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Sample records for karenia brevis red

  1. Cell cycle behavior of laboratory and field populations of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Kamykowski, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    As a component of the ECOHAB Florida Regional Field Program, this study addresses cell cycle behavior and its importance to bloom formation of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. The cell cycle of K. brevis was first studied by flow cytometry in laboratory batch cultures, and a laboratory mesocosm column, followed by field populations over the 5-year course of the ECOHAB program. Under all conditions studied, K. brevis displayed diel phased cell division with S-phase beginning a minimum of 6 h after the onset of light and continuing for 12-14 h. Mitosis occurred during the dark, and was generally completed by the start of the next day. The timing of cell cycle phases relative to the diel cycle did not differ substantially in bloom populations displaying radically different growth rates ( μmin 0.17-0.55) under different day lengths and temperature conditions. The rhythm of cell cycle progression is independent from the rhythm controlling vertical migration, as similar cell cycle distributions are found at all depths of the water column in field samples. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of our current understanding of the dinoflagellate cell cycle and the development of improved models for K. brevis bloom growth.

  2. Chimeric plastid proteome in the Florida "red tide" dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Tetyana; Lidie, Kristy L; Van Dolah, Frances M; Lindquist, Erika; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-11-01

    Current understanding of the plastid proteome comes almost exclusively from studies of plants and red algae. The proteome in these taxa has a relatively simple origin via integration of proteins from a single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiont and the host. However, the most successful algae in marine environments are the chlorophyll c-containing chromalveolates such as diatoms and dinoflagellates that contain a plastid of red algal origin derived via secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. Virtually nothing is known about the plastid proteome in these taxa. We analyzed expressed sequence tag data from the toxic "Florida red tide" dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that has undergone a tertiary plastid endosymbiosis. Comparative analyses identified 30 nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins in this chromalveolate that originated via endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from multiple different sources. We identify a fundamental divide between plant/red algal and chromalveolate plastid proteomes that reflects a history of mixotrophy in the latter group resulting in a highly chimeric proteome. Loss of phagocytosis in the "red" and "green" clades effectively froze their proteomes, whereas chromalveolate lineages retain the ability to engulf prey allowing them to continually recruit new, potentially adaptive genes through subsequent endosymbioses and HGT. One of these genes is an electron transfer protein (plastocyanin) of green algal origin in K. brevis that likely allows this species to thrive under conditions of iron depletion.

  3. Benthic herbivores are not deterred by brevetoxins produced by the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sotka, Erik E; McCarty, Amanda; Monroe, Emily A; Oakman, Nicole; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2009-07-01

    Gulf of Mexico blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produce neurotoxic cyclic polyethers called brevetoxins. During and after a red tide bloom in southwestern Florida, K. brevis cells lyse and release brevetoxins, which then sink to the benthos and coat the surfaces of seagrasses and their epiphytes. We tested the possibility that these brevetoxin-laden foods alter the feeding behavior and fitness of a common benthic herbivore within Floridean seagrass beds, the amphipod Ampithoe longimana. We demonstrated that coating foods with K. brevis extracts that contain brevetoxins at post-bloom concentrations (1 microg g(-1) drymass) does not alter the feeding rates of Florida nor North Carolina populations of A. longimana, although a slight deterrent effect was found at eight and ten-fold greater concentrations. During a series of feeding choice assays, A. longimana tended not to be deterred by foods coated with K. brevis extracts nor with the purified brevetoxins PbTx-2 and PbTx-3. Florida juveniles isolated with either extract-coated or control foods for 10 days did not differ in survivorship nor growth. A similar lack of feeding response to brevetoxin-laden foods also was exhibited by two other generalist herbivores of the southeastern United States, the amphipod A. valida and the urchin Arbacia punctulata. Given that benthic mesograzers constitute a significant portion of the diet for the juvenile stage of many nearshore fishes, we hypothesize that the ability of some mesograzers to feed on and retain brevetoxins in their bodies indicates that mesograzers may represent an important route of vertical transmission of brevetoxins through higher trophic levels within Gulf of Mexico estuaries.

  4. Transcriptomic response of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and addition.

    PubMed

    Morey, Jeanine S; Monroe, Emily A; Kinney, Amanda L; Beal, Marion; Johnson, Jillian G; Hitchcock, Gary L; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2011-07-05

    The role of coastal nutrient sources in the persistence of Karenia brevis red tides in coastal waters of Florida is a contentious issue that warrants investigation into the regulation of nutrient responses in this dinoflagellate. In other phytoplankton studied, nutrient status is reflected by the expression levels of N- and P-responsive gene transcripts. In dinoflagellates, however, many processes are regulated post-transcriptionally. All nuclear encoded gene transcripts studied to date possess a 5' trans-spliced leader (SL) sequence suggestive, based on the trypanosome model, of post-transcriptional regulation. The current study therefore sought to determine if the transcriptome of K. brevis is responsive to nitrogen and phosphorus and is informative of nutrient status. Microarray analysis of N-depleted K. brevis cultures revealed an increase in the expression of transcripts involved in N-assimilation (nitrate and ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetases) relative to nutrient replete cells. In contrast, a transcriptional signal of P-starvation was not apparent despite evidence of P-starvation based on their rapid growth response to P-addition. To study transcriptome responses to nutrient addition, the limiting nutrient was added to depleted cells and changes in global gene expression were assessed over the first 48 hours following nutrient addition. Both N- and P-addition resulted in significant changes in approximately 4% of genes on the microarray, using a significance cutoff of 1.7-fold and p ≤ 10-4. By far, the earliest responding genes were dominated in both nutrient treatments by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, which increased in expression up to 3-fold by 1 h following nutrient addition. PPR proteins are nuclear encoded proteins involved in chloroplast and mitochondria RNA processing. Correspondingly, other functions enriched in response to both nutrients were photosystem and ribosomal genes. Microarray analysis provided transcriptomic

  5. A filterable lytic agent obtained from a red tide bloom that caused lysis of Karenia brevis (Gymnodinum breve) cultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2002-01-01

    A filterable lytic agent (FLA) was obtained from seawater in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico during a red tide bloom that caused lysis of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) Piney Island. This agent was obtained from <0.2µ  filtrates that were concentrated by ultrafiltration using a 100 kDa filter. The FLA was propagated by passage on K. brevis cultures, and the filtered supernatants of such cultures resulted in K. brevis lysis when added to such cultures. The lytic activity was lost upon heating to 65°C or by 0.02 µm filtration. Epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of supernatants of K. brevis cultures treated with the lytic agent indicated a high abundance of viral particles (4 × 109 to 7 × 109 virus-like particles [VLPs] ml–1) compared to control cultures (~107 ml–1). However, viral particles were seldom found in TEM photomicrograph thin sections of lysing K. brevis cells. Although a virus specific for K. brevis may have been the FLA, other explanations such as filterable bacteria or bacteriophages specific for bacteria associated with the K. brevis cultures cannot be discounted.

  6. The effects of red tide (Karenia brevis) on reflex impairment and mortality of sublegal Florida stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Gravinese, Philip M; Kronstadt, Stephanie M; Clemente, Talib; Cole, Cody; Blum, Patricia; Henry, Michael S; Pierce, Richard H; Lovko, Vincent J

    2018-06-01

    The Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria, is a major commercial fishery that occurs primarily along Florida's west coast, where harmful algal blooms of Karenia brevis frequently develop. To determine sublethal and lethal effects of K. brevis on M. mercenaria, we exposed sublegal stone crabs to three seawater treatments in laboratory conditions: no K. brevis (control), a low-toxin K. brevis strain (Wilson LT), and a toxic K. brevis (New Pass strain). Total food consumed, reflex impairment and survivorship of each crab was monitored throughout the nine-day experiment. Crabs in the toxic treatment consumed 67% less food. The probability of an individual losing a reflex significantly increased with time (days), and there was a 42% decrease in survivorship in the toxic treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate negative effects of K. brevis on the stone crab, presenting the critical need of further investigation to fully understand how red tide may impact sustainability of the fishery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of an epoxide hydrolase from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Leeson, Cristian; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Leng, Fenfei; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Rein, Kathleen S

    2016-02-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EH, EC 3.3.2.3) have been proposed to be key enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyether (PE) ladder compounds such as the brevetoxins which are produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These enzymes have the potential to catalyze kinetically disfavored endo-tet cyclization reactions. Data mining of K. brevis transcriptome libraries revealed two classes of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal and leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolases. A microsomal EH was cloned and expressed for characterization. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with molecular weight 44kDa. Kinetic parameters were evaluated using a variety of epoxide substrates to assess substrate selectivity and enantioselectivity, as well as its potential to catalyze the critical endo-tet cyclization of epoxy alcohols. Monitoring of EH activity in high and low toxin producing cultures of K. brevis over a three week period showed consistently higher activity in the high toxin producing culture implicating the involvement of one or more EH in brevetoxin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

  9. Brevetoxin exposure in sea turtles in south Texas (USA) during Karenia brevis red tide.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Shaver, Donna J; Stacy, Brian A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Broadwater, Margaret H; Wang, Zhihong

    2018-01-31

    Five green (Chelonia mydas) and 11 Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles found dead, or that died soon after stranding, on the southern Texas (USA) coast during 2 Karenia brevis blooms (October 2015, September-October 2016) were tested for exposure to brevetoxins (PbTx). Tissues (liver, kidney) and digesta (stomach and intestinal contents) were analyzed by ELISA. Three green turtles found alive during the 2015 event and 2 Kemp's ridley turtles found alive during the 2016 event exhibited signs of PbTx exposure, including lethargy and/or convulsions of the head and neck. PbTx were detected in 1 or more tissues or digesta in all 16 stranded turtles. Detected PbTx concentrations ranged from 2 to >2000 ng g-1. Necropsy examination and results of PbTx analysis indicated that 10 of the Kemp's ridleys and 2 of the green turtles died from brevetoxicosis via ingestion. This is the first documentation of sea turtle mortality in Texas attributed to brevetoxicosis.

  10. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems. PMID:18758951

  11. Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R H; Henry, M S

    2008-10-01

    The Florida red tide is a descriptive name for high concentrations of the harmful marine alga, Karenia brevis. Although most prevalent along the south-west Florida coast, periodic blooms have occurred throughout the entire US and Mexico Gulf coasts and the Atlantic coast to North Carolina. This dinoflagellate produces a suite of polyether neurotoxins, called brevetoxins, that cause severe impacts to natural resources, as well as public health. These naturally produced biotoxins may represent one of the most common chemical stressors impacting South Florida coastal and marine ecosystems. Impacts include massive fish kills, marine mammal, sea turtle and sea bird mortalities, benthic community die-off and public health effects from shellfish contamination and inhalation of air-borne toxins. The primary mode of action is binding to voltage-gated sodium channels causing depolarization of nerve cells, thus interfering with nerve transmission. Other effects include immune depression, bronchial constriction and haemolysis. Parent algal toxins are synthesized within the unicellular organism, others are produced as metabolic products. Recent studies into the composition of brevetoxins in cells, water, air and organisms have shown PbTx-2 to be the primary intracellular brevetoxin that is converted over time to PbTx-3 when the cells are ruptured, releasing extracellular brevetoxins into the environment. Brevetoxins become aerosolized by bubble-mediated transport of extracellular toxins, the composition of which varies depending on the composition in the source water. Bivalved molluscs rapidly accumulate brevetoxins as they filter feed on K. brevis cells. However, the parent algal toxins are rapidly metabolized to other compounds, some of which are responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems.

  12. Simulations of Karenia Brevis on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B. P.; Chen, F. R.; Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological model, HABSIM, was developed and tested to examine the initiation and maintenance of red tides of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf (WFS). Phytoplankton competition among K. brevis, nitrogen fixing cyanophytes (Trichodesmium spp.), large siliceous phytoplankton (diatoms), and small non-siliceous phytoplankton (microflagellates) thus explores the sequence of events required to support the observed bloom from August to December 2001. The ecological model contains twenty two state variables within four submodels: atmospheric (iron deposition), biological (phytoplankton, bacteria, zooplankton, and fish), chemical (multiple species of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, and iron), and benthic (nutrient regeneration). Here, we present results for the 2001 1-d hindcast simulations, with and without data assimilation of the Karenia state variable, as well as preliminary 3-d results.

  13. EFFECTS OF RED TIDE (KARENIA BREVIS) ON PISCIVOROUS BIRDS IN SARASOTA BAY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red tide will cause changes in the abundance and distribution of fishes, which will be accompanied by changes in the patterns of habitat use by birds. Birds will be affected by exposure to brevetoxin via their prey and they will also face decreased availability of prey during...

  14. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon.

  15. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner

    2010-06-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods - July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×10(4) cells l(-1) defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs.

  16. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  17. Effects of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on early development of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica and northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Rolton, Anne; Vignier, Julien; Soudant, Philippe; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2014-10-01

    The brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, adversely affects many shellfish species including the commercially and ecologically important bivalve molluscs, the northern quahog (=hard clam) Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. This study assessed the effects of exposure of these bivalves to K. brevis during their early development. In separate experiments, embryos of 2-4 cell stage of M. mercenaria and C. virginica were exposed to both whole and lysed K. brevis cells isolated from Manasota Key, Florida. Low bloom concentrations of 500 to 3000 cells mL(-1) were simulated for 96 h. Shell length, percent abnormality (and normality), and percent mortality of resulting larvae were measured. Percentages were recorded after 6, 24, and 96 h of exposure; larval shell length was measured at 24 and 96 h. For both quahogs and oysters, the effects of exposing embryos to K. brevis on all larval responses were generally dose- and time-dependent. Percent mortalities and abnormalities of both clam and oyster embryos increased significantly after only 6h of exposure to whole cells of K. brevis. For clams, these parameters were significantly higher in whole and lysed treatments (at 3000 cells mL(-1)) than in controls. Percent mortalities of oysters were significantly higher in the whole-cell treatment (3000 cells mL(-1)) than under control conditions. After 24h of exposure, mean larval shell length of both bivalve species was significantly reduced relative to controls. This was evident for clam larvae in both the lysed treatment at 1500 cells mL(-1) and in whole and lysed treatments at 3000 cells mL(-1), and for oyster larvae in the lysed treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1). After 96 h, both species exposed to the lysed cell treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1) had significantly smaller larvae compared to those in the control. Overall, lysed cells of K. brevis had a more pronounced effect on shell length, percent abnormality

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An expert elicitation process to project the frequency and magnitude of Florida manatee mortality events caused by red tide (Karenia brevis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Runge, Michael C.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Landsberg, Jan H.

    2017-11-20

    Red tides (blooms of the harmful alga Karenia brevis) are one of the major sources of mortality for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), especially in southwest Florida. It has been hypothesized that the frequency and severity of red tides may increase in the future because of global climate change and other factors. To improve our ecological forecast for the effects of red tides on manatee population dynamics and long-term persistence, we conducted a formal expert judgment process to estimate probability distributions for the frequency and relative magnitude of red-tide-related manatee mortality (RTMM) events over a 100-year time horizon in three of the four regions recognized as manatee management units in Florida. This information was used to update a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee (the Core Biological Model). We convened a panel of 12 experts in manatee biology or red-tide ecology; the panel met to frame, conduct, and discuss the elicitation. Each expert provided a best estimate and plausible low and high values (bounding a confidence level of 80 percent) for each parameter in each of three regions (Northwest, Southwest, and Atlantic) of the subspecies’ range (excluding the Upper St. Johns River region) for two time periods (0−40 and 41−100 years from present). We fitted probability distributions for each parameter, time period, and expert by using these three elicited values. We aggregated the parameter estimates elicited from individual experts and fitted a parametric distribution to the aggregated results.Across regions, the experts expected the future frequency of RTMM events to be higher than historical levels, which is consistent with the hypothesis that global climate change (among other factors) may increase the frequency of red-tide blooms. The experts articulated considerable uncertainty, however, about the future frequency of RTMM events. The historical frequency of moderate and intense RTMM (combined) in

  20. The Effect of Various Species of Macroalgae on the Growth, Survival, and Toxicity of Karenia brevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, K. G.; Lovko, V. J.; Henry, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produce toxins that result in negative impacts to both humans and the environment. Little is known about the termination stages of these blooms, and few viable control mechanisms have been suggested. Natural, algae derived compounds have been proposed as a way to limit bloom growth and reduce brevetoxins in the water column. The work presented here examines the ability of macroalgae to inhibit the growth or survival of K. brevis, similar to what has been demonstrated with other red tide species. Additionally, we attempted to determine if macroalgae decreases water column brevetoxins which, to our knowledge, has not been tested with macroalgae but has been demonstrated in other studies with microalgal species. The macroalgae species Dictyota sp. and Gracilaria sp. caused 100% mortality of K. brevis in under 24 hours. Compared to the control, 7 other species significantly decreased the growth rate of K. brevis. The Dictyota treatments showed significant toxin reduction and increase of the antitoxin brevanol. These results indicate that some combination of compounds produced by macroalgae inhibit growth and survival of K. brevis and possibly limit their toxin production. Future studies will attempt to isolate and identify these compounds and test their effects on other marine organisms such as diatoms. Determining the interactions between HAB species K. brevis and macroalgal species will provide insights on the mechanism of bloom termination and a potential control method.

  1. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  2. FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Gulf of Mexico, recurring algal blooms, caused by Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve), have significant adverse health and economic impacts. K. brevis is one member of a small group of dinoflagellates, related morphologically and by DNA-based phylogenetic ...

  3. Vertical migration of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico observed from glider measurements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Qi, Lin; Lembke, Chad; English, David

    2016-09-01

    The toxic marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (the species responsible for most of red tides or harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico), is known to be able to swim vertically to adapt to the light and nutrient environments, nearly all such observations have been made through controlled experiments using cultures. Here, using continuous 3-dimensional measurements by an ocean glider across a K. brevis bloom in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico between 1 and 8 August 2014, we show the vertical migration behavior of K. brevis. Within the bloom where K. brevis concentration is between 100,000 and 1,000,000cellsL -1 , the stratified water shows a two-layer system with the depth of pycnocline ranging between 14-20m and salinity and temperature in the surface layer being <34.8 and >28°C, respectively. The bottom layer shows the salinity of >36 and temperature of <26°C. The low salinity is apparently due to coastal runoff, as the top layer also shows high amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the top layer, chlorophyll-a fluorescence shows clear diel changes in the vertical structure, an indication of K. brevis vertical migration at a mean speed of 0.5-1mh -1 . The upward migration appears to start at sunrise at a depth of 8-10m, while the downward migration appears to start at sunset (or when surface light approaches 0) at a depth of ∼2m. These vertical migrations are believed to be a result of the need of K. brevis cells for light and nutrients in a stable, stratified, and CDOM-rich environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A 1-D Simulation Analysis of the Development and Maintenance of the 2001 Red Tide of the Ichthyotoxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    subsequent fish kills supplied additional organic nutrients for utilization by these opportunistic toxic algae. Both nutrient vectors represented organic non...ichthyotoxic levels, rapid decay of subsequent fish kills supplied additional organic nutrients for utilization by these opportunistic toxic algae. Both...HABSIM model (Fig. 2) a positive feedback of the recycled organic nutrients (DON and DOP) from decaying fish , killed by K. brevis. Note that dissolved

  5. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the Southwest Florida Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Larry E.; Compton, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Data collected along the southwest coast of Florida between Tampa Bay and Sanibel Island on the abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis from 1954 to 2002 were examined for spatial and temporal patterns. K. brevis was found to be approximately 20-fold more abundant within 5 km of the shoreline than 20-30 km offshore. Overall, K. brevis was approximately 13-18-fold more abundant in 1994-2002 than in 1954-1963. In 1954-1963, K. brevis occurred primarily in the fall months. In 1994-2002, it was more abundant not only in the fall, but also in the winter and spring months. It is hypothesized that greater nutrient availability in the ecosystem is the most likely cause of this increase in K. brevis biomass, and the large increase in the human population and its activities in South Florida over the past half century is a major factor. PMID:18437245

  6. Increased Toxicity of Karenia brevis during Phosphate Limited Growth: Ecological and Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, Donnie Ransom; Sunda, William G.; Shea, Damian; Litaker, Richard Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Karenia brevis is the dominant toxic red tide algal species in the Gulf of Mexico. It produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins [PbTxs]), which negatively impact human and animal health, local economies, and ecosystem function. Field measurements have shown that cellular brevetoxin contents vary from 1–68 pg/cell but the source of this variability is uncertain. Increases in cellular toxicity caused by nutrient-limitation and inter-strain differences have been observed in many algal species. This study examined the effect of P-limitation of growth rate on cellular toxin concentrations in five Karenia brevis strains from different geographic locations. Phosphorous was selected because of evidence for regional P-limitation of algal growth in the Gulf of Mexico. Depending on the isolate, P-limited cells had 2.3- to 7.3-fold higher PbTx per cell than P-replete cells. The percent of cellular carbon associated with brevetoxins (%C-PbTx) was ∼ 0.7 to 2.1% in P-replete cells, but increased to 1.6–5% under P-limitation. Because PbTxs are potent anti-grazing compounds, this increased investment in PbTxs should enhance cellular survival during periods of nutrient-limited growth. The %C-PbTx was inversely related to the specific growth rate in both the nutrient-replete and P-limited cultures of all strains. This inverse relationship is consistent with an evolutionary tradeoff between carbon investment in PbTxs and other grazing defenses, and C investment in growth and reproduction. In aquatic environments where nutrient supply and grazing pressure often vary on different temporal and spatial scales, this tradeoff would be selectively advantageous as it would result in increased net population growth rates. The variation in PbTx/cell values observed in this study can account for the range of values observed in the field, including the highest values, which are not observed under N-limitation. These results suggest P-limitation is an important factor regulating cellular

  7. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  8. Brevetoxin (PbTx-2) influences the redox status and NPQ of Karenia brevis by way of thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Colon, Ricardo; Louda, J William; Del Rey, Freddy Rodriguez; Durham, Michaella; Rein, Kathleen S

    2018-01-01

    The Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is the major harmful algal bloom dinoflagellate of the Gulf of Mexico and plays a destructive role in the region. Blooms of K. brevis can produce brevetoxins: ladder-shaped polyether (LSP) compounds, which can lead to adverse human health effects, such as reduced respiratory function through inhalation exposure, or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning through consumption of contaminated shellfish. The endogenous role of the brevetoxins remains uncertain. Recent work has shown that some forms of NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) are inhibited by brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2). The study presented herein reveals that high toxin and low toxin K. brevis, which have a ten-fold difference in toxin content, also show a significant difference in their ability, not only to produce brevetoxin, but also in their cellular redox status and distribution of xanthophyll cycle pigments. These differences are likely due to the inhibition of NTR by brevetoxin. The work could shed light on the physiological role that brevetoxin fills for K. brevis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  10. The Costs of Respiratory Illnesses Arising from Florida Gulf Coast Karenia brevis Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E.; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M.; Ullmann, Steven G.; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. Objectives We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. Methods We developed a statistical exposure–response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. Results We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Conclusions Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation. PMID:19672403

  11. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160).

    The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  12. Advection of Karenia brevis blooms from the Florida Panhandle towards Mississippi coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Soto, Inia M; Cambazoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Boyette, Adam D; Broussard, Kristina; Sheehan, Drew; Howden, Stephan D; Shiller, Alan M; Dzwonkowski, Brian; Hode, Laura; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J; Arnone, Robert A; Mickle, Paul F; Cressman, Kimberly

    2018-02-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters. The 2015 K. brevis bloom was compared to the 2007 Florida Panhandle K. brevis bloom, which showed a westward advection pattern, but did not intensify along the Mississippi coast. Cell counts and flow cytometry were obtained from the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Alabama Department of Public Health, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and The University of Southern Mississippi. Ocean color satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua satellite was used to detect and delineate the blooms in 2007 and 2015. Two different regional applications of NCOM-Navy Coastal Ocean Model (1-km resolution NCOM-GoM/Gulf of Mexico and 6-km resolution NCOM-IASNFS/Intra Americas Sea Nowcast Forecast System) were used to understand the circulation and transport pathways. A Lagrangian particle tracking software was used to track the passive movement of particles released at different locations for both bloom events. Ancillary data (e.g., nutrients, wind, salinity, river discharge) from local buoys, monitoring stations and coincident oceanographic cruises were also included in the analysis. The blooms of K. brevis reached the Mississippi coast both years; however, the bloom in 2007 lasted only a few days and there is no evidence that it entered the

  13. Transcriptome remodeling associated with chronological aging in the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jillian G; Morey, Jeanine S; Neely, Marion G; Ryan, James C; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2012-03-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, forms dense blooms in the Gulf of Mexico that persist for many months in coastal waters, where they can cause extensive marine animal mortalities and human health impacts. The mechanisms that enable cell survival in high density, low growth blooms, and the mechanisms leading to often rapid bloom demise are not well understood. To gain an understanding of processes that underlie chronological aging in this dinoflagellate, a microarray study was carried out to identify changes in the global transcriptome that accompany the entry and maintenance of stationary phase up to the onset of cell death. The transcriptome of K. brevis was assayed using a custom 10,263 feature oligonucleotide microarray from mid-logarithmic growth to the onset of culture demise. A total of 2958 (29%) features were differentially expressed, with the mid-stationary phase timepoint demonstrating peak changes in expression. Gene ontology enrichment analyses identified a significant shift in transcripts involved in energy acquisition, ribosome biogenesis, gene expression, stress adaptation, calcium signaling, and putative brevetoxin biosynthesis. The extensive remodeling of the transcriptome observed in the transition into a quiescent non-dividing phase appears to be indicative of a global shift in the metabolic and signaling requirements and provides the basis from which to understand the process of chronological aging in a dinoflagellate. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Neural network retrievals of Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the West Florida Shelf (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Samir; El-Habashi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Effective detection and tracking of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HAB) that frequently plague the coasts and beaches of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) is important because of their negative impacts on ecology. They pose threats to fisheries, human health, and directly affect tourism and local economies. Detection and tracking capabilities are needed for use with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite, so that HABs monitoring capabilities, which previously relied on imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua, can be extended to VIIRS. Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike its predecessor MODIS-A, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm, or in the Red Band Difference (RBD) algorithm. Both these techniques have demonstrated that the remote sensing reflectance signal from the MODIS-A fluorescence band (Rrs 678 nm) helps in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs in the WFS. To overcome the lack of a fluorescence channel on VIIRS, the approach described here, bypasses the need for measurements at 678nm, and permits extension of KB HABs satellite monitoring to VIIRS. The essence of the approach is the application of a standard multiband neural network (NN) inversion algorithm, previously developed and reported by us, that takes VIIRS Rrs measurements at the 486, 551 and 671nm bands as inputs, and produces as output the related Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), namely: absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (aph443) dissolved organic matter (ag) and non-algal particulates (adm) as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient, (bbp) all at 443nm. We next need to relate aph443 in the VIIRS NN retrieved image to equivalent KB HABs concentrations. To do this, we apply additional constraints, defined by (i) low backscatter manifested as a maximum Rrs551 value and (ii) a minimum [Chla] threshold (and hence an equivalent

  15. Fate and distribution of brevetoxin (PbTx) following lysis of Karenia brevis by algicidal bacteria, including analysis of open A-ring derivatives.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patricia B; Twiner, Michael J; Wang, Zhihong; Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Doucette, Gregory J

    2007-12-15

    Flavobacteriaceae (strain S03) and Cytophaga sp. (strain 41-DBG2) are algicidal bacteria active against the brevetoxin (PbTx)-producing, red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Little is known about the fate of PbTx associated with K. brevis cells following attack by such bacteria. The fate and distribution of PbTx in K. brevis cultures exposed to these algicidal strains were thus examined by receptor binding assay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) in three size fractions (>5, 0.22-5, <0.22microm) over a 2-week time course. In control cultures, brevetoxin concentrations in the >5microm particulate size fraction correlated with changes in cell density, whereas significant increases in dissolved (i.e., <0.22microm) toxin were observed in the later stages of culture growth. Exposure of K. brevis to either of the two algicidal bacteria tested caused cell lysis, coinciding with a rapid decline in the >5microm PbTX size fraction and a simultaneous release of dissolved toxin into the growth medium. Upon cell lysis, dissolved brevetoxin accounted for ca. 60% of total toxin and consisted of 51-82% open A-ring derivatives. Open A-ring PbTx-2 and PbTx-3 derivatives bound with lower affinity (approximately 22- and 57-fold, respectively) to voltage-gated sodium channels and were considerably less cytotoxic (86- and 142-fold, respectively) to N2A cells than their individual parent toxins (i.e., PbTx-2 and PbTx-3). These novel findings of changes in PbTx size-fractioned distribution and overall reduction in K. brevis toxicity following attack by algicidal bacteria improve our understanding of potential trophic transfer routes and the fate of PbTx during red tide events. Moreover, this information will be important to consider when evaluating the potential role of algicidal bacteria in harmful algal bloom (HAB) management strategies involving control of bloom populations.

  16. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis . The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O 2 L -1 day -1 with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 10 5 cells L -1 . Community dark respiration ( R ) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O 2 L -1 day -1 over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O 2 L -1 day -1 . The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R ) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R ) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 10 6 cells L -1 .

  17. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Gary L.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L−1 day−1 with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 105 cells L−1. Community dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L−1 day−1 over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L−1 day−1. The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 106 cells L−1. PMID:24179460

  18. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L−1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  19. Satellite retrievals of Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the West Florida shelf using neural networks and impacts of temporal variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habashi, Ahmed; Duran, Claudia M.; Lovko, Vincent; Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Ahmed, Sam

    2017-07-01

    We apply a neural network (NN) technique to detect/track Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms (KB HABs) plaguing West Florida shelf (WFS) coasts from Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite observations. Previously KB HABs detection primarily relied on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua (MODIS-A) satellite, depending on its remote sensing reflectance signal at the 678-nm chlorophyll fluorescence band (Rrs678) needed for normalized fluorescence height and related red band difference retrieval algorithms. VIIRS, MODIS-A's successor, does not have a 678-nm channel. Instead, our NN uses Rrs at 486-, 551-, and 671-nm VIIRS channels to retrieve phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm (a). The retrieved a images are next filtered by applying limits, defined by (i) low Rrs551-nm backscatter and (ii) a minimum a value associated with KB HABs. The filtered residual images are then converted to show chlorophyll-a concentrations [Chla] and KB cell counts. VIIRS retrievals using our NN and five other retrieval algorithms were compared and evaluated against numerous in situ measurements made over the four-year 2012 to 2016 period, for which VIIRS data are available. These comparisons confirm the viability and higher retrieval accuracies of the NN technique, when combined with the filtering constraints, for effective detection of KB HABs. Analysis of these results as well as sequential satellite observations and recent field measurements underline the importance of short-term temporal variabilities on retrieval accuracies.

  20. A competitive ELISA to detect brevetoxins from Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) in seawater, shellfish, and mammalian body fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Naar, Jerome; Bourdelais, Andrea; Tomas, Carmelo; Kubanek, Julia; Whitney, Philip L; Flewelling, Leanne; Steidinger, Karen; Lancaster, Johnny; Baden, Daniel G

    2002-01-01

    We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to analyze brevetoxins, using goat anti-brevetoxin antibodies obtained after immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-brevetoxin conjugates, in combination with a three-step signal amplification process. The procedure, which used secondary biotinylated antibodies, streptavidine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and chromogenic enzyme substrate, was useful in reducing nonspecific background signals commonly observed with complex matrices. This competitive ELISA detected brevetoxins in seawater, shellfish extract and homogenate, and mammalian body fluid such as urine and serum without pretreatment, dilution, or purification. We investigated the application of this technique for shellfish monitoring by spiking shellfish meat with brevetoxins and by analyzing oysters from two commercial shellfish beds in Florida that were exposed to a bloom of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve). We performed brevetoxin analysis of shellfish extracts and homogenates by ELISA and compared it with the mouse bioassay and receptor binding assay. The detection limit for brevetoxins in spiked oysters was 2.5 microg/100 g shellfish meat. This assay appears to be a useful tool for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning monitoring in shellfish and seawater, and for mammalian exposure diagnostics, and significantly reduces the time required for analyses. PMID:11836147

  1. Potential impacts of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the growth, survival and juvenile recruitment of the non-native green mussel Perna viridis in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Thébault, Julien; Volety, Aswani K

    2016-01-01

    Red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis are frequent along the Gulf coast of Florida and it is unclear what tolerance the green mussel Perna viridis, a recently introduced species to coastal waters, has toward these events. Established populations of P. viridis were monitored along the coastal waters of Estero Bay, Florida before, during and following two consecutive red tide blooms to assess the potential effects on growth, survival and juvenile recruitment. Upon onset of the bloom, growth rates fell from 6 to 10 mm month(-1) (March 2011-November 2011) to less than 3 mm month(-1). In the succeeding years, K. brevis blooms were present, and average growth of individually tagged mussels remained below 3 mm month(-1). During growth monitoring the use of calcein as an internal marker was tested with positive staining results and no observed effect on growth or survival. In March 2012, following the first red tide bloom, a population-wide mortality event was observed. Following this event, increased mortality rates were observed with peaks during onset of the bloom in the fall of 2012 and 2013. Juvenile recruitment was also limited during years in which blooms persisted into the spring spawning period suggesting gamete and/or larval sensitivity to K. brevis. Although it cannot be conclusively determined that the cause of reduced growth and survival is due to red tide events, the parallels observed suggest that K. brevis is a factor in the observed changes in population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity of clay flocculation of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to estuarine invertebrates and fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic environmental effects of proposed control procedures for red tide events are relatively unknown but important to understand. The objective of this study was to determine the laboratory-derived toxicities of a clay flocculation technique proposed for the Florida red ti...

  3. A Harmful Algal Bloom of Karenia brevis in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico as Revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B.; Qi, Lin; Corcoran, Alina A.

    2015-01-01

    The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida's Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches—as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH). Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L−1 within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA's Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency's Sentinel-3 mission. PMID:25635412

  4. A harmful algal bloom of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Qi, Lin; Corcoran, Alina A

    2015-01-28

    The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida's Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches-as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH). Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L(-1) within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA's Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency's Sentinel-3 mission.

