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Sample records for karl hess jean-pierre

  1. From Paris to Lyon, and from simple to complex liquids: a view on Jean-Pierre Hansen's contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Biben, Thierry; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-09-01

    We present a short perspective on some of the contributions made by Jean-Pierre Hansen to our theoretical understanding of soft matter static structure and dynamics, using the tools developed for simple liquids within the rigorous framework of statistical physics.

  2. Climates as commodities: Jean Pierre Purry and the modelling of the best climate on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Vladimir

    The paper looks at how an early eighteenth-century climatological model of the 'best climate' on Earth became a platform for political, economic, and demographic action of extraordinary significance for the colonization of new commodity environments. It analyzes the science used by an early modern business adventurer to model 'climate' as an economic tool informing imperial governance and exploitation of local resources. Jean Pierre Purry's construction of 'model climate' portrayed North Carolina's township at Yamassee River as an ideal environment geared toward mercantilist principles of trade but also as a model community based on skilled labor and optimal climatic capital. His climatological analysis was a purposeful act of policy making based on a science of colonial expansion similar to more recent calls at economic modelling of future climate impact.

  3. [Organization of care : specialized psychiatric clinic or general psychiatric clinic ? A debate between Louis Guérette and Jean-Pierre Rodriguez.].

    PubMed

    Robitaille, D

    1999-01-01

    The author reports on the opinions of doctors Louis Guérette and Jean-Pierre Rodriguez, both psychiatrists - one working at the Pavillon Notre-Dame of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Montréal (CHUM) - the other at the Pavillon Albert-Prévost (PAP) of the Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, - on the place of specialized psychiatric clinics in the organization of care in psychiatry. Dr Guérette who practices general psychiatry thinks specialized clinics are not an appropriate mode of care delivery. Dr Rodriguez, answering to Dr Guérette's arguments, presents the organizational system of specialized clinics put in place at the PAP. The questions raised by the author and the psychiatrists' answers are reported. Finally, the author, a resident doctor in psychiatry, presents his own personal opinion on the issue.

  4. Jean-Pierre Luminet: Renaissance Communicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, L.; Russo, P.

    2009-02-01

    As science communicators dealing with astronomy we often find a strong interest amongst the public in astrology - how the stars and planets directly affect our individual lives. Nowadays astrology is at odds with the scientific nature of astronomy, but this has not always been the case. Presented here is a background to astrology, to give a deeper understanding of where it has come from and why it has such an enduring place in all forms of global media.

  5. Anders receives Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.; Anders, Edward

    Edward Anders was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony on May 31 in Baltimore. The Hess Medal recognizes outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and its sister planets. The award citation and Anders' response are given here.

  6. 76 FR 68747 - Hess Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] Hess Corporation v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint... 385.212, Hess Corporation (Complainant) filed a Petition for Declaratory Order requesting that...

  7. Stevenson receives Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaula, William M.; Stevenson, David J.

    David J. Stevenson was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on May 27, 1998, in Boston, Massachusetts. The Harry H. Hess Medal recognizes outstanding achievements in the research of the constitution and evolution of Earth and its sister planets.A meaningful understanding of the Earth and planets requires explaining their differences. This explanation of planetary processes is difficult partly because it entails a wide range of scales—from microscale, operating at the atomic level, to macroscale, determined by boundaries thousands of kilometers apart. David Stevenson's graduate study was mainly in theoretical condensedmatter physics, but he is remarkable in his grasp of large-scale planetary processes such as mantle convection and the dynamos. He is also remarkable in his ‘instinct to attack the jugular,’ that is to go for the most important problems and for the versatility of his approaches thereto.

  8. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  9. BPS dyons and Hesse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2012-02-01

    We revisit BPS solutions to classical N = 2 low energy effective gauge theories. It is shown that the BPS equations can be solved in full generality by the introduction of a Hesse potential, a symplectic analog of the holomorphic prepotential. We explain how for non-spherically symmetric, non-mutually local solutions, the notion of attractor flow generalizes to gradient flow with respect to the Hesse potential. Furthermore we show that in general there is a non-trivial magnetic complement to this flow equation that is sourced by the momentum current in the solution.

  10. Global Hawk's View of Karl

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time-lapse video shows Hurricane Karl as seen from NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft during a 25.3-hour flight Sept. 16-17, 2010. Eight of the Global Hawk's 20 passes over the hurricane wer...

  11. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  12. Karl Jaspers' multiperspectivalism.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Osborne P; Schwartz, Michael Alan

    2013-01-01

    In later editions of his General Psychopathology, Karl Jaspers prescribes many different methods and theoretical points of view for psychopathologists to utilize. Each of these perspectives on the subject matter of psychopathology, however, gives the investigator access to only one dimension of the patient's being. Hence, Jaspers insists that several different perspectives must be employed in order to avoid a one-sided and partial comprehension of the patient and his or her problem. He advocates a multiperspectival approach in psychopathology. Nevertheless, Jaspers remains aware that the patient is a unified whole. This unified whole, however, is not knowable as such, but can rather be approached only under the guidance of an 'idea' of the whole. Jaspers takes the basic notion of 'idea' (Idee) from Kant, but he modifies and uses it for his own purposes. Jaspers' multiperspectivalism may seem to invite charges of relativism because it leaves the psychopathologist to 'pick and choose' any method or theory he or she prefers. This charge is addressed by admitting that there does exist a certain relativism in Jaspers' position in that any one perspective does provide only one approach to the reality of the patient and that other equally useful perspectives could have been chosen. However, each perspective itself can be subjected to test by evidence, and in such tests, claims made from that perspective can be found to be true or false. Helen Longino's theory of scientific knowledge helps support such a thesis.

  13. Unveiling the origin of HESS J1809-193

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, G.; Giacani, E.; Petriella, A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The main goal of this paper is to provide new insights on the origin of the observable flux of γ rays from HESS J1809-193 using new high-quality observations in the radio domain. Methods: We used the Expanded Very Large Array (now known as the Karl G. Jansky Very large Array, JVLA) to produce a deep full-synthesis imaging at 1.4 GHz of the vicinity of PSR J1809-1917. These data were used in conjunction with 12CO observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the transition line J = 3-2 and atomic hydrogen data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium in the direction of the source HESS J1809-193. Results: The new radio continuum image, obtained with a synthesized beam of 8'' × 4'' and a sensitivity of 0.17 mJy beam-1, reveals with unprecedented detail all the intensity structures in the field. No radio counterpart to the observed X-ray emission supposed to be a pulsar wind nebula powered by PSR J1809-1917 is seen in the new JVLA image. We discovered a system of molecular clouds on the edge of the supernova remnant (SNR) G11.0-0.0 shock front, which is positionally coincident with the brightest part of the TeV source HESS J1809-193. We determine, on the basis of kinematic and morphological evidences, a physical link of the SNR with the clouds for which we estimated a total (molecular plus atomic) mass of ~3 × 103M⊙ and a total proton density in the range 2-3 × 103 cm-3. Conclusions: We propose as the most likely origin of the very high-energy γ-ray radiation from HESS J1809-193 a hadronic mechanism through collisions of ions accelerated at the SNR G11.0-0.0 shock with the molecular matter in the vicinity of the remnant. The new JVLA image (in FITS format) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A71

  14. Karl Marx and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  15. Karen Hesse: The Rest Is History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a profile of Newbery Award-winning author Karen Hesse, who is best known for her knack for recovering the little-known stories of the past and making them resonate once again in her books. As a meticulous researcher and lover of things from the past, some of Karen Hesse's most well-loved stories have tugged at her sleeve (and…

  16. Magnetoplasmadynamcis - Portrait of Robert V. Hess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Portrait of Robert V. Hess: Hess was the head of Magnetoplasmadynamcis' (MPD)Plasma Physics Section. from Spaceflight Revolution: 'Beginning in the late 1950s, a small group of Langley researchers led by Robert V. Hess, an applied physicist from Austria who had come to work for the NACA in 1945, began pursuing two major variants of the Hall accelerator: the MPD arc and the so-called linear Hall accelerator. Throughout the 1960s, Hess and his associates refined these versions of studies of the physics and overall performance of their devices. Although they successfully demonstrated the efficiency of the MPD arc and linear Hall accelerator and made several important findings relating to the manner in which oscillations and instabilities in plasma could develop into turbulent flows, MPD researchers were never able to simulate reentry conditions or the interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetosphere, and they would never realize meaningful applications in space propulsion. As was the case with the other MPD experimental facilities mentioned, the linear Hall-current accelerator possessed limitations that Hess and his colleagues could not eradicate. By the late 1960s, Hess and others in MPD shifted the focus of their work with these accelerators to the potential application of gas lasers.'

  17. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  18. 75 FR 32210 - United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports.... Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine Institute, John Kloss..., Plaintiffs, vs. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

  19. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  20. Karl Tomm's Collaborative Approaches to Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Sutherland, Olga; Couture, Shari; Godard, Greg; Hope, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Karl Tomm, a Canadian psychiatrist and family counsellor, has been at the forefront of developments in collaborative practice with clients for over 25 years. We situate Dr. Tomm's ideas in relation to counselling, noting some of his important contributions to conceptualizing counsellors' engagement with clients. We will also depict Tomm's…

  1. Karl A. Gschneidner Jr (1930–2016)

    SciTech Connect

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-09-23

    Presented here is the obituary for Karl Albert Gschneidner Jr. He died on 27 April 2016. Nicknamed Mr Rare Earth, he holds an unparalleled place as the renowned authority in just about every aspect related to the science, technology and history of a very special family of elements — the rare earths.

  2. Wortschatzliste und Synonyme: Hermann Hesse, "Siddhartha" (Vocabulary List and Synonyms for Hermann Hesse's "Siddhartha").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzburg, John A.

    This vocabulary and synonym list for Hermann Hesse's "Siddhartha" (presently on the German Advanced Placement Program required reading list) is keyed to the Dunham and Wensinger edition published by the Macmillan Company. Selected German vocabulary found on each page of the text is briefly translated into English or clarified through the…

  3. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1980-01-01

    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Profiles in Research: An Interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karl Gustav Joreskog. Karl Gustav Joreskog was born in Amal, Sweden, on April 25, 1935. He did his undergraduate studies at Uppsala University from 1955 to 1957, with a major in mathematics and physics. He received a PhD in statistics at Uppsala University in 1963, and he was a research statistician at…

  5. "Unmapped Territories": The Career of Karl Kroeber (1926-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. Lavonne Brown

    2012-01-01

    Jean Taylor Kroeber, widow of Karl Kroeber, has granted permission for "SAIL" to reprint his "Address to Columbia College Students Elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society, 18 May 2009" and "An Interview with Karl Kroeber." Conducted by Michael Mallick, the interview was published in the newsletter of the Department of English and Comparative…

  6. The syndrome of Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, M P; Saunders, M; Walls, T J; Saunders, I; Kirk, C A

    1986-01-01

    Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum was the first to describe catatonia in 1868. There has been a tendency to consider catatonia as a psychiatric disease despite many case reports demonstrating a wide range of medical and neurological as well as psychiatric causes. We present our accumulated experience of the catatonic syndrome. Most cases (36%) were associated with affective illness but five cases (20%) had a defined organic disorder. A significant minority had no identifiable cause and there was only one case of schizophrenia. The idiopathic and affective groups had a high incidence of recurrent catatonic episodes and many had a family history of a similar problem. The prognosis was excellent, except for the few patients who presented with the acute and rapidly progressive form of the syndrome which led to acute renal failure. PMID:3760905

  7. Divining and knowing: Karl Sudhoff's historical method.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the historical method of Karl Sudhoff (1853- 1938), Germany's first professor of medical history. It argues that in order to understand his ideas more fully, we need to step outside the historiography of medical history and assess his methodology in relation to the norms and ideals of German academic history writing in general. The article demonstrates that the philology-based "critical method" of Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886) was central to Sudhoff's methodological thinking. It investigates the underlying philosophical and epistemological assumptions of Ranke's method, which tend to be less appreciated than his overt empiricism and explores how Sudhoff applied these to the new professionalizing subdiscipline of the history of medicine. The article argues that Sudhoff's concerns with the methodology of history, which involved a particular conception of the relationship between the human sciences and the medical sciences, offers compelling addresses to our times.

  8. Karl Rawer: space research and international cooperation - Laudation on the occasion of the 100th birthday of Professor Karl Rawer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, B. W.

    2014-11-01

    This laudation is given in honor of the 100th birthday of Prof. Karl Rawer which happens to coincide with the 45th anniversary of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The ionosphere was discovered during Karl Rawer's lifetime, and he has dedicated his professional life to its exploration. World Wars I and II shaped his early life, but they also launched his career as one of the eminent geophysical scientists of the twentieth century. The paper looks back at Karl Rawer's life and his pioneering work and leadership in advancing and shaping the exploration of the ionosphere.

  9. From West to East and Back Again: Faith, Doubt and Education in Hermann Hesse's Later Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Hermann Hesse's penultimate novel, "The Journey to the East", from an educational point of view. Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of "the East" in seeking to understand himself and his society. While highly critical of elements of Western modernism, Hesse nonetheless viewed "the East" through Western lenses…

  10. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  11. The scientific contributions of Karl Frederick Canter (1944 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allen P., Jr.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to remember as many good qualities of our friend Karl Canter as I can, as an antidote to the loss of such a magnanimous, generous, inventive and amusing person. The paper endeavours to distill the essence in simple terms of some of Karl's important scientific contributions and say what I know of how these accomplishments were made possible and molded by his various character traits, illustrated with the few anecdotes that I remember.

  12. A Conversation with Karl K. Turekian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Note Each year, the editorial board invites a distinguished member of the oceanographic community to contribute a prefatory chapter; this year, we were delighted when Karl Turekian, Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale, accepted our invitation. Over the course of a long and productive career, Dr. Turekian has pursued his interests in marine and atmospheric geochemistry by using natural radioactive and radiogenic isotopes to study Earth's evolution and the impacts of global change. He has also directed both the Center for the Study of Global Change at Yale and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. In this interview, conducted by his former student Kirk Cochran, Dr. Turekian tells the story of his early career and discusses some of the major scientific challenges and opportunities faced along the way. His personal account of the rise of geochemistry is a charming story of how chance events and personalities impact scientific careers. His technical insight into the future of this field is illuminating, particularly for scientific outsiders who appreciate the central role of geochemistry in discerning and understanding patterns of global change. Craig A. Carlson and Stephen J. Giovannoni, Editors [Figure: see text

  13. Where