prevention, the American Burn Association Burn Prevention Committee catalogued statewide legislation (as opposted to county or municipal ordinances) in major areas of burn and fire prevention. Burn reporting was generally viewed by state fire marshals as a means to apprehend arsonists or investigate child abuse, as opposed to collect demographic data for injury prevention. Smoke detectors are mandated in new residential construction by the majority of states; however, one in six still leave this to local initiatives. Sprinkler systems have generally not been addressed by state legislation. The committee concludes that pursuing statewide legislative agendas as an area of burn and injury prevention is open to further initiatives.

  14. Thigh burn associated with laptop computer use.

    PubMed

    Paulius, Karina; Napoles, Phyllis; Maguina, Pirko

    2008-01-01

    Laptop computers are an uncommon source of burns to the thighs and perineum. Burns can result from the prolonged contact of hot surfaces at the base of the computer with the user's lap. The authors report a case of second-degree burns to the thigh of an otherwise healthy patient that resulted from prolonged use of the laptop. We measured the temperatures of the patient's computer and the temperatures of other popular laptop computers. Laptops can develop temperatures that can pose a risk for burns if the skin is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Patients with impaired lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness, or decreased mobility are at higher risk for laptop burns. To their knowledge, this is the first case report of such a burn injury in the American literature.

  15. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Archibong, A E; Antia, U E; Udosen, J

    1997-06-01

    In a ten year retrospective study of burns in children in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, the main causes were hot water, hot soup or oil (56.6%) involving children mostly in the one to three year age group. The relative safety of the home environment seen in other forms of paediatric trauma is not observed in burns in children. A changing pattern of burns in children has emerged within the region with naked flames/bush fire coming second and affecting 22.7% of the children. Chemical burns hitherto a rare occurrence is now frequent because of the storage of caustic soda and acids in living rooms by soap making parents. Burns affecting the perineum, axilla and buttocks are difficult to keep clean and frequently lead to infections, with associated increased morbidity. Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlightenment campaigns on the various methods of prevention.

  16. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Auricular Burn Injuries.

    PubMed

    Kraenzlin, Franca; Mushin, Oren; Ayazi, Shahin; Loree, John; Bell, Derek E

    2017-05-23

    Auricular burns represent a unique type of injury. The acute management and clinical course of these injuries can be different from other facial burns. There is a paucity of literature pertaining to the epidemiology and acute management of auricular burns. Most studies focus on deformity reconstruction. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of auricular burns. Data from all patients presenting to a regional burn center in a 4-year period were reviewed and those with auricular burns were identified. Demographic data, burn mechanism, insurance status, method of treatment, need for skin grafting, percentage graft-take, time to reepithelialization and incidence of deformity were reviewed. During the study period, 593 facial burns were evaluated and 132 (22%) sustained burns to the auricle. The most common mechanisms of injury were flame (65.1%) and scalding (22.5%). Auricular burns were mostly second degree (88%), involved both ears in 44%, and involved only the ventral aspect of the ear in 57%. The majority of patients healed well with conservative management; none suffered from chondritis. Of the 89 patients followed to healing, 1 patient (1.1%) received full-thickness skin grafts to the auricle, resulting in excellent graft-take. All other patients were managed nonoperatively, and none suffered from ear deformities. Auricular burns occur with surprising frequency in patients presenting to burn centers. Careful acute management of these injuries can eliminate development of chondritis and minimize the rate of deformity and need for reconstruction. The majority of wounds heal with conservative management, but time to reepithelialization can be prolonged.

  17. [Burns--risk factors and treatment].

    PubMed

    Perry, Zvi H; Palivatkel, Meirav; Yanculewitch, Noam; Koren, Lior; Rosenberg, Nir

    2009-06-01

    Burn injuries are very frequent and afflict approximately 1% of the population yearly. They are a source of heavy medical burden to medical systems worldwide. In the US alone, about 2 million burns are treated by medical staff yearly, and about 75,000 burns are serious enough to require hospitalization. In the UK, a similar situation is depicted in the statistics--burns constitute 1% of the ER workload, and 0.014% of the hospitalization. Morbidity and mortality from burns is mainly dependent upon: total body surface area (TBSA) that is involved in the burn, the depth of the burn and it's anatomical location, the age of the subject, prior medical history and the severity of adjacent injuries (especially pulmonological injury). TBSA is calculated by age-adjusted tables. There are a number of ways to determine this parameter, the simplest of all is called "the rule of 1/9". Using this technique we divide the body into distinct areas, each equal to 1/9 of the TBSA. The treatment of burn injuries is considered one of the most difficult in the medical profession and some even compare it to the treatment of ICU patients. The primary treatment in burns always involves the removal of the patient from the source of the thermal injury, securing his airway (especially in patients suspected of inhalation injury) and an aggressive fluid resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is mainly managed using the Parkland equation. The treatment of the burned skin is by one of two regimes--the conservative regime (frequent redressing of the burn site, hygiene and antimicrobial treatment) and the surgical regime (early intervention with debridement, skin implantations etc.). Several different studies have shown a decrease in the mortality rate of severe burn patients who have undergone an early surgical regime in comparison to conservative treatment.

  18. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  19. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    and we have completed 9 subjects out of proposed 42 subjects for 3 years. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn...NUMBER Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Enkhbaatar P, Sousse Linda

  20. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, H; Montevalian, A; Motabar, A R; Safari, R; Parvas, M S; Vasigh, M

    2012-09-30

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children's increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface area and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the burn surface area. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for burn injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe burns. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in burn wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive burn wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame burn, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface area burned above 40%, and sepsis.

  1. Heating pad burns in anesthetic skin.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T R; Hammond, D C; Keip, D; Argenta, L C

    1985-07-01

    Patients requiring reconstruction by muscle or musculocutaneous flaps often have an associated area of skin anesthesia. This skin is susceptible to trauma because of its insensibility. This study reports 3 cases in which patients sustained deep partial-thickness burns of anesthetic skin following flap reconstruction. All burns healed by reepithelialization. Following flap reconstruction, patients should be warned regarding the use of heating pads. Burns of this type represent a preventable complication of flap reconstruction.

  2. Treating cement burns in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Use of cement is widespread in the UK and warnings about burns caused by contact with the material are usually printed on bags and delivery dockets. Nevertheless, about 2 per cent of people admitted to burns units have injuries, many serious, caused by prolonged contact with wet cement. This article explores the pathophysiology of cement burns, and outlines the best forms of treatment and prevention.

  3. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Reprinted from the Achie of Surgery ECTE February 1982, Volume 117 Copyright 19 2. American Medical Association MAY 2 8 1982 V0A Experimental Proteus ... mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of... Proteus mirabills as have examined human burn isolates from the genera an experimental pathogen. Infliction of a nonfatal scald injury Enterobacter

  4. The wound/burn guidelines - 6: Guidelines for the management of burns.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuichiro; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Sakai, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Masahiro; Madokoro, Naoki; Asano, Yoshihide; Abe, Masatoshi; Ishii, Takayuki; Isei, Taiki; Ito, Takaaki; Inoue, Yuji; Imafuku, Shinichi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Ogawa, Fumihide; Kadono, Takafumi; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kukino, Ryuichi; Kono, Takeshi; Kodera, Masanari; Takahara, Masakazu; Tanioka, Miki; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Takeo; Matsuo, Koma; Yamasaki, Osamu; Le Pavoux, Andres; Tachibana, Takao; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-09-01

    Burns are a common type of skin injury encountered at all levels of medical facilities from private clinics to core hospitals. Minor burns heal by topical treatment alone, but moderate to severe burns require systemic management, and skin grafting is often necessary also for topical treatment. Inappropriate initial treatment or delay of initial treatment may exert adverse effects on the subsequent treatment and course. Therefore, accurate evaluation of the severity and initiation of appropriate treatment are necessary. The Guidelines for the Management of Burn Injuries were issued in March 2009 from the Japanese Society for Burn Injuries as guidelines concerning burns, but they were focused on the treatment for extensive and severe burns in the acute period. Therefore, we prepared guidelines intended to support the appropriate diagnosis and initial treatment for patients with burns that are commonly encountered including minor as well as moderate and severe cases. Because of this intention of the present guidelines, there is no recommendation of individual surgical procedures.

  5. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mashreky, S R; Bari, S; Sen, S L; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Rahman, F

    2010-09-01

    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  6. Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of pyrogenic (e.g., biomass burning) emissions in the production of tropospheric ozone in the tropics associated with the forest and savanna fires in the African, South American, and Indonesian regions. Using aerosol index (Al) and tropospheric column ozone (TCO) time series from 1979 to 2000 derived from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS measurements, our study shows significant differences in the seasonal and spatial characteristics of pyrogenic emissions north and south of the equator in the African region and Brazil in South America. In general, they are not related to the seasonal and spatial characteristics of tropospheric ozone in these regions. In the Indonesian region, the most significant increase in TCO occurred during September and October 1997, following large-scale forest and savanna fires associated with the El Nino-induced dry season. However, the increase in TCO extended over most of the western Pacific well outside the burning region and was accompanied by a decrease in the eastern Pacific resembling a west-to-east dipole about the date-line. The net increase in TCO integrated over the tropical region between 15 deg N and 15 deg S was about 6-8 Tg (1 Tg = 10(exp 12) gm) over the mean climatological value of about 72 Tg. This increase is well within the range of interannual variability of TCO in the tropical region and does not necessarily suggest a photochemical source related to biomass burning. The interannual variability in TCO appears to be out of phase with the interannual variability of stratospheric column ozone (SCO). These variabilities seem to be manifestations of solar cycle and quasibiennial oscillations.

  7. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  8. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  9. On our need to move beyond folk medicine: A commentary on Karen Gubb's paper, "Psychosomatics today: a review of contemporary theory and practice".

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Richard M

    2013-02-01

    In her thoughtful review and synthesis, Karen Gubb overstimates the breadth of resurgent interest among psychoanalysts in psychosomatic medicine. Such a modest revival as there has been reflects primarily the activity of a few authors and editors. Still, after several decades of inactivity following the intense excitement about this subject during the 1940s and 1950s, there has been some renewal of interest, primarily in Europe and among a small group in the United States. The golden age of psychoanalytic psychosomatics came to an end with the failure to find evidence in support of the promising but overly simplistic specificity theories, especially those of Franz Alexander. If we were going to better understand the complex relations between bodily states (including illnesses) and mental phenomena new theories and modes of investigation would be required. Many apparently new theories have been put forward over the past few decades. Of these, Gubb focuses her attention on two that relate somatic illness to failures in linguistic or symbolic elaboration, that is, to failures in the working over or binding of somatic excitations by the mental apparatus. These theories share the attractive feature that they seem consistent with the claim that psychosomatically ill patients are impaired in their language capacities, being unable to put feelings into words (alexithymia) and unable to move to abstract from concrete thinking (pensée opératoire). While apparently new, when closely examined these theories turn out to be but minor variations of one of Freud's own fundamental theories of mind/body, the one explicated in The Interpretation of Dreams and based upon the neurological model of the reflex arc as known in the 19th century. We know too much today about neuronal functioning, brain operations, and the importance of our subtle interactions with others to be satisfied with a superannuated scientific model. If we analysts are to lay claim to a science beyond a quaint

  10. Features identification for automatic burn classification.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carmen; Boloix-Tortosa, Rafael; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Acha, Begoña

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an automatic system to diagnose burn depths based on colour digital photographs is presented. There is a low success rate in the determination of burn depth for inexperienced surgeons (around 50%), which rises to the range from 64 to 76% for experienced surgeons. In order to establish the first treatment, which is crucial for the patient evolution, the determination of the burn depth is one of the main steps. As the cost of maintaining a Burn Unit is very high, it would be desirable to have an automatic system to give a first assessment in local medical centres or at the emergency, where there is a lack of specialists. To this aim a psychophysical experiment to determine the physical characteristics that physicians employ to diagnose a burn depth is described. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis (MDS) is then applied to the data obtained from the experiment in order to identify these physical features. Subsequently, these characteristics are translated into mathematical features. Finally, via a classifier (Support Vector Machine) and a feature selection method, the discriminant power of these mathematical features to distinguish among burn depths is analysed, and the subset of features that better estimates the burn depth is selected. A success rate of 79.73% was obtained when burns were classified as those which needed grafts and those which did not. Results validate the ability of the features extracted from the psychophysical experiment to classify burns into their depths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  12. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  13. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS.

  14. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  15. Renal failure in burn patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Emara, S S; Alzaylai, A A

    2013-03-31

    Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management.

  16. Renal failure in burn patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    Emara, S.S.; Alzaylai, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn care providers are usually challenged by multiple complications during the management of acute burns. One of the most common complications worldwide is renal failure. This article reviews the various aspects of renal failure management in burn patients. Two different types of renal failures develop in these patients. The different aetiological factors, incidence, suspected prognosis, ways of diagnosing, as well as prevention methods, and the most accepted treatment modalities are all discussed. A good understanding and an effective assessment of the problem help to reduce both morbidity and mortality in burn management. PMID:23966893

  17. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    PubMed

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn.

  18. Amniotic membrane transplantation in acute chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Arora, R; Mehta, D; Jain, V

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the outcome of fresh amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in acute chemical burns. A prospective study of 15 consecutive eyes with acute chemical burns was performed. In all, 10 eyes had lime burns and five eyes had acid burns. There were three eyes of grade II, four eyes of grade III and eight eyes of grade IV burns. AMT was performed within 3 weeks of injury. Patients were followed up for 10.14 +/- 4.41 months. All patients had immediate relief of pain postoperatively. Of 15 eyes, nine (60%) showed epithelialization within 1-4 weeks (15.33 +/- 9.91 days). The final visual acuity improved in 10 of 15 eyes (66.66%). Eyes with burns of grade II and III showed more visual improvement than those with grade IV burns. None of the eyes showed perforation. Symblepharon was seen in nine of 15 eyes (60%). Of 15 eyes, 12 (80%) experienced limbal stem cell deficiency and showed superficial corneal vascularization. Amniotic membrane transplantation with fresh amniotic membrane increases patient comfort and reduces inflammation. In mild burns, AMT alone restores corneal and conjunctival surfaces. In moderate to severe burns, it probably reduces conjunctival scarring sequelae, but does not prevent the sequelae of limbal stem cell deficiency that requires further limbal stem cell transplantation. In the acute stage, amniotic membrane transplantation probably has a protective role against the progressive melting and perforation.

  19. Management of acid burns: experience from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Olga, Loren; Peck, Michael; Morselli, Paolo G; Salek, A J M

    2015-05-01

    Acid burn injuries in Bangladesh primarily occur as a result of intentional attacks although there are incidences of accidental acid burns in industry, on the street, and at home. A total of 126 patients with acid burns, 95 from attacks and 31 from accidents, were studied from July 2004 to December 2012. A diagnosis of acid burn was made from history, physical examination and in some cases from chemical analysis of the patients' clothing. Alkali burns were excluded from the study. In the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, we applied a slightly different protocol for management of acid burns, beginning with plain water irrigation of the wound, which effectively reduced burn depth and the requirement of surgical treatment. Application of hydrocolloid dressing for 48-72 h helped with the assessment of depth and the course of treatment. Early excision and grafting gives good results but resultant acid trickling creates a marble cake-like appearance of the wound separated by the vital skin. Excision with a scalpel and direct stitching of the wounds are often a good option. Observation of patients on follow-up revealed that wounds showed a tendency for hypertrophy. Application of pressure garments and other scar treatments were given in all cases unless the burn was highly superficial.

  20. Electrosurgical excision of full-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Quniby, W C

    1975-02-01

    Massive intraoperative blood loss and poor graft take have been the major problems associated with early excision and immediate grafting of full-thickness burns. By employing electrosurgery, excessive blood loss was virtually eliminated in a series of major burn excisions. Immediate graft take was excellent on electrosurgical wounds after primary burn excisions and in late reconstructive procedures. Simplicity, improved hemostasia, good graft take, and the absence of special anesthetic requirements make this method particularly applicable to the management of patients with burn injury.

  1. ISS Update: Burning and Suppression of Solids

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Paul Ferkul, Principal Investigator for the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment, about performing combustion experiments in microgravity. ...

  2. Pediatric burns in Mosul: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S

    2014-06-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric burns in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was burn patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the Burns Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency burn admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of burn and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame burns were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric burn accidents occur at home, burn prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents.

  3. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  4. Burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    After three months of investigation, NASA and the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) have concluded in a report that the tether connecting the TSS-1R satellite to the space shuttle Columbia broke because unexpected electrical arcing severed it. Presenting its findings on June 4, the independent review panel led by Kenneth Szalai of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center noted that something punctured the tether and allowed electrical current to breach the insulation and jump to a nearby electrical ground.

  5. Burns Sustained in Combat Explosions in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF Explosion Burns)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    explosions increased in frequency, size and injury severity. Burns were concentrated on areas not protected by clothing or equipment. These injuries...the secondary effect of burning vehicles, clothing , and equipment. The frequency and severity of burn is increasing, along with the proportion of...unprotected by military clothing and equipment. The high incidence, great morbidity, and potential preventability of burns to the hands and head in combat

  6. Deer habitat use after prescribed burning in Northern California

    Treesearch

    John G. Kie

    1984-01-01

    Prescribed burning was used to improve blacktailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) habitat in Trinity County, northern California. Deer response was measured by comparing pellet group deposition on one burned and three unburned areas. Pellet group counts were highest on the burned area for 3 years after burning. One year after burning, pellet...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the blast... after the burning or suspected burning has stopped. ...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the blast... after the burning or suspected burning has stopped. ...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the blast... after the burning or suspected burning has stopped. ...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the blast... after the burning or suspected burning has stopped. ...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the blast... after the burning or suspected burning has stopped. ...

  12. Prescribed burning in the South: trends, purpose, and barriers

    Treesearch

    Terry K. Haines; Rodney L. Busby; David A. Cleaves

    2001-01-01

    The results of a survey of fire management officials concerning historical and projected prescribed burning activity in the South are reported. Prescribed burning programs on USDA Forest Service and private and State-owned lands are described in terms of area burned by ownership and State, intended resource benefits, barriers to expanded burning, and optimum burning...

  13. A half-century of burn epidemiology and burn care in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Chace, Reeve; Hallagan, Lee D; Clark, David E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in incidence, severity, and mortality in burn injuries in the state of Maine over the past 50 years from both prevention and treatment perspectives. The authors analyzed the data from multiple sources, including the U.S. Census, death certificates, hospital discharge abstracts, and institutional burn registries in Maine and Boston. The average annual number of burn-related deaths decreased from 53 in 1960-1964 to 14 in 2004-2008. The Maine age-adjusted rate of burn deaths was 8.6% above the national rate in 1960 and 1.4% below it in 2006. The annual number of burn patients admitted to Maine hospitals declined by 65% from 1978 to 2009. Since 1999, 12% of hospitalized patients in Maine were treated in an American Burn Association-certified burn center in Boston. Mortality for Maine burn patients, including those treated at Boston hospitals, is directly related to age and burn severity and similar to stratified mortality in the National Burn Repository. Incidence, severity, and mortality of burn injuries in Maine have decreased dramatically over the past 5 decades. Prevention programs, legislation, and a regionalized system of burn care have all likely contributed to bringing Maine's morbidity and mortality rate below the national average.

  14. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2017-01-01

    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  15. Effects of site preparation on seedling, growth: a preliminary comparison of broadcast burning and pile burning.

    Treesearch

    Don. Minore

    1986-01-01

    Site preparation is often necessary to obtain adequate forest regeneration, but inappropriate treatment may reduce subsequent growth. Broadcast-burned and piled-and-burned plantations were studied in southwestern Oregon to determine if burning method affected the growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  16. Burns education for non-burn specialist clinicians in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Tania; Hendricks, Joyce; Twigg, Di; Wood, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients often receive their initial care by non-burn specialist clinicians, with increasingly collaborative burn models of care. The provision of relevant and accessible education for these clinicians is therefore vital for optimal patient care. A two phase design was used. A state-wide survey of multidisciplinary non-burn specialist clinicians throughout Western Australia identified learning needs related to paediatric burn care. A targeted education programme was developed and delivered live via videoconference. Pre-post-test analysis evaluated changes in knowledge as a result of attendance at each education session. Non-burn specialist clinicians identified numerous areas of burn care relevant to their practice. Statistically significant differences between perceived relevance of care and confidence in care provision were reported for aspects of acute burn care. Following attendance at the education sessions, statistically significant increases in knowledge were noted for most areas of acute burn care. Identification of learning needs facilitated the development of a targeted education programme for non-burn specialist clinicians. Increased non-burn specialist clinician knowledge following attendance at most education sessions supports the use of videoconferencing as an acceptable and effective method of delivering burns education in Western Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  18. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  19. A radical way to burn

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1996-08-01

    By manipulating chamber geometries as well as engine cycle pressures and timing, engineers are exploiting a long-obscure technology known as activated radical combustion. Piston-driven internal combustion engines generally come in two varieties: compression-ignited diesels and spark-ignited gasoline power plants. There, is however, a third way to initiate burning of the fuel-air mixture. The technique--variously called radical ignition (RI), activated radical (AR) combustion, Toyota-Soken combustion, and active thermo-atmosphere combustion--is not exactly new, but only recently have engineers begun to exploit the process in practical power plants. These new units include a lightweight two-stroke racing-motorcycle engine, truck diesels with reduced soot output, and lean-burn spark-ignited car engines. This long-obscure combustion process is based on a range of specialized chemical kinetic and physical acoustic techniques developed over decades. Engineers manipulate fundamental combustion parameter such as chamber geometries, valving and porting configurations, and engine cycle pressures and timing to foster the formation of certain highly reactive chemical species that lower the fuel-air mixture`s flash point so that even modest compression make sit self-ignite. These chemical initiators are then retained into the next cycle to start combustion, allowing the engineer to run stably with no spark.

  20. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  1. Geographic access to burn center hospitals.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthew B; Kramer, C Bradley; Nelson, Jason; Rivara, Frederick P; Gibran, Nicole S; Concannon, Thomas

    2009-10-28

    The delivery of burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor that requires specialized personnel and equipment. The optimal geographic distribution of burn centers has long been debated; however, the current distribution of centers relative to geographic area and population is unknown. To estimate the proportion of the US population living within 1 and 2 hours by rotary air transport (helicopter) or ground transport of a burn care facility. A cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to US burn centers utilizing the 2000 US census, road and speed limit data, the Atlas and Database of Air Medical Services database, and the 2008 American Burn Association Directory. The proportion of state, regional, and national population living within 1 and 2 hours by air transport or ground transport of a burn care facility. In 2008, there were 128 self-reported burn centers in the United States including 51 American Burn Association-verified centers. An estimated 25.1% and 46.3% of the US population live within 1 and 2 hours by ground transport, respectively, of a verified burn center. By air, 53.9% and 79.0% of the population live within 1 and 2 hours, respectively, of a verified center. There was significant regional variation in access to verified burn centers by both ground and rotary air transport. The greatest proportion of the population with access was highest in the northeast region and lowest in the southern United States. Nearly 80% of the US population lives within 2 hours by ground or rotary air transport of a verified burn center; however, there is both state and regional variation in geographic access to these centers.

  2. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children.

  3. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

  5. Head and Neck Burns: Acute and Late Reconstruction.Data of Burn Injury Management in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Belba, G.; Gedeshi, I.; Isaraj, S.; Filaj, V.; Kola, N.; Belba, M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Modern burn care is based on operative wound management. The evidence is clear that prompt excision and closure can be lifesaving for patients even with large burns. Facial burns that are full-thickness need grafting. Deep dermal facial burns need surgery in the third week post-burn. Deep burns to the eyelids should be excised and grafted early in order to prevent cicatricial ectropion and corneal exposure. Following healing from burns, the reconstruction of severe deformities and scars of the face, head, and neck confronts the surgeon with some of the most challenging problems in reconstructive surgery. Our purpose is to provide some retrospective data on acute and late reconstruction of head and neck burns in 2007. Eighty-one patients are considered who were operated on in the Burns and Plastic Surgery Service of the University Hospital Centre in Tirana, Albania, suffering from burns and also from burn deformities in the head and neck regions. A description is given of the different types of operative techniques used for head and neck reconstruction as also of developmental aspects of burned face deformities (physical and psychological) and of their correction. In all, 246 patients with burns and burn deformities were subjected to surgery in 2007. Of these we have extracted 81 cases in which the pathology concerned the head and the neck, including 13 cases of full-thickness facial burns needing excising and grafting. The other 68 cases were burn deformities. This last group of patients included 19 with facial deformities, 14 with perioral deformities, 12 with burn alopecia, ten with upper and lower eyelid deformities, nine with ear deformities, and four with cervical deformities. The operative techniques used were skin grafts (split-thickness or full-thickness), composite grafts, pedicle flaps, and tissue replacement. In burn alopecia cases, we used tissue expansion for the correction. Head and neck burns constitute some of the most challenging problems

  6. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study.

    PubMed

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C

    2016-08-01

    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  7. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  8. How to Help a Person with a Serious Burn Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... With A Serious Burn Injury How To Help A Person With A Serious Burn Injury Wellness For Parents Professionals Caregivers ... doubt, volunteer to help out! Kathy Edwards is a burn survivor and professor in the Department of ...

  9. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  10. Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2005-03-01

    A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan.

  11. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bicycle Safety Pedestrian Safety Home and Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this ...

  12. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington

    1996-01-01

    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  13. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  14. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  15. Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R

    2010-06-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance.

  16. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  17. Radiator scald burns: a preventable hazard.

    PubMed

    Benmeir, P; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A; Ben-Yakar, Y

    1990-04-01

    During the last 13 years 80 patients have been admitted to our department suffering from burns caused by a vehicle's radiator. Ten of them were deeply burned and had to be treated surgically. The preventive aspect of this injury is emphasized.

  18. Burn moulage made easy (and cheap).

    PubMed

    Swan, Nanci A

    2013-01-01

    Moulage is one of the key factors in suspending disbelief for those participating in a simulation scenario. Transforming a mannequin into a simulated patient with burns seems like an overwhelming task. Techniques for using makeup and toilet paper to make blisters and burns are presented.

  19. Burning--Gravitational, Chemical, and Nuclear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Energy problems that incorporate power generation in hydroelectric, fossil-fuel burning, and nuclear power stations are presented. The burning process and the energy released are discussed. Practice problems and solutions, a summary of various energy units and conversion factors, and lists of thought-provoking energies and powers are included. (KR)

  20. Emergency burn rehabilitation: cost, risk, effectiveness

    Treesearch

    Scott R. Miles; Donald M. Haskins; Darrel W. Ranken

    1989-01-01

    The fires of 1987 had a heavy impact on the Hayfork Ranger District. Over 50,000 acres were burned within the South Fork Trinity River watershed, which contains an important anadromous fishery. Major problems within the burned area were found to be: (1) slopes having highly erodible soils where intense wildfire resulted in a total loss of ground cover, and (2) burnout...

  1. Pattern of burns in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Peter; Palmer, John; Garvey, Richard; Atweh, Nabil; Fidler, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Cases of burns from child abuse are low because of under-reporting, low index of suspicion, or lack of verity proof. Although the reported incidence of child abuse by burns is 4 to 39 per cent, less than one-half are substantiated. We retrospectively reviewed all burns in children less than 6 years old admitted to our burn center within an 8-year period (1997-2003). Of the 155 children less than 6 years old admitted with burns within the study period, only six cases (3.8%) were confirmed as occurring from abuse. Scald injury was the most common cause of accidental and abuse burns. Burns by child abuse occur mostly from tap water (50%) and usually in children less than 2 years old. Whenever the extremities were involved, the left side was always included. In extreme cases, however, multiple areas of the body were involved with intervening spared sites. The perpetrator was the mother's boyfriend in all cases. Burns in children less than 2 years old left in the care of the mother's boyfriend, involving the left extremity (or extremities), and caused by tap water should prompt the clinician to more actively confirm or exclude abuse.

  2. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  3. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    PubMed

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  4. Frostbite burns caused by liquid oxygen.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Fatih; Sever, Celalettin; Noyan, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    Frostbite burns are uncommon and they have various etiologies. We will present a case of rapid frostbite burn caused by liquid oxygen. The patient injured both hands from contact with liquid oxygen. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed in this case report.

  5. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Treesearch

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  8. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6004 - Burn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burn. 29.6004 Section 29.6004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6004 Burn. The duration of combustion or length of time that a...

  11. Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

    This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

  12. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  13. Burning for birds: concepts and applications

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; David J. Brownlie

    2002-01-01

    Prescribed fire is being used extensively for habitat management of non-game birds, although the area burned today is small relative to the amount of land that burned historically. Results of a non-scientific questionnaire of public and private land managers in the eastern U.S. revealed prescribed fire is being used to provide winter, breeding season, and migration...

  14. Equations for Composite-Propellant Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, N. S.

    1983-01-01

    Reported study of composite-propellant burning summarizes recent advances in understanding behavior of propellant formulations based on ammonium perchlorate (AOP), binder, and aluminum in various proportions and particle size distributions. Approach presented incorporates adapted version of earlier model for monopropellant AP. Objective is to predict burning-rate characteristics of composite propellants at high pressure.

  15. Crusted scabies in the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment of the burns.

  16. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  17. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  18. Cooling of burns: Mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Wright, E H; Harris, A L; Furniss, D

    2015-08-01

    The role of cooling in the acute management of burns is widely accepted in clinical practice, and is a cornerstone of basic first aid in burns. This has been underlined in a number of animal models. The mechanism by which it delivers its benefit is poorly understood, but there is a reduction in burns progression over the first 48 h, reduced healing time, and some subjective improvements in scarring when cooling is administered after burning. Intradermal temperature normalises within a matter of seconds to a few minutes, yet the benefits of even delayed cooling persist, implying it is not simply the removal of thermal energy from the damaged tissues. Animal models have used oedema formation, preservation of dermal perfusion, healing time and hair retention as indicators of burns severity, and have shown cooling to improve these indices, but pharmacological or immunological blockade of humoural and cellular mediators of inflammation did not reproduce the benefit of cooling. More recently, some studies of tissue from human and animal burns have shown consistent, reproducible, temporal changes in gene expression in burned tissues. Here, we review the experimental evidence of the role and mechanism of cooling in burns management, and suggest future research directions that may eventually lead to improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting Skin Burns Induced by Surface Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    density image were taken, the electrode peeled off the skin, and a photograph taken to complete the post-burn dataset. Finally, the used electrodes were...suggesting the breakdown of the barrier layer capacitance in the skin epidermis . Line monitoring of the skin impedance can predict the onset of the burns