  5. Characterization of Karenia brevis blooms on the West Florida Shelf using ocean color satellite imagery: implications for bloom maintenance and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Inia M.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Hu, Chuanmin; Wolny, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Satellite ocean color remote sensing techniques, coupled with in situ data, were used to examine the spatial extent and evolution of four Karenia brevis blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2011. Observations were obtained with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua). These four blooms were delineated by combining remote-sensing reflectance at 555 nm and normalized fluorescence line height. In 2004 and 2005, the WFS was affected by several hurricanes, including the category 5 storm Hurricane Katrina. These hurricanes led to increased river discharge and vertical mixing which favored bloom intensification and dispersion. No hurricanes passed over the WSF in 2006; however, storms in south Florida may have aided bloom intensification via increased river discharge. In 2011, a bloom appeared off Venice, Florida, where several small creeks discharge. The bloom moved south toward Charlotte Harbor where it intensified and lingered for several months as it received nutrients from riverine discharge and upwelling events. While it is difficult to identify initiation stages of a K. brevis bloom (<˜50,000 cells L-1) using satellite imagery, the techniques used here provide information about bloom evolution (size, duration, and advection) and insight into factors affecting bloom dynamics.

  6. Brevisulcatic acids, marine ladder-frame polyethers from the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevisulcata in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rina; Irie, Raku; Harntaweesup, Yanit; Tachibana, Kazuo; Holland, Patrick T; Harwood, D Tim; Shi, Feng; Beuzenberg, Veronica; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Pascal, Steven; Edwards, Patrick J B; Satake, Masayuki

    2014-11-21

    The isolation and structural determination of new marine ladder-frame polyethers, brevisulcatic acids-1 (1) and -4 (2) are reported. Brevisulcatic acids were isolated from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevisulcata, which was identified as the causative species of a major red tide event in New Zealand in 1998. The ether ring composition and a β-hydroxy, γ-methylene valeric acid side chain of 1 and 2 are common, but 2 has a γ-lactone as the 5-membered A-ring while 1 is the seco acid analogue. Compound 2 has structural and bioactivity similarities to brevetoxin A.

  7. ECOHAB - HYDROGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MODEL TO PREDICT THE INITIATION, MAINTANENCE AND DISPERSAL OF RED TIDE ON THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program is part of a larger program called ECOHAB: Florida that includes this study as well as physical oceanography, circulation patterns, and shelf scale modeling for predicting the occurrence and transport of Karenia brevis (=Gymnodinium breve) red tides. The physical par...

  8. Exacerbation of asthma by Florida "red tide" during an ocean sailing trip.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P

    2007-09-01

    A 36-year-old man with adult-onset nonallergic triad asthma developed acute bronchospasm and copious sputum production during an offshore sailing excursion on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Symptoms were linked to proximity to blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (red tide) and heavy aerosolized brevetoxin exposure, and symptoms recurred during rechallenge. Patients with respiratory disease who are planning a visit to red tide-prone seaside areas should be cautioned to bring their pulmonary medications, and clinicians should be aware that reactive airway symptoms may be triggered by exposure to red tide.

  9. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  10. Spatio-temporal variations in bloom of the red-tide dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi in Imari Bay, Japan, in 2014: Factors controlling horizontal and vertical distribution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kameda, Takahiko; Yamatogi, Toshifumi; Ishida, Naoya; Hirae, Sou; Kawaguchi, Mayumi; Syutou, Toshio

    2017-11-15

    A massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi appeared in 2014 in Imari Bay, Japan. Bloom dynamics and hydrographical conditions were examined by field survey. The bloom initially developed in the eastern area of Imari Bay, subsequently after rainfall during the neap tides, cell density exceeded over 10,000cellsml. Vertical distribution of K. mikimotoi was primarily controlled by the light intensity and secondarily by the water quality during the daytime. Almost all cell-density maxima occurred in depths with weak daytime light intensities of <300μmolm -2 s -1 . In some cases of weak light intensity, cell-density maxima occurred in depths with favorable hydrodynamic conditions for the growth. Spatially classified areas were identified by cluster analysis using the growth rate calculated from seawater temperature and salinity. This study quantitatively evaluated the environmental factors of the eastern area, where the bloom initially occurred, during the development of the bloom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Art of Red Tide Science

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  12. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  13. Variable allelopathy among phytoplankton reflected in red tide metabolome.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Remington X; Poulson-Ellestad, Kelsey L; Roy, Jessie S; Kubanek, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Harmful algae are known to utilize allelopathy, the release of compounds that inhibit competitors, as a form of interference competition. Competitor responses to allelopathy are species-specific and allelopathic potency of producing algae is variable. In the current study, the biological variability in allelopathic potency was mapped to the underlying chemical variation in the exuded metabolomes of five genetic strains of the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The impacts of K. brevis allelopathy on growth of a model competitor, Asterionellopsis glacialis, ranged from strongly inhibitory to negligible to strongly stimulatory. Unique metabolomes of K. brevis were visualized as chemical fingerprints, suggesting three distinct metabolic modalities - allelopathic, non-allelopathic, and stimulatory - with each modality distinguished from the others by different concentrations of several metabolites. Allelopathic K. brevis was characterized by enhanced concentrations of fatty acid-derived lipids and aromatic or other polyunsaturated compounds, relative to less allelopathic K. brevis. These findings point to a previously untapped source of information in the study of allelopathy: the chemical variability of phytoplankton, which has been underutilized in the study of bloom dynamics and plankton chemical ecology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins: Exposures and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Baden, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Florida red tide is caused by Karenia brevis, a dinoflagellate that periodically blooms, releasing its potent neurotoxin, brevetoxin, into the surrounding waters and air along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Exposure to Florida red tide toxins has been associated with adverse human health effects and massive fish and marine mammal deaths. The articles in this mini-monograph describe the ongoing interdisciplinary and interagency research program that characterizes the exposures and health effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins). The interdisciplinary research program uses animal models and laboratory studies to develop hypotheses and apply these findings to in situ human exposures. Our ultimate goal is to develop appropriate prevention measures and medical interventions to mitigate or prevent adverse health effects from exposure to complex mixtures of aerosolized red tide toxins. PMID:15866773

  15. Overview of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins: exposures and effects.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-01

    Florida red tide is caused by Karenia brevis, a dinoflagellate that periodically blooms, releasing its potent neurotoxin, brevetoxin, into the surrounding waters and air along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Exposure to Florida red tide toxins has been associated with adverse human health effects and massive fish and marine mammal deaths. The articles in this mini-monograph describe the ongoing interdisciplinary and interagency research program that characterizes the exposures and health effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins). The interdisciplinary research program uses animal models and laboratory studies to develop hypotheses and apply these findings to in situ human exposures. Our ultimate goal is to develop appropriate prevention measures and medical interventions to mitigate or prevent adverse health effects from exposure to complex mixtures of aerosolized red tide toxins.

  16. Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: effects on a healthy worker population.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Bean, Judy A; Clark, Richard; Johnson, David; Wanner, Adam; Tamer, Robert; Zhou, Yue; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-01

    Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to examine the impact of inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins during red tide events on self-reported symptoms and pulmonary function. We recruited a group of 28 healthy lifeguards who are occupationally exposed to red tide toxins during their daily work-related activities. They performed spirometry tests and reported symptoms before and after their 8-hr shifts during a time when there was no red tide (unexposed period) and again when there was a red tide (exposed period). We also examined how mild exercise affected the reported symptoms and spirometry tests during unexposed and exposed periods with a subgroup of the same lifeguards. Environmental sampling (K. brevis cell concentrations in seawater and brevetoxin concentrations in seawater and air) was used to confirm unexposed/exposed status. Compared with unexposed periods, the group of lifeguards reported more upper respiratory symptoms during the exposed periods. We did not observe any impact of exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins, with or without mild exercise, on pulmonary function.

  17. Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William M; Baden, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons >or= 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV(1), midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins.

  18. Aerosolized Red-Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Bean, Judy A.; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William M.; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. Methods Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons ≥ 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. Results Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV1, midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). Conclusions This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins. PMID:17218574

  19. Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: Where, when, and why?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. J.; Jolliff, J. K.; Darrow, B. P.; Lenes, J. M.; Milroy, S. P.; Remsen, A.; Dieterle, D. A.; Carder, K. L.; Chen, F. R.; Vargo, G. A.; Weisberg, R. H.; Fanning, K. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Shinn, E.; Steidinger, K. A.; Heil, C. A.; Tomas, C. R.; Prospero, J. S.; Lee, T. N.; Kirkpatrick, G. J.; Whitledge, T. E.; Stockwell, D. A.; Villareal, T. A.; Jochens, A. E.; Bontempi, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Independent data from the Gulf of Mexico are used to develop and test the hypothesis that the same sequence of physical and ecological events each year allows the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis to become dominant. A phosphorus-rich nutrient supply initiates phytoplankton succession, once deposition events of Saharan iron-rich dust allow Trichodesmium blooms to utilize ubiquitous dissolved nitrogen gas within otherwise nitrogen-poor sea water. They and the co-occurring K. brevis are positioned within the bottom Ekman layers, as a consequence of their similar diel vertical migration patterns on the middle shelf. Upon onshore upwelling of these near-bottom seed populations to CDOM-rich surface waters of coastal regions, light-inhibition of the small red tide of ~1 ug chl l–1 of ichthytoxic K. brevis is alleviated. Thence, dead fish serve as a supplementary nutrient source, yielding large, self-shaded red tides of ~10 ug chl l–1. The source of phosphorus is mainly of fossil origin off west Florida, where past nutrient additions from the eutrophied Lake Okeechobee had minimal impact. In contrast, the P-sources are of mainly anthropogenic origin off Texas, since both the nutrient loadings of Mississippi River and the spatial extent of the downstream red tides have increased over the last 100 years. During the past century and particularly within the last decade, previously cryptic Karenia spp. have caused toxic red tides in similar coastal habitats of other western boundary currents off Japan, China, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa, downstream of the Gobi, Simpson, Great Western, and Kalahari Deserts, in a global response to both desertification and eutrophication. PMID:20411040

  20. Illness associated with red tide--Nassau County, Florida, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-07-04

    A "red tide" is a harmful algal bloom that occurs when toxic, microscopic algae in seawater proliferate to a higher-than-normal concentration (i.e., bloom), often discoloring the water red, brown, green, or yellow. Red tides can kill fish, birds, and marine mammals and cause illness in humans. Florida red tide is caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces toxins called brevetoxins and is most commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico; however, K. brevis blooms also can occur along the Atlantic coast. On September 25, 2007, a cluster of respiratory illnesses was reported to the Nassau County Health Department (NCHD) in northeastern Florida. All of the ill persons were employed at a beach restoration worksite by a dredging company operating at Fernandina Beach; they reported symptoms of eye or respiratory irritation (e.g., coughing, sneezing, sniffling, and throat irritation). NCHD and the Florida Department of Health promptly conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations and determined the illnesses likely were associated with exposure to a red tide along the Atlantic coast. These actions highlight the importance of rapid investigation of health concerns with potential environmental causes to enable timely notification of the public and prevent further illness.

  1. Reported respiratory symptom intensity in asthmatics during exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins.

    PubMed

    Milian, Alexyz; Nierenberg, Kate; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Jayroe, David; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Florida red tides are naturally occurring blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces natural toxins called brevetoxins. Brevetoxins become part of the marine aerosol as the fragile, unarmored cells are broken up by wave action. Inhalation of the aerosolized toxin results in upper and lower airway irritation. Symptoms of brevetoxin inhalation include: eye, nose, and throat irritation, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthmatics appear to be more sensitive to the effects of inhaled brevetoxin. This study examined data from 97 asthmatics exposed at the beach for 1 hour during K. brevis blooms, and on separate occasions when no bloom was present. In conjunction with extensive environmental monitoring, participants were evaluated utilizing questionnaires and pulmonary function testing before and after a 1-hour beach walk. A modified Likert scale was incorporated into the questionnaire to create respiratory symptom intensity scores for each individual pre- and post-beach walk. Exposure to Florida red tide significantly increased the reported intensity of respiratory symptoms; no significant changes were seen during an unexposed period. This is the first study to examine the intensity of reported respiratory symptoms in asthmatics after a 1-hour exposure to Florida red tide.

  2. Reported Respiratory Symptom Intensity in Asthmatics During Exposure to Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Milian, Alexyz; Nierenberg, Kate; Fleming, Lora E.; Bean, Judy A.; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Jayroe, David; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Florida red tides are naturally occurring blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces natural toxins called brevetoxins. Brevetoxins become part of the marine aerosol as the fragile, unarmored cells are broken up by wave action. Inhalation of the aerosolized toxin results in upper and lower airway irritation. Symptoms of brevetoxin inhalation include: eye, nose, and throat irritation, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthmatics appear to be more sensitive to the effects of inhaled brevetoxin. This study examined data from 97 asthmatics exposed at the beach for 1 hour during K. brevis blooms, and on separate occasions when no bloom was present. In conjunction with extensive environmental monitoring, participants were evaluated utilizing questionnaires and pulmonary function testing before and after a 1-hour beach walk. A modified Likert scale was incorporated into the questionnaire to create respiratory symptom intensity scores for each individual pre- and post-beach walk. Exposure to Florida red tide significantly increased the reported intensity of respiratory symptoms; no significant changes were seen during an unexposed period. This is the first study to examine the intensity of reported respiratory symptoms in asthmatics after a 1-hour exposure to Florida red tide. PMID:17885863

  3. Inland Transport of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Pierce, Richard; Cheng, Yung Sung; Henry, Michael S; Blum, Patricia; Osborn, Shannon; Nierenberg, Kate; Pederson, Bradley A; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Backer, Lorraine C; Baden, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Florida red tides, an annual event off the west coast of Florida, are caused by the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins, brevetoxins, which kill fish, sea birds, and marine mammals, as well as sickening humans who consume contaminated shellfish. These toxins become part of the marine aerosol, and can also be inhaled by humans and other animals. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in symptoms and decrease lung function in asthmatics after only one hour of beach exposure during an onshore Florida red tide bloom.This study constructed a transect line placing high volume air samplers to measure brevetoxins at sites beginning at the beach, moving approximately 6.4 km inland. One non-exposure and 2 exposure studies, each of 5 days duration, were conducted. No toxins were measured in the air during the non-exposure period. During the 2 exposure periods, the amount of brevetoxins varied considerably by site and by date. Nevertheless, brevetoxins were measured at least 4.2 kilometers from the beach and/or 1.6 km from the coastal shoreline. Therefore, populations sensitive to brevetoxins (such as asthmatics) need to know that leaving the beach may not discontinue their environmental exposure to brevetoxin aerosols.

  4. Gastrointestinal Emergency Room Admissions and Florida Red Tide Blooms.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Bean, Judy A; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Grief, Lynne; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon; Naar, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure to brevetoxins during Florida red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis has been documented to cause acute gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory health effects.. Traditionally, the routes of brevetoxin exposure have been through the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish and the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. However, recent studies using more sensitive methods have demonstrated the presence of brevetoxins in many components of the aquatic food web which may indicate potential alternative routes for human exposure.This study examined whether the presence of a Florida red tide bloom affected the rates of admission for a gastrointestinal diagnosis to a hospital emergency room in Sarasota, FL. The rates of gastrointestinal diagnoses admissions were compared for a 3-month time period in 2001 when Florida red tide bloom was present onshore to the same 3-month period in 2002 when no Florida red tide bloom occurred. A significant 40% increase in the total number of gastrointestinal emergency room admissions for the Florida red tide bloom period was found compared to the non red tide period.These results suggest that the healthcare community may experience a significant and unrecognized impact from patients needing emergency medical care for gastrointestinal illnesses during Florida red tide blooms. Thus, additional studies characterizing the potential sources of exposure to the toxins, as well as the dose/effect relationship of brevetoxin exposure, should be undertaken.

  5. Gastrointestinal Emergency Room Admissions and Florida Red Tide Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Bean, Judy A; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Grief, Lynne; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon; Naar, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to brevetoxins during Florida red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis has been documented to cause acute gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory health effects.. Traditionally, the routes of brevetoxin exposure have been through the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish and the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. However, recent studies using more sensitive methods have demonstrated the presence of brevetoxins in many components of the aquatic food web which may indicate potential alternative routes for human exposure. This study examined whether the presence of a Florida red tide bloom affected the rates of admission for a gastrointestinal diagnosis to a hospital emergency room in Sarasota, FL. The rates of gastrointestinal diagnoses admissions were compared for a 3-month time period in 2001 when Florida red tide bloom was present onshore to the same 3-month period in 2002 when no Florida red tide bloom occurred. A significant 40% increase in the total number of gastrointestinal emergency room admissions for the Florida red tide bloom period was found compared to the non red tide period. These results suggest that the healthcare community may experience a significant and unrecognized impact from patients needing emergency medical care for gastrointestinal illnesses during Florida red tide blooms. Thus, additional studies characterizing the potential sources of exposure to the toxins, as well as the dose/effect relationship of brevetoxin exposure, should be undertaken. PMID:20161425

  6. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  7. A Hybrid Remote Sensing Approach for Detecting the Florida Red Tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, G. A.; Minnett, P. J.; Banzon, V.; Baringer, W.

    2008-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have caused major worldwide economic losses commonly linked with health problems for humans and wildlife. In the Eastern Gulf of Mexico the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is responsible for nearly annual, massive red tides causing fish kills, shellfish poisoning, and acute respiratory irritation in humans: the so-called Florida Red Tide. Near real-time satellite measurements could be an effective method for identifying HABs. The use of space-borne data would be a highly desired, low-cost technique offering the remote and accurate detection of K. brevis blooms over the West Florida Shelf, bringing tremendous societal benefits to the general public, scientific community, resource managers and medical health practitioners. An extensive in situ database provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Research Institute was used to examine the long-term accuracy of two satellite- based algorithms at detecting the Florida Red Tide. Using MODIS data from 2002 to 2006, the two algorithms are optimized and their accuracy assessed. It has been found that the sequential application of the algorithms results in improved predictability characteristics, correctly identifying ~80% of the cases (for both sensitivity and specificity, as well as overall accuracy), and exhibiting strong positive (70%) and negative (86%) predictive values.

  8. Initial Evaluation of the Effects of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) in Persons with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Bean, Judy A.; Wanner, Adam; Dalpra, Dana; Tamer, Robert; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William; Clark, Richard; Zhou, Yue; Henry, Michael S.; Johnson, David; Van De Bogart, Gayl; Bossart, Gregory D.; Harrington, Mark; Baden, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Florida red tides annually occur in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting from blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, known as brevetoxins, that activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. A study of persons who visited the beach recreationally found a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms after exposure to aerosolized Florida red tides. Anecdotal reports indicate that persons with underlying respiratory diseases may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects from these aerosolized toxins. Fifty-nine persons with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated for 1 hr before and after going to the beach on days with and without Florida red tide. Study participants were evaluated with a brief symptom questionnaire, nose and throat swabs, and spirometry approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Environmental monitoring, water and air sampling (i.e., K. brevis, brevetoxins, and particulate size distribution), and personal monitoring (for toxins) were performed. Brevetoxin concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and a newly developed brevetoxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after Florida red tide exposure. Participants demonstrated small but statistically significant decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75%, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly those regularly using asthma medications. Similar evaluation during nonexposure periods did not significantly differ. This is the first study to show objectively measurable adverse health effects from exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins in persons with asthma. Future studies will examine the possible chronic

  9. Initial evaluation of the effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins) in persons with asthma.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Dalpra, Dana; Tamer, Robert; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William; Clark, Richard; Zhou, Yue; Henry, Michael S; Johnson, David; Van De Bogart, Gayl; Bossart, Gregory D; Harrington, Mark; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-01

    Florida red tides annually occur in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting from blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, known as brevetoxins, that activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. A study of persons who visited the beach recreationally found a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms after exposure to aerosolized Florida red tides. Anecdotal reports indicate that persons with underlying respiratory diseases may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects from these aerosolized toxins. Fifty-nine persons with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated for 1 hr before and after going to the beach on days with and without Florida red tide. Study participants were evaluated with a brief symptom questionnaire, nose and throat swabs, and spirometry approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Environmental monitoring, water and air sampling (i.e., K. brevis, brevetoxins, and particulate size distribution), and personal monitoring (for toxins) were performed. Brevetoxin concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and a newly developed brevetoxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after Florida red tide exposure. Participants demonstrated small but statistically significant decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75%, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly those regularly using asthma medications. Similar evaluation during nonexposure periods did not significantly differ. This is the first study to show objectively measurable adverse health effects from exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins in persons with asthma. Future studies will examine the possible chronic

  10. Florida Red Tide Knowledge and Risk Perception: Is there a need for tailored messaging?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret M; Studts, Jamie

    2014-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis , occur throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Recent research efforts sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and others found that Florida red tide causes both acute and possibly chronic health effects from the toxic aerosols. Florida red tide also demonstrated significant social and economic impacts to both coastal residents and visitors. In conjunction with the research, persistent outreach efforts were conducted over the 11 year period. The goal of this project was to assess potential needs for tailored messaging needed among different red tide information user groups. Survey participants included 303 local residents, both with asthma and without, and 'snowbirds (seasonal residents that reside in the Sarasota area for more than 3 months but less than 6 months/year), also both with asthma and without. The questionnaire assessed Florida red tide knowledge and risk perception regarding Florida red tide using items drawn from two previously published surveys to allow comparison. Our results reveal that overall knowledge of Florida red tide has not changed. We found that knowledge was consistent across our selected groups and also did not vary by age, gender and education level. However, knowledge regarding consumption of seafood during Florida red tide has declined. Risk perception increased significantly for people who have asthma. Individuals responsible for public health communication regarding Florida red tide and human health concerns need to continue to pursue more effective outreach messages and delivery methods.

  11. Florida Red Tide Knowledge and Risk Perception: Is there a need for tailored messaging?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret M.; Studts, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, occur throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Recent research efforts sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and others found that Florida red tide causes both acute and possibly chronic health effects from the toxic aerosols. Florida red tide also demonstrated significant social and economic impacts to both coastal residents and visitors. In conjunction with the research, persistent outreach efforts were conducted over the 11 year period. The goal of this project was to assess potential needs for tailored messaging needed among different red tide information user groups. Survey participants included 303 local residents, both with asthma and without, and ‘snowbirds (seasonal residents that reside in the Sarasota area for more than 3 months but less than 6 months/year), also both with asthma and without. The questionnaire assessed Florida red tide knowledge and risk perception regarding Florida red tide using items drawn from two previously published surveys to allow comparison. Our results reveal that overall knowledge of Florida red tide has not changed. We found that knowledge was consistent across our selected groups and also did not vary by age, gender and education level. However, knowledge regarding consumption of seafood during Florida red tide has declined. Risk perception increased significantly for people who have asthma. Individuals responsible for public health communication regarding Florida red tide and human health concerns need to continue to pursue more effective outreach messages and delivery methods. PMID:24563634

  12. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  13. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide.

  14. Changes in Work Habits of Lifeguards in Relation to Florida Red Tide.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Kirner, Karen; Hoagland, Porter; Ullmann, Steven; Leblanc, William G; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    The marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is responsible for Florida red tides. Brevetoxins, the neurotoxins produced by K. brevis blooms, can cause fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and lead to respiratory illness in humans. Although several studies have assessed different economic impacts from Florida red tide blooms, no studies to date have considered the impact on beach lifeguard work performance. Sarasota County experiences frequent Florida red tides and staffs lifeguards at its beaches 365 days a year. This study examined lifeguard attendance records during the time periods of March 1 to September 30 in 2004 (no bloom) and March 1 to September 30 in 2005 (bloom). The lifeguard attendance data demonstrated statistically significant absenteeism during a Florida red tide bloom. The potential economic costs resulting from red tide blooms were comprised of both lifeguard absenteeism and presenteeism. Our estimate of the costs of absenteeism due to the 2005 red tide in Sarasota County is about $3,000. On average, the capitalized costs of lifeguard absenteeism in Sarasota County may be on the order of $100,000 at Sarasota County beaches alone. When surveyed, lifeguards reported not only that they experienced adverse health effects of exposure to Florida red tide but also that their attentiveness and abilities to take preventative actions decrease when they worked during a bloom, implying presenteeism effects. The costs of presenteeism, which imply increased risks to beachgoers, arguably could exceed those of absenteeism by an order of magnitude. Due to the lack of data, however, we are unable to provide credible estimates of the costs of presenteeism or the potential increased risks to bathers.

  15. Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    A Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Bloom affected coastal waters shallower than 50 m off west-central Florida from January 2005 through January 2006, showing a sustained anomaly of ???1 mg chlorophyll m-3 over an area of up to 67,500 km2. Red tides occur in the same area (approximately 26-29??N, 82-83??W) almost every year, but the intense 2005 bloom led to a widespread hypoxic zone (dissolved oxygen <2 mg L-1) that caused mortalities of benthic communities, fish, turtles, birds, and marine mammals. Runoff alone provided insufficient nitrogen to support this bloom. We pose the hypothesis that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) provides the missing nutrients, and indeed can trigger and support the recurrent red tides off west-central Florida. SGD inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Tampa Bay alone are ???35% of that discharged by all central Florida rivers draining west combined. We propose that the unusual number of hurricanes in 2004 resulted in high runoff, and in higher than normal SGD emerging along the west Florida coast throughout 2005, initiating and fueling the persistent HAB. This mechanism may also explain recurrent red tides in other coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Walsh, Cathy J.; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people. PMID:21218152

  17. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Walsh, Cathy J; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue-one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people.

  18. Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2006-06-01

    A Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Bloom affected coastal waters shallower than 50 m off west-central Florida from January 2005 through January 2006, showing a sustained anomaly of ~1 mg chlorophyll m-3 over an area of up to 67,500 km2. Red tides occur in the same area (approximately 26-29°N, 82-83°W) almost every year, but the intense 2005 bloom led to a widespread hypoxic zone (dissolved oxygen <2 mg L-1) that caused mortalities of benthic communities, fish, turtles, birds, and marine mammals. Runoff alone provided insufficient nitrogen to support this bloom. We pose the hypothesis that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) provides the missing nutrients, and indeed can trigger and support the recurrent red tides off west-central Florida. SGD inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Tampa Bay alone are ~35% of that discharged by all central Florida rivers draining west combined. We propose that the unusual number of hurricanes in 2004 resulted in high runoff, and in higher than normal SGD emerging along the west Florida coast throughout 2005, initiating and fueling the persistent HAB. This mechanism may also explain recurrent red tides in other coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Florida Red Tides, Manatee Brevetoxicosis, and Lung Models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Colbert, Debborah E.; Dalpra, Dana; Newton, Elizabeth A. C.; Gaspard, Joseph; Littlefield, Brandi; Manire, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, 149 Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, died along the southwest coast of Florida. Necropsy pathology results of these animals indicated that brevetoxin from the Florida red tide, Karenia brevis, caused their death. A red tide bloom had been previously documented in the area where these animals stranded. The necropsy data suggested the mortality occurred from chronic inhalation and/or ingestion. Inhalation theories include high doses of brevetoxin deposited/stored in the manatee lung or significant manatee sensitivity to the brevetoxin. Laboratory models of the manatee lungs can be constructed from casts of necropsied animals for further studies; however, it is necessary to define the breathing pattern in the manatee, specifically the volumes and flow rates per breath to estimate toxin deposition in the lung. To obtain this information, two captive-born Florida manatees, previously trained for husbandry and research behaviors, were trained to breathe into a plastic mask placed over their nares. The mask was connected to a spirometer that measured volumes and flows in situ. Results reveal high volumes, short inspiratory and expiratory times and high flow rates, all consistent with observed breathing patterns. PMID:26448968

  20. SURVEY OF THE STEROL COMPOSITION OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES KARENIA BREVIS, KARENIA MIKIMOTOI, AND KARLODINIUM MICRUM: DISTRIBUTION OF STEROLS WITHIN OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLASS DINOPHYCEAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of different marine microalgae was examined to determine the utility of sterols as biomarkers to distinguish members of various algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae possess certain 4-methyl sterols, such as dinosterol, which are rare...

  1. Florida Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Longitudinal Respiratory Effects in Asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Bean, Judy A; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Cheng, Yung Sung; Wanner, Adam; Benson, Janet; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Abraham, William M; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Hollenbeck, Julie; Zaias, Julia; Mendes, Eliana; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant and persistent adverse changes in pulmonary function for asthmatics after 1 hour exposure to brevetoxins in Florida red tide (Karenia brevis bloom) aerosols, we assessed the possible longer term health effects in asthmatics from intermittent environmental exposure to brevetoxins over 7 years. 125 asthmatic subjects were assessed for their pulmonary function and reported symptoms before and after 1 hour of environmental exposure to Florida red tide aerosols for upto 11 studies over seven years. As a group, the asthmatics came to the studies with normal standardized percent predicted pulmonary function values. The 38 asthmatics who participated in only one exposure study were more reactive compared to the 36 asthmatics who participated in ≥4 exposure studies. The 36 asthmatics participating in ≥4 exposure studies demonstrated no significant change in their standardized percent predicted pre-exposure pulmonary function over the 7 years of the study. These results indicate that stable asthmatics living in areas with intermittent Florida red tides do not exhibit chronic respiratory effects from intermittent environmental exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins over a 7 year period.

  2. Concentration and Particle Size of Airborne Toxic Algae (Brevetoxin) Derived from Ocean Red Tide Events

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Mcdonald, Jacob D.; Kracko, Dean; Irvin, C. Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H.; Henry, Michael S.; Bourdelaisa, Andrea; Naar, Jerome; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are formed by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in the wind-powered whitecapped waves during red tide episodes. Inhalation exposure to marine aerosol containing PbTx causes respiratory problems. A liquid chromatograph/ tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the detection and quantitation of several PbTxs in ambient samples collected during red tide events. This method was complemented by a previously developed antibody assay that analyzes the entire class of PbTx compounds. The method showed good linearity, accuracy, and reproducibility, allowing quantitation of PbTx compounds in the 10 pg/m3 range. Air concentrations of PbTxs and brevenal for individual samples ranged from 0.01 to 80 ng/m3. The particle size showed a single mode with a mass median diameter between 6 and 10 μm, which was consistent for all of the PbTx species that were measured. Our results imply that individual PbTxs were from the same marine aerosol or from marine aerosol that was produced from the same process. The particle size indicated the likelihood of high deposition efficiency in the respiratory tract with the majority of aerosol deposited in the upper airways and small but not insignificant deposition in the lower airways. PMID:15954221

  3. Aerosolized Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma: Continued health effects after 1 hour beach exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer, Lorraine C; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Wanner, Adam; Abraham, William M; Zhou, Yue; Hollenbeck, Julie; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 hour of beach exposure to these aerosols. This study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active Florida red tide.Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 hour of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5 days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4 days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased further within 24 hours, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for several days after 1 hour of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols.

  4. Aerosolized Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma: Continued health effects after 1 hour beach exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer, Lorraine C; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Wanner, Adam; Abraham, William M; Zhou, Yue; Hollenbeck, Julie; Baden, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 hour of beach exposure to these aerosols. This study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active Florida red tide. Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 hour of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5 days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4 days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased further within 24 hours, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for several days after 1 hour of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols. PMID:21499552

  5. Personal exposure to aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Naar, Jerome; Irvin, C Mitch; Su, Wei-Chung; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Pierce, Richard H; Backer, Lorraine C; Baden, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    Florida red tides occur annually in the Gulf of Mexico from blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, which produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, brevetoxins. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that human exposure to red tide aerosol could result in increased respiratory symptoms. Environmental monitoring of aerosolized brevetoxins was performed using a high-volume sampler taken hourly at fixed locations on Siesta Beach, Florida. Personal exposure was monitored using personal air samplers and taking nasal swab samples from the subjects who were instructed to spend 1 hr on Sarasota Beach during two sampling periods of an active Florida red tide event in March 2005, and in May 2008 when there was no red tide. Results showed that the aerosolized brevetoxins from the personal sampler were in modest agreement with the environmental concentration taken from a high-volume sampler. Analysis of nasal swab samples for brevetoxins demonstrated 68% positive samples in the March 2005 sampling period when air concentrations of brevetoxins were between 50 to 120 ng/m(3) measured with the high-volume sampler. No swab samples showed detectable levels of brevetoxins in the May 2008 study, when all personal samples were below the limit of detection. However, there were no statistical correlations between the amounts of brevetoxins detected in the swab samples with either the environmental or personal concentration. Results showed that the personal sample might provide an estimate of individual exposure level. Nasal swab samples showed that brevetoxins indeed were inhaled and deposited in the nasal passage during the March 2005 red tide event.

  6. Molecular Quantification of the Florida Red Tide Dinoflagellate and the Development of Low Cost, Volunteer-attended Handheld Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwkerk, D.; Ulrich, R. M.; Paul, J. H.; Hubbard, K.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Fanara, T. A.; Bruzek, S.; Hoeglund, A.

    2016-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis can cause massive fish-kills and marine mammal mortalities, as well as impact human health via the consumption of brevetoxin-contaminated shellfish and the inhalation of aerosolized toxins. There is a strong effort to predict human health impacts by monitoring the bloom stages of K. brevis, and to prevent health impacts by closing shellfish beds when K. brevis cell concentrations reach toxic levels. The current standard method for quantifying K. brevis is by microscopic enumeration, which requires taxonomic expertise to discern K. brevis cells from other Karenia species as well as a long turnover time to generate data, which limits the number of water samples that can be processed. This EPA-funded study compared a variety of technologies against the current standard (microscopic counts) to quantify the number of K. brevis cells per liter in the water column. Results of this study showed a strong correlation between Real Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (RT-NASBA) and enumeration by microscopy performed by members of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, who are responsible for such monitoring. We are adapting the bench-top RT-NASBA assay to the AmpliFire platform (a handheld sensor that can be used in the field), for point of need K. brevis detection. These handheld sensors will be used by a trained volunteer network and government agencies (FWC, NOAA, and Mote Marine Lab.) to quantify K. brevis cells in the water column of core Gulf of Mexico sites; the results from these sensors will be reported back to the GCOOS observation systems to provide real-time monitoring of K. brevis counts. The real-time information will allow agencies to better monitor fishery closures and predict human health impacts of harmful algal blooms, because a larger number of samples can be processed each week, as the NASBA process removes the rate-limiting step of microscope time.

  7. Modified MODIS fluorescence line height data product to improve image interpretation for red tide monitoring in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Feng, Lian

    2017-01-01

    Several satellite-based methods have been used to detect and trace Karenia brevis red tide blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Some require data statistics and multiple data products while others use a single data product. Of these, the MODIS normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH) has shown its advantage of detecting blooms in waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter, thus having been used routinely to assess bloom conditions by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), the official state agency of Florida responsible for red tide monitoring and mitigation. However, elevated sediment concentrations in the water column due to wind storms can also result in high nFLH values, leading to false-positive bloom interpretation. Here, a modified nFLH data product is developed to minimize such impacts through empirical adjustments of the nFLH values using MODIS-derived remote sensing reflectance in the green band at 547 nm. The new product is termed as an algal bloom index (ABI), which has shown improved performance over the original nFLH in both retrospective evaluation statistics and near real-time applications. The ABI product has been made available in near real-time through a Web portal and has been used by the FWC on a routine basis to guide field sampling efforts and prepare for red tide bulletins distributed to many user groups.

  8. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; de Wit, Martine; Bonde, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida's southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the wild impacts some immune function components, and thus, overall health, in the Florida manatee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The human health effects of Florida red tide (FRT) blooms: an expanded analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Beet, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Reich, Andrew; Ullmann, Steve; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Human respiratory and digestive illnesses can be caused by exposures to brevetoxins from blooms of the marine alga Karenia brevis, also known as Florida red tide (FRT). K. brevis requires macro-nutrients to grow; although the sources of these nutrients have not been resolved completely, they are thought to originate both naturally and anthropogenically. The latter sources comprise atmospheric depositions, industrial effluents, land runoffs, or submerged groundwater discharges. To date, there has been only limited research on the extent of human health risks and economic impacts due to FRT. We hypothesized that FRT blooms were associated with increases in the numbers of emergency room visits and hospital inpatient admissions for both respiratory and digestive illnesses. We sought to estimate these relationships and to calculate the costs of associated adverse health impacts. We developed environmental exposure-response models to test the effects of FRT blooms on human health, using data from diverse sources. We estimated the FRT bloom-associated illness costs, using extant data and parameters from the literature. When controlling for resident population, a proxy for tourism, and seasonal and annual effects, we found that increases in respiratory and digestive illnesses can be explained by FRT blooms. Specifically, FRT blooms were associated with human health and economic effects in older cohorts (≥55 years of age) in six southwest Florida counties. Annual costs of illness ranged from $60,000 to $700,000 annually, but these costs could exceed $1.0 million per year for severe, long-lasting FRT blooms, such as the one that occurred during 2005. Assuming that the average annual illness costs of FRT blooms persist into the future, using a discount rate of 3%, the capitalized costs of future illnesses would range between $2 and 24 million. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental exposures to Florida red tides: Effects on emergency room respiratory diagnoses admissions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Tamer, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Kane, Terrance; Wanner, Adam; Dalpra, Dana; Reich, Andrew; Baden, Daniel G

    2006-10-01

    Human exposure to Florida red tides formed by Karenia brevis, occurs from eating contaminated shellfish and inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins. Recent studies have documented acute symptom changes and pulmonary function responses after inhalation of the toxic aerosols, particularly among asthmatics. These findings suggest that there are increases in medical care facility visits for respiratory complaints and for exacerbations of underlying respiratory diseases associated with the occurrence of Florida red tides.This study examined whether the presence of a Florida red tide affected the rates of admission with a respiratory diagnosis to a hospital emergency room in Sarasota, FL. The rate of respiratory diagnoses admissions were compared for a 3-month time period when there was an onshore red tide in 2001 (red tide period) and during the same 3-month period in 2002 when no red tide bloom occurred (non-red tide period). There was no significant increase in the total number of respiratory admissions between the two time periods. However, there was a 19% increase in the rate of pneumonia cases diagnosed during the red tide period compared with the non-red tide period. We categorized home residence zip codes as coastal (within 1.6 km from the shore) or inland (>1.6 km from shore). Compared with the non-red tide period, the coastal residents had a significantly higher (54%) rate of respiratory diagnoses admissions than during the red tide period. We then divided the diagnoses into subcategories (i.e. pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, and upper airway disease). When compared with the non-red tide period, the coastal zip codes had increases in the rates of admission of each of the subcategories during the red tide period (i.e. 31, 56, 44, and 64%, respectively). This increase was not observed seen in the inland zip codes.These results suggest that the healthcare community has a significant burden from patients, particularly those who live along the coast, needing emergency

  11. Diverse algicidal bacteria associated with harmful bloom-forming Karenia mikimotoi in estuarine soil and seawater.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ningning; Ding, Ning; Gao, Peike; Han, Meiaoxue; Liu, Xiuxia; Wang, Jianguo; Sun, Li; Fu, Baoyan; Wang, Renjun; Zhou, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Algicidal bacteria associated with Karenia mikimotoi have been isolated, yet the distribution of the algicidal bacteria has been rarely studied. Here, we postulated and demonstrated that terrestrial environment harbors diverse algicidal bacteria, which can survive in seawater along water flowing into marine and suppress Karenia mikimotoi. In summary, 9 and 5 bacteria with algicidal activity on Karenia mikimotoi were isolated from seawater and estuarine soil, respectively. Similar with the marine bacteria (Alteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Marinobacter sp., Paracoccus sp., Rhodobacteraceae, Idiomarina sp.), the soil strains (Pseudoalteromonas sp. and Flavobaterium sp.) showed high mortality in Karenia mikimotoi with the inhibitory rate of 87% and 93.5%, respectively, after two days co-cultivation. Algicidal activity of the two strains was detected in the cell-free filtrate not in bacterial cells. The results suggest that algicidal bacteria associated with Karenia mikimotoi widely exist in terrestrial and marine environments, and have application potential on controlling Karenia mikimotoi. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure and effect assessment of aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer, Lorraine C; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zhou, Yue; Watkins, Sharon; Henry, Mike; Zaias, Julia; Abraham, William M; Benson, Janet; Cassedy, Amy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Clarke, Tainya; Baden, Daniel G

    2009-07-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated statistically significant changes in reported symptoms for lifeguards, general beach goers, and persons with asthma, as well as statistically significant changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in asthmatics, after exposure to brevetoxins in Florida red tide (Karenia brevis bloom) aerosols. In this study we explored the use of different methods of intensive ambient and personal air monitoring to characterize these exposures to predict self-reported health effects in our asthmatic study population. We evaluated health effects in 87 subjects with asthma before and after 1 hr of exposure to Florida red tide aerosols and assessed for aerosolized brevetoxin exposure using personal and ambient samplers. After only 1 hr of exposure to Florida red tide aerosols containing brevetoxin concentrations > 57 ng/m(3), asthmatics had statistically significant increases in self-reported respiratory symptoms and total symptom scores. However, we did not see the expected corresponding changes in PFT results. Significant increases in self-reported symptoms were also observed for those not using asthma medication and those living >/= 1 mile from the coast. These results provide additional evidence of health effects in asthmatics from ambient exposure to aerosols containing very low concentrations of brevetoxins, possibly at the lower threshold for inducing a biologic response (i.e., toxicity). Consistent with the literature describing self-reported symptoms as an accurate measure of asthmatic distress, our results suggest that self-reported symptoms are a valuable measure of the extent of health effects from exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins in asthmatic populations.

  13. Drivers and effects of Karenia mikimotoi blooms in the western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Morvan K.; Tilstone, Gavin H.; Smyth, Timothy J.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Gloël, Johanna; Robinson, Carol; Kaiser, Jan; Suggett, David J.

    2015-09-01

    Naturally occurring red tides and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are of increasing importance in the coastal environment and can have dramatic effects on coastal benthic and epipelagic communities worldwide. Such blooms are often unpredictable, irregular or of short duration, and thus determining the underlying driving factors is problematic. The dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi is an HAB, commonly found in the western English Channel and thought to be responsible for occasional mass finfish and benthic mortalities. We analysed a 19-year coastal time series of phytoplankton biomass to examine the seasonality and interannual variability of K. mikimotoi in the western English Channel and determine both the primary environmental drivers of these blooms as well as the effects on phytoplankton productivity and oxygen conditions. We observed high variability in timing and magnitude of K. mikimotoi blooms, with abundances reaching >1000 cells mL-1 at 10 m depth, inducing up to a 12-fold increase in the phytoplankton carbon content of the water column. No long-term trends in the timing or magnitude of K. mikimotoi abundance were evident from the data. Key driving factors were identified as persistent summertime rainfall and the resultant input of low-salinity high-nutrient river water. The largest bloom in 2009 was associated with highest annual primary production and led to considerable oxygen depletion at depth, most likely as a result of enhanced biological breakdown of bloom material; however, this oxygen depletion may not affect zooplankton. Our data suggests that K. mikimotoi blooms are not only a key and consistent feature of western English Channel productivity, but importantly can potentially be predicted from knowledge of rainfall or river discharge.

  14. Glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis: activation by ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Kazumi; Ueno, Yoshie; Oda, Kohei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene from Lactobacillus brevis IFO12005 (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 61, 1168-1171 (1997)), was cloned and expressed. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 99.6% and 53.1% identity with GAD of L. brevis ATCC367 and L. lactis respectively. The His-tagged recombinant GAD showed an optimum pH of 4.5-5.0, and 54 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The GAD activity and stability was significantly dependent on the ammonium sulfate concentration, as observed in authentic GAD. Gel filtration showed that the inactive form of the GAD was a dimer. In contrast, the ammonium sulfate-activated form was a tetramer. CD spectral analyses at pH 5.5 revealed that the structures of the tetramer and the dimer were similar. Treatment of the GAD with high concentrations of ammonium sulfate and subsequent dilution with sodium glutamate was essential for tetramer formation and its activation. Thus the biochemical properties of the GAD from L. brevis IFO12005 were significantly different from those from other sources.

  15. Effects of temperature on growth, photophysiology, Rubisco gene expression in Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Anglu; Ma, Zengling; Jiang, Keji; Li, Daoji

    2016-12-01

    To explore the effects of temperature changes on dinoflagellate bloom succession in the coastal waters of the East China Sea, changes in the growth, photophysiology, and Rubisco gene expression of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi, two harmful algal species, were investigated at different temperatures (16 to 28°C). The maximal specific growth rate and the maximal mRNA expression of Rubisco gene in P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi occurred at 20 and 24°C, respectively. The photosynthetic activity of P. donghaiense was generally stable, but K. mikimotoi photosynthesis increased when temperatures rose from 16 to 28°C. The effective photochemical efficiency ( F q ' / F m ' ) and the maximal relative electron transfer rate (rETRmax) of K. mikimotoi increased significantly with increasing temperature, and the lowest and highest values occurred at 16 and 28°C, respectively. It seems that P. donghaiense has higher photosynthetic capacity than K. mikimotoi due to its higher F q ' / F m ' , rETRmax, and photosynthetic efficiency (α). However, K. mikimotoi has a higher growth rate than P. donghaiense. These results suggest that the photosynthetic activity and genetic responses of dinoflagellates are species-dependent. It is likely that temperature changes affect species composition during blooms, leading to the observed patterns of bloom succession.

  16. A marine algicidal Thalassospira and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Lili; Liu, Lin; Wang, Gangyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a marine bacterium active against Karenia mikimotoi from the East China Sea and to characterize its extracellular algicidal substances. Using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-Q-TOF) system, we purified the alga-lysing substance produced by strain ZR-2 and determined its molecular structure. Based on morphology and l6S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, the ZR-2 strain was highly homologous to Thalassospira species. Algicidal activity against K. mikimotoi was detected in the cell-free filtrate but not in bacterial cells. The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was ethanol-soluble and thermostable, with a retention time of 6.3 min and a measured elemental composition of C7H5O2 ([M-H](-) ion at m/z 121.0295). The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was determined to be benzoic acid. Compared with the negative control, both purified ZR-2 bacteria-free filtrate and standard benzoic acid promoted K. mikimotoi cell disruption and induced K. mikimotoi cell content leakage. Our study is the first to report benzoic acid activity against K. mikimotoi as well as production of benzoic acid by a Thalassospira species.

  17. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  18. Diversity of transcripts and transcript processing forms in plastids of the dinoflagellate alga Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Richard G; Hinksman, George A; Howe, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Plastids produce a vast diversity of transcripts. These include mature transcripts containing coding sequences, and their processing precursors, as well as transcripts that lack direct coding functions, such as antisense transcripts. Although plastid transcriptomes have been characterised for many plant species, less is known about the transcripts produced in other plastid lineages. We characterised the transcripts produced in the fucoxanthin-containing plastids of the dinoflagellate alga Karenia mikimotoi. This plastid lineage, acquired through tertiary endosymbiosis, utilises transcript processing pathways that are very different from those found in plants and green algae, including 3' poly(U) tail addition, and extensive substitutional editing of transcript sequences. We have sequenced the plastid transcriptome of K. mikimotoi, and have detected evidence for divergent evolution of fucoxanthin plastid genomes. We have additionally characterised polycistronic and monocistronic transcripts from two plastid loci, psbD-tRNA (Met)-ycf4 and rpl36-rps13-rps11. We find evidence for a range of transcripts produced from each locus that differ in terms of editing state, 5' end cleavage position, and poly(U) tail addition. Finally, we identify antisense transcripts in K. mikimotoi, which appear to undergo different processing events from the corresponding sense transcripts. Overall, our study provides insights into the diversity of transcripts and processing intermediates found in plastid lineages across the eukaryotes.

  19. Gramicidin S production by Bacillus brevis in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Koenig, D. W.; Demain, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    In a continuing study of microbial secondary metabolism in simulated microgravity, we have examined gramicidin S (GS) production by Bacillus brevis strain Nagano in NASA High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs), which are designed to simulate some aspects of microgravity. Growth and GS production were found to occur under simulated microgravity. When performance under simulated microgravity was compared with that under normal gravity conditions in the bioreactors, GS production was found to be unaffected by simulated microgravity. The repressive effect of glycerol in flask fermentations was not observed in the HARV. Thus the negative effect of glycerol on specific GS formation is dependent on shear and/or vessel geometry, not gravity.

  20. Behaviorial and Toxicological Studies of the Drywood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Kalotermitidae: Isoptera).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the insecticides dieldrin, silica aerogel , dichlorovos and sulfuryl fluoride in control of drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker). Preference...concentrations were as low as 0.25%. Effective control concentrations should be at least or above 1%. Silica aerogel acts as an effective barrier against C. brevis

  1. The extensor digitorum brevis: histological and histochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jennekens, F. G. I.; Tomlinson, B. E.; Walton, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) obtained at necropsy from 26 subjects without known neuromuscular disease were examined histologically and histochemically. In the two youngest subjects, aged 2 months and 8 years, a mosaic distribution of type I and type II fibres was present. From the second decade onwards, increasing with age, the mosaic pattern was gradually replaced by groups of type I and type II fibres and areas of grouped fibre atrophy appeared. It is suggested that these findings may be explained by a slow process of denervation and reinnervation. This process does not seem to occur to the same extent in three other distal limb muscles from which specimens were also examined. Images PMID:4260286

  2. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  3. Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2018-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an efficient cell factory for producing bioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by its gad operon-encoded glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system. However, little mechanistic insights have been reported on the effects of carbohydrate, oxygen and early acidification on GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis. In the present study, GABA production from Lb. brevis was enhanced by accessible carbohydrates. Fast growth of this organism was stimulated by maltose and xylose. However, its GABA production was highly suppressed by oxygen exposure, but was fully restored by anaerobiosis that up-regulated the expression of gad operon in Lb. brevis cells. Although the level of cytosolic acidity was suitable for the functioning of GadA and GadB, early acidification of the medium (ipH 5 and ipH 4) restored GABA synthesis strictly in aerated cells of Lb. brevis because the expression of gad operon was not up-regulated in them. We conclude that GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis could be restored by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification. This will be of interest for controlling fermentation for synthesis of GABA and manufacturing GABA-rich fermented vegetables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Some dinophycean red tide plankton species generate a superoxide scavenging substance.

    PubMed

    Sato, Emiko; Niwano, Yoshimi; Matsuyama, Yukihiko; Kim, Daekyung; Nakashima, Takuji; Oda, Tatsuya; Kohno, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that some raphidophycean red tide flagellates produce substances able to scavenge superoxide, whereas there have been no reports on superoxide scavenger production by dinophycean red tide flagellates. In this study, we examined the superoxide-scavenging activity of aqueous extracts from dinophycean red tide flagellates, Gymnodinium spp., Scrippsiella trochoidea, and Karenia sp., by a luminol analog L-012-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) method and an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and compared the activity to that of raphidophycean red tide flagellates, Chattonella spp., Heterosigma akashiwo, and Fibrocapsa japonica. In the experiment applying the L-012-dependent CL method, only the aqueous extracts from raphidophycean red tide flagellates showed superoxide-scavenging activity. On the other hand, applying the ESR-spin trapping method, we found that the aqueous extracts from dinophycean red tide flagellates also showed superoxide-scavenging activity. This is the first report on the production of a superoxide-scavenger by dinophycean red tide flagellates.

  5. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 inhibits Prevotella melaninogenica biofilm.

    PubMed

    Vuotto, C; Barbanti, F; Mastrantonio, P; Donelli, G

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the ability of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus brevis CD2 to inhibit the opportunistic anaerobe Prevotella melaninogenica (PM1), a well-known causative agent of periodontitis. The inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus CD2 on Prevotella PM1 biofilm was assessed both by exposing the anaerobe to the supernatant of the probiotic strain and by growing the two strains to obtain single or mixed biofilms. The inhibitory effect of CD2 on PM1 was also checked by the agar overlay method. The development of PM1 biofilm was strongly affected (56% decrease in OD value) by the CD2 supernatant after 96 h. A dose-dependent biofilm reduction was also observed at 1/10 and 1/100 dilutions of supernatant. Confocal microscopy on the mixed biofilms revealed the ability of CD2 to prevail on PM1, greatly reducing the biofilm of the latter. It has been hypothesized a multifactorial nature of the inhibition mechanism, the strong adherence ability of CD2 strain together with the released metabolites presumably contributing to the reduction in the PM1 biofilm detected by confocal microscopy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sesquiterpenoids with antialgal activity against the common red tide microalgae from marine macroalga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Xing, Jing-Zeng; Zhang, Jian-Shuo; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Pu, Yin-Fang

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies showed that methanol extracts from Porphyra yezoensis significantly inhibited Karenia mikimitoi and Skeletonema costatum. Five sesquiterpenoids (1-5) were successfully isolated from this marine macroalga through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography in this paper. Their structure was identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), cyclonerodiol (3), cadinol, (4) and 4-cadinen-1-ol (5) on the basis of spectroscopic data. These sesquiterpenoids were isolated from Porphyra yezoensis for the first time, and cyclonerodiol (3) and cadinol (4) isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time. Further, a quantitative relationship between the inhibition of algal growth and the concentration of each antialgal sesquiterpenoid (gossonorol, 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol and cyclonerodiol) was determined and important parameters, e.g., EC 50-96h for future practical HAB control are to be obtained. Results showed that three sesquiterpenoids (1-3) had selective antialgal activity against the growth of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium carterae, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi, Phaeocystis globosa, Prorocentrum donghaiense, and Skeletonema costatum). More than two test red tide microalgae were significantly inhibited by these three sesquiterpenoids (1-3). Their antialgal activity against red tide microalgae has not been previously reported. Furthermore, EC 50-96h of gossonorol (1) and 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2) for specific test red microalgae were not only significantly less than 10 μg/mL, but also were smaller than/or very close to those of potassium dichromate. Gossonorol (1) and 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2) possessed good application potential than potassium dichromate as a characteristic antialgal agent against the specific harmful red tide microalgae (Heterosigma akashiwo, Phaeocystis globosa, and Prorocentrum donghaiense) (or Heterosigma akashiwo and Karenia

  7. Biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Bapat, S; Shah, A K

    2000-02-01

    A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.

  8. Reproductive ecology of Prochilodus brevis an endemic fish from the semiarid Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Liliane de Lima; Verani, José Roberto; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  9. Extracellular production of an intact and biologically active human growth hormone by the Bacillus brevis system.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Saito, Y; Asami, O; Yamada, Y; Hirai, M; Udata, S

    1997-10-01

    The characteristic features of the Bacillus brevis system are very high productivity of heterologous proteins and very low extracellular protease activity. However, degradation of some heterologous proteins, especially mammalian proteins, can be observed and resulted in a lowering of protein productivity. By using a mutant expressing low levels of proteases and the addition of EDTA to the medium, intact human growth hormone (hGH) was successfully produced with the B. brevis system. Signal peptide modification with higher basicity in the amino terminal region and higher hydrophobicity in the middle region brought about a twelve-fold increase in hGH production. The hGH yield was further elevated to 240 mg L-1 by optimization of culture conditions. Thus, biologically active and mature hGH can be efficiently produced directly in the medium with the B. brevis system.

  10. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

  11. Clinical Sign for Missed Decompression of a Separate Extensor Pollicis Brevis Compartment in de Quervain's Disease.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Niels

    2017-08-01

    Persistent pain despite previous surgery for de Quervain's disease might be due to an overlooked septum between the abductor pollicis longus tendon slips and the extensor pollicis brevis tendon, or an overlooked completely separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis tendon alone. In both of these instances, extension of the MP joint of the thumb against resistance elicits pain at the distal level of the first extensor compartment of the wrist. When this sign is positive, revisional surgery and decompression of the remaining septum or separate compartment is indicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effect of orally administered Lactobacillus brevis HY7401 in a food allergy mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Bang, Jieun; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-11-28

    We had found that orally administered Lactobacillus species were effective immune modulators in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. To validate these findings, we investigated the effects of orally administered Lactobacillus brevis HY7401 in OVA-T cell receptor transgenic mice. This strain showed a tendency to induce Th1 cytokines and inhibit Th2 cytokines. All assayed isotypes of OVA-specific antibody were effectively reduced. Systemic anaphylaxis was also relatively reduced with the probiotic administration. These results reveal that L. brevis HY7401 might be useful to promote anti-allergic processes through oral administration.

  13. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kazutaka; Aibara, Mitsuto; Morita, Masaya; Awata, Satoshi; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size) than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis. PMID:22888463

  14. Conversion of rice straw to bio-based chemicals: an integrated process using Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E; Shoemaker, Sharon P; Mills, David A

    2010-05-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for bio-based chemical production is problematic due to the high processing costs of pretreatment and saccharifying enzymes combined with low product yields. Such low product yield can be attributed, in large part, to the incomplete utilization of the various carbohydrate sugars found in the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus brevis is able to simultaneously metabolize all fermentable carbohydrates in acid pre-processed rice straw hydrolysate, thereby allowing complete utilization of all released sugars. Inhibitors present in rice straw hydrolysate did not affect lactic acid production. Moreover, the activity of exogenously added cellulases was not reduced in the presence of growing cultures of L. brevis. These factors enabled the use of L. brevis in a process termed simultaneous saccharification and mixed sugar fermentation (SSMSF). In SSMSF with L. brevis, sugars present in rice straw hydrolysate were completely utilized while the cellulase maintained its maximum activity due to the lack of feedback inhibition from glucose and/or cellobiose. By comparison to a sequential hydrolysis and fermentation process, SSMSF reduced operation time and the amount of cellulase enzyme necessary to produce the same amount of lactic acid.

  15. Molecular typing of Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Korean food using repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasmine; Sharma, Anshul; Lee, Sulhee; Park, Young-Seo

    2018-06-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a part of a large family of lactic acid bacteria that are present in cheese, sauerkraut, sourdough, silage, cow manure, feces, and the intestinal tract of humans and rats. It finds its use in food fermentation, and so is considered a "generally regarded as safe" organism. L. brevis strains are extensively used as probiotics and hence, there is a need for identifying and characterizing these strains. For identification and discrimination of the bacterial species at the subspecific level, repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction method is a reliable genomic fingerprinting tool. The objective of the present study was to characterize 13 strains of L. brevis isolated from various fermented foods using repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction. Repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction was performed using three primer sets, REP, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC), and (GTG) 5 , which produced different fingerprinting patterns that enable us to distinguish between the closely related strains. Fingerprinting patterns generated band range in between 150 and 5000 bp with REP, 200-7500 bp with ERIC, and 250-2000 bp with (GTG) 5 primers, respectively. The Jaccard's dissimilarity matrices were used to obtain dendrograms by the unweighted neighbor-joining method using genetic dissimilarities based on repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting data. Repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction proved to be a rapid and easy method that can produce reliable results in L. brevis species.

  16. Effects of co-existing microalgae and grazers on the production of hemolytic toxins in Karenia mikimotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weidong; Zhang, Naisheng; Cui, Weimin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2011-11-01

    Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) Hansen & Moestrup is associated with harmful algal blooms in temperate and subtropical zones of the world. The hemolytic substances produced by K. mikimotoi are thought to cause mortality in fishes and invertebrates. We evaluated the composition of the hemolytic toxin produced by K. mikimotoi cultured in the laboratory using thin-layer chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the effect of co-occuring algae ( Prorocentrum donghaiense and Alexandrium tamarense) and the cladoceran grazer Moina mongolica on hemolytic toxin production in K. mikimotoi. The hemolytic toxins from K. mikimotoi were a mixture of 2 liposaccharides and 1 lipid. Waterborne clues from P. donghaiense and A. tamarense inhibited the growth of K. mikimotoi but increased the production of hemolytic toxins. Conversely, K. mikimotoi strongly inhibited the growth of caged P. donghaiense and A. tamarense. In addition, the ingestion of K. mikimotoi by M. mongolica induced the production of hemolytic toxins in K. mikimotoi. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of other microalgae and grazers may be as important as environmental factors for controlling the production of hemolytic substances. K. mikimotoi secreted allelochemicals other than unstable fatty acids with hemolytic activity. The production of hemolytic toxins in dinoflagellates was not only dependent on resource availability, but also on the risk of predation. Hemolytic toxins likely play an important role as chemical deterrents secreted by K. mikimotoi.

  17. Potential impact of an exceptional bloom of Karenia mikimotoi on dissolved oxygen levels in waters off western Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Shane; McDermott, Georgina; Silke, Joe; Cusack, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    In the summer of 2005 an exceptional bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi occurred along Ireland's Atlantic seaboard and was associated with the mass mortality of both benthic and pelagic marine life. Oxygen depletion, cellular toxicity and physical smothering, are considered to be the main factors involved in mortality. In this paper we use a theoretical approach based on stoichiometry (the Anderson ratio) and an average K. mikimotoi cellular carbon content of 329pgCcell -1 (n=20) to calculate the carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxygen demand following bloom collapse. The method was validated against measurements of biochemical oxygen demand and K. mikimotoi cell concentration. The estimated potential oxygen utilisation (POU) was in good agreement with field observations across a range of cell concentrations. The magnitude of POU following bloom collapse, with the exception of three coastal areas, was considered insufficient to cause harm to most marine organisms. This indicates that the widespread occurrence of mortality was primarily due to other factors such as cellular toxicity and/or mucilage production, and not oxygen depletion or related phenomena. In Donegal Bay, Kilkieran Bay and inner Dingle Bay, where cell densities were in the order of 10 6 cellsL -1 , estimated POU was sufficient to cause hypoxia. Of the three areas, Donegal Bay is considered to be the most vulnerable due to its hydrographic characteristics (seasonally stratified, weak residual flow) and hypoxic conditions (2.2mgL -1 O 2 ) were directly observed in the Bay post bloom collapse. Here, depending on the time of bloom collapse, depressed DO levels could persist for weeks and continue to have a potentially chronic impact on the Bay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides on drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Blattodea: Termitoidea).

    PubMed

    Santos, Abraão Almeida; de Oliveira, Bruna Maria Santos; Melo, Carlisson Ramos; Lima, Ana Paula Santana; Santana, Emile Dayara Rabelo; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Bacci, Leandro

    2017-11-01

    The drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853) (Kalotermitidae) is one of the most important wood structural pest in the world. Substances from the secondary metabolism of plants (e.g., essential oils) have been considered an environmentally safer form of control for urban pests, such as termites. In the present study, we analyzed the lethal and sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides and its major components on C. brevis pseudergates in two routes of exposure (contact and fumigation). The essential oil of L. sidoides and thymol were more toxic to C. brevis pseudergates when applied by contact (LD 50 = 9.33 and 8.20µgmg -1 , respectively) and by fumigation (LC 50 = 9.10 and 23.6µLL -1 , respectively). In general, treatments changed the individual and collective behaviors of C. brevis pseudergates, as well as the displacement and walking speed. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components showed a high potential to control C. brevis pseudergates, due to the bioactivity in the two routes of exposure and the sub-lethal effects on the behavior and walking, important activities for the cohesion of C. brevis colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  20. Optimization of γ-amino butyric acid production in a newly isolated Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Binh, Tran Thi Thanh; Ju, Wan-Taek; Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong

    2014-01-01

    An isolate from kimchi, identified as Lactobacillus brevis, accumulated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the culture medium. Optimal culture conditions for growth of L. brevis and production of GABA were 6 % (w/v) l-glutamic acid, 4 % (w/v) maltose, 2 % (w/v) yeast extract, 1 % (w/v) NaCl, 1 % (w/v) CaCl2, 2 g Tween 80/l, and 0.02 mM pyridoxal 5′-phosphate at initial pH 5.25 and 37 °C. GABA reached 44.4 g/l after 72 h cultivation with a conversion rate 99.7 %, based on the amount (6 %) of l-glutamic acid added. GABA was purified using ion exchange column chromatography with 70 % recovery and 97 % purity.

  1. Cloning and heterologous expression of cellulose free thermostable xylanase from Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Girish K; Krishnamohan, Medichtrla; Nain, Vikrant; Aggarwal, Chetana; Ramesh, Bandarupalli

    2014-01-01

    Xylanase gene isolated from Bacillus brevis was expressed in E. coli BL21. Sequencing of the gene (Gen Bank accession number: HQ179986) showed that it belongs to family 11 xylanases. The recombinant xylanase was predominantly secreted to culture medium and showed mesophilic nature (optimum activity at 55°C and pH 7.0). The cell free culture medium exhibited 30 IU/ml xylanse activity. The enzyme did not show any cellulose activity and was active under wide range of temperature (40°C to 80°C) and pH (4 to 9). The enzyme showed considerable thermo stability and regained over 90% of activity, when returned to 55°C after boiling for 5 min. These physiochemical properties of B. brevis xylanse show high potential of its applications in paper and pulp industry.

  2. Characterization of Lactobacillus brevis L62 strain, highly tolerant to copper ions.

    PubMed

    Mrvčić, Jasna; Butorac, Ana; Solić, Ema; Stanzer, Damir; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Cindrić, Mario; Stehlik-Tomas, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture in food industry must be suitable for large-scale industrial production and possess the ability to survive in unfavorable processes and storage conditions. Approaches taken to address these problems include the selection of stress-resistant strains. In food industry, LAB are often exposed to metal ions induced stress. The interactions between LAB and metal ions are very poorly investigated. Because of that, the influence of non-toxic, toxic and antioxidant metal ions (Zn, Cu, and Mn) on growth, acid production, metal ions binding capacity of wild and adapted species of Leuconostoc mesenteroides L3, Lactobacillus brevis L62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L73 were investigated. The proteomic approach was applied to clarify how the LAB cells, especially the adapted ones, protect themselves and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metal ions. Results have shown that Zn and Mn addition into MRS medium in the investigated concentrations did not have effect on the bacterial growth and acid production, while copper ions were highly toxic, especially in static conditions. Leuc. mesenteroides L3 was the most efficient in Zn binding processes among the chosen LAB species, while L. plantarum L73 accumulated the highest concentration of Mn. L. brevis L62 was the most copper resistant species. Adaptation had a positive effect on growth and acid production of all species in the presence of copper. However, the adapted species incorporated less metal ions than the wild species. The exception was adapted L. brevis L62 that accumulated high concentration of copper ions in static conditions. The obtained results showed that L. brevis L62 is highly tolerant to copper ions, which allows its use as starter culture in fermentative processes in media with high concentration of copper ions.

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonous Lactobacillus brevis strain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus brevis to N-Butanol and Ferulic Acid Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, James; Kao, Katy C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of anti-microbial phenolic compounds, such as the model compound ferulic acid, in biomass hydrolysates pose significant challenges to the widespread use of biomass in conjunction with whole cell biocatalysis or fermentation. Currently, these inhibitory compounds must be removed through additional downstream processing or sufficiently diluted to create environments suitable for most industrially important microbial strains. Simultaneously, product toxicity must also be overcome to allow for efficient production of next generation biofuels such as n-butanol, isopropanol, and others from these low cost feedstocks. Methodology and Principal Findings This study explores the high ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis, a lactic acid bacterium often found in fermentation processes, by global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional profile of L. brevis reveals that the presence of ferulic acid triggers the expression of currently uncharacterized membrane proteins, possibly in an effort to counteract ferulic acid induced changes in membrane fluidity and ion leakage. In contrast to the ferulic acid stress response, n-butanol challenges to growing cultures primarily induce genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway and reduced the proportion of 19∶1 cyclopropane fatty acid within the L. brevis membrane. Both inhibitors also triggered generalized stress responses. Separate attempts to alter flux through the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits and deleting cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) both failed to improve n-butanol tolerance in E. coli, indicating that additional components of the stress response are required to confer n-butanol resistance. Conclusions Several promising routes for understanding both ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance have been identified from L. brevis gene expression data. These insights may be used to guide further engineering of

  5. β-Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus brevis useful for baicalin hydrolysis belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 30.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, Haruko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Uchibori, Yoshie; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ashida, Hisashi; Kita, Keiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-D-glucuronide) is one of the major flavonoid glucuronides found in traditional herbal medicines. Because its aglycone, baicalein, is absorbed more quickly and shows more effective properties than baicalin, the conversion of baicalin into baicalein by β-glucuronidase (GUS) has drawn the attention of researchers. Recently, we have found that Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans can convert baicalin to baicalein. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize the converting enzyme from L. brevis subsp. coagulans. First, we purified this enzyme from the cell-free extracts of L. brevis subsp. coagulans and cloned its gene. Surprisingly, this enzyme was found to be a GUS belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 30 (designated as LcGUS30), and its amino acid sequence has little similarity with any GUS belonging to GH families 1, 2, and 79 that have been reported so far. We then established a high-level expression and simple purification system of the recombinant LcGUS30 in Escherichia coli. The detailed analysis of the substrate specificity revealed that LcGUS30 has strict specificity toward glycon but not toward aglycones. Interestingly, LcGUS30 prefers baicalin rather than estrone 3-(β-D-glucuronide), one of the human endogenous steroid hormones. These results indicated that L. brevis subsp. coagulans and LcGUS30 should serve as powerful tools for the construction of a safe bioconversion system for baicalin. In addition, we propose that this novel type of GUS forms a new group in subfamily 3 of GH family 30.

  6. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research.

  7. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Localization and Characterization of α-Glucosidase Activity in Lactobacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    De Cort, S.; Kumara, H. M. C. Shantha; Verachtert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is found together with the yeast Brettanomyces lambicus during the overattenuation process in spontaneously fermented lambic beer. An isolated L. brevis strain has been shown to produce an α-glucosidase with many similarities to the glucosidase earlier found in B. lambicus. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel (Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA-44) filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50). The molecular weights of the enzyme, as determined by gel chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were about 50,000 and 60,000, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was obtained at 40°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme showed a decrease of hydrolysis with an increase in the degree of polymerization of the substrate. The Km values for p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside, maltose, and maltotriose were 0.51, 3.0, and 5.2 mM, respectively. There was lack of inhibition by 0.15 mM acarbose and 0.5 M turanose, but the enzyme was inhibited by Tris (Ki value of 25 mM). The α-glucosidase of L. brevis together with the enzyme of B. lambicus seems to be a key factor in the overattenuation of lambic beer, although the involvement of other lactic acid bacteria (pediococci) cannot be excluded. Images PMID:16349368

  9. Localization and Characterization of alpha-Glucosidase Activity in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    De Cort, S; Kumara, H M; Verachtert, H

    1994-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is found together with the yeast Brettanomyces lambicus during the overattenuation process in spontaneously fermented lambic beer. An isolated L. brevis strain has been shown to produce an alpha-glucosidase with many similarities to the glucosidase earlier found in B. lambicus. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel (Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA-44) filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50). The molecular weights of the enzyme, as determined by gel chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were about 50,000 and 60,000, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was obtained at 40 degrees C and pH 6.0. The enzyme showed a decrease of hydrolysis with an increase in the degree of polymerization of the substrate. The K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside, maltose, and maltotriose were 0.51, 3.0, and 5.2 mM, respectively. There was lack of inhibition by 0.15 mM acarbose and 0.5 M turanose, but the enzyme was inhibited by Tris (K(i) value of 25 mM). The alpha-glucosidase of L. brevis together with the enzyme of B. lambicus seems to be a key factor in the overattenuation of lambic beer, although the involvement of other lactic acid bacteria (pediococci) cannot be excluded.

  10. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  11. Split lesions of the peroneus brevis tendon in chronic ankle laxity.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Tavernier, T; Bouysset, M

    1997-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, we operated on 18 patients for split lesions of the peroneal brevis tendon associated with chronic ankle instability. Five patients were competitive athletes, seven were recreational athletes, and six were persons. Symptoms developed in three phases: ankle sprain, chronic instability, and posterolateral pain. The mean delay between sprain and posterolateral pain was 6 years. At the time of surgery the main complaint was retromalleolar pain in nine patients, pain and instability in eight patients, and instability only in one patient. Diagnosis of tendinous lesions was based on clinical examination in three cases, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in eight cases, preoperative tenography in one case, and surgical exploration in six cases. The lesion was localized at the tip of the lateral malleolus and was visible only after opening the peroneal retinaculum. In three cases an accessory peroneal muscle was present. A Chrisman-Snook procedure was performed in 13 cases and a simple tendinous repair in 5 cases. The split lesion of the peroneus brevis tendon may be the result of chronic ankle laxity. This lesion needs a specific surgical treatment and the peroneal tendon must be checked in case of surgical procedure for ankle laxity. After ligamentous repair, residual pain can be due to a neglected peroneus brevis tear.

  12. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying; Kong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δ pox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δ pdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δ pdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δ pox mutant strains, and more H 2 O 2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δ pdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  13. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δpox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δpdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δpdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δpox mutant strains, and more H2O2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δpdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  14. Antialgal compounds with antialgal activity against the common red tide microalgae from a green algae Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gan-Lin; Su, Zhen-Xia; Pu, Yin-Fang

    2018-08-15

    Nine antialgal active compounds, (i.e. trehalose (1), twenty-two methyl carbonate (2), (-)-dihydromenisdaurilide (3), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (4), isophytol (5), 8-hexadecenol (6), 17-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid (7), trans-asarone (8) and 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid (9)) were isolated from Ulva pertusa for the first time by sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative TLC. Except for compound 4, all compounds represented novel isolated molecules from marine macroalgae. Further, antialgal activities of these compounds against Amphidinium carterae, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi, Phaeocystis globosa, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Skeletonema costatum were investigated for the first time. Results showed these nine compounds have selectivity antialgal effects on all test red tide microalgae, and antialgal activities against red tide microalgae obviously enhanced with the increase of concentration of antialgal compounds. Based on this, EC 50-96 h values of these nine compounds for six red tide microalgae were obtained for the first time. By analyzing and comparing EC 50-96 h values, it has been determined that seven compounds (1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9) showed the superior application potential than potassium dichromate or gossonorol and other six compounds as a characteristic antialgal agent against Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi and Prorocentrum donghaiense. Overall this study has suggested that green algae Ulva pertusa is a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Comparative genomic and plasmid analysis of beer-spoiling and non-beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis isolates.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry

    2017-12-01

    Beer-spoilage-related lactic acid bacteria (BSR LAB) belong to multiple genera and species; however, beer-spoilage capacity is isolate-specific and partially acquired via horizontal gene transfer within the brewing environment. Thus, the extent to which genus-, species-, or environment- (i.e., brewery-) level genetic variability influences beer-spoilage phenotype is unknown. Publicly available Lactobacillus brevis genomes were analyzed via BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE) for BSR genes and assessed for pangenomic relationships. Also analyzed were functional coding capacities of plasmids of LAB inhabiting extreme niche environments. Considerable genetic variation was observed in L. brevis isolated from clinical samples, whereas 16 candidate genes distinguish BSR and non-BSR L. brevis genomes. These genes are related to nutrient scavenging of gluconate or pentoses, mannose, and metabolism of pectin. BSR L. brevis isolates also have higher average nucleotide identity and stronger pangenome association with one another, though isolation source (i.e., specific brewery) also appears to influence the plasmid coding capacity of BSR LAB. Finally, it is shown that niche-specific adaptation and phenotype are plasmid-encoded for both BSR and non-BSR LAB. The ultimate combination of plasmid-encoded genes dictates the ability of L. brevis to survive in the most extreme beer environment, namely, gassed (i.e., pressurized) beer.

  16. Contribution of the activated catalase to oxidative stress resistance and γ-aminobutyric acid production in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Changjiang; Hu, Sheng; Huang, Jun; Luo, Maiqi; Lu, Tao; Mei, Lehe; Yao, Shanjing

    2016-12-05

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H 2 O 2 , a compound which can paradoxically produce themselves and lead to the growth arrest and cell death. To counteract the potentially toxic effects of this compound, the gene katE encoding a heme-dependent catalase (CAT) belonging to the family of monofunctional CATs was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC1306. The enhanced homologous CAT expression was achieved using the NICE system. L. brevis cells with overexpressed CAT showed 685-fold and 823-fold higher survival when exposed to 30mmol/L of H 2 O 2 and long-term aerated stress (after 72h), respectively, than that of the wild type cells. Furtherly, the effects of activated CAT on GABA production in L. brevis were investigated. A GABA production level of 66.4g/L was achieved using two-step biotransformation that successively employed the growing and resting cells derived from engineering L. brevis CAT. These results demonstrated clearly that overexpression of the KatE gene in L. brevis led to a marked increased survival in oxidizing environment, and shed light on a novel feasible approach to enhance the GABA production level by improving the antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of a highly hop-resistant Lactobacillus brevis strain lacking hop transport.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Gänzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F

    2006-10-01

    Resistance to hops is a prerequisite for lactic acid bacteria to spoil beer. In this study we analyzed mechanisms of hop resistance of Lactobacillus brevis at the metabolism, membrane physiology, and cell wall composition levels. The beer-spoiling organism L. brevis TMW 1.465 was adapted to high concentrations of hop compounds and compared to a nonadapted strain. Upon adaptation to hops the metabolism changed to minimize ethanol stress. Fructose was used predominantly as a carbon source by the nonadapted strain but served as an electron acceptor upon adaptation to hops, with concomitant formation of acetate instead of ethanol. Furthermore, hop adaptation resulted in higher levels of lipoteichoic acids (LTA) incorporated into the cell wall and altered composition and fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane. The putative transport protein HitA and enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway were overexpressed upon hop adaptation. HorA was not expressed, and the transport of hop compounds from the membrane to the extracellular space did not account for increased resistance to hops upon adaptation. Accordingly, hop resistance is a multifactorial dynamic property, which can develop during adaptation. During hop adaptation, arginine catabolism contributes to energy and generation of the proton motive force until a small fraction of the population has established structural improvements. This acquired hop resistance is energy independent and involves an altered cell wall composition. LTA shields the organism from accompanying stresses and provides a reservoir of divalent cations, which are otherwise scarce as a result of their complexation by hop acids. Some of the mechanisms involved in hop resistance overlap with mechanisms of pH resistance and ethanol tolerance and as a result enable beer spoilage by L. brevis.

  18. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Activity After Peroneus Brevis Repair.

    PubMed

    Steginsky, Brian; Riley, Aimee; Lucas, Douglas E; Philbin, Terrence M; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    There is limited data on functional outcomes after primary repair of partial peroneal tendon tears. Previous reports have been limited by small cohorts, duration of follow-up, and often included both tenodesis and primary repair. The purpose of this study was to report the functional outcomes and return to activity in the largest cohort to date with partial peroneal tendon tears treated with primary repair. A chart review identified all patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon from 2008 to 2012. Demographic data, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Patients were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Foot Function Index (FFI). There were 201 patients who underwent primary repair of the peroneus brevis tendon. The average age at time of operation was 44.3 years. Seventy-one patients returned the follow-up questionnaires with an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Fifty-two patients completed the FFI questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Fifty-nine patients (83.1%) reported a return to regular exercise and sports at final follow-up. At 1 year postoperatively, 76.5% of patients returned to the same preinjury activities, and 62.3% returned to the same level of preinjury activity. Furthermore, 85.9% of patients were satisfied with their outcome, and 91.4% of patients reported they would choose to undergo the same procedure again. The mean FAAM score was 85.2 at follow-up. The mean preoperative and postoperative FFI score was 41.1 and 12.2, respectively. There was a significant improvement in the FFI score of 28.9 after primary peroneus brevis tendon repair (P < .001). Primary repair of peroneus brevis tendon provided consistent improvement in functional outcomes in the majority of patients, as measured by a validated scoring system, the FFI. FAAM scores demonstrated good function compared to historical controls. The majority of patients

  19. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Antifungal Compounds from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei, Isolated from Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria; Abdelall, Manal Farouk; El-Mahdy, Omima Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Aflatoxins are a large group of highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by specific species of fungi. Potential contamination of food commodities by these compounds causes extensive damage that lead to great economic losses. This study explored the potential use of antifungal compounds, produced by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei, for growth inhibition and subsequent aflatoxin B1 production from select strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Lactobacilli strains were isolated from traditional Egyptian dairy products, whereas fungal strains were isolated from infected cereal seeds. There were noticeable decreases in mycelium biomass and aflatoxin production as well. L. brevis exhibited the highest reduction of aflatoxin B1 production by A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 96.31 and 90.43%, respectively. The concentrations of amino acids of the antifungal compound produced by L. brevis were significantly higher than that produced by L. paracasei. Asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and leucine were the most concentrated amino acids for both strains. The antifungal compounds produced by L. brevis and L. paracasei were active in a wide range of pH, heat stable and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes (protease K and trypsin A). The expression of Omt-A gene that involved in the later step of aflatoxin production was evaluated by real-time PCR. There was a vigorous reduction at transcriptional level of Omt-A gene observed in A. flavus that is treated by L. brevis and L. paracasei (80 and 70%, respectively). However, the reduction of Omt-A gene observed in A. parasiticus that is treated by L. brevis and L. paracasei was 64.5 and 52%, respectively. Treating maize seeds with antifungal compounds exhibited great efficiency in controlling fungal infection and increasing seed germination. The results confirmed that lactic acid bacteria are a promising strategy to control food contamination of fermented food and dairy

  20. Prevalence and Role of a Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly in Patients With Peroneal Tendon Pathologic Features: A Potential Source of Tendon Subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Roya; Squire, Chad; Wassell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A peroneus brevis low-lying muscle belly (LLMB) is a rare anomaly. A few published studies have supported the presence of this anomaly as an etiology for a peroneal tendon tear. However, the association between a peroneus brevis LLMB and tendon subluxation has not been well explored. In the present retrospective study, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings of 50 consecutive patients undergoing primary peroneal tendon surgery during a 5-year period were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared with the intraoperative findings for identifying peroneal tendon disease were investigated. The presence of associated peroneal tendon pathologic features in patients with and without a peroneus brevis LLMB was also compared. The sensitivity of MRI was high for identifying peroneal tenosynovitis (81.58%) and tear (85.71%). Although the sensitivity of MRI for detecting a peroneus brevis LLMB (3.23%) and tendon subluxation (10.00%) was low, MRI had high specificity at 94.74% and 100%, respectively. Intraoperatively, a peroneus brevis LLMB was seen in 62.00% of the patients with chronic lateral ankle pain and was associated with 64.52% of the patients with tenosynovitis, 29.03% of those with tendon subluxation, and 80.65% of those with a peroneus brevis tendon tear. Although the presence of a peroneus brevis LLMB did not show any statistically significant association with peroneus brevis tendon subluxation, of the 10 patients with intraoperatively observed tendon subluxation, 9 had a concomitant peroneus brevis LLMB. More studies with larger patient populations are needed to better investigate the role of a peroneus brevis LLMB as a mass-occupying lesion resulting in peroneal tendon subluxation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogel Film-Immobilized Lactobacillus brevis RK03 for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Liaw, Wen-Chang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Deng, Chi-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (HEMA/PEGDA) have been extensively studied for their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their nontoxic and highly hydrophilic characteristics. Recently, cells immobilized by HEMA/PEGDA hydrogels have also been studied for enhanced production in fermentation. Hydrogel films of HEMA/PEGDA copolymer were generated by Ultraviolet (UV)-initiated photopolymerization. The hydrogel films were used to immobilize viable Lactobacillus brevis RK03 cells for the bioconversion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The mechanical properties and fermentation yields of the L. brevis RK03 cells immobilized on polyacrylate hydrogel films with different monomeric formulations were investigated. Fermentation was carried out in 75 mL de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing various concentrations of MSG. We found that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels (sample H) maximized GABA production. The conversion rate of MSG to GABA reached a maximum value of 98.4% after 240 h. Bioconversion activity gradually declined after 420 h to 83.8% after five cycles of semi-continuous fermentation. Our results suggest that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels have great potential for use in GABA production via semi-continuous fermentation. PMID:29099794

  2. Structural analysis of the alpha-D-glucan produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereal associated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are well known for homopolymeric exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Herein, the structure of an EPS isolated from sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25 was determined. A modified BHI medium was used for production of EPS-E25 in order to eliminate po...

  3. Isolation, structure elucidation and anticancer activity from Brevibacillus brevis EGS 9 that combats Multi Drug Resistant actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, T; Senthil Kumar, P; Hemavathy, R V; Swetha, V; Karishma Sri, R

    2018-02-01

    Actinobacteria is the most widely distributed organism in the mangrove environment and produce a large amount of secondary metabolites. A new environmental actinobacterial stain exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against vancomycin and methicillin resistant actinobacteria. The active producer strain was found to be as Brevibacillus brevis EGS9, which was confirmed by its morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It was deposited in NCBI GeneBank database and received with an accession number of KX388147. Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 was cultivated by submerged fermentation to produce antimicrobial compounds. The anti-proliferative agent was extracted from Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 with ethyl acetate. The bioactive metabolites of mangrove actinobacteria was identified by Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. The result of the present investigation revealed that actinobacteria isolated from mangroves are potent source of anticancer activity. The strain of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 exhibited a potential in vitro anticancer activity. The present research concluded that the actinobacteria isolated from mangrove soil sediment are valuable in discovery of novel species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges prevent oral mucositis in patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Tilak, TVSVGK; Bakhshi, Sameer; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Lalit; Chaudhary, Surendra Pal; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Gupta, Ritu; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral mucositis is a common inflammatory complication in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and radiation followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lactobacillus brevis CD2 has been proven efficacious in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Methods This phase II study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of L. brevis CD2 lozenges in preventing oral mucositis in patients undergoing HSCT. Eligible patients received four to six lozenges of L. brevis CD2 per day, beginning from 4 to 7 days before initiation of chemotherapy and continuing until resolution of mucositis or till day +24. Results Of 31 patients enrolled, 7 (22.6%) patients did not develop any mucositis, 6 (19.4%) patients developed grade 1, 12 (38.7%) patients developed grade 2, 4 (12.9%) and 2 (6.5%) patients developed grade 3 and grade 4 mucositis, respectively. Median time to onset and for resolution of mucositis were 6 days and 8 days, respectively. No adverse events were reported with usage of study drug. However, one patient died of Klebsiella sepsis. Conclusion Promising results from the study encourage the use of L. brevis CD2 lozenges as a supportive care treatment option; however, a randomised, double-blind, multicentric trial in a larger population is warranted. Trials registration number NCT01480011 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (Registered on Nov 04, 2011). PMID:28848667

  5. HPLC Analysis and Cytotoxicity of n-Butanol Extract from Glyphaea brevis Roots Against C6 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Konan, Koffi Marcel; Mamyrbekova-Bekro, Janat Akhanovna; Bakalara, Norbert; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Bekro, Yves-Alain

    2014-01-01

    The n-butanol extract of the roots of Glyphaea brevis was analysed. HPLC analysis suggested the presence of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid (PCA). The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity against C6 glioma cells (EC50 > 1 mg/ml).

  6. HPLC Analysis and Cytotoxicity of n-Butanol Extract from Glyphaea brevis Roots Against C6 Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Koffi Marcel; Mamyrbekova-Bekro, Janat Akhanovna; Bakalara, Norbert; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Bekro, Yves-Alain

    2014-01-01

    The n-butanol extract of the roots of Glyphaea brevis was analysed. HPLC analysis suggested the presence of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid (PCA). The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity against C6 glioma cells (EC50 > 1 mg/ml). PMID:24634849

  7. Probiotic and antioxidant properties of selenium-enriched Lactobacillus brevis LSe isolated from an Iranian traditional dairy product.

    PubMed

    Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Mohammadi-Khorsand, Tayebe; Adeli-Sardou, Mahboubeh; Jafari, Mandana; Amirpour-Rostami, Sahar; Ameri, Alieh; Forootanfar, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    The present study was designed to isolate a highly selenium-tolerant lactobacillus strain from an Iranian traditional dairy product named as Spar. Different criteria such as tolerance to the low pH, simulated gastric juice (SGJ), simulated intestinal juice (SIJ) and bile salts tolerance as well as Caco-2 cell adhesion assay were examined to evaluate the probiotic potentials of the selected isolate. Furthermore, the antioxidant properties of the isolate cultivated in medium containing and free of SeO 3 2- ions were evaluated using DPPH scavenging and reducing power assays. The isolate was identified using conventional identification and 16S rDNA gene sequencing methods as Lactobacillus brevis LSe. The obtained results showed that the isolate was able to tolerate high concentration of sodium selenite (3.16mM). By decreasing the pH of the SGJ from 6 to 3, the survival percent of L. brevis LSe was not significantly changed over the time (p>0.05). In addition, the survival percent of the isolate in the SIJ (pH 6 and pH 8) was not statistically altered after 3h, 6h and 24h of incubation (p>0.05). In the presence of bile salts (0.3% and 0.6%) the survival rate of L. brevis LSe was not significantly decreased (p>0.05).L. brevis LSe also demonstrated the satisfactory ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells which were similar to that of the reference strain L. plantarum. The obtained results of antioxidant evaluation showed that L. brevis LSe containing elemental Se exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging ability (36.5±1.31%) and reducing power (OD 700 , 0.14) than L. brevis LSe cultured in selenite-free medium (p<0.05). To sum up, further investigations should be conducted to merit the probable potential health benefit of Se-enriched L. brevis LSe and its application as Se-containing supplements or fermented foods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Atraumatic bilateral rupture of the peroneus brevis tendon in recreational sport: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Scheidegger, Patric; Weisskopf, Lukas; Hirschmüller, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Issue: Lower extremity tendon injuries often occur in physically active individuals. Most ruptures not involving great force are diagnosed in patients presenting underlying tendon degenerations. This also applies to patients taking medications because of a disease. We have observed several cases of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures in patients who have been taking cortisone for a long period. We treated a healthy colleague (neurologist) in our clinic who sustained ruptures of the Achilles tendon on the left side (2012) and the peroneus brevis tendon on left side (2015) and right side (2016) after minimal traumata. Aim of this report is to provide a systematic review of this case and a literature review of similar cases, as few such cases have been published. Methods: We reviewed and analysed this patient’s records containing the sport-specific anamnesis, pre-existing condition, anamnesis of medications and therapy. The three injuries were magnetic resonance imaging–proven. Furthermore, the tendon’s condition was examined histologically in the context of the operative treatment through lace technique of the Achilles tendon and transfer of the peroneus brevis to the peroneus longus. We also researched the literature for bilateral ruptures of the peroneal tendons. Results and conclusion: The anamnesis confirmed no underlying disease. The patient took a macrolide antibiotic about half a year prior to the first peroneal injury for an otitis media. He denied having taken any other antibiotics, especially no quinolone antibiotics. However, the patient reported cortisone intake for 2 days some months before the second peroneal injury to treat an allergic reaction. That involved no local cortisone infiltration in the lower extremity. He underwent surgery within the first 2 weeks after each trauma. Each time, postoperative follow-ups revealed a good healing process. Three months after each operation, the patient was free of complaints. Axibal and Anderson described a

  9. Lactic acid production from biomass-derived sugars via co-fermentation of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative resource for producing chemicals and fuels. Xylose is the dominating sugar after hydrolysis of hemicellulose in the biomass, but most microorganisms either cannot ferment xylose or have a hierarchical sugar utilization pattern in which glucose is consumed first. To overcome this barrier, Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 was selected to produce lactic acid. This strain possesses a relaxed carbon catabolite repression mechanism that can use glucose and xylose simultaneously; however, lactic acid yield was only 0.52 g g(-1) from a mixture of glucose and xylose, and 5.1 g L(-1) of acetic acid and 8.3 g L(-1) of ethanol were also formed during production of lactic acid. The yield was significantly increased and ethanol production was significantly reduced if L. brevis was co-cultivated with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 21028. L. plantarum outcompeted L. brevis in glucose consumption, meaning that L. brevis was focused on converting xylose to lactic acid and the by-product, ethanol, was reduced due to less NADH generated in the fermentation system. Sequential co-fermentation of L. brevis and L. plantarum increased lactic acid yield to 0.80 g g(-1) from poplar hydrolyzate and increased yield to 0.78 g lactic acid per g of biomass from alkali-treated corn stover with minimum by-product formation. Efficient utilization of both cellulose and hemicellulose components of the biomass will improve overall lactic acid production and enable an economical process to produce biodegradable plastics. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA on growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Che, Jianmei; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Bo; Deng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Ge, Cibin; Liu, Guohong; Wang, Jieping

    2016-12-01

    A feeding expriment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation on the growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets were randomly assigned to different treatments groups, which were fed the same basic diet supplemented with 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation. The results showed that a diet supplemented with 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation could significantly increase the final body weight (P < 0.05) and decrease feed to gain ratio, which was 37.1 % lower than that of the control group. The addition of B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA exhibited a trend of reducing the contents of the Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Salmonella compared with the control. During the 35 day experimental period, cellulase and protease activities were significantly increased by the dietary inclusion of the B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation (P < 0.05). The cellulase activity for piglets fed diet containing 1 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 21.8 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The protease activity for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 50.4 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The amylase and hemicellulase activities for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than those on the control diet and other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, usage of feed dietary supplementation with B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA had positive effects on levels of enzymes and minerals in blood. The alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, Fe and Mg concentrations for weaned piglets fed diet containing B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than for those on the control diet (P < 0.05). Furthermore, concentration of IgG in serum was higher in weaned

  11. A protein disulfide isomerase gene fusion expression system that increases the extracellular productivity of Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Ohto, C; Muramatsu, M; Obata, S; Udaka, S; Yamada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system.

  12. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  13. Lactobacillus brevis G101 inhibits the absorption of monosodium glutamate in mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Se-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2014-11-28

    To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus brevis G-101 on absorption of monosodium glutamate (MSG), we orally administered MSG with or without G-101 in mice and measured the maximum concentration (Cmax) and blood concentration curve (AUC) of MSG and γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA). Oral administration of G-101 (1 × 10(9) CFU/mouse) potently inhibited Cmax and AUC of MSG by 97.8% and 94.3%, respectively (p < 0.05), but increased those of GABA by 32.1% and 67.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). G-101 inhibited the absorption of MSG. These results suggest that G-101 may reduce the side effect of MSG by inhibiting the absorption of MSG.

  14. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  15. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  16. Growth characteristics of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 in the presence of bile.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Suzuki, Shigenori; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Moriya, Naoko; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-10-01

    Live Lactobacillus brevis KB290 have several probiotic activities, including immune stimulation and modulation of intestinal microbial balance. We investigated the adaptation of L. brevis KB290 to bile as a mechanism of intestinal survival. Strain KB290 was grown for 5 days at 37 °C in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose (TYG) broth supplemented with 0.5% sodium acetate (TYGA) containing 0.15%, 0.3%, or 0.5% bile. Growth was determined by absorbance at 620 nm or by dry weight. Growth was enhanced as the broth's bile concentration increased. Bile-enhanced growth was not observed in TYG broth or with xylose or fructose as the carbon source, although strain KB290 could assimilate these sugars. Compared with cells grown without bile, cells grown with bile had twice the cell yield (dry weight) and higher hydrophobicity, which may improve epithelial adhesion. Metabolite analysis revealed that bile induced more lactate production by glycolysis, thus enhancing growth efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells cultured without bile for 5 days in TYGA broth had a shortened rod shape and showed lysis and aggregation, unlike cells cultured for 1 day; cells grown with bile for 5 days had an intact rod shape and rarely appeared damaged. Cellular material leakage through autolysis was lower in the presence of bile than in its absence. Thus lysis of strain KB290 cells cultured for extended periods was suppressed in the presence of bile. This study provides new role of bile and sodium acetate for retaining an intact cell shape and enhancing cell yield, which are beneficial for intestinal survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biosynthesis of edeine: II. Localization of edeine synthetase within Bacillus brevis Vm4.

    PubMed

    Kurylo-Borowska, Z

    1975-07-14

    Edeine-synthesizing polyenzymes, associated with a complex of sytoplasmic membrane and DNA, were obtained from gently lysed cells of Bacillus brevis Vm4. The polyenzymes-membrane-DNA complex, isolated from dells intensively synthesizing edeines (18--20 h culture) contained edeine B. Edeine B was found to be bound covalently t o the edeine synthetase. The amount of edeine bound to polyenzymes was 0.1--0.3 mumol/mg protein, depending on the age of cells. Detachment of deeine synthetase with a covalently bound edeine B from the membrane-DNA complex was accomplished by a treatment with (NH4)2-SO4 at 45--55% saturation or by DEAE-cellulose column fractionation. In contrast to other components of the complex, the edeine-polyenzymes fragment was not adsorbed to the DEAE-cellulose. Sephadex G-200 column chromatography separated the edeine-polyenzymes complex into 3 fractions. Edeine-polyenzymes complex, obtained from lysozyme-Brij-58-DNAase treated cells, contained edeine B bound to two protein fractions of mol. wt 210 000 and 160 000. Edeine-polyenzymes complex detached from the complex with the membrane and DNA contained edeine B, bound only to protein fraction of mol. wt 210 000. Edeine A was not found in the edeine-polyenzymes complex. No accumulation of free antibiotics within 16--22 h old cells of B. brevis Vm4 was detected. The edeine-polyenzymes complex associated with the DNA-membrane complex has shown no antimicrobial activity. By treating of above with alkali, edeine B of specific activity: 80 units/mjmol was released. The complex of DNA-membrane associated with edeine-polyenzymes complex was able to synthesize DNA, under the conditions described for synthesis, directed by a DNA-membrane complex. Edeine when associated with this complex did not effect the DNA-synthesizing activity.

  18. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    PubMed Central

    Bajantri, Babu; Bharathi, Ravindra; Ramkumar, Sanjai; Latheef, Latheesh; Dhane, Smitha; Sabapathy, S. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect. PMID:23960305

  19. High level heterologous protein production in Lactococcus and Lactobacillus using a new secretion system based on the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer signals.

    PubMed

    Savijoki, K; Kahala, M; Palva, A

    1997-02-28

    A secretion cassette, based on the expression and secretion signals of a S-layer protein (SlpA) from Lactobacillus brevis, was constructed. E. coli beta-lactamase (Bla) was used as the reporter protein to determine the functionality of the S-layer signals for heterologous expression and secretion in Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus casei using a low-copy-number plasmid derived from pGK12. In all hosts tested, the bla gene was expressed under the slpA signals and all Bla activity was secreted to the culture medium. The Lb. brevis S-layer promoters were very efficiently recognized in L. lactis, Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum, whereas in Lb. gasseri the slpA promoter region appeared to be recognized at a lower level and in Lb. casei the level of transcripts was below the detection limit. The production of Bla was mainly restricted to the exponential phase of growth. The highest yield of Bla was obtained with L. lactis and Lb. brevis. Without pH control, substantial degradation of Bla occurred during prolonged cultivations with all lactic acid bacteria (LAB) tested. When growing L. lactis and Lb. brevis under pH control, the Bla activity could be stabilized also at the stationary phase. L. lactis produced up to 80 mg/l of Bla which to our knowledge represents the highest amount of a heterologous protein secreted by LAB so far. The short production phase implied a very high rate of secretion with a calculated value of 5 x 10(5) Bla molecules/cell per h. Such a high rate was also observed with Lb. plantarum, whereas in Lb. brevis the competition between the wild type slpA gene and the secretion construct probably lowered the rate of Bla production. The results obtained indicate wide applicability of the Lb. brevis slpA signals for efficient protein production and secretion in LAB.

  20. The role of hydrographic parameters, measured from a ship of opportunity, in bloom formation of Karenia mikimotoi in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, S. E.; Hartman, M. C.; Hydes, D. J.; Smythe-Wright, D.; Gohin, F.; Lazure, P.

    2014-12-01

    Unusually high chlorophyll values (~ 14 mg Chl m- 3 at 5 m depth), recorded on a ship of opportunity (SOO) in July 2010, indicated the occurrence of a potential Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) in the Western approaches of the English Channel. This bloom, located at 49.7°N, 3.2°W was observed via complementary datasets. These included data from samples collected for microscopic phytoplankton identification, information from satellite maps to follow geographical bloom development and in situ data to identify hydrographic factors related to bloom initiation. The relationships between chlorophyll-fluorescence, temperature, salinity and wind speed were examined. The intense summer bloom predominantly consisted of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi and followed an increase in sea surface temperature (to 18.5 °C). A mid-channel bloom of this magnitude along the SOO route was last seen in 2003. In both years the peak biomass was associated with K. mikimotoi blooms, which occurred at the same location and coincided with the least saline, warmest water and lowest wind speeds. This study demonstrates that ships of opportunity are a useful tool to identify and track HAB events through continuous in situ measurements and for the frequent sampling opportunities that they provide.

  1. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  2. Algicidal activity of glycerolipids from brown alga Ishige sinicola toward red tide microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Shotaro; Tara, Kenji; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Junji; Ishibashi, Fumito

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the brown alga, Ishige sinicola, led to the isolation of five algicidal compounds. Their structures were determined to be α-monoglycerides of eicosa-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic (arachidonic) acid, octadeca-6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-tetraenoic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid, and 1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol on the basis of spectroscopic data and a comparison with the data in the literature. These glycerolipids showed moderate-to-high cell lysis activity against the red tide microalgal species, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi and Alexandrium catenella, at a concentration of 20 µg/mL.

  3. Development of a propidium monoazide-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of viable Lactobacillus brevis in beer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Hua; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming; Wang, Dongfeng

    The spoilage of beer by bacteria is of great concern to the brewer as this can lead to turbidity and abnormal flavors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of beer-spoilage bacteria is highly specific and provides results much faster than traditional microbiology techniques. However, one of the drawbacks is the inability to differentiate between live and dead cells. In this paper, the combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment and conventional PCR had been described. The established PMA-PCR identified beer spoilage Lactobacillus brevis based not on their identity, but on the presence of horA gene which we show to be highly correlated with the ability of beer spoilage LAB to grow in beer. The results suggested that the use of 30μg/mL or less of PMA did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from viable L. brevis cells. The minimum amount of PMA to completely inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from dead L. brevis cells was 2.0μg/mL. The detection limit of PMA-PCR assay described here was found to be 10 colony forming units (CFU)/reaction for the horA gene. Moreover, the horA-specific PMA-PCR assays were subjected to 18 reference isolates, representing 100% specificity with no false positive amplification observed. Overall the use of horA-specific PMA-PCR allows for a substantial reduction in the time required for detection of potential beer spoilage L. brevis and efficiently differentiates between viable and nonviable cells. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Peroneus Brevis Attrition & Longitudinal Split Tear without Subluxation and Associated Hypertrophy of Peronal Tubercle" - Treatment of an Uncommon Lesion.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Singh, Varun; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Peroneus brevis tendinitis with its attritional longitudinal split rupture without any subluxation from peroneal groove and associated enlarged peroneal tubercle is un common presentation. A 40 year old female presented with moderate swelling and tenderness over the lateral and dorso-lateral aspect of left ankle with history of old trauma to ankle with swelling, persistant pain and difficulty in walking. On physical examination during passive eversion and inversion the excursion of the peroneal tendons was painful. Most tender point was just posterior to the tip of the fibula. During surgery we found the intact superior peroneal ligament with both peroneal tendons placed at normal site without subluxation, tendon sheath was inflamed and swollen, on further dissection we could see the attrition of inner surface of the peroneus brevis and a 2 cm longitudinal split tear of the same. Although rare but peroneus brevis tendon attrition and tear can occur without subluxation from peronal groove. Refractory ankle pain on lateral aspect presenting with on and off swelling should arise suspicion of peroneal tendon tear. Correct diagnosis and proper surgical repair can produce excellent results.

  5. Casein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis Proteases: Peptide Profile Discriminates Strain-Dependent Enzyme Specificity.

    PubMed

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-25

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolyzed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC 50 in the 16-70 μg/mL range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  6. Transfer of extensor carpi radialis brevis as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT) in ulnar nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Allah Rakha; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Mehboob, Ghulam

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate functional outcome and correction of deformity with extensor carpiradialis brevis motor transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT). This was a prospective observational study with one group pretest posttest design conducted from 1996 to 2004. Convenience sampling technique was used and the sample size was twenty one. The independent variable was transfer of extensor carpiradialis brevis to replace the intrinsic muscles. The dependent variable was functional outcome and the correction of deformity. The extraneous variables were age, sex interval between injury and transfer as well as local factors related to wound and grafts used. The average follow up was 22.5 months. The mean preoperative unassisted extensor lag was 56.79 +/- 10.39 which improved to 9.6% +/- 5.4 (correction of 83%) at six months after surgery. With open hand assessment 76.19% reported good to excellent results, while 79.89% achieved good to excellent results with closed hand assessment. The mechanism of closing was good to excellent in 89.42% cases, however only 71.42% patients considered their hands good to excellent. Significant problems were seen with use of tendoachilles as a graft. Extensor carpiradialis brevis transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer can achieve good functional outcome as well as correction of deformity despite shortcomings in physical rehabilitation.

  7. Characterization of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis RK03 and Efficient Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Batch Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Liu, Si-Jia

    2018-01-04

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM) broth was developed for fermentation with L. brevis RK03. We found that an optimized GM broth recipe of 1% glucose; 2.5% yeast extract; 2 ppm each of CaCO₃, MnSO₄, and Tween 80; and 10 μM pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) resulted in a maximum GABA yield of 62,523 mg/L after 88 h following the addition of 650 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG), for a conversion rate of 93.28%. Our data provide a practical approach for the highly efficient and economic production of GABA. In addition, L. brevis RK03 is highly resistant to gastric acid and bovine bile salt. Thus, the discovery of Lactobacillus strains with the ability to synthesize GABA may offer new opportunities in the design of improved health-promoting functional foods.

  8. Characterization of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis RK03 and Efficient Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Batch Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Liu, Si-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM) broth was developed for fermentation with L. brevis RK03. We found that an optimized GM broth recipe of 1% glucose; 2.5% yeast extract; 2 ppm each of CaCO3, MnSO4, and Tween 80; and 10 μM pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) resulted in a maximum GABA yield of 62,523 mg/L after 88 h following the addition of 650 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG), for a conversion rate of 93.28%. Our data provide a practical approach for the highly efficient and economic production of GABA. In addition, L. brevis RK03 is highly resistant to gastric acid and bovine bile salt. Thus, the discovery of Lactobacillus strains with the ability to synthesize GABA may offer new opportunities in the design of improved health-promoting functional foods. PMID:29300336

  9. High γ-aminobutyric acid production from lactic acid bacteria: Emphasis on Lactobacillus brevis as a functional dairy starter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-11-22

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA-rich foods have shown anti-hypertensive and anti-depressant activities as the major functions in humans and animals. Hence, high GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could be used as functional starters for manufacturing novel fermented dairy foods. Glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) from LAB are highly conserved at the species level based on the phylogenetic tree of GADs from LAB. Moreover, two functionally distinct GADs and one intact gad operon were observed in all the completely sequenced Lactobacillus brevis strains suggesting its common capability to synthesize GABA. Difficulties and strategies for the manufacture of GABA-rich fermented dairy foods have been discussed and proposed, respectively. In addition, a genetic survey on the sequenced LAB strains demonstrated the absence of cell envelope proteinases in the majority of LAB including Lb. brevis, which diminishes their cell viabilities in milk environments due to their non-proteolytic nature. Thus, several strategies have been proposed to overcome the non-proteolytic nature of Lb. brevis in order to produce GABA-rich dairy foods.

  10. Isolation and purification of antialgal compounds from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis for activity against common harmful red tide microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Meng, Kun; Su, Zhen-Xia; Guo, Gan-Lin; Pu, Yin-Fang; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Seven antialgal compounds (1-7) were successfully isolated from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the spectral data, the compounds were identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), glycerol monopalmitate (3), stigmasterol (4), 15-hydroxymethyl-2, 6, 10, 18, 22, 26, 30-heptamethyl-14-methylene-17-hentriacontene (5), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (6), and margaric acid (7). These seven compounds were isolated from G. lemaneiformis for the first time, while the compounds 4, 6, and 7 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the inhibition of algal growth and the concentration of each antialgal compound was determined and important parameters for future practical HAB control, e.g., EC 50-96h , were also obtained. The results indicated that isolated compounds 1-7 possess selective antialgal activity against the growth of several red tide microalgae (including Amphidinium carterae, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi, Phaeocystis globsa, Prorocentrum donghaiense, and Skeletonema costatum). Their antialgal activity against test red tide microalgae has not been previously reported. Furthermore, the EC 50-96h of one or more of the compounds towards the tested red microalgae was not only significantly less than 10 μg/mL but also was smaller than that of the characteristic antialgal agent potassium dichromate. The study demonstrates that compounds 1-7 possess significant application potential as antialgal agents against several harmful red tide microalgae.

  11. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting

  12. Efficient production of artificially designed gelatins with a Bacillus brevis system.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Takahashi, H; Hirai, M; Yamada, Y

    2000-01-01

    Artificially designed gelatins comprising tandemly repeated 30-amino-acid peptide units derived from human alphaI collagen were successfully produced with a Bacillus brevis system. The DNA encoding the peptide unit was synthesized by taking into consideration the codon usage of the host cells, but no clones having a tandemly repeated gene were obtained through the above-mentioned strategy. Minirepeat genes could be selected in vivo from a mixture of every possible sequence encoding an artificial gelatin by randomly ligating the mixed sequence unit and transforming it into Escherichia coli. Larger repeat genes constructed by connecting minirepeat genes obtained by in vivo selection were also stable in the expression host cells. Gelatins derived from the eight-unit and six-unit repeat genes were extracellularly produced at the level of 0.5 g/liter and easily purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified artificial gelatins had the predicted N-terminal sequences and amino acid compositions and a solgel property similar to that of the native gelatin. These results suggest that the selection of a repeat unit sequence stable in an expression host is a shortcut for the efficient production of repetitive proteins and that it can conveniently be achieved by the in vivo selection method. This study revealed the possible industrial application of artificially designed repetitive proteins.

  13. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Czepita, Damian; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Czepita, Maciej; Grobelny, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Intensive long-term studies of Demodex spp. (D.) and its role in chronic blepharits have been carried out in recent years by scientists from the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. It has resulted in numerous publications, spurring a lot of interest worldwide. A few of the papers have been cited in leading American medical journals. In recent years many papers dealing with demodicosis of the eyelids have been published worldwide. Based on the growing interest in the role of Demodex spp. in chronic blepharitis we decided to present and discuss the results of the latest experimental and clinical studies. A review of the literature concerning the role of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis was done. Demodex spp. are intradermal parasites, which thrive in follicles and sebaceous glands of humans and animals. D. is spread by direct contact and probably by dust containing eggs (figs. 1, 2, 3). Currently, it is thought that pathological changes in the course of demodicosis of the eyelids are consequences of: (1) blockage of follicles and leading out tubules of sebaceous glands by the mites and by reactive hyperkeratinization and epithelial hyperplasia; (2) a mechanical vector role of bacteria; (3) host's inflammatory reaction to the presence of parasite's chitine as a foreign body; and (4) stimulation of the host's humoral responses and cell-mediated immunological reactions under the influence of the mites and their waste products. It has been established that: (1) D. folliculorum and D. brevis are cosmopolitan in terms of their distribution; (2) Infection of Demodex spp. often occurs in the course of chronic blepharitis; (3) With the increase in age, the prevalence rate of eyelid demodicosis rises; (4) Demodicosis of the eyelids may be the effect of the decrease of immunity of some patients. Treatment of demodicosis of the eyelids as a general rule lasts a few months. The use of yellow mercurial ointment, sulphur ointment

  14. Prevalence of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in childhood malnutrition and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Sadik; Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Kaya, Ozlem Aycan; Ozgen, Unsal

    2013-02-01

    Hair follicle mites, Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis, are known to accompany immune-deficiency states, however no study so far has investigated their presence in malnutrition. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of those mites in childhood malnutrition, malignancy and risk factors. One hundred children with malnutrition, 31 children with malignancy and 63 children without any chronic disease and infection were included in this study. History, physical examination, anthropometric measurements and routine laboratory findings were recorded. Demodex spp. were investigated by standard superficial skin biopsies. Demodex was found in 25 patients (25%), 10 patients (32.3%), and one patient (1.6%) among malnutrition, malignancy, and control groups, respectively (P = 0.001). By using multilogistic regression binary method, it was found that malnutrition, malignancy and low socioeconomic level increased the risk 17.37 times (P = 0.006), 27.29 times (P = 0.002), and 2.3 times (P = 0.037), respectively. Of 22 children who were evaluated after 6 months, 13 (59.1%) were negative for Demodex. In 11 (84.6%) of those 13, nutritional status was improved. Demodex was detected in approximately in one-quarter and one-third of children with malnutrition and malignancy, respectively. Eliminating the cause of immunosuppression, such as poor nutritional status, seems also to be an effective method for eliminating Demodex. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a flavoprotein NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzu, Mutlu; Niefind, Karsten; Hummel, Werner

    2005-05-01

    The water-forming flavoenzyme NADH oxidase was crystallized successfully for the first time. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 4.0 Å resolution. NADH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus brevis is a homotetrameric flavoenzyme composed of 450 amino acids per subunit. The molecular weight of each monomer is 48.8 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of two equivalents of NADH and reduces one equivalent of oxygen to yield two equivalents of water, without releasing hydrogen peroxide after the reduction of the first equivalent of NADH. Crystals of this protein were grown in the presence of 34% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000, 0.1more » M sodium acetate and 0.2 M ammonium sulfate at pH 5.4. They belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.8, b = 95.7, c = 116.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. The current diffraction limit is 4.0 Å. The self-rotation function of the native data set is consistent with a NOX tetramer in the asymmetric unit.« less

  16. Ecophenotypic Variation and Developmental Instability in the Late Cretaceous Echinoid Micraster brevis (Irregularia; Spatangoida)

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous echinoid genus Micraster (irregular echinoids, Spatangoida) is one of the most famous examples of a continuous evolutionary lineage in invertebrate palaeontology. The influence of the environment on the phenotype, however, was not tested so far. This study analyses differences in phenotypical variations within three populations of Micraster (Gibbaster) brevis from the early Coniacian, two from the Münsterland Cretaceous Basin (Germany) and one from the North Cantabrian Basin (Spain). The environments of the Spanish and the German sites differed by their sedimentary characteristics, which are generally a crucial factor for morphological adaptations in echinoids. Most of the major phenotypical variations (position of the ambitus, periproct and development of the subanal fasciole) among the populations can be linked to differences in their host sediments. These phenotypic variations are presumed to be an expression of phenotpic plasticiy, which has not been considered in Micraster in previous studies. Two populations (Erwitte area, Germany; Liencres area, Spain) were tested for stochastic variation (fluctuating asymmetry) due to developmental instability, which was present in all studied traits. However, differences in the amount of fluctuating asymmetry between both populations were recognised only in one trait (amount of pore pairs in the anterior paired petals). The results strengthen previous assumptions on ecophenotypic variations in Micraster. PMID:26849648

  17. Production optimization of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 and its immobilization on alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ghada E A; Amer, Hassan; El-Gammal, Eman W; Helmy, Wafaa A; Esawy, Mona A; Elnashar, Magdy M M

    2013-04-02

    A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs, was employed to enhance the production of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 isolated from breast milk. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the bioprocess parameters that significantly influence the invertase production. The second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of variables have the highest positive significant effect on the invertase production. A maximal enzyme activity of 1399U/ml was more than five folds the activity obtained using the basal medium. Invertase was immobilized onto grafted alginate beads to improve the enzyme's stability. Immobilization process increased the operational temperature from 30 to 60°C compared to the free enzyme. The reusability test proved the durability of the grafted alginate beads for 15 cycles with retention of 100% of the immobilized enzyme activity to be more convenient for industrial uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular mechanisms behind the antimicrobial activity of hop iso-α-acids in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    The main bittering component in beer, hop iso-α-acids, have been characterised as weak acids, which act as ionophores impairing microbial cells' function under acidic conditions as present in beer. Besides medium pH, divalent cations play a central role regarding the efficacy of the antimicrobial effect. The iso-α-acids' non-bitter derivatives humulinic acids can be found in isomerised hop extracts and can be generated during hop storage. Therefore, they have been under investigation concerning their influence on beer sensory properties. This study sketches the molecular mechanism behind iso-α-acids' antimicrobial activity in Lactobacillus (L.) brevis regarding their ionophore activity versus the dependence of the inhibitory potential on manganese binding, and suggests humulinic acids as novel tasteless food preservatives. We designed and synthesised chemically modified iso-α-acids to enhance the basic understanding of the molecular mechanism of antimicrobial iso-α-acids. It could be observed that a manganese-binding dependent transmembrane redox reaction (oxidative stress) plays a crucial role in inhibition. Privation of an acidic hydroxyl group neither erased ionophore activity, nor did it entirely abolish antimicrobial activity. Humulinic acids proved to be highly inhibitory, even outperforming iso-α-acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification and biochemical characterization of a highly thermostable bacteriocin isolated from Brevibacillus brevis strain GM100.

    PubMed

    Ghadbane, Mouloud; Harzallah, Daoud; Laribi, Atef Ibn; Jaouadi, Bassem; Belhadj, Hani

    2013-01-01

    A bacteriocin-producing (11,000 AU mL(-1)) strain was isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy Algerian plants Ononis angustissima Lam., and identified as Brevibacillus brevis strain GM100. The bacteriocin, called Bac-GM100, was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant, and, based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, was a monomer protein with a molecular mass of 4375.66 Da. The 21 N-terminal residues of Bac-GM100 displayed 65% homology with thurincin H from Bacillus thuringiensis. Bac-GM100 was extremely heat-stable (20 min at 120 °C), and was stable within a pH range of 3-10. It proved sensitive to various proteases, which demonstrated its protein nature. It was also found to display a bactericidal mode of action against gram-negative (Salmonella enteric ATCC 43972, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58) and gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ENSAIA 631 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria, and a fungistatic mode of action against the pathogenic fungus Candida tropicalis R2 CIP 203.

  20. Cellular properties of extensor carpi radialis brevis and trapezius muscles in healthy males and females.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Iqbal, Sobia; Kyle, Natasha; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Tupling, A Russell; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether differences in cellular properties associated with energy homeostasis could explain the higher incidence of work-related myalgia in trapezius (TRAP) compared with extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB). Tissue samples were obtained from the ECRB (n = 19) and TRAP (n = 17) of healthy males and females (age 27.9 ± 2.2 and 28.1 ± 1.5 years, respectively; mean ± SE) and analyzed for properties involved in both ATP supply and utilization. The concentration of ATP and the maximal activities of creatine phosphokinase, phosphorylase, and phosphofructokinase were higher (P < 0.05) in ECRB than TRAP. Succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and cytochrome c oxidase were not different between muscles. The ECRB also displayed a higher concentration of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and greater sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and uptake. No differences existed between muscles for either monocarboxylate transporters or glucose transporters. It is concluded that the potentials for high-energy phosphate transfer, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, and excitation-contraction coupling are higher in ECRB than TRAP. Histochemical measurements indicated that the muscle differences are, in part, related to differing amounts of type II tissue. Depending on the task demands, the TRAP may experience a greater metabolic and excitation-contraction coupling strain than the ECRB given the differences observed.

  1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid fermentation with date residue by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Momoko; Yamane, Daisuke; Funato, Kouichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Dates are commercially consumed as semi-dried fruit or processed into juice and puree for further food production. However, the date residue after juice and puree production is not used, although it appears to be nutrient enriched. Here, date residue was fermented by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis, which has been generally recognized as safe. Through degradation of sodium glutamate added to the residue during the fermentation, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which reduces neuronal excitability, was produced at the conversion rate of 80-90% from glutamate. In order to achieve this GABA production level, pretreatment of the date residue with carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, i.e., cellulase and pectinase, was necessary. All ingredients used for this GABA fermentation were known as being edible. These results provide us with a solution for the increasing commercial demand for GABA in food industry with the use of date residue that has been often discarded. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a flavoprotein NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Mutlu; Niefind, Karsten; Hummel, Werner; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    NADH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus brevis is a homotetrameric flavoenzyme composed of 450 amino acids per subunit. The molecular weight of each monomer is 48.8 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of two equivalents of NADH and reduces one equivalent of oxygen to yield two equivalents of water, without releasing hydrogen peroxide after the reduction of the first equivalent of NADH. Crystals of this protein were grown in the presence of 34% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000, 0.1 M sodium acetate and 0.2 M ammonium sulfate at pH 5.4. They belong to the tetragonal space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.8, b = 95.7, c = 116.9 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 103.8°. The current diffraction limit is 4.0 Å. The self-rotation function of the native data set is consistent with a NOX tetramer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:16511087

  3. Flexor digitorum brevis transfer for floating toe prevention after Weil osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lydia C; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2013-12-01

    A floating toe deformity occurs in many patients who undergo Weil osteotomies. It is likely caused by the failure of the windlass mechanism in shortening the metatarsal. For patients who require a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthroplasty or fusion in addition to a Weil osteotomy, the transfer of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) tendon to the PIP joint might restore the windlass mechanism and decrease the incidence of floating toes. Fourteen cadaveric foot specimens were examined to determine the effects of changing metatarsal length as well as tensioning the FDB tendon on the angle of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint as a measure of a floating toe. Shortening and lengthening the second metatarsal resulted in a significant change in MTP angle (P = .03 and .02, respectively), though there was no clear relationship found between the amount of change in metatarsal length and the change in MTP angle. Transferring the FDB to a PIP arthroplasty site plantarflexed the MTP joint and corrected floating toes; the change in angle was significant compared with the control and shortening groups (P = .0001 and .002, respectively). This study supports the theory that change in length of the metatarsal, possibly via the windlass mechanism, plays a role in the pathophysiology of the floating toe deformity. Tensioning and transferring the FDB tendon into the PIP joint helped prevent the floating toe deformity in this cadaveric model. Continued research in this subject will help to refine methods of prevention and correction of the floating toe deformity.

  4. Effect of CO2-induced seawater acidification on growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition of the harmful bloom-forming marine microalga, Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shunxin; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-01-01

    Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on the physiology of K. mikimotoi. Using semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions, growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition were determined over 4-6 week incubations at ambient (390ppmv) and elevated pCO2 levels (1000 ppmv and 2000 ppmv). pH-drift and inhibitor-experiments suggested that K. mikimotoi was capable of acquiring HCO3-, and that the utilization of HCO3- was predominantly mediated by anion-exchange proteins, but that HCO3- dehydration catalyzed by external carbonic anhydrase (CAext) only played a minor role in K. mikimotoi. Even though down-regulated CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and enhanced gross photosynthetic O2 evolution were observed under 1000 ppmv CO2 conditions, the saved energy did not stimulate growth of K. mikimotoi under 1000 ppmv CO2, probably due to the increased dark respiration. However, significantly higher growth and photosynthesis [in terms of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, effective quantum Yield (Yield), photosynthetic efficiency (α), light saturation point (Ek) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity] were observed under 2000 ppmv CO2 conditions. Furthermore, elevated pCO2 increased the photo-inhibition rate of photosystem II (β) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) at high light. We suggest that the energy saved through the down-regulation of CCMs might lead to the additional light stress and photo-damage. Therefore, the response of this species to elevated CO2 conditions will be determined by more than regulation and efficiency of

  5. Common Distribution of gad Operon in Lactobacillus brevis and its GadA Contributes to Efficient GABA Synthesis toward Cytosolic Near-Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Law, Yee-Song; Khafipour, Ehsan; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2017-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have exhibited strain-specific capacity to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via their glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system, which is one of amino acid-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems in bacteria. However, the linkage between bacterial AR and GABA production capacity has not been well established. Meanwhile, limited evidence has been provided to the global diversity of GABA-producing LAB and bifidobacteria, and their mechanisms of efficient GABA synthesis. In this study, genomic survey identified common distribution of gad operon-encoded GAD system in Lactobacillus brevis for its GABA production among varying species of LAB and bifidobacteria. Importantly, among four commonly distributed amino acid-dependent AR systems in Lb. brevis, its GAD system was a major contributor to maintain cytosolic pH homeostasis by consuming protons via GABA synthesis. This highlights that Lb. brevis applies GAD system as the main strategy against extracellular and intracellular acidification demonstrating its high capacity of GABA production. In addition, the abundant GadA retained its activity toward near-neutral pH (pH 5.5–6.5) of cytosolic acidity thus contributing to efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. This is the first global report illustrating species-specific characteristic and mechanism of efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. PMID:28261168

  6. Factors associated with operative treatment of enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin.

    PubMed

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Faghfouri, Aram; Ring, David

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with variation in the rate of surgery for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (eECRB). We used a large database from 3 academic hospitals including 5964 patients with the diagnosis of eECRB from 2001 to 2007. Of those, 244 patients (4%) had surgery for eECRB. We used the date of the first encounter as the date of diagnosis. We also recorded the date of the first cortisone injection and surgery for eECRB. We used Cox multivariable regression analysis to find factors associated with surgery. We considered the following explanatory factors: age, sex, race, diabetes, a diagnosis of major depression, a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, hospital, provider (surgeon vs. nonsurgeon), corticosteroid injection, and the time from diagnosis to the first cortisone injection. The hazard ratio of having surgery was 12-times greater if the initial provider was an orthopedic surgeon rather a nonsurgeon and 1.7-times greater at 1 of the 2 hospitals. The rate of surgery varied substantially, ranging from 0% to 22%. Corticosteroid injection delayed the time to surgery but was ultimately associated with a higher rate of surgery. The majority (86%) of surgeries were done within 1 year of the first documented office visit. It seems likely that an emphasis on the preferences and values of the patient rather than the surgeon would decrease the variation in surgery rates for eECRB observed in this study. Methods for optimizing the influence of patient preferences and values on decision making (eg, decision aids) merit additional study. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired growth in the polychaete Armandia brevis exposed to tributyltin in sediment.

    PubMed

    Meador, J P; Rice, C A

    2001-03-01

    Juveniles of the opheliid polychaete, Armandia brevis, were exposed to sediment-associated tributyltin (TBT) for 42 days to evaluate toxicity and bioaccumulation. Growth in this species was inhibited in a dose-response fashion by increasing concentrations of TBT. Even though the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for TBT declined for the higher sediment concentrations, the total butyltins in tissue increased over all sediment concentrations. At the highest sediment concentrations, polychaetes bioaccumulated less TBT than expected, which was most likely due to reduced uptake and continued metabolism of the parent compound. The less than expected BSAF values exhibited by animals at the exposure concentrations causing severe effects are an important finding for assessing responses in the field. It appears that severe biological effects can occur in long-term experiments without the expected high tissue concentrations; an observation likely explained by altered toxicokinetics. Analysis of variance determined the lowest observed effect concentration for growth to be 191 ng/g sediment dry wt. for 21 days of exposure and 101 ng/g sediment dry wt. at day 42, indicating that 21 days was insufficient for delineating the steady-state toxicity response. When based on regression analysis, the sediment concentration causing a 25% inhibition in growth at 42 days exposure was 93 ng/g dry wt. (total organic carbon = 0.58%). A dose-response association was also determined for polychaete net weight and TBT in tissue. The tissue residue associated with a 25% reduction in growth was 2834 ng/g dry wt. at day 42. A comparison of these results with previous work indicates that juveniles are approximately three times more sensitive than adults to TBT exposure. The sediment concentrations affecting growth in this species are commonly found in urban waterways indicating potentially severe impacts for this and other sensitive species.

  8. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  9. Impact of Lactic Acid and Hydrogen Ion on the Simultaneous Fermentation of Glucose and Xylose by the Carbon Catabolite Derepressed Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Hun; Israr, Beenish; Shoemaker, Sharon P; Mills, David A; Kim, Jaehan

    2016-07-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 exhibited a carbon catabolite de-repressed (CCR) phenotype which has ability to consume fermentable sugar simultaneously with glucose. To evaluate this unusual phenotype under harsh conditions during fermentation, the effect of lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentrations on L. brevis ATCC 14869 were examined. Kinetic equations describing the relationship between specific cell growth rate and lactic acid or hydrogen ion concentration has been reduced. The change of substrate utilization and product formation according to lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentration in the media were quantitatively described. Moreover; utilization of other compounds were also observed along with hydrogen ion and lactic acid concentration simultaneously. It has been found that substrate preference changes significantly regarding to utilization of compounds in media. That could result into formation of two-carbon products. In particular, acetic acid present in the media as sodium acetate were consumed by L. brevis ATCC 14869 under extreme pH of both acid and alkaline conditions.

  10. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  11. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    PubMed

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  12. Characterization and utilization of the flexor digitorum brevis for assessing skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Michael D; Amorese, Adam J; Balestrieri, Nicholas P; Ryan, Terence E; Schmidt, Cameron A; McClung, Joseph M; Spangenburg, Espen E

    2018-04-17

    The ability to assess skeletal muscle function and delineate regulatory mechanisms is essential to uncovering therapeutic approaches that preserve functional independence in a disease state. Skeletal muscle provides distinct experimental challenges due to inherent differences across muscle groups, including fiber type and size that may limit experimental approaches. The flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) possesses numerous properties that offer the investigator a high degree of experimental flexibility to address specific hypotheses. To date, surprisingly few studies have taken advantage of the FDB to investigate mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and experimentally demonstrate the value of the FDB muscle for scientific investigations. First, we characterized the FDB phenotype and provide reference comparisons to skeletal muscles commonly used in the field. We developed approaches allowing for experimental assessment of force production, in vitro and in vivo microscopy, and mitochondrial respiration to demonstrate the versatility of the FDB. As proof-of principle, we performed experiments to alter force production or mitochondrial respiration to validate the flexibility the FDB affords the investigator. The FDB is made up of small predominantly type IIa and IIx fibers that collectively produce less peak isometric force than the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or soleus muscles, but demonstrates a greater fatigue resistance than the EDL. Unlike the other muscles, inherent properties of the FDB muscle make it amenable to multiple in vitro- and in vivo-based microscopy methods. Due to its anatomical location, the FDB can be used in cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury protocols and is amenable to electroporation of cDNA with a high degree of efficiency allowing for an effective means of genetic manipulation. Using a novel approach, we also demonstrate methods for assessing mitochondrial respiration in the FDB

  13. Agroecosystem development of industrial fermentation waste -- characterization of aroma-active compounds from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils.

  14. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    PubMed

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  16. Enhanced Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid by Optimizing Culture Conditions of Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 Isolated from Kimchi, a Korean Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Seon; Cha, In-Tae; Roh, Seong Woon; Shin, Hae-Hun; Seo, Myung-Ji

    2017-03-28

    This study evaluated the effects of culture conditions, including carbon and nitrogen sources, L-monosodium glutamate (MSG), and initial pH, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 isolated from kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. L. brevis HYE1 was screened by the production analysis of GABA and genetic analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase gene, resulting in 14.64 mM GABA after 48 h of cultivation in MRS medium containing 1% (w/v) MSG. In order to increase GABA production by L. brevis HYE1, the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on GABA production were preliminarily investigated via one-factor-at-a-time optimization strategy. As the results, 2% maltose and 3% tryptone were determined to produce 17.93 mM GABA in modified MRS medium with 1% (w/v) MSG. In addition, the optimal MSG concentration and initial pH were determined to be 1% and 5.0, respectively, resulting in production of 18.97 mM GABA. Thereafter, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal conditions of the above four factors. The results indicate that pH was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimal culture conditions for maximum GABA production were also determined to be 2.14% (w/v) maltose, 4.01% (w/v) tryptone, 2.38% (w/v) MSG, and an initial pH of 4.74. In these conditions, GABA production by L. brevis HYE1 was predicted to be 21.44 mM using the RSM model. The experiment was performed under these optimized conditions, resulting in GABA production of 18.76 mM. These results show that the predicted and experimental values of GABA production are in good agreement.

  17. Cell surface acid-base properties of Escherichia coli and Bacillus brevis and variation as a function of growth phase, nitrogen source and C:N ratio.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2006-07-01

    Potentiometric titration has been conducted to systematically examine the acid-base properties of the cell surfaces of Escherichia coli K-12 and Bacillus brevis as a function of growth phase, nitrogen source (ammonium or nitrate), and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the growth substrate. The two bacterial species revealed four distinct proton binding sites, with pK(a) values in the range of 3.08-4.05 (pK(1)), 4.62-5.57 (pK(2)), 6.47-7.30 (pK(3)), and 9.68-10.89 (pK(4)) corresponding to phosphoric/carboxylic, carboxylic, phosphoric, and hydroxyl/amine groups, respectively. Two general observations in the data are that for B. brevis the first site concentration (N(1)), corresponding to phosphoric/carboxylic groups (pK(1)), varied as a function of nitrogen source, while for E. coli the fourth site concentration (N(4)), corresponding to hydroxyl/amine groups (pK(4)), varied as a function of C:N ratio. Correspondingly, it was found that N(1) was the highest of the four site concentrations for B. brevis and N(4) was the highest for E. coli. The concentrations of the remaining sites showed little variation. Finally, comparison between the titration data and a number of cell surface compositional studies in the literature indicates one distinct difference between the two bacteria is that pK(4) of the Gram-negative E. coli can be attributed to hydroxyl groups while that of the Gram-positive B. brevis can be attributed to amine groups.

  18. Electromyography comparison of the effects of various footwear in the activity patterns of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles.

    PubMed

    Roca-Dols, Andrea; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Sánchez-Gómez, Rubén; López-López, Daniel; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Calvo-Lobo, César

    2018-06-01

    Peroneus longus and brevis (PLB) disorders are commonly in people with lateral ligamentous instability, ankle pain, lateral hindfoot pain and structures of the proximal compartment of the lower legs and their muscle activity is believed to be influenced by different footwear types. The proposal of this research is to evaluate the effects of five types of footwear with respect to the barefoot condition and analyze the activity patterns of PLB muscles in healthy subjects during the gait cycle. Thirty healthy subjects were recruited in a laboratory in this cross-sectional research design. While walking, electromyography (EMG) activity was measured from PLB via surface electrodes in six experimental conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) minimalist, 3) pronated control, 4) air chamber, 5) ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) and 6) boost. These data were obtained and compared. The peroneus brevis showed significant reductions in the peak amplitude of the five footwear types (minimalist, pronation control, air chamber, EVA and boost) with respect to the barefoot condition in the propulsion phase of the gait cycle during walking (P = 0.034; P < 0.001; P < 0.001; P < 0.001; P = 0.006) and running (P = 0.004; P < 0.001; P = 0.001; P < 0.001; P = 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, peroneus longus showed significant reductions in the peak amplitude of these five footwear types with respect to the barefoot condition in the propulsion phase of the gait cycle during running (P = 0.005; P = 0.038; P = 0.019; P = 0.025; P = 0.021). The EMG activity patterns of the PLB muscles may depend on the use of different types of sport shoes such as minimalist, pronation control, air chamber, EVA and boost footwear with respect the barefoot condition in different phases of the gait cycle during walking and running. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (p< 0.0001), showing the MUNE a better correlation with age than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively p< 0.0001). Statistical MUNE method is an important way for the assessment to the phisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  20. Characterization of β-glucan formation by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112 isolated from slimy spoiled beer.

    PubMed

    Fraunhofer, Marion E; Geissler, Andreas J; Wefers, Daniel; Bunzel, Mirko; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-01

    Despite several hurdles, which hinder bacterial growth in beer, certain bacteria are still able to spoil beer. One type of spoilage is characterized by an increased viscosity and slimy texture caused by exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we characterize for the first time EPS production in a beer-spoiling strain (TMW 1.2112) of Lactobacillus brevis, a species commonly involved in beer spoilage. The strain's growth dynamics were assessed and we found an increased viscosity or ropiness in liquid or on solid media, respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and released EPS from the cells or supernatant, respectively, were analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis. Both are identical β-(1→3)-glucans, which are ramified with β-glucose residues at position O2. Therefore, we assume that this EPS is mainly produced as CPS and partially released into the surrounding medium, causing viscosity of e.g. beer. CPS formation was confirmed via an agglutination test. A plasmid-located glycosyltransferase-2 was found as responsible for excess β-glucan formation, chromosomal glucanases were proposed for its degradation. The glycosyltransferase-2 gene could also be specifically identified in beer-spoiling, slime-producing Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus parabuchneri strains, suggesting it as promising marker gene for the early detection of β-glucan-producing Lactobacilli in breweries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tropical wood resistance to the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis: If termites can't chew….

    PubMed

    Cosme, Lírio; Haro, Marcelo M; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-04-01

    The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly the direct damage that they cause. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and is a concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and the wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance have not been investigated to date. Here, we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units. The relevance of wood density and hardness as determinants of such resistance was also tested, as was termite mandible wear. The wood testing units used allowed the assessment of the termite infestation and wood area loss, enabling subsequent choice bioassays to be performed. While pine (Pinus sp.), jequitiba (Cariniana sp.) and angelim (Hymenolobium petraenum) exhibited the heaviest losses and highest infestations; cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), and purpleheart (Peltogyne sp.) showed the lowest losses and infestations; courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis) exhibited intermediary results. Wood hardness and in particular wood density were key determinants of wood resistance to the termites, which exhibited lower infestations associated with greater mandible wear when infesting harder high-density wood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The serotonin receptor mediates changes in autonomic neurotransmission and gastrointestinal transit induced by heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803.

    PubMed

    Horii, Y; Nakakita, Y; Misonou, Y; Nakamura, T; Nagai, K

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli exhibit several health benefits in mammals, including humans. Our previous reports established that heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBC8803) increased both efferent gastric vagal nerve activity and afferent intestinal vagal nerve activity in rats. We speculated that this strain could be useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of SBC8803 on peristalsis and the activity of the efferent celiac vagal nerve innervating the intestine in rats. First, we examined the effects of intraduodenal (ID) administration of SBC8803 on efferent celiac vagal nerve activity (efferent CVNA) in urethane-anesthetised rats using electrophysiological studies. The effects of intravenous injection of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on changes in efferent CVNA due to ID administration of SBC8803 were also investigated. Finally, the effects of oral gavage of SBC8803 on GI transit were analysed using the charcoal propulsion method in conscious rats treated with or without granisetron. ID administration of SBC8803 increased efferent CVNA. Pretreatment with granisetron eliminated SBC8803-dependent changes in efferent CVNA. Furthermore, oral gavage of SBC8803 significantly accelerated GI transit, while pretreatment with granisetron inhibited GI transit. Our findings suggested that SBC8803 increased efferent CVNA and GI transit of charcoal meal via 5-HT3 receptors. Moreover, SBC8803 enhanced the activity of efferent vagal nerve innervating the intestine and promoted peristalsis via 5-HT3 receptors.

  3. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: Lessons After 2 yr of Monitoring in the Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Paulo A. V.; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T.; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S.; Arroz, Ana M.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.; Myles, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city’s periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. PMID:25368085

  5. Ptychodiscus brevis toxin enhances the frequency-dependent depression of the monosynaptic reflex in neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, S B; Singh, J N; Das Gupta, S

    2003-12-10

    The involvement of frequency-dependent depression (FDD) of synaptic transmission for the depressant action of the Ptychodiscus brevis toxin (PbTx) was investigated in neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro. The stimulation of a dorsal root by train of pulses (five stimuli) at different frequencies evoked potentials in the ventral root (monosynaptic reflex, MSR). Amplitude of the fifth response as percent of first response at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Hz were 90, 80, 75, 70 and 50%, respectively. In Mg2+-free medium, PbTx depressed the MSR and also enhanced the FDD in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, the PbTx-induced depression can well be correlated with the enhancement of FDD (r=0.98). In the presence of Mg2+ (1.3 mM), the FDD was greater than that in the absence of Mg2+. But in the presence of Mg2+ PbTx did not alter FDD, even though there was 25% depression at 28 microM (significantly lesser than in Mg2+-free medium). The results indicate that the Mg2+-sensitive component of PbTx-induced depression of MSR is mediated via the neuronal systems involving FDD.

  6. Dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 promotes voluntary wheel-running and affects sleep rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Koyomi; Itoh, Nanako; Yamamoto, Saori; Higo-Yamamoto, Sayaka; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Kaneda, Hirotaka; Shigyo, Tatsuro; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2014-08-28

    We previously reported that heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 enhances appetite via changes in autonomic neurotransmission. Here we assessed whether a diet supplemented with heat-killed SBC8803 affects circadian locomotor rhythmicity and sleep architecture. Daily total activity gradually increased in mice over 4 weeks and supplementation with heat-killed SBC8803 significantly intensified the increase, which reached saturation at 25 days. Electroencephalography revealed that SBC8803 supplementation significantly reduced the total amount of time spent in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased the amount of time spent being awake during the latter half of the nighttime, but tended to increase the total amount of time spent in NREM sleep during the daytime. Dietary supplementation with SBC8803 can extend the duration of activity during the nighttime and of sleep during the daytime. Daily voluntary wheel-running and sleep rhythmicity become intensified when heat-killed SBC8803 is added to the diet. Dietary heat-killed SBC8803 can modulate circadian locomotion and sleep rhythms, which might benefit individuals with circadian rhythms that have been disrupted by stress or ageing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial production of mannitol by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 from concentrated extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hailong; Yue, Min; Liu, Gang; Du, Yuguang; Yin, Heng

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the conversion of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for mannitol production by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 was investigated. When the bacterium utilized enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as the main substrates in batch fermentation, the significant decrease in mannitol productivity was observed when the initial concentration of reducing sugar increased. Then, a strategy of continuous fed-batch fermentation was adopted for improving mannitol production with enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as main substrates. Although the concentration of mannitol could reach 199.86 g/L at the end of the fermentation, the productivity for the overall process of the fermentation was only 1.67 g/L/H. To improve the mannitol productivity with both higher yield and concentration, the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. In SSF, the mannitol production reached 176.50 g/L in 28 H with a productivity of 6.30 g/L/H and a yield of 0.68 g/g total sugar. Our study provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly method for mannitol production from a cheap biomass. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  9. Brevetoxin, the Dinoflagellate Neurotoxin, Localizes to Thylakoid Membranes and Interacts with the Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Cassell, Ryan T; Chen, Wei; Thomas, Serge; Liu, Li; Rein, Kathleen S

    2015-05-04

    The brevetoxins are neurotoxins that are produced by the "Florida red tide" dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. They bind to and activate the voltage-gated sodium channels in higher organisms, specifically the Nav 1.4 and Nav 1.5 channel subtypes. However, the native physiological function that the brevetoxins perform for K. brevis is unknown. By using fluorescent and photoactivatable derivatives, brevetoxin was shown to localize to the chloroplast of K. brevis where it binds to the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and thioredoxin. The LHCII is essential to non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), whereas thioredoxins are critical to the maintenance of redox homeostasis within the chloroplast and contribute to the scavenging of reactive oxygen. A culture of K. brevis producing low levels of toxin was shown to be deficient in NPQ and produced reactive oxygen species at twice the rate of the toxic culture, implicating a role in NPQ for the brevetoxins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. VIIRS captures phytoplankton vertical migration in the NE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Lee, Zhongping

    2017-06-01

    In summer 2014, a toxic Karenia brevis bloom (red tide) occurred in the NE Gulf of Mexico, during which vertical migration of K. brevis has been observed from glider measurements. The current study shows that satellite observations from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) can capture changes in surface reflectance and chlorophyll concentration occurring within 2h, which may be attributed this K. brevis vertical migration. The argument is supported by earlier glider measurements in the same bloom, by the dramatic changes in the VIIRS-derived surface chlorophyll, and by the consistency between the short-term reflectance changes and those reported earlier from field-measured K. brevis vertical migration. Estimates using the quasi-analytical algorithm also indicate significant increases in both total absorption coefficient and backscattering coefficient in two hours. The two observations in a day from a single polar-orbiting satellite sensor are thus shown to be able to infer phytoplankton vertical movement within a short timeframe, a phenomenon difficult to capture with other sensors as each sensor can provide at most one observation per day, and cross-sensor inconsistency may make interpretation of merged-sensor data difficult. These findings strongly support geostationary satellite missions to study short-term bloom dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoplankton IF-FISH: Species-specific labeling of cellular proteins by immunofluorescence (IF) with simultaneous species identification by fluorescence immunohybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Meek, Megan E; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2016-05-01

    Phytoplankton rarely occur as unialgal populations. Therefore, to study species-specific protein expression, indicative of physiological status in natural populations, methods are needed that will both assay for a protein of interest and identify the species expressing it. Here we describe a protocol for IF-FISH, a dual labeling procedure using immunofluorescence (IF) labeling of a protein of interest followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the species expressing that protein. The protocol was developed to monitor expression of the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, using a large subunit (LSU) rRNA probe to identify K. brevis in a mixed population of morphologically similar Karenia species. We present this protocol as proof of concept that IF-FISH can be successfully applied to phytoplankton cells. This method is widely applicable for the analysis of single-cell protein expression of any protein of interest within phytoplankton communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cambial Growth Season of Brevi-Deciduous Brachystegia spiciformis Trees from South Central Africa Restricted to Less than Four Months

    PubMed Central

    Trouet, Valérie; Mukelabai, Mukufute; Verheyden, Anouk; Beeckman, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We investigate cambial growth periodicity in Brachystegia spiciformis, a dominant tree species in the seasonally dry miombo woodland of southern Africa. To better understand how the brevi-deciduous (experiencing a short, drought-induced leaf fall period) leaf phenology of this species can be linked to a distinct period of cambial activity, we applied a bi-weekly pinning to six trees in western Zambia over the course of one year. Our results show that the onset and end of cambial growth was synchronous between trees, but was not concurrent with the onset and end of the rainy season. The relatively short (three to four months maximum) cambial growth season corresponded to the core of the rainy season, when 75% of the annual precipitation fell, and to the period when the trees were at full photosynthetic capacity. Tree-ring studies of this species have found a significant relationship between annual tree growth and precipitation, but we did not observe such a correlation at intra-annual resolution in this study. Furthermore, a substantial rainfall event occurring after the end of the cambial growth season did not induce xylem initiation or false ring formation. Low sample replication should be taken into account when interpreting the results of this study, but our findings can be used to refine the carbon allocation component of process-based terrestrial ecosystem models and can thus contribute to a more detailed estimation of the role of the miombo woodland in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Furthermore, we provide a physiological foundation for the use of Brachystegia spiciformis tree-ring records in paleoclimate research. PMID:23071794

  13. Incidental magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin are more common with age.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Wouter F; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David; Chen, Neal

    2016-07-01

    Patients with enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) demonstrate signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is likely that these MRI changes persist for many years or may be permanent, regardless of symptoms, and represent an estimation of disease prevalence. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of incidental signal changes in the ECRB origin increases with age. We searched MRI reports of 3374 patients who underwent an MRI scan, including the elbow, for signal changes in the ECRB origin. Medical records were reviewed for symptoms consistent with ECRB enthesopathy. Prevalences of incidental and symptomatic signal changes were calculated and stratified by age. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to test whether age, sex, and race were independently associated with ECRB enthesopathy and calculated odds ratios. Signal changes in ECRB origin were identified on MRI scans of 369 of 3374 patients (11%) without a clinical suspicion of tennis elbow. The prevalence increased from 5.7% in patients aged between 18 and 30 years up to 16% in patients aged 71 years and older. Older age (odds ratio, 1.04; P <.001) was independently associated with the incidental finding of ECRB enthesopathy on elbow MRI scans. Increased MRI signal in the ECRB origin is common in symptomatic and in asymptomatic elbows. Our findings support the concept that ECRB enthesopathy is a highly prevalent, self-limited process that seems to affect a minimum of 1 in approximately every 7 people. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  15. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    CARBERRY, STEVEN; BRINKMEIER, HEINRICH; ZHANG, YAXIN; WINKLER, CLAUDIA K.; OHLENDIECK, KAY

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20–25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  16. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-01-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III–V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  17. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk.

  1. Molecular cloning of a putative divalent-cation transporter gene as a new genetic marker for the identification of Lactobacillus brevis strains capable of growing in beer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, N; Ito, M; Horiike, S; Taguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis of Lactobacillus brevis isolates from breweries revealed that one of the random primers could distinguish beer-spoilage strains of L. brevis from nonspoilage strains. The 1.1-kb DNA fragment amplified from all beer-spoilers included one open reading frame, termed hitA (hop-inducible cation transporter), which encodes an integral membrane protein with 11 putative trans-membrane domains and a binding protein-dependent transport signature of a non-ATP binding membrane transporter common to several prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters. The hitA polypeptide is homologous to the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family characterized as divalent-cation transport proteins in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Northern blot analysis indicated that the hitA transcripts are expressed in cells cultivated in MRS broth supplemented with hop bitter compounds, which act as mobile-carrier ionophores, dissipating the trans-membrane pH gradient in bacteria sensitive to the hop bitter compounds by exchanging H+ for cellular divalent cations such as Mn2+. This suggests that the hitA gene products may play an important role in making the bacteria resistant to hop bitter compounds in beer by transporting metal ions such as Mn2+ into cells that no longer maintain the proton gradient.

  2. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, H W; Konings, W N

    2001-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters.

  3. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  4. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... body's tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow ... 2 days. The body makes about two million red blood cells every second. Blood is made up of both cellular and liquid components. ...

  5. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  6. Induction of surfactin production in Bacillus subtilis by gsp, a gene located upstream of the gramicidin S operon in Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, S; Stachelhaus, T; Marahiel, M A

    1994-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequence of the gsp gene, located upstream of the 5' end of the gramicidin S operon (grs operon) in Bacillus brevis, showed a high degree of similarity to the sfp gene product, which is located downstream of the srfA operon in B. subtilis. The gsp gene complemented in trans a defect in the sfp gene (sfpO) and promoted production of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin. The functional homology of Gsp and Sfp and the sequence similarity of these two proteins to EntD suggest that the three proteins represent a new class of proteins involved in peptide secretion, in support of a hypothesis published previously (T. H. Grossman, M. Tuckman, S. Ellestad, and M. S. Osburne, J. Bacteriol. 175:6203-6211, 1993). Images PMID:7512553

  7. Musculoskeletal management of a patient with a history of chronic ankle sprains: identifying rupture of peroneal brevis and peroneal longus with diagnostic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Dick B; von Piekartz, Harry

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of mobilization and eccentric exercise training for a patient with ankle pain and a history of chronic ankle sprains and discuss the course of diagnostic decision making when the patient did not respond to care. A 48-year-old police officer who had sustained multiple ankle sprains throughout his life presented with pain and restriction in his ability to walk, run, and work. The Global Rating of Change Scale score was - 6, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale score was 7/10, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale score was - 33. Palpation of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles and inversion with overpressure reproduced the chief concern (Numeric Pain Rating Scale 7/10). The patient was initially diagnosed with chronic peroneal tendinopathy. Treatment included lateral translation mobilization of the talocrural joint combined with eccentric exercise using an elastic band for the peroneal muscles. The patient reported improvement in pain and function during the course of intervention but not as rapidly as expected. Therefore, follow-up ultrasonographic imaging and radiography were performed. These studies revealed partial rupture of the peroneal brevis muscle and total rupture of the peroneal longus muscle. A patient with long-term concerns of the foot complex with a diagnosis of peroneal tendinopathy showed slight improvement with eccentric exercises combined with manual therapy of the talocrural joint. After a course of treatment but minimal response, a diagnosis of tendon rupture was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasonography. Clinicians should be aware that when injuries do not improve with care, tendon rupture should be considered.

  8. Study on oligomerization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyeong; Lee, Seungho; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Nilsson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In this work, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV/Vis, multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-dRI) was employed for analysis of glutamate decarboxylase (LbGadB) from Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis). AF4 provided molecular weight (MW) (or size)-based separation of dimer, hexamer, and aggregates of LbGadB. The effect of pH on oligomerization of LbGadB was investigated, and then AF4 results were compared to those from molecular modeling. The MWs measured by AF4-UV-MALS-dRI for dimeric and hexameric forms of LbGadB were 110 and 350 kDa, respectively, which are in good agreements with those theoretically calculated (110 and 330 kDa). The molecular sizes determined by AF4-UV-MALS-dRI were also in good agreement with those obtained from molecular modeling (6 and 10 nm, respectively, for dimeric and hexameric from AF4-UV-MALS-dRI and 6.4 × 7.6 and 7.6 × 13.1 nm from molecular modeling). The effects of temperature, salt type, and salt concentration on oligomerization of LbGadB were also investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that the hexameric form of LbGadB was most stable at pH 6 and in presence of NaCl or KCl. The results indicate that AF4, in combination of various online detectors mentioned above, provides an effective tool for monitoring of oligomerization of LbGadB under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, type of salts, and salt concentrations.

  9. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  10. Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    This view of Jupiter Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. The image was taken on June 26, 1996. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00296

  11. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  12. A new species of small and highly abbreviated caecilian (Gymnophiona: Indotyphlidae) from the Seychelles island of Praslin, and a recharacterization of Hypogeophis brevis Boulenger, 1911.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Wilkinson, Mark; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Gower, David J

    2017-10-06

    A new species of indotyphlid caecilian amphibian, Hypogeophis pti sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens from the Seychelles island of Praslin. The type series was collected in 2013 and 2014, and a referred specimen previously identified as H. brevis Boulenger, 1911 was collected from an unspecified Seychelles locality in 1957. The new species most closely resembles the Seychelles endemic Hypogeophis brevis in being short (maximum known total length in life ca. 120 mm) and long snouted, but differs by having a less anteriorly positioned tentacular aperture and fewer primary annuli and vertebrae. In having only 67-69 vertebrae, H. pti sp. nov. is the most abbreviated extant species of caecilian reported to date.

  13. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2018-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  14. Expression of Genes Involved in Bacteriocin Production and Self-Resistance in Lactobacillus brevis 174A Is Mediated by Two Regulatory Proteins.

    PubMed

    Noda, Masafumi; Miyauchi, Rumi; Danshiitsoodol, Narandalai; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis 174A, isolated from Citrus iyo fruit, produces a bacteriocin designated brevicin 174A, which is comprised of two antibacterial polypeptides (designated brevicins 174A-β and 174A-γ). We have also found a gene cluster, composed of eight open reading frames (ORFs), that contains genes for the biosynthesis of brevicin 174A, self-resistance to its own bacteriocin, and two transcriptional regulatory proteins. Some lactic acid bacterial strains have a system to start the production of bacteriocin at an adequate stage of growth. Generally, the system consists of a membrane-bound histidine protein kinase (HPK) that senses a specific environmental stimulus and a corresponding response regulator (RR) that mediates the cellular response. We have previously shown that although the HPK- and RR-encoding genes are not found on the brevicin 174A biosynthetic gene cluster in the 174A strain, two putative regulatory genes, designated breD and breG , are in the gene cluster. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of brevicin 174A production and self-resistance is positively controlled by two transcriptional regulatory proteins, designated BreD and BreG. BreD is expressed together with BreE as the self-resistance determinant of L. brevis 174A. DNase I footprinting analysis and a promoter assay demonstrated that BreD binds to the breED promoter as a positive autoregulator. The present study also demonstrates that BreG, carrying a transmembrane domain, binds to the common promoter of breB and breC , encoding brevicins 174A-β and 174A-γ, respectively, for positive regulation. IMPORTANCE The problem of the appearance of bacteria that are resistant to practical antibiotics and the increasing demand for safe foods have increased interest in replacing conventional antibiotics with bacteriocin produced by the lactic acid bacteria. This antibacterial substance can inhibit the growth of pathogenic

  15. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  16. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  17. Saturn's red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This false color image, taken on November 6, 1980 from a distance of about 8 million kilometers, shows somewhat similar, although much smaller, red spot on Saturn. False color was used to make the faint spot more visible.

  18. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  19. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics to Identify Novel Genes and Pathways in Dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D.

    2016-02-01

    The unarmored dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is among the most prominent harmful, bloom-forming phytoplankton species in the Gulf of Mexico. During blooms, the polyketides PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 (brevetoxins) are produced by K. brevis. Brevetoxins negatively impact human health and the Gulf shellfish harvest. However, the genes underlying brevetoxin synthesis are currently unknown. Because the K. brevis genome is extremely large ( 1 × 1011 base pairs long), and with a high proportion of repetitive, non-coding DNA, it has not been sequenced. In fact, large, repetitive genomes are common among the dinoflagellate group. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology enabled us to assemble Karenia transcriptomes de novo and investigate potential genes in the brevetoxin pathway through comparative transcriptomics. The brevetoxin profile varies among K. brevis clonal cultures. For example, well-documented Wilson-CCFWC268 typically produces 8-10 pg PbTx per cell, whereas SP1 produces < 2 pg PbTx/cell, and the mutant low-toxin Wilson clone produces undetectable to low (<0.05 pg/cell) amounts. Further, PbTx-2 has been measured in Karenia papilionacea but not Karenia mikimotoi. We compared the transcriptomes of four K. brevis clones (Wilson-CCFWC268, SP3, SP1, and mutant low-toxin Wilson) with K. papilionacea and K. mikimotoi to investigate nucleotide-level genetic variations and differences in gene expression. Of the 85,000 transcripts in the K. brevis transcriptome, 4,600 transcripts, including novel unannotated orthologs and putative polyketide synthases (PKSs), were only expressed by brevetoxin-producing K. brevis and K. papilionacea, not K. mikimotoi. Examination of gene expression between the typical- and low-toxin Wilson clones identified about 3,500 genes with significantly different expression levels, including 2 putative PKSs. One of the 2 PKSs was only found in the brevetoxin-producing Karenia species. These transcriptomes could not have been characterized without high

  1. A pilot study to determine whether differences exist in histochemical properties between the trapezius and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles in women with work-related myalgia.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Galvin, Patti; Kyle, Natasha; Iqbal, Sobia; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather; Tupling, A Russell

    2014-04-01

    To investigate fibre-type abnormalities in women with work-related myalgia (WRM), tissue samples were extracted from their trapezius (TRAP) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles and compared with healthy controls (CON). For the ECRB samples (CON, n = 6; WRM, n = 11), no differences (P > 0.05) were found between groups for any of the properties examined, namely fibre-type (I, IIA, IIX, IIAX) distribution, cross-sectional fibre area, capillary counts (CC), capillary to fibre area ratio, and succinic dehydrogenase activity. For the TRAP samples (CON, n = 6; WRM, n = 8), the only difference (P < 0.05) observed between groups was for CC (CON > WRM), which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) when age was used a covariant. A comparison of the properties of these 2 muscles in the CON group indicated a higher (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of type I and type IIA fibres, respectively, in the TRAP as well as higher (P < 0.05) CC, which was not specific to fibre type. These preliminary results suggest that the properties employed to characterize fibre types do not differentiate CON from WRM for either the TRAP or ECRB. As a consequence, the role of inherent fibre-type differences between these muscles in the pathogenesis of WRM remains uncertain.

  2. Joint capsule attachment to the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin: an anatomical study with possible implications regarding the etiology of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Akimoto; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Imatani, Junya; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    To identify the unique anatomical characteristic of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin and points of differentiation from other extensors and to clarify the specific relationship of the ECRB to the underlying structures. We studied the origin of each extensor macroscopically for its muscular and tendinous parts; to identify the relationship between the ECRB origin and the deeper structures, we also examined the attachment of the joint capsule under the ECRB origin. The ECRB simply originated as a tendon without any muscle, whereas other extensors originated as a mixture of tendon and muscle. At the anterior part of the ECRB origin, the thin attachment of the joint capsule (average width, 3.3 mm) lay deep to the ECRB and was distinct. However, at the posterodistal portion, the joint capsule, annular ligament, and supinator were intermingled and originated as a single wide sheet from the humerus (average width, 10.7 mm). The anterior part of the ECRB origin was delicate, because the ECRB origin was purely tendinous, and the attachment of the articular capsule was thin compared with that of the posterodistal attachment. This thin attachment could be an initial factor leading to the development of lateral epicondylitis. The results of the current study may enhance magnetic resonance imaging understanding and may help clarify the etiology of the lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and immobilization on nickel-chelated Sepharose of a glutamate decarboxylase A from Lactobacillus brevis BH2 and its application for production of GABA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Jeon, Sung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    A gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase A (GadA) from Lactobacillus brevis BH2 was expressed in a His-tagged form in Escherichia coli cells, and recombinant protein exists as a homodimer consisting of identical subunits of 53 kDa. GadA was absolutely dependent on the ammonium sulfate concentration for catalytic activity and secondary structure formation. GadA was immobilized on the metal affinity resin with an immobilization yield of 95.8%. The pH optima of the immobilized enzyme were identical with those of the free enzyme. However, the optimum temperature for immobilized enzyme was 5 °C higher than that for the free enzyme. The immobilized GadA retained its relative activity of 41% after 30 reuses of reaction within 30 days and exhibited a half-life of 19 cycles within 19 days. A packed-bed bioreactor with immobilized GadA showed a maximum yield of 97.8% GABA from 50 mM l-glutamate in a flow-through system under conditions of pH 4.0 and 55 °C.

  4. Preliminary observations on high energy phosphates and metabolic pathway and transporter potentials in extensor carpi radialis brevis and trapezius muscles of women with work-related myalgia.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Galvin, Patti; Kyle, Natasha; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather; Tupling, A Russell

    2014-11-01

    This study compared both the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and the trapezius (TRAP) muscles of women with work-related myalgia (WRM) with healthy controls (CON) to determine whether abnormalities existed in cellular energy status and the potentials of the various metabolic pathways and segments involved in energy production and substrate transport. For both the ECRB (CON, n = 6-9; WRM, n = 13) and the TRAP (CON, n = 6-7; WRM, n = 10), no differences (P > 0.05) were found for the concentrations (in millimoles per kilogram of dry mass) of ATP, PCr, lactate, and glycogen. Similarly, with one exception, the maximal activities (in moles per milligram of protein per hour) of mitochondrial enzymes representative of the citric acid cycle (CAC), the electron transport chain (ETC), and β-oxidation, as well as the cytosolic enzymes involved in high energy phosphate transfer, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, lactate oxidation, and glucose phosphorylation were not different (P > 0.05). The glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, and the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4, were also normal in WRM. It is concluded that, in general, abnormalities in the resting energy and substrate state, the potential of the different metabolic pathways and segments, as well as the glucose and monocarboxylate transporters do not appear to be involved in the cellular pathophysiology of WRM.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus brevis K65 on RAW 264.7 cells and in mice with dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-W; Ong, W-K; Su, Y-W; Hsu, C-C; Cheng, T-H; Tsai, Y-C

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with anti-inflammatory effects may be beneficial to the prevention or treatment for inflammation-related diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. In an in vitro assay, heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis K65 (K65) reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 cells. In RAW 264.7 cells stably expressing an ind=ucible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) reporter, viable K65 showed greater inhibition of iNOS production than its heat-killed form. In order to further examine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of K65, viable K65 was orally administered to BALB/c mice before and during the period of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). K65 improved UC symptoms, including reduced the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, and lowered the activity of myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, K65 inhibited TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase 2, forkhead box P3, and Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression in the colonic tissue of DSS-induced UC mice. Taken together, K65, a LAB with in vitro anti-inflammatory activity showed preventive effects on mice with DSS-induced UC by lowering the expression of inflammatory molecules.

  6. Red sea drillings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.A.; Whitmarsh, R.B.; Ali, S.A.; Boudreaux, J.E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R.L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P.R.

    1973-01-01

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  7. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  8. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  9. RED BLOOD CELL PRESERVATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    red cells were assayed by ion exchange chromatography. The O-day 2,3- diphosphoglycerate concentrations of the ACD-AP bloods were below the normal...adenosine or guanosine. After a small initial increase, the ADP levels remained fairly constant. The AMP values increased as the ATP decreased and in

  10. Anatomical variations of the deep head of Cruveilhier of the flexor pollicis brevis and its significance for the evolution of the precision grip.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Samuel S; Aziz, M Ashraf; Ziermann, Janine M

    2017-01-01

    Cruveilhier described in 1834 the human flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), a muscle of the thenar compartment, as having a superficial and a deep head, respectively, inserted onto the radial and ulnar sesamoids of the thumb. Since then, Cruveilhier's deep head has been controversially discussed. Often this deep head is confused with Henle's "interosseous palmaris volaris" or said to be a slip of the oblique adductor pollicis. In the 1960s, Day and Napier described anatomical variations of the insertions of Cruveilhier's deep head, including its absence, and hypothesized, that the shift of the deep head's insertion from ulnar to radial facilitated "true opposability" in anthropoids. Their general thesis for muscular arrangements underlying the power and precision grip is sound, but they did not delineate their deep head from Henle's muscle or the adductor pollicis, and their description of the attachments of Cruveilhier's deep head were too vague and not supported by a significant portion of the anatomical literature. Here, we reinvestigated Cruveilhier's deep head to resolve the controversy about it and because many newer anatomy textbooks do not describe this muscle, while it is often an obvious functionally (writing, texting, precision grip) and clinically significant thenar muscle. For the first time, we empirically delineated Cruveilhier's deep head from neighboring muscles with which it was previously confused. We observed 100% occurrence of the uncontested deep head in 80 human hands, displaying a similar variability of insertions as Day and Napier, but in significantly different numbers. Furthermore, we found variability in the origin and included as important landmarks the trapezoid and the ligamentum carpi radiatum. We tested the assertion regarding the evolutionary morphology and its role in the improvements in thumb movements during various precision grips. Our overall conclusions differ with respect to the developmental and evolutionary origin of the FPB

  11. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Serine Keratinase from Brevibacillus brevis US575 with Promising Keratin-Biodegradation and Hide-Dehairing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jaouadi, Nadia Zaraî; Rekik, Hatem; Badis, Abdelmalek; Trabelsi, Sahar; Belhoul, Mouna; Yahiaoui, Amina Benkiar; Aicha, Houda Ben; Toumi, Abdessatar; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2013-01-01

    Dehairing is one of the highly polluting operations in the leather industry. The conventional lime-sulfide process used for dehairing produces large amounts of sulfide, which poses serious toxicity and disposal problems. This operation also involves hair destruction, a process that leads to increased chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the effluent. With these concerns in mind, enzyme-assisted dehairing has often been proposed as an alternative method. The main enzyme preparations so far used involved keratinases. The present paper reports on the purification of an extracellular keratinase (KERUS) newly isolated from Brevibacillus brevis strain US575. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 29121.11 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of KERUS showed high homology with those of Bacillus keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 8 and 40°C. Its thermoactivity and thermostability were upgraded in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. KERUS displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency than NUE 12 MG and KOROPON® MK EG keratinases. The enzyme also exhibited powerful keratinolytic activity that made it able to accomplish the entire feather-biodegradation process on its own. The kerUS gene encoding KERUS was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The biochemical properties of the extracellular purified recombinant enzyme (rKERUS) were similar to those of native KERUS. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the potential candidacy of this enzyme as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional chemicals used

  13. Comparison of localized injections of spinosad and selected insecticides for the control of Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested structural mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, R Joseph; Grace, J Kenneth; Oshiro, Robert J

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the efficacy of various chemical injections against Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in hardwood shipping pallets. We had three principle interests: efficacy in whole structures, relative efficacy of the active ingredients, and whether acoustic evidence augmented treatment site selection. Infested pallets were delineated into boards with four monitoring sites each. Six chemical treatments were compared: chlorpyrifos aerosol, aqueous disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), resmethrin aerosol, distilled water (control), and two treatments of spinosad SC (one treatment applied based upon visual and the other treatment upon acoustic [AE] evidence). Individual boards were split apart; efficacy was determined by percentage mortality and pre- and posttreatment AE counts. Injections were constrained to a single point per board with the greatest level of termite activity. In whole pallets, mean percentage mortality ranged from 53.3 to 58.7% for the visual and AE spinosad treatments, respectively, whereas water averaged 6.8%. Remaining treatment mortalities were 33.2, 30.4, and 18.1% for chlorpyrifos, DOT, and resmethrin, respectively. Analysis of whole-pallet data indicated that none of the insecticides produced commercially acceptable mortality; localized injections of insecticides were not comparable with whole-structure treatments. We delineated independent groups of board sections (sectional aggregates; SA) that were connected by galleries. When treated SA were analyzed, spinosad and DOT treatments were significantly different from controls, whereas remaining treatments were not different from controls or spinosad and DOT. AE readings and visual termite evidence were compared with presence or absence of termites in SA, and it was determined that both AE and visual evidence were effective predictors of termite presence.

  14. The Elbow-EpiTrainer: a method of delivering graded resistance to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Effectiveness of a prototype device in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Navsaria, Rishi; Ryder, Dionne M; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylopathy (LE) is experienced as the lateral elbow has a reported prevalence of 1.3%, with symptoms lasting up to 18 months. LE is most commonly attributed to tendinopathy involving the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. The aim of tendinopathy management is to alleviate symptoms and restore function that initially involves relative rest followed by progressive therapeutic exercise. To assess the effectiveness of two prototype exercises using commonly available clinical equipment to progressively increase resistance and activity of the ECRB. Eighteen healthy participants undertook two exercise progressions. Surface electromyography was used to record ECRB activity during the two progressions, involving eccentric exercises of the wrist extensors and elbow pronation exercises using a prototype device. The two progressions were assessed for their linearity of progression using repeated ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Five participants repeated the study to assess reliability. The exercise progressions led to an increase in ECRB electromyographic (EMG) activity (p<0.001). A select progression of exercises combining the two protocols increased EMG activity in a linear fashion (p<0.001). The ICC values indicated good reliability (ICC>0.7) between the first and second tests for five participants. Manipulation of resistance and leverage with the prototype exercises was effective in creating significant increases of ECRB normalised EMG activity in a linear manner that may, with future research, become useful to clinicians treating LE. In addition, between trial reliability for the device to generate a consistent load was acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Anatomical variations of the deep head of Cruveilhier of the flexor pollicis brevis and its significance for the evolution of the precision grip

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, M. Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Cruveilhier described in 1834 the human flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), a muscle of the thenar compartment, as having a superficial and a deep head, respectively, inserted onto the radial and ulnar sesamoids of the thumb. Since then, Cruveilhier’s deep head has been controversially discussed. Often this deep head is confused with Henle’s “interosseous palmaris volaris” or said to be a slip of the oblique adductor pollicis. In the 1960s, Day and Napier described anatomical variations of the insertions of Cruveilhier’s deep head, including its absence, and hypothesized, that the shift of the deep head’s insertion from ulnar to radial facilitated “true opposability” in anthropoids. Their general thesis for muscular arrangements underlying the power and precision grip is sound, but they did not delineate their deep head from Henle’s muscle or the adductor pollicis, and their description of the attachments of Cruveilhier’s deep head were too vague and not supported by a significant portion of the anatomical literature. Here, we reinvestigated Cruveilhier’s deep head to resolve the controversy about it and because many newer anatomy textbooks do not describe this muscle, while it is often an obvious functionally (writing, texting, precision grip) and clinically significant thenar muscle. For the first time, we empirically delineated Cruveilhier’s deep head from neighboring muscles with which it was previously confused. We observed 100% occurrence of the uncontested deep head in 80 human hands, displaying a similar variability of insertions as Day and Napier, but in significantly different numbers. Furthermore, we found variability in the origin and included as important landmarks the trapezoid and the ligamentum carpi radiatum. We tested the assertion regarding the evolutionary morphology and its role in the improvements in thumb movements during various precision grips. Our overall conclusions differ with respect to the developmental and

  16. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid production in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum by co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase genes from Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Jiang, Junjun; Li, Yongfu; Li, Youxin; Xie, Yilong

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, is a bioactive component in the food, feed and pharmaceutical fields. To establish an effective single-step production system for GABA, a recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain co-expressing two glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) genes (gadB1 and gadB2) derived from Lactobacillus brevis Lb85 was constructed. Compared with the GABA production of the gadB1 or gadB2 single-expressing strains, GABA production by the gadB1-gadB2 co-expressing strain increased more than twofold. By optimising urea supplementation, the total production of L-glutamate and GABA increased from 22.57 ± 1.24 to 30.18 ± 1.33 g L⁻¹, and GABA production increased from 4.02 ± 0.95 to 18.66 ± 2.11 g L⁻¹ after 84-h cultivation. Under optimal urea supplementation, L-glutamate continued to be consumed, GABA continued to accumulate after 36 h of fermentation, and the pH level fluctuated. GABA production increased to a maximum level of 27.13 ± 0.54 g L⁻¹ after 120-h flask cultivation and 26.32 g L⁻¹ after 60-h fed-batch fermentation. The conversion ratio of L-glutamate to GABA reached 0.60-0.74 mol mol⁻¹. By co-expressing gadB1 and gadB2 and optimising the urea addition method, C. glutamicum was genetically improved for de novo biosynthesis of GABA from its own accumulated L-glutamate.

  17. Red Teaming Agility (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    are termed “ antifragile ”. Black Swan Model for Deep Red Futures The future is dominated not by trends, but by outliers, extreme events that lie...disproportionately higher mission impact. Agility is a measure of antifragile systems Red Teaming Defined Red Teaming is a function to provide

  18. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program

    Treesearch

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2002-01-01

    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  19. Skin quality in red potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  20. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  1. Surface Display of the Receptor-Binding Region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-Layer Protein in Lactococcus lactis Provides Nonadhesive Lactococci with the Ability To Adhere to Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Western blot assay of lactococcal cell wall extracts with anti-SlpA antibodies confirmed that the SlpA adhesion domain of the fusion protein was expressed and located within the cell wall layer. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy verified that the SlpA adhesion-mediating region was accessible on the lactococcal cell surface. In vitro adhesion assays with the human intestinal epithelial cell line Intestine 407 indicated that the recombinant lactococcal cells had gained an ability to adhere to Intestine 407 cells significantly greater than that of wild-type L. lactis NZ9000. Serum inhibition assay further confirmed that adhesion of recombinant lactococci to Intestine 407 cells was indeed mediated by the N terminus-encoding part of the slpA gene. The ability of the receptor-binding region of SlpA to adhere to fibronectin was also confirmed with this lactococcal surface display system. These results show that, with the aid of the receptor-binding region of the L. brevis SlpA protein, the ability to adhere to gut epithelial cells can indeed be transferred to another, nonadhesive, lactic acid bacterium. PMID:12676705

  2. Surface display of the receptor-binding region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein in Lactococcus lactis provides nonadhesive lactococci with the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Avall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi

    2003-04-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Western blot assay of lactococcal cell wall extracts with anti-SlpA antibodies confirmed that the SlpA adhesion domain of the fusion protein was expressed and located within the cell wall layer. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy verified that the SlpA adhesion-mediating region was accessible on the lactococcal cell surface. In vitro adhesion assays with the human intestinal epithelial cell line Intestine 407 indicated that the recombinant lactococcal cells had gained an ability to adhere to Intestine 407 cells significantly greater than that of wild-type L. lactis NZ9000. Serum inhibition assay further confirmed that adhesion of recombinant lactococci to Intestine 407 cells was indeed mediated by the N terminus-encoding part of the slpA gene. The ability of the receptor-binding region of SlpA to adhere to fibronectin was also confirmed with this lactococcal surface display system. These results show that, with the aid of the receptor-binding region of the L. brevis SlpA protein, the ability to adhere to gut epithelial cells can indeed be transferred to another, nonadhesive, lactic acid bacterium.

  3. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  4. Red Oak Borer

    Treesearch

    D. E. Donley; R.E. Acciavatti

    1980-01-01

    The red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)3, is an important member of the oak borer complex that permanently damages the wood of living oak trees and causes a decrease in lumber grade. The loss in grade can amount to 40 percent of the current tree value, which, at today's prices, is about $80 per thousand board feet for factory grade lumber in terms of...

  5. Red giants seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  6. Brevenal is a natural inhibitor of brevetoxin action in sodium channel receptor binding assays.

    PubMed

    Bourdelais, Andrea J; Campbell, Susan; Jacocks, Henry; Naar, Jerome; Wright, Jeffery L C; Carsi, Jigani; Baden, Daniel G

    2004-08-01

    1. Florida red tides produce profound neurotoxicity that is evidenced by massive fish kills, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and respiratory distress. Red tides vary in potency, potency that is not totally governed by toxin concentration. The purpose of the study was to understand the variable potency of red tides by evaluating the potential for other natural pharmacological agents which could modulate or otherwise reduce the potency of these lethal environmental events. 2. A synaptosome binding preparation with 3-fold higher specific brevetoxin binding was developed to detect small changes in toxin binding in the presence of potential antagonists. Rodent brain labeled in vitro with tritiated brevetoxin shows high specific binding in the cerebellum as evidenced by autoradiography. Synaptosome binding assays employing cerebellum-derived synaptosomes illustrate 3-fold increased specific binding. 3. A new polyether natural product from Florida's red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, has been isolated and characterized. Brevenal, as the nontoxic natural product is known, competes with tritiated brevetoxin for site 5 associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). Brevenal displacement of specific brevetoxin binding is purely competitive in nature. 4. Brevenal, obtained from either laboratory cultures or field collections during a red tide, protects fish from the neurotoxic effects of brevetoxin exposure. 5. Brevenal may serve as a model compound for the development of therapeutics to prevent or reverse intoxication in red tide exposures.

  7. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  8. China Report, Red Flag.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-06

    the Great Truth of Marxism Lights Our Way Forward (pp 2-13) (Hu Yaobang) 1 Marxism and China’s Realities (pp 14-22) (Hu Sheng) 19 Marxism ...TRUTH OF MARXISM LIGHTS OUR WAY FORWARD Beijing RED FLAG in Chinese No 6, 16 Mar 83 pp 2-13 [Speech by Hu Yaobang, general secretary of the Central...world outlook and the most thorough theory of social revolution. From its very birth, Marxism has demonstrated its mighty power with which no other

  9. Red Arcs on Tethys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    Unusual arc-shaped, reddish streaks cut across the surface of Saturn's ice-rich moon Tethys in this enhanced-color mosaic. The red streaks are narrow, curved lines on the moon's surface, only a few miles (or kilometers) wide but several hundred miles (or kilometers) long. The red streaks are among the most unusual color features on Saturn's moons to be revealed by Cassini's cameras. A few of the red arcs can be faintly seen in Cassini imaging observations made earlier in the mission, but the color images for this observation, which were obtained in April 2015, were the first to show large northern areas of Tethys under the illumination and viewing conditions necessary to see the features clearly. As the Saturn system moved into its northern hemisphere summer over the past few years, northern latitudes have become increasingly well illuminated. As a result, the red arc features have become clearly visible for the first time. The origin of the features and their reddish color is currently a mystery to Cassini scientists. Possibilities being studied include ideas that the reddish material is exposed ice with chemical impurities, or the result of outgassing from inside Tethys. The streaks could also be associated with features like fractures that are below the resolution of the available images. Except for a few small craters on Dione, reddish tinted features are rare on other moons of Saturn. However, many reddish features are observed on the geologically young surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Images taken using clear, green, infrared and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create the view, which highlights subtle color differences across Tethys' surface at wavelengths not visible to human eyes. The moon's surface is fairly uniform in natural color. The yellowish tones on the left side of the view are a result of alteration of the moon's surface by high-energy particles from Saturn's magnetosphere. This particle radiation slams into the moon's trailing

  10. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  11. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from "ancient" grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  12. 70° frontal visualization of lateral compartment of the elbow allows extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon release with preservation of the radial lateral collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Fossati, Chiara; Zottarelli, Leonardo; Brady, Paul C; Cabitza, Paolo; Randelli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) are consistently visible, using a 70° arthroscope, as parallel structures in the extra-articular space of the elbow, and to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these techniques in a series of patients. An arthroscopic ECRB tendon release was performed between 2008 and 2010. Eighteen patients were retrospectively evaluated at a minimum of 24 months' follow-up. The surgeon performed the ECRB release while protecting the R-LCL and viewing the structures extra-articularly with a 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal. Patients underwent surgery if they presented with localized tenderness and pain not responding to conservative treatment for 12 months and had magnetic resonance imaging scans indicating tendinopathy or degeneration. Arthritis, posterolateral rotatory instability, trauma, and previous surgeries were exclusion criteria. Intraoperative videos were reviewed and a clinical examination was performed by an independent reviewer at 24 months postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score; Andrews-Carson score; and shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Direct varus stress was applied in extension and flexion (40°), and the posterolateral pivot-shift and chair tests were performed. Visualization with the 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal was successful in all of the cases (100%). Visualization of the residual ECRB tendon stump, as well as the posterior common extensor tendon, was also achieved 94% of the time. The final mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Andrews-Carson score were 82.5 (range, 60 to 100) and 185.3 (range, 125 to 200), respectively. The mean postoperative score on the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire was 20.14 (range, 5 to 57.5). Clinical tests showed stability in all the cases. The 70° arthroscope

  13. Effects of environmental stressors on lymphocyte proliferation in Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Cathy J; Luer, Carl A; Noyes, David R

    2005-02-10

    The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected each year by exposure to cold weather or harmful algal blooms (red tide; Karenia brevis). Exposures can be sublethal, resulting in stressed animals that are rescued and taken to authorized facilities for rehabilitation, or lethal if exposures are prolonged or unusually severe. To investigate whether sublethal environmental exposures can impair immune function in manatees, rendering animals vulnerable to disease or death, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed in lymphocytes from manatees exposed to cold temperatures (N=20) or red tide (N=19) in the wild, and compared to lymphocyte responses from healthy free-ranging manatees (N=32). All animals sampled for this study were adults. Lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and proliferation was assessed after 96 h using incorporation of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), into newly synthesized DNA. Proliferation of lymphocytes from manatees rescued from exposure to red tide or cold-stress was approximately one-third that of lymphocytes from healthy free-ranging manatees. To examine the direct effects of red tide toxins on lymphocyte function, mitogen-induced proliferation was assessed following co-culture of lymphocytes with K. brevis toxin extracts. Stimulation indices decreased with increasing toxin concentration, with a significant decrease in proliferation occurring in the presence of 400 ng red tide toxins/ml. When lymphocytes from cold-stressed manatees were co-cultured with red tide toxin extracts, proliferative responses were reduced even further, suggesting multiple stressors may have synergistic effects on immune function in manatees.

  14. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  15. Red cell substitutes.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying plasma expanders (blood substitutes) have been sought for over a century. Development of current products is a result of evolution in the understanding of proteins in general, of hemoglobin in particular, and of how cell-free hemoglobin interacts with the control of local blood flow to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation. Hemoglobin-based products are considered in four "generations" corresponding to major improvements. First-generation products consisted of hemoglobin, freed of red cell membranes (stroma-free hemoglobin [SFH]), which was renal toxic and vasoactive. Second-generation products were polymerized with aldehyde reagents to reduce or eliminate the renal toxicity, but the products were heterogeneous and still vasoactive. Third-generation products employed more specific intramolecular crosslinking to eliminate polymerization and promote homogeneity, but they also remained vasoactive. Fourth-generation products are based on a new understanding of the way in which microvascular blood flow is controlled and the influence of O(2) delivery to vascular walls. After more than a century of research, one of these new solutions should find use as an alternative to red cells for transfusion in certain clinical settings.

  16. Putative Monofunctional Type I Polyketide Synthase Units: A Dinoflagellate-Specific Feature?

    PubMed Central

    Eichholz, Karsten; Beszteri, Bánk; John, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates (alveolata) are microalgae of which some cause harmful algal blooms and produce a broad variety of most likely polyketide synthesis derived phycotoxins. Recently, novel polyketide synthesase (PKS) transcripts have been described from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (gymnodiniales) which are evolutionarily related to Type I PKS but were apparently expressed as monofunctional proteins, a feature typical of Type II PKS. Here, we investigated expression units of PKS I-like sequences in Alexandrium ostenfeldii (gonyaulacales) and Heterocapsa triquetra (peridiniales) at the transcript and protein level. The five full length transcripts we obtained were all characterized by polyadenylation, a 3′ UTR and the dinoflagellate specific spliced leader sequence at the 5′end. Each of the five transcripts encoded a single ketoacylsynthase (KS) domain showing high similarity to K. brevis KS sequences. The monofunctional structure was also confirmed using dinoflagellate specific KS antibodies in Western Blots. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of KS domains from diverse PKSs, dinoflagellate KSs formed a clade placed well within the protist Type I PKS clade between apicomplexa, haptophytes and chlorophytes. These findings indicate that the atypical PKS I structure, i.e., expression as putative monofunctional units, might be a dinoflagellate specific feature. In addition, the sequenced transcripts harbored a previously unknown, apparently dinoflagellate specific conserved N-terminal domain. We discuss the implications of this novel region with regard to the putative monofunctional organization of Type I PKS in dinoflagellates. PMID:23139807

  17. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  18. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  19. Registration of ‘Red Cedar’ dark red kidney bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red Cedar’ dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2017 as an upright, full-season cultivar that possesses excellent canning quality, tolerance to common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (S...

  20. Jupiter Red 'Monet'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    Citizen scientist David Englund created this avant-garde Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The unique interpretation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was done in a style that pays tribute to French Impressionist painter Claude Monet. The original image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 7:12 p.m. PDT (10:12 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its 7th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was 10,274 miles (16,535 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet, at a latitude of -36.9 degrees. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21779

  1. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  2. Volume tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  3. Characterization of marine aerosol for assessment of human exposure to brevetoxins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, Clinton M; Pierce, Richard H; Naar, Jerome; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Baden, Dan G

    2005-05-01

    Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are commonly formed by the fish-killing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces nine potent polyether brevetoxins (PbTxs). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in wind-powered white-capped waves. Inhalation exposure to marine aerosol containing brevetoxins causes respiratory symptoms. We describe detailed characterization of aerosols during an epidemiologic study of occupational exposure to Florida red tide aerosol in terms of its concentration, toxin profile, and particle size distribution. This information is essential in understanding its source, assessing exposure to people, and estimating dose of inhaled aerosols. Environmental sampling confirmed the presence of brevetoxins in water and air during a red tide exposure period (September 2001) and lack of significant toxin levels in the water and air during an unexposed period (May 2002). Water samples collected during a red tide bloom in 2001 showed moderate-to-high concentrations of K. brevis cells and PbTxs. The daily mean PbTx concentration in water samples ranged from 8 to 28 microg/L from 7 to 11 September 2001; the daily mean PbTx concentration in air samples ranged from 1.3 to 27 ng/m(3). The daily aerosol concentration on the beach can be related to PbTx concentration in water, wind speed, and wind direction. Personal samples confirmed human exposure to red tide aerosols. The particle size distribution showed a mean aerodynamic diameter in the size range of 6-12 microm, with deposits mainly in the upper airways. The deposition pattern correlated with the observed increase of upper airway symptoms in healthy lifeguards during the exposure periods.

  4. Red urine from red deer grazed on pure red clover swards.

    PubMed

    Niezen, J H; Barry, T N; Wilson, P R; Lane, G

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four red deer hinds with their calves were released on to a newly established pure red clover sward and, 2 days later, red staining of the tail, perineum and hocks was observed. This was presumed to be of urinary origin. Observation of micturition showed that when urine was passed, it was a normal straw colour but it turned scarlet-red about 1 hour after exposure to air. Midstream urine remained the normal colour when held under a pure nitrogen atmosphere immediately after micturition, but it turned red when held in air in the dark, suggesting that the colour change was due to an oxidative rather than a photosensitive reaction. All deer grazing red clover were affected but this did not occur in deer grazing ryegrass/white clover swards. No adverse effects were observed in the deer grazing the red clover, and calf growth was significantly higher than on ryegrass/white clover, suggesting that the red urine had no effect on health or productivity. Blood and urine analyses showed no signs of haemolysis, haematuria or haemoglobinuria. Preliminary chemical analyses suggest that the compounds involved are not those found in the urine of sheep grazing oestrogenic clover. The nature of the compounds have yet to be determined.

  5. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  6. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... information will be used by the Red Cross only to locate individuals and families, to answer inquiries from...

  7. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  8. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  10. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  11. Flaring Red Dwarf Star (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-06

    This illustration shows a red dwarf star orbited by a hypothetical exoplanet. Red dwarfs tend to be magnetically active, displaying gigantic arcing prominences and a wealth of dark sunspots. Red dwarfs also erupt with intense flares that could strip a nearby planet's atmosphere over time, or make the surface inhospitable to life as we know it. By mining data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft, a team of astronomers identified dozens of flares at a range of durations and strengths. The team measured events with less total energy than many previously detected flares from red dwarfs. This is important because, although individually less energetic and therefore less hostile to life, smaller flares might be much more frequent and add up over time to produce a cumulative effect on an orbiting planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21473

  12. Redding Responder Field Test - UTC

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-10-30

    This UTC project facilitated field testing and evaluation of the "Responder" system between Phases 1 and 2 of the Redding Responder Project, sponsored by the California Department of Transportation. A pilot system, with hardware purchased by Caltrans...

  13. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  14. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    2-4 to 2-5. 15 Gregory Fontenot, “Seeing Red: Building a Red Team Capability for the Blue Force,” Military Review 85, no. 5 (2005): 7. 5 U.S...44 Slim, 551. 45 Ronald Lewin, Slim: The Standardbearer (London: Leo Cooper, Ltd.; Octopus Publishing Group, 1976), 79. Lewin notes...protecting his regime against other opportunistic external and internal threats.168 The result of Saddam’s threat analysis was his “ ring ” defense

  15. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    PubMed

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  16. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  17. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  18. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  19. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  20. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  1. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  2. Red light running camera assessment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  3. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  4. Red tree vole / Arborimus longicaudus.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    1999-01-01

    The secretive nocturnal red tree vole is one of least studied and most specialized voles in North America. It is found only along the coast and in the Western Cascades of Oregon where it spends most of its life in the tops of tall conifers. eating needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and. Occasionally, other conifers. The voles clip small...

  5. Red cell changes in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    How, J; Davidson, R J; Bewsher, P D

    1979-10-01

    The Coulter 'S' red cell profile was studied prospectively in 100 untreated non-anaemic hyperthyroid patients and followed up in 52 of them until they had become euthyroid with radio-iodine or carbimazole treatment. Serial haematological data were also obtained in 23 hyperthyroid patients during treatment with beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drug alone. The most significant finding was a low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) which was invariably present throughout the hyperthyroid state. Treatment with beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs did not significantly alter any of the red cell parameters. On the other hand, the MCV increased and was restored to normal with radio-iodine or carbimazole treatment although there was a lag period of about 6--8 weeks between achieving the euthyroid state and the normalisation of this red cell index. While none of the patients were aneaemic, the haemoglobin level rose significantly following effective anti-thyroid treatment. It is suggested that measurement of the MCV may have a useful role in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 2 possible mechanisms leading to the observed red cell changes in hyperthyroidism are postulated.

  6. Site curves for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Bishop; Floyd A. Johnson

    1958-01-01

    The increasing commercial importance of red alder (Alnus rubra) in the Pacific Northwest has created a demand for research on this species. Noting the lack of information on growth of alder, the Puget Sound Research Center Advisory Committee established a subcommittee in January 1956 to undertake construction of alder yield tables. Through the...

  7. Expedition 52 Red Square Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, center, and Randy Bresnik of NASA visit Red Square to lay roses at the site where Russian space icons are interred as part of traditional pre-launch ceremonies, Monday, July 10, 2017 in Moscow. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 50 Red Square Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet visit Red Square to lay roses at the site where Russian space icons are interred as part of traditional pre-launch ceremonies, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2016, in Moscow. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 52 Red Square Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, center, and Randy Bresnik of NASA visit Red Square prepare to lay roses at the site where Russian space icons are interred as part of traditional pre-launch ceremonies, Monday, July 10, 2017 in Moscow. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500K< Teff < 10800K . Known as DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars, their oscillations are attributed to overstable g-modes excited by convective driving. The effective temperature at the blue edge of the instability strip is slightly lower than that at which a surface convection zone appears. The temperature at the red edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  11. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redding Responder phase I final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-12-19

    The Redding Responder Study was initiated as a component of the Redding Incident : Management Enhancement (RIME) Program. The goals of the RIME program are to leverage : technology and communications deployments for emergency communication providers ...

  13. Planets Under a Red Sun Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-08

    This artist concept illustrates a young, red dwarf star surrounded by three planets. NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is helping to identify young, red dwarf stars that are close to us by detecting their ultraviolet light.

  14. Red Thread Found on Bermuda Grass

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1966-01-01

    Red thread fungus (Corticium fuciforme (Berk.) Wakef.) was observed in 1965 and 1966 on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) on lawns in Leland, Mississippi. Red thread is a serious disease on fescues but has not previously been reported on Bermuda grass.

  15. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross will... information will be used by the Red Cross only to locate individuals and families, to answer inquiries from...

  16. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Murphy, Christopher S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We report that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as a screen of 12 variants yielded 8 that exhibit photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins can be switched into a green state, and two orange variants can be photoconverted to the far red. The orange highlighters are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibit the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent protein described to date. PMID:19363494

  17. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  18. Effects of Enteric-coated Lactoferrin Tablets Containing Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on Fecal Properties, Defecation Frequency and Intestinal Microbiota of Japanese Women with a Tendency for Constipation: a Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Noriyuki; MURAKOSHI, Michiaki; ONO, Tomoji; MORISHITA, Satoru; KOIDE, Misao; BAE, Min Jung; TOTSUKA, Mamoru; SHIMIZU, Makoto; SUGIYAMA, Keikichi; NISHINO, Hoyoku; IIDA, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of oral administration of enteric-coated tablets containing lactoferrin (LF; 100 mg/tablet) and heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans FREM BP-4693 (LB; 6×109 bacteria/tablet) on fecal properties were examined in 32 Japanese women (20–60 years of age) with a tendency for constipation (defecation frequency at equal to or less than 10 times/2 weeks) by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. A significant increase in defecation days per week was obserbed in the subjects who ingested the tablets containing LF and LB compared with the placebo group. The number of bifidobacteria in feces also significantly increased compared with the placebo group. In an in vitro study, LF and tryptic hydrolysate of LF, but not peptic hydrolysate of LF, upregulated the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC15707 when added to the culture. These results demonstrate the capability of the enteric-coated tablets containing LF and LB in improving intestinal function and suggest that they have a growth promoting function for bifidobacteria. PMID:24936358

  19. A novel portable filtration system for sampling and concentration of microorganisms: Demonstration on marine microalgae with subsequent quantification using IC-NASBA.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Christos-Moritz; Mowlem, Matthew C; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Green, Nicolas G

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface. For instance, Karenia brevis red tides are the cause of aquatic organism mortality and persistent blooms may cause widespread die-offs of populations of other organisms including vertebrates. In order to respond to, and adequately manage HABs, monitoring of toxic microalgae is required and large-volume sample concentrators would be a useful tool for in situ monitoring of HABs. The filtering system presented in this work enables consistent sample collection and concentration from 1 L to 1 mL in five minutes, allowing for subsequent benchtop sample extraction and analysis using molecular methods such as NASBA and IC-NASBA. The microalga Tetraselmis suecica was successfully detected at concentrations ranging from 2 × 10 5  cells/L to 20 cells/L. Karenia brevis was also detected and quantified at concentrations between 10 cells/L and 10 6  cells/L. Further analysis showed that the filter system, which concentrates cells from very large volumes with consequently more reliable sampling, produced samples that were more consistent than the independent non-filtered samples (benchtop controls), with a logarithmic dependency on increasing cell numbers. This filtering system provides simple, rapid, and consistent sample collection and concentration for further analysis, and could be

  20. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  1. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra crispata...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis...

  7. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  8. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established to ensure the... Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn across latitude 46[deg]20'00'' N, including...

  9. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  10. Cryopreservation of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Lagerberg, Johan W

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) is an important method for maintaining an inventory of rare RBC units and managing special transfusion circumstances. The permeating additive glycerol is used as a cryoprotectant to protect RBCs against freezing damage. The use of thawed RBCs was hampered a 24-h outdating period due to potential bacterial contamination when a functionally open system was used for addition and removal of the glycerol. With the introduction of a functionally closed system for the glycerolization and deglycerolization of RBC units, extended post-thaw storage became possible. Here, we describe the cryopreservation of red blood cells according to the high-glycerol method, using a functionally closed processing system.

  11. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via I-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  12. Project RED Impacts Patient Experience.

    PubMed

    Cancino, Ramon S; Manasseh, Chris; Kwong, Lana; Mitchell, Suzanne E; Martin, Jessica; Jack, Brian W

    2017-12-01

    Hospitalized patients are frequently unprepared to care for themselves after discharge often leading to unplanned hospital readmission. One strategy to reduce readmission rates is improving the quality of patient education and preparation before hospital discharge. The ReEngineered Discharge (RED) is a standardized hospital-based program designed to provide patients and caregivers the information they need to continue care at home. We sought to study the impact of the RED intervention on posthospitalization adult patient experience scores in an urban academic safety-net hospital. We conducted a descriptive study of a pilot program that compared posthospitalization survey responses to the Press Ganey survey item "Instructions were given about how to care for yourself at home." We compared the survey results for 3 groups of adult patients: those receiving the RED program, those receiving a standard discharge on the same hospital unit, and those receiving a standard discharge on other hospital units. A greater percentage of adult patients who received the RED discharge program rated the quality of their discharge as "very good" as compared to those receiving a standard discharge on the same hospital unit and those receiving a standard discharge on other hospital units (61%, 35%, and 41%, respectively, P = .0001). Delivery of a standardized hospital discharge program resulted in a larger proportion of top-box "very good" responses on a Press Ganey posthospitalization survey. Future research should examine whether hospital-based transition programs can sustain improvement in patient experience measures and whether these improvements can be observed in other patient populations.

  13. Expedition 52 Red Square Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 backup crew members Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), left, Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos, center, and Mark Vande Hei of NASA pose for a photograph in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral as they visited Red Square to lay roses at the site where Russian space icons are interred as part of traditional pre-launch ceremonies, Monday, July 10, 2017 in Moscow. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 52 Red Square Visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Randy Bresnik of NASA, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, and backup crew members, Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos, Mark Vande Hei of NASA, and Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), right, pose for a group photograph in Red Square after having laid roses at the site where Russian space icons are interred as part of traditional pre-launch ceremonies, Monday, July 10, 2017 in Moscow. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. When red lights look yellow.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Atchison, David A; Chaparro, Alex

    2005-11-01

    Red signals are typically used to signify danger. This study was conducted to investigate a situation identified by train drivers in which red signals appear yellow when viewed at long distances (approximately 900 m) through progressive-addition lenses. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of defocus, target size, ambient illumination, and surround characteristics on the extent of the color misperception of train signals by nine visually normal participants. The data from the laboratory study were validated in a field study by measuring the amounts of defocus and the distances at which the misperception of the color of train signals was apparent and whether these distances varied as a function of time of day. The laboratory study demonstrated that small red targets (approximately 1 min arc) can appear yellow when viewed through small amounts of defocus (approximately +0.75 D) under bright illumination (1910 cd/m(2)). In the field study, the defocus needed to produce the color misperception was similar to that found in the laboratory study. Time of day affected the color misperception, and there was no misperception at night. The color misperception is not solely associated with progressive-addition lenses, but occurs in the presence of small amounts of positive defocus. The potential for the misperception to result in collisions and fatalities presents a major safety concern.

  16. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  17. Red Spot Spotted by Juno

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    NASA's Juno spacecraft obtained this color view on June 28, 2016, at a distance of 3.9 million miles (6.2 million kilometers) from Jupiter. As Juno nears its destination, features on the giant planet are increasingly visible, including the Great Red Spot. The spacecraft is approaching over Jupiter's north pole, providing a unique perspective on the Jupiter system, including its four large moons. The scene was captured by the mission's imaging camera, called JunoCam, which is designed to acquire high resolution views of features in Jupiter's atmosphere from very close to the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20705

  18. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was created by citizen scientist Kevin Gill using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 07:07 p.m. PDT (10:07 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its 7th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 6,130 miles (9,866 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21395

  19. Red blood cells in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2017-10-19

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have historically been considered passive bystanders in thrombosis. However, clinical and epidemiological studies have associated quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in RBCs, including altered hematocrit, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, and malaria, with both arterial and venous thrombosis. A growing body of mechanistic studies suggests that RBCs can promote thrombus formation and enhance thrombus stability. These findings suggest that RBCs may contribute to thrombosis pathophysiology and reveal potential strategies for therapeutically targeting RBCs to reduce thrombosis. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Panoramic Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    An excellent panoramic view of the entire Sinai Peninsula (29.0N, 34.0E) and the nearby Nile River Delta and eastern Mediterranean coastal region. The Suez Canal, at the top of the scene just to the right of the Delta, connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez on the west side of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Aqaba is on the west where they both flow into the Red Sea. At upper right, is the Dead Sea, Jordan River and Lake Tiberius.

  1. Red Rashes of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lynne H; Leclair, Catherine M

    2017-09-01

    Red patches and plaques of the vulva may be manifestations of neoplasms, infections, or inflammatory skin diseases. These diseases can mimic one another clinically; features that generally allow the diseases to be identified on most cutaneous surfaces can be altered in the moist, occluded vulvar environment, making clinical diagnosis difficult. A detailed history and thorough physical examination can point to the likely diagnosis, but biopsy and culture may be needed for diagnosis especially in refractory disease. It is not uncommon for several of these processes to be present concomitantly or complicating other vulvar diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The detection of the capsular tear at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow: the value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography arthrography.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Koichi; Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Onda, Kazunori; Iba, Kosuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuro

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) in the assessment of capsular tears at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radials brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow using arthroscopy as a gold standard. Because of the higher spatial resolution of CT, we hypothesized that CTA is superior to MRI for assessing capsular tears. We retrospectively reviewed 19 consecutive patients with chronic tennis elbow with preoperative MRI and CTA studies who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Three observers with different levels of training and experience (musculoskeletal radiologist, experienced elbow surgeon, and hand fellow) evaluated the capsular tear by MRI and CTA in a blinded manner. The results of the MRI and CTA were compared and the agreement among the 3 observers was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then, the results of the MRI and CTA examinations were compared with the intraoperative findings of the arthroscopic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value were calculated. The ICC of CTA (0.855) was superior to MRI (0.645). The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value of CTA were superior to those of MRI in each of the 3 observers. The κ value was 0.79, 0.89, and 0.79 for CTA, and 0.48, 0.48, and 0.27 for MRI for the radiologist, surgeon, and fellow, respectively. CTA was a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality compared with MRI to detect the capsular tear in patients with chronic tennis elbow. CTA was less influenced by the observer's experience. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  4. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. Jupiter's Great Red Spot, Spotted

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-19

    This image of Jupiter's iconic Great Red Spot and surrounding turbulent zones was captured by NASA's Juno spacecraft. The color-enhanced image is a combination of three separate images taken on April 1 between 3:09 a.m. PDT (6:09 a.m. EDT) and 3:24 a.m. PDT (6:24 a.m. EDT), as Juno performed its 12th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the images were taken, the spacecraft was 15,379 miles (24,749 kilometers) to 30,633 miles (49,299 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet at a southern latitude spanning 43.2 to 62.1 degrees. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21985

  6. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  7. Red supergiants as supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ben

    2017-09-01

    It is now well-established from pre-explosion imaging that red supergiants (RSGs) are the direct progenitors of Type-IIP supernovae. These images have been used to infer the physical properties of the exploding stars, yielding some surprising results. In particular, the differences between the observed and predicted mass spectrum has provided a challenge to our view of stellar evolutionary theory. However, turning what is typically a small number of pre-explosion photometric points into the physical quantities of stellar luminosity and mass requires a number of assumptions about the spectral appearance of RSGs, as well as their evolution in the last few years of life. Here I will review what we know about RSGs, with a few recent updates on how they look and how their appearance changes as they approach supernova. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  8. Asteroseismology of Red Giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, N. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Spreckley, S. A.; Stevens, I. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sun-like oscillations, that is p-modes excited stochastically by convective noise, have now been observed in a number of Red Giant stars. Compared to those seen in the Sun, these modes are of large amplitude and long period, making the oscillations attractive prospects for observation. However, the low Q-factor of these modes, and issues relating to the rising background at low frequencies, present some interesting challenges for identifying modes and determining the related asteroseismic parameters. We report on the analysis procedure adopted for peak-bagging by our group at Birming- ham, and the techniques used to robustly ensure these are not a product of noise. I also show results from a number of giants extracted from multi-year observations with the SMEI instrument

  9. Great Red Spot Rotation (animation)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-11

    Winds around Jupiter's Great Red Spot are simulated in this JunoCam view that has been animated using a model of the winds there. The wind model, called a velocity field, was derived from data collected by NASA's Voyager spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes. NASA's Juno spacecraft acquired the original, static view during passage over the spot on July 10, 2017. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Justin Cowart turned the JunoCam data into a color image mosaic. Juno scientists Shawn Ewald and Andrew Ingersoll applied the velocity data to the image to produce a looping animation. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22178

  10. Why stars become red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.H.

    1988-06-01

    It is shown that a radiative envelope in which the Kramers opacity law holds cannot transport a luminosity larger than a critical value, and it is argued that the transition to red giant structure is triggered by the star's luminosity exceeding the critical value. If the Kramers law is used for all temperatures and densities, the radius of the star diverges as the critical luminosity is approached. In real stars the radiative envelope expands as the luminosity increases until the star intersects the Hayashi track. Once on the Hayashi track, luminosities in excess of the critical luminosity can be accommodatedmore » by forcing most of the mass of the envelope into the convection zone. 17 references.« less

  11. Red supergiants as supernova progenitors.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ben

    2017-10-28

    It is now well-established from pre-explosion imaging that red supergiants (RSGs) are the direct progenitors of Type-IIP supernovae. These images have been used to infer the physical properties of the exploding stars, yielding some surprising results. In particular, the differences between the observed and predicted mass spectrum has provided a challenge to our view of stellar evolutionary theory. However, turning what is typically a small number of pre-explosion photometric points into the physical quantities of stellar luminosity and mass requires a number of assumptions about the spectral appearance of RSGs, as well as their evolution in the last few years of life. Here I will review what we know about RSGs, with a few recent updates on how they look and how their appearance changes as they approach supernova.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Normal yield tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  13. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North..., extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to protect persons and vessels from...

  14. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation.

  15. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  16. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  17. Heat sterilization times of red pine boards

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the time required to heat the center of red pine boards to various temperatures for sterilization. This information will serve as a guideline for those concerned with heat sterilizing wood pallets and other wood shipping containers to meet heat treatment requirements for protection against invasive pests. Red pine boards, 4...

  18. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  19. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  20. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    PubMed

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  2. Red Rot of Ponderosa Pine (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Stuart R. Andrews

    1971-01-01

    Red rot caused by the fungus Polyporus anceps Peck is the most important heart rot of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the Southwest (in Arizona and New Mexico), the Black Hills of South Dakota, and some localities in Colorado, Montana, and Idaho. It causes only insignificant losses to this species elsewhere in the West. The red rot fungus rarely attacks other...

  3. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  4. Red alder stand development and dynamics.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Deal

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes information on the development of natural pure red alder stands and dynamics of mixed alder-conifer stands. Early research on red alder growth and yield focused on developing stand volume and normal yield. tables for alder in the Pacific Northwest. Recent site-index estimation and height-growth curves were developed on a 20-year site base age....

  5. Fire effects in northeastern forests: red pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1988-01-01

    Fire and red pine are closely associated. Fires can provide red pine with the mineral soil and freedom from competition it needs to become well established. Fire can also be used to control pests, increase tree growth, enhance aesthetics, and improve wildlife habitat.

  6. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  7. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  8. Red light running : a policy review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-01

    There are more than 100,000 red light running crashes per year in the U.S., resulting in some 90,000 people injured and 1,000 people killed. More than half of red light running-related fatalities are pedestrians and occupants in other vehicles who ar...

  9. Volume and taper tables for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; David Bruce; Caryanne VanCoevering

    1968-01-01

    Red alder is a species of increasing importance in the Pacific Northwest. Interest in improved volume tables for the species resulted in publication of the 1949 volume tables. More recently, Browne (1962) published cubic-foot-volume tables for red alder in British Columbia, and Hoyer (1966) presented tarif access tables, based on the 1949 tables, for use with the...

  10. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  11. Success of Underplanting Northern Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2004-01-01

    We summarize results of the growth and survival of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings 11 years after planting in shelterwoods in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas. Shelterwood overstories were harvested 3 years after underplanting > 4,000 northern red oak seedlings. Woody vegetation that was competing with planted seedlings received two...

  12. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  18. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  19. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Red blood cell sedimentation of Apheresis Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodermeier, Michelle A; Byrne, Karen M; Flegel, Willy A

    2017-10-01

    Sedimentation of Apheresis Granulocyte components removes red blood cells. It is used to increase the blood donor pool when blood group-compatible donors cannot be recruited for a patient because of a major ABO incompatibility or incompatible red blood cell antibodies in the recipient. Because granulocytes have little ABO and few other red blood cell antigens on their membrane, such incompatibility lies mostly with the contaminating red blood cells. Video Clip S1 shows the process of red blood cell sedimentation of an Apheresis Granulocyte component. This video was filmed with a single smart phone attached to a commercial tripod and was edited on a tablet computer with free software by an amateur videographer without prior video experience. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  2. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  3. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  4. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  5. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  6. Fish sound production in the presence of harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wall, Carrie C; Lembke, Chad; Hu, Chuanmin; Mann, David A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set to encounter toxic Karenia brevis blooms (a.k.a red tides). Oceanographic conditions measured by the glider were significantly correlated to the variation in sounds from six known or suspected species of fish across the three missions with depth consistently being the most significant factor. At the time and space scales of this study, there was no detectable effect of red tide on sound production. Sounds were still recorded within red tide-affected waters from species with overlapping depth ranges. These results suggest that the fishes studied here did not alter their sound production nor migrate out of red tide-affected areas. Although these results are preliminary because of the limited measurements, the data and methods presented here provide a proof of principle and could serve as protocol for future studies on the effects of algal blooms on the behavior of soniferous fishes. To fully capture the effects of episodic events, we suggest that stationary or vertically profiling acoustic recorders and environmental sampling be used as a complement to glider measurements.

  7. Fish Sound Production in the Presence of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Carrie C.; Lembke, Chad; Hu, Chuanmin; Mann, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set to encounter toxic Karenia brevis blooms (a.k.a red tides). Oceanographic conditions measured by the glider were significantly correlated to the variation in sounds from six known or suspected species of fish across the three missions with depth consistently being the most significant factor. At the time and space scales of this study, there was no detectable effect of red tide on sound production. Sounds were still recorded within red tide-affected waters from species with overlapping depth ranges. These results suggest that the fishes studied here did not alter their sound production nor migrate out of red tide-affected areas. Although these results are preliminary because of the limited measurements, the data and methods presented here provide a proof of principle and could serve as protocol for future studies on the effects of algal blooms on the behavior of soniferous fishes. To fully capture the effects of episodic events, we suggest that stationary or vertically profiling acoustic recorders and environmental sampling be used as a complement to glider measurements. PMID:25551564

  8. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  9. Certification procedures for sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80).

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Fagan, C; Kiernan, J A; Wickersham, T W

    2011-06-01

    Sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80) is a polyazo dye used principally in staining methods for collagen and amyloid. For certification by the Biological Stain Commission, a sample of the dye must exhibit an absorption spectrum of characteristic shape with a maximum at 528-529 nm, a small shoulder near 500 nm and narrow peaks at 372, 281-282 and 230-235 nm. Spot tests (color changes with addition of concentrated H(2)SO(4) or HCl and subsequent dilution or neutralization) also are applied. The dye must perform satisfactorily in the picro-sirius red method for collagen by providing red staining of all types of collagen with yellow and green birefringence of fibers. Llewellyn's alkaline sirius red method applied to tissue known to contain amyloid must show red coloration of the products with green birefringence. Dye content, which does not influence significantly the staining properties of sirius red F3B, is not assayed.

  10. Environmental conditions and catch rates of predatory fishes associated with a mass mortality on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driggers, W. B.; Campbell, M. D.; Debose, A. J.; Hannan, K. M.; Hendon, M. D.; Martin, T. L.; Nichols, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a standardized fisheries-independent longline survey in the northern Gulf of Mexico on August 20-21, 2014, dead and/or moribund fishes, estimated to number in the thousands, were observed within a well-defined area of the West Florida Shelf. Fishes from 15 families were identified; however, numerous individuals of relatively large-bodied serranid species were decomposed beyond a state that would allow for identification below the family level. Based on survey catch data from previous years and morphological characteristics associated with the decomposing fishes, it was determined that most of the large unidentified fishes were red grouper (Epinephelus morio). Water profiler cast data collected within the area demonstrated that when compared to previous years (1995-2013) bottom temperature and salinity were consistent with what would be expected; however, dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than normal, and in some cases, hypoxic and chlorophyll a and transmissivity values were anomalously high and low, respectively. Hypoxia, high chlorophyll a concentrations and low transmissivity are thought to have resulted from a bloom of Karenia brevis, which was documented to have occurred in close proximity to the sampling area. As necropsies were not performed, it was not possible to state a definitive cause of death as the effects of brevetoxins are species-specific. However, numerous individuals of most impacted species were observed floating incapacitated, yet alive, in normoxic surface waters suggesting that the impacts we observed were due to the neurotoxicological and/or hemolytic effects of a harmful algal bloom.

  11. Brevetoxin-2, is a unique inhibitor of the C-terminal redox center of mammalian thioredoxin reductase-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tuladhar, Anupama; Rolle, Shantelle; Lai, Yanhao; Rodriguez Del Rey, Freddy; Zavala, Cristian E; Liu, Yuan; Rein, Kathleen S

    2017-08-15

    Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide dinoflagellate produces a suite of neurotoxins known as the brevetoxins. The most abundant of the brevetoxins PbTx-2, was found to inhibit the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, whereas the PbTx-3 has no effect on this system. On the other hand, PbTx-2 activates the reduction of small disulfides such as 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by thioredoxin reductase. PbTx-2 has an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety which functions as an efficient electrophile and selenocysteine conjugates are readily formed. PbTx-2 blocks the inhibition of TrxR by the inhibitor curcumin, whereas curcumin blocks PbTx-2 activation of TrxR. It is proposed that the mechanism of inhibition of thioredoxin reduction is via the formation of a Michael adduct between selenocysteine and the α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety of PbTx-2. PbTx-2 had no effect on the rates of reactions catalyzed by related enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase or glutaredoxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH) 2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  13. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  14. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  15. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  16. RED BLOOD CELL STORAGE LESION

    PubMed Central

    Kor, Daryl J.; Van Buskirk, Camille M; Gajic, Ognjen

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  17. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin

    PubMed Central

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G.; Khafaji, Mawya A.; Mughal, Muhammad K.; Naylor, Claire E.; Shore, Angela C.; Gooding, Kim M.; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J.; Titball, Richard W.; Winlove, C. Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. PMID:26984406

  18. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    PubMed

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  19. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    PubMed

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  1. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  2. CNO isotopes in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data on CNO abundance ratios in red giants and the interstellar medium (ISM) are analyzed for the implications for the production and distribution of CNO nuclides. The data included isotope abundance measurements for the atmospheres and recent ejecta of cool giants, e.g., carbon stars, S-type stars, red supergiants and oxygen-rich giants beginning an ascent of the giant branch. The contribution of intermediate-mass stars to galactic nuclear evolution is discussed after comparing red giant abundances with ISM abundances, particularly the isotopes O-16, -17 and -18. The O-12/O-18 ratios of red giants are distinctly different from those in interstellar molecular clouds. The CNO values also vary widely from the values found in the solar system.

  3. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  4. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  5. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  6. Red Hill Administrative Order on Consent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Orderequiring the Navy and DLA to take actions, subject to DOH and EPA approval, to address fuel releases and implement infrastructure improvements to protect human health and the environment Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  7. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  8. Shkaplerov exercises on the aRED

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-05

    ISS030-E-235507 (5 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov, Expedition 30 flight engineer, exercises using the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  9. Wakata exercises on the aRED

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-15

    View of Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 Flight Engineer (FE), exercising on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED), in the Node 3. Photo was taken during Expedition 38. Image was released by astronaut on Twitter.

  10. Insects that damage northern red oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1982-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964 and in 1979, the insects found damaging acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in their relative order of abundance were: Curculio proboscideus F., C. sulcatulus (Casey), Melissopus latiferreanus (Wals.), C. nasicus (Say), C. orthorhynchus...

  11. Red alder harvesting opportunities in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney

    1990-01-01

    This report presents statistics on the present distribution and ownership of merchantable stands of red alder in western Oregon and the character of these stands as they affect harvesting opportunities.

  12. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  13. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  15. New Changes in Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-13

    This image is one of two images from NASA Hubble Space Telescope comparing the movement of Jupiter clouds. The movement of Jupiter's clouds can be seen by comparing the first map to the second one in this animated pair of images. Zooming in on the Great Red Spot at blue (below, at left) and red (below, at right) wavelengths reveals a unique filamentary feature not previously seen. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19648

  16. Water Quality Criteria for Disperse Red 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    reported in Chin and Borer 1983). The parent compound of Disperse Red 9 is 9,10-anthraquinone; many of the natural and synthetic derivatives of 9,10...and carbonaceous matter (Rubin et al. 1983). 14 The combustion products are a result of thermal decomposition, thermal rearrangement of the parent dye...with individuals becoming more sensitive to subsequent contact (Tatyrok 1965). Parent (1964) reported that Disperse Red 9 is only slightly toxic by

  17. American Red Cross: A History And Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    strengthens the government’s provisions to the military when deployed and provides a service to the American people through disaster relief. The...suffering in the face of emergencies by mobilizing the power of volunteers and the generosity of donors” ( American National Red Cross, n.d.-a). Their... Americans and all service members and their families have support and comfort when needed ( American National Red Cross, n.d.-a). Frandsen and Lawry (2009

  18. Clinical implications of The Red Book.

    PubMed

    Culliford, Penny

    2012-09-01

    This presentation stresses the uniqueness of both the therapist's and patient's personal experience in clinical work and relates this to the significance of The Red Book as Jung's personal odyssey and for me personally as an analyst. I consider The Red Book's enduring relevance alongside recent psychological theories, neuroscience and early mystical writings, and conclude with a clinical vignette of a patient's response to a piece of choral music and subsequent use of active imagination. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. Optical Properties of the Red Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    monsoon seasons . The effect of monsoons was shown to increase signifi- cantly the optical properties in the Arabian Sea (Arnone and Oriol, 1990a). Within...the Red Sea, the monsoon influence is not as strong as in the Arabian Sea; therefore, these seasonal trends were not expected to impact significantly...objective of this report is to characterize the surface optical properties within the Red Sea and determine the seasonal significance of the monsoons

  20. Control of red alder by cutting.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Thomas C. Turpin

    1989-01-01

    Effects of tree age, month of cut, and height and angle of cut on sprouting of red alder stumps were evaluated in a study designed to develop an effective method for controlling red alder in Douglas-fir plantations. Ninety-five percent or more of alder stumps cut in June or July died by the end of the next growing season; mortality was 88, 70, and 22 percent for stumps...

  1. Missions and Mobility Configurations for RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    use in other research reports or educational pursuits contingent upon the following stipulations: - Reproduction rights do not extend to any copyrighted...MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE AUTHOR(S) MAJOR JAMES T. RYBURN, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR LT COL ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR COL ROBERT J...Classification) MISSIONS AND MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ryburn, James T., Maj or, USAF 13a. TYPE OF REPORT J13b. TIME

  2. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  3. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  4. Sickle red cell-endothelium interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Dhananjay K; Finnegan, Eileen; Barabino, Gilda A

    2009-01-01

    Periodic recurrence of painful vaso-occlusive crisis is the defining feature of sickle cell disease. Among multiple pathologies associated with this disease, sickle red cell-endothelium interaction has been implicated as a potential initiating mechanism in vaso-occlusive events. This review focuses on various interrelated mechanisms involved in human sickle red cell adhesion. We discuss in vitro and microcirculatory findings on sickle red cell adhesion, its potential role in vaso-occlusion, and the current understanding of receptor-ligand interactions involved in this pathological phenomenon. In addition, we discuss the contribution of other cellular interactions (leukocytes recruitment and leukocyte-red cell interaction) to vaso-occlusion, as observed in transgenic sickle mouse models. Emphasis is given to recently discovered adhesion molecules that play a predominant role in mediating human sickle red cell adhesion. Finally, we analyze various therapeutic approaches for inhibiting sickle red cell adhesion by targeting adhesion molecules and also consider therapeutic strategies that target stimuli involved in endothelial activation and initiation of adhesion.

  5. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  6. HOW to Identify and Minimize Red Pine Shoot Moth Damage

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; David J. Hall

    1992-01-01

    The red pine shoot moth, Dioryctria resinosella, feeds on newly expanding shoots and cones of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Damage has been reported from Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southern Ontario. The red pine shoot moth is now considered a pest due to the large increase in the number and overall acreage of red pine plantations greater than 20 years of...

  7. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent Red...

  8. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  9. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  11. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  15. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell indices...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells for...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark brownish-red...

  2. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  3. The impact of red light cameras (photo-red enforcement) on crashes in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Red light running is a significant public health concern, killing more than 800 people and injuring 200,000 in the United States per year (Retting et al., 1999a; Retting and Kyrychenko, 2002). To reduce red light running in Virginia, six jurisdiction...

  4. Analysis of red light violation data collected from intersections equipped with red light photo enforcement cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-03-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of about 47,000 red light violation records collected from 11 intersections in the : City of Sacramento, California, by red light photo enforcement cameras between May 1999 and June 2003. The goal of this...

  5. Ozone damage on apples. [Cortland; Red Rome; McIntosh; Red Delicious; Golden Delicious

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.M.; Rich, S.

    1968-09-01

    Exposure to high rates of ozone for 3 days produced grey to brown pitted areas around lenticles of Cortland, Red Rome, and McIntosh apples, but not on Red Delicious or Golden Delicious apples. These pits were 1 to 2 mm in diameter with a corky area extending 1 mm into the flesh. Neither light nor relative humidity influenced occurrence of the injury.

  6. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  7. Green above-stump weights for red oak, red maple and white birch in northern Michigan.

    Treesearch

    Helmuth M. Steinhilb; Edwin S. Miyata; Thomas R. Crow

    1983-01-01

    Presents the green weights of the above-stump portion of trees, boles, and residue for red oak, red maple, and white birch in northern Michigan. Estimating equations and green weight tables are included for the tree components of each species.

  8. CNO isotopes in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    The production and distribution of the CNO nuclides is discussed in light of observed abundance ratios in red giants and in the interstellar medium. Isotope abundances have been measured in the atmospheres and in the recent ejecta of cool giants, including carbon stars, S-type stars and red supergiants as well as in oxygen-rich giants making their first ascent of the giant branch. Several of the observations suggest revision of currently accepted nuclear cross-sections and of the mixing processes operating in giant envelopes. By comparing red giant abundances with high-quality observations of the interstellar medium, conclusions are reached about the contribution of intermediate-mass stars to galactic nuclear evolution. The three oxygen isotopes, O-16, -17 and -18, are particularly valuable for such comparison because they reflect three different stages of stellar nucleosynthesis. One remarkable result comes from observations of O-17/O-18 in several classes of red giant stars. The observed range of values for red giants excludes the entire range of values seen in interstellar molecular clouds. Furthermore, both the observations of stars and interstellar clouds exclude the isotopic ratio found in the solar system.

  9. Breeding red-winged blackbirds in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Know, C.J.; Stickley, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    Ability to establish and maintain self-sustaining breeding colonies of captive Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) would facilitate long-term studies designed to develop methods for alleviating blackbird depredations as well as provide basic life history data. To be most useful, the colonies should be established in pens near laboratory facilities; this frequently involves putting colonies in unnatural nesting habitat. This paper describes a 5-year effort at Gainesville, Florida, to induce captive Red-wings, most of them taken from the wild as nestlings and then hand-reared in our laboratory, to breed regularly under such conditions. Except for an undocumented report of two young fully reared at the London Zoo in 1913 (Prestwick per. comm.), captive Red-wings have not been induced to breed successfully under avicultural conditions. In 1969, captive Red-wings, wild-trapped as adults, were induced to breed and to rear young successfully in large pens over normal marsh and hayfield nesting habitat in Ohio (Jackson pers. comm.). Earlier, a pair of Red-wings that had been caught as adults and kept together for a year hatched two young in a 40- X 20- X 6-foot cage in Massachusetts (Wetherbee 1960, Wilson Bull. 74: 90), but the nestlings died soon after hatching.

  10. Red cell surface changes in cold agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, A. J.; Clarke, J. A.; Shand, W. S.

    1968-01-01

    Surface changes in red blood cells undergoing cold agglutination have been investigated using the Cambridge Stereoscan electron microscope. On incubation of red cells with a cold agglutinin of anti-I specificity at 4°C, circular shadows on the red cell membrane developed within 2 min. At the same time the membrane showed a granularity and processes began to develop on the surface. These processes increased in length, the processes of contiguous cells became interlinked and agglutination was complete after incubation of 1 hr. On warming an agglutinated specimen, the process was reversed with separation of red cells and retraction of the finger-like processes to yield discrete red cells of normal appearance. The addition of heparin in vivo prevented agglutination but did not inhibit surface changes completely. Complement appeared to play no part in the production of cold agglutination due to these antibodies or in the reversal of agglutination by warming. The significance of the surface changes described in relation to previous information on the mechanism of agglutination, has been discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5655472

  11. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  12. Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting harmful algal blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    The new satellite ocean color sensors offer a means of detecting and monitoring algal blooms in the ocean and coastal zone. Beginning with SeaWiFS (Sea Wide Field-of-view Sensor) in September 1997, these sensors provide coverage every 1 to 2 days with 1-km pixel view at nadir. Atmospheric correction algorithms designed for the coastal zone combined with regional chlorophyll algorithms can provide good and reproducible estimates of chlorophyll, providing the means of monitoring various algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico are particularly amenable to remote observation. The Gulf of Mexico has relatively clear water and K. brevis, in bloom conditions, tends to produce a major portion of the phytoplankton biomass. A monitoring program has begun in the Gulf of Mexico that integrates field data from state monitoring programs with satellite imagery, providing an improved capability for the monitoring of K. brevis blooms.

  13. Red rainbows at sunset/sunrise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The rainbow model deveeloped at CEPAL is based on the Airy theory. The outputs show that a pure red rainbow could only observed from a hill or a mountain when the sun is below the horizon. When the sun is on the horizon, there should be a juxtaposition of a red band on the outside and of a yellow band on the inside (upper figures). However, observers report pure red bows at sea level (lower left figure). In these rare cases, it is possible to still see the sun after it has set. As sunlight passes through more and more dense atmosphere at sunset the light slows and bends closer and closer toward the normal. When the eye traces the light ray it appears to be higher in the sky (lower right figure).

  14. Jupiter's Great Red Spot in True Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-27

    This image of Jupiter's iconic Great Red Spot (GRS) was created by citizen scientist Björn Jónsson using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. This true-color image offers a natural color rendition of what the Great Red Spot and surrounding areas would look like to human eyes from Juno's position. The tumultuous atmospheric zones in and around the Great Red Spot are clearly visible. The image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 07:10 p.m. PDT (10:10 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its seventh close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 8,648 miles (13,917 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet at a latitude of -32.6 degrees. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21775

  15. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  16. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  17. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission.

    The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis.

    The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-07

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Red Light-enhanced Phytochrome Pelletability

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Lee H.; Marmé, Dieter

    1976-01-01

    Red light-enhanced pelletability of phytochrome was observed in extracts of all 11 plants tested: Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Zea mays L., Cucurbita pepo L., Sinapis alba L., Pisum sativum L., Helianthus anuus L., Raphanus sativus L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Lupinus albus L. This enhanced pelletability was observed in all 11 plants following in situ irradiation (in vivo binding) but only in Sinapis and Cucurbita after irradiation of crude extracts (in vitro binding). In vivo binding was not strongly dependent upon pH and, with few exceptions, was not markedly sensitive to high salt concentration, whereas in vitro binding was completely reversed by both high pH and high salt concentration. However, both binding phenomena were observed only with a divalent cation in the extract buffer. In vivo binding was further characterized using Avena which showed an increase in pelletability from less than 10% in dark control extracts to more than 60% in extracts of red light-irradiated shoots. The half-life for binding was 40 seconds at 0.5 C and was strongly temperature-dependent, binding being complete within 5 to 10 sec at 22 C. If pelletable phytochrome in the far red-absorbing form was photoconverted back to the red-absorbing form in situ, phytochrome was released from the pelletable condition with a half-life of 25 minutes at 25 C and 100 minutes at both 13 C and 3 C. No cooperativity in red light-enhanced pelletability with respect to phytochrome-far red-absorbing form was observed. PMID:16659745

  20. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE 'Red Eye' Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate assessments

  1. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE ‘Red Eye’ Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate

  2. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  3. Fundamental Properties of the Red Square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, Peter; Barnes, Peter; Cohen, Martin; Schmidt, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    This proposal follows the exciting recent discovery of the Red Square, the first near-sibling to the illustrious Red Rectangle; and also a potential example progenitor system for supernovae such as SN 1987A. Exploiting the unique extremely wide bandwidth correlator available at Mopra, we propose to rapidly and efficiently explore the molecular environment of this unique new object at 3 mm. This should reveal the fundamental properties of the gas in the underlying stellar system, and will provide the necessary springboard for future spatially-resolved work with interferometers.

  4. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of these background data, metabolic studies were performed on humans involved in space flight. These studies included the Skylab experiences. The primary purpose of the investigations was to study red cells for: (1) evidences of lipid peroxidation, or (2) changes at various points in the glycolytic pathway. The Skylab missions were an opportunity to study blood samples before, during, and after flight and to compare results with simultaneous controls. No direct evidence that lipid peroxidation had occurred in the red blood cells was apparent in the studies.

  5. Are dogs red-green colour blind?

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; d'Ingeo, Serenella; Fornelli, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2017-11-01

    Neurobiological and molecular studies suggest a dichromatic colour vision in canine species, which appears to be similar to that of human red-green colour blindness. Here, we show that dogs exhibit a behavioural response similar to that of red-green blind human subjects when tested with a modified version of a test commonly used for the diagnosis of human deuteranopia (i.e. the Ishihara's test). Besides contributing to increasing the knowledge about the perceptual ability of dogs, the present work describes for the first time, to our knowledge, a method that can be used to assess colour vision in the animal kingdom.

  6. Effects of brevetoxin exposure on the immune system of loggerhead sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Leggett, Stephanie R; Carter, Barbara J; Colle, Clarence

    2010-05-10

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, occur almost annually off the Florida coast. These blooms, commonly called "red tides", produce a group of neurotoxins collectively termed brevetoxins. Many species of sealife, including sea turtles, are severely impacted by brevetoxin exposure. Effects of brevetoxins on immune cells were investigated in rescued loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, as well as through in vitro experiments using peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) collected from captive sea turtles. In rescued animals, plasma brevetoxin concentrations were measured using a competitive ELISA. Plasma lysozyme activity was measured using a turbidity assay. Lysozyme activity correlated positively with plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Differential expression of genes affected by brevetoxin exposure was determined using two separate suppression subtractive hybridization experiments. In one experiment, genes from PBL collected from sea turtles rescued from red tide toxin exposure were compared to genes from PBL collected from healthy captive loggerhead sea turtles. In the second experiment, PBL from healthy captive loggerhead sea turtles were exposed to brevetoxin (500 ng PbTx-2/ml) in vitro for 18 h and compared to unexposed PBL. Results from the subtraction hybridization experiment conducted with red tide rescued sea turtle PBL indicated that genes involved in oxidative stress or xenobiotic metabolism were up-regulated. Using quantitative real-time PCR, a greater than 2-fold increase in superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin and greater than 10-fold increase in expression of thiopurine S-methyltransferase were observed. Results from the in vitro subtraction hybridization experiment indicated that genes coding for cytochrome c oxidases were the major up-regulated genes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, a greater than 8-fold increase in expression of beta-tubulin and greater than 3-fold increase in expression of ubiquinol were observed. Brevetoxin

  7. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H2O2, relies on the reaction of H2O2 and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H2O2 and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H2O2 were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H2O2 under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. PMID:22765927

  8. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-09-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H(2)O(2), relies on the reaction of H(2)O(2) and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H(2)O(2) and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H(2)O(2) were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H(2)O(2) under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Boas, F E; Forman, L; Beutler, E

    1998-03-17

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells.

  10. Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    miles, when reduced to a straight line , from the junction of the White Breast and Des Moines (Stiles 1911:4). George W. Harrison was instructed to...AD-A255 372 Assessment of the Old Red Rock Indian Line Sycamore Tree, Lake Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa DACW25-92-M-0414 by Leah D. Rogers Project...portion of tree 22 9. Map showing location of Red Rock line within treaty cession area of 23 1842 10. Portion of 1844 map showing incorrect placement of

  11. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Alina

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  12. Fertilization Tests With Potted Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Phares

    1971-01-01

    Soil-pot tests with red oak seedlings indicated that forest soils supplied more N and P and produced better seedling growth than old-field soils. Growth was closely correlated with content of N and P in the foliage. K fertilization did not improve seedling growth on any of the soils studied.

  13. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke; Yu, Peng; Dou, Xianghua

    2017-02-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ1-Δν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ1-Δν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M ⊙, the ΔΠ1-Δν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ, which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ1-Δν diagram.

  14. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  15. Chloroplast DNA variation of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Jeanne Romero-Severson; Preston Aldrich; Yi Feng; Weilin Sun; Charles Michler

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was examined in 48 northern red oaks at 14 sites representing contrasting glacial histories and age structures within the state of Indiana in the United States. PCR-RFLP of three intergenic regions revealed five haplotypes. Haplotype I was common to seven sites and was the most frequent (17 trees). Haplotype II was common to five sites...

  16. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  17. Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  18. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  19. Initial thinning in red pine plantations.

    Treesearch

    John H. Cooley

    1969-01-01

    Response to thinning in six red pine plantations in Lower Michigan supported previous findings by showing basal area growth to vary little over a wide range of residual densities. Furthermore, the method of selecting trees for removal in the first thinning had little or no influence on basal area growth. However, the immediate effect of thinning on average stand...

  20. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  1. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  2. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes-painful bumps. Inflamed eyes or eyelids. Swollen, red, bumpy nose, especially in men. Links Fast Facts about Rosacea Questions and Answers about Rosacea NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room 5B52 Bethesda, MD 20892-2094 nihnewsinhealth@od.nih. ...

  3. Targeting red-headed flea beetle larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is an emerging pest of cranberry that requires significant grower investment in monitoring and repeated applications of insecticides to reduce adult populations. The adult beetles are highly mobile and consume a broad range of host plants whereas t...

  4. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter

    Treesearch

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck

    1998-01-01

    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  5. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  6. Biology and ecology of red alder.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Red alder is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest with a range stretching from coastal southeast Alaska to southern California and east to isolated populations in Idaho. Soil moisture during the growing season influences where it grows and its growth rates; it can tolerate poor drainage but not droughty, hot sites. Due to its tolerance of wet soil...

  7. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Treesearch

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  8. Registration of 'Cayenne' small red bean cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Cayenne’ small red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2017 as an upright, full-season cultivar that possesses excellent canning quality, tolerance to common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) ...

  9. Decay not serious in northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1971-01-01

    A study of 114 northern red oak, Quercus rubra, indicated that decay is not serious during the time necessary to produce high-quality saw logs and veneer logs. Two heart-rot fungi, Poria oleraceae and P. cocos, accounted for almost 25 percent of the total decay volume in the study trees. Basal fire wounds, dead...

  10. Heart Rots of Red and White Firs

    Treesearch

    J.W. Kimmey; H.H. Jr. Bynum

    1961-01-01

    Heart rots, caused by fungi that attack the heartwood of living trees, are responsible for the greatest volume loss sustained by California red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white fir (A. concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl.). These two firs comprise 25 percent of the commercial timber of California. More than 13 percent of the volume in these firs is useless cull...

  11. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Nancy E. Koerth

    2007-01-01

    We studied Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to examine the effect of status and gender on foraging behavior. Foraging behavior of breeding pairs extended beyond separation by foraging height to include zones (bole, trunk in crown, primary limb, secondary limb) of the tree used and foraging methods (scaling, probing, excavating). Helper...

  12. Walking in Balance on the Red Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thin Elk, Gene

    1993-01-01

    Native American who entered treatment for alcohol abuse and found that conventional cures did not address cultural clash of being Indian in Eurocentric society describes alcohol prevention and treatment program rooted in traditional Indian values and ceremonies. Describes "The Red Road," holistic approach which uses culture as therapy and…

  13. Red Tape: Its Origins, Uses, and Abuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Herbert

    Red tape, particularly with reference to administration in the federal government, is described, and suggestions that have been proposed for improvement are explored. Among the frustrations that are met in dealing with government are duplicative and contradictory requirements of different agencies, restrictions imposed for announced ends that are…

  14. Using a Red Team to devise countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swedenburg, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a defense system to operate effectively when deployed in battle is dependent on designs able to deal with countermeasures against the defense. The formation of a technical Red Team to stress the preliminary designs of the defensive system with technologically feasible and effective potential countermeasures provides a means to identify such potential countermeasures. This paper describes the experience of the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Theater Missile Defense Red Team since the Gulf War in 1991, the Red-Blue Exchange process, and the value it has provided to the designers of the U.S. Theater Missile Defense systems for developing robust systems. A wide-range of technologically feasible countermeasures has been devised, analyzed, tested for feasibility, and provided to the system developers for mitigation design. The process for independently analyzing possible susceptibilities of preliminary designs and exploiting the susceptibilities to identify possible countermeasures is explained. Designing and characterizing the Red Team's countermeasures, determining their feasibility, and analyzing their potential effectiveness against the defense are explained. A technique for the Blue Team's designers to deal with a wide range of potential countermeasures is explained.

  15. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  16. Registration of 'Norden' hard red spring wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain yield, protein content, and straw strength are the three primary traits that growers consider when selecting wheat cultivars in the Red River Valley region of Minnesota and North Dakota. ‘Norden’ (PI 665250) was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012 b...

  17. In Brief: Red tide Web site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established the NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center to help people understand the significant red tides that are predicted to form there later this spring. The site (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/redtide) will provide a summary of the current red tide situation and its potential harmful impacts on humans and animals and will serve as a central repository of information. The site also will have direct links to news releases, changes to relevant federal fishing regulations, links to closures of shellfish waters, and links to state agency Web sites with localized information. In addition, the site will have information about NOAA's scientific response effort as well as information from several other sources including NOAA's major response partner, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). On 24 April, WHOI scientists, using forecast models developed with NOAA funding support, predicted ``that excess winter precipitation has set the stage for a harmful algal bloom similar to the historic red tide of 2005.'' That bloom shut down shellfish beds from the Bay of Fundy to Martha's Vineyard for several months.

  18. Estimating investment returns from growing red pine.

    Treesearch

    Allen L. Lundgren

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes how to estimate present values of incomes and costs in growing red pine trees for sale as cordwood or sawtimber, and how to calculate expectation values and rates of return for a wide range of timber-growing conditions, using the tables of expectation value indexes and interest rate multipliers provided. It illustrates how to compare investment...

  19. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  20. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke; Yu, Peng

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models ofmore » subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.« less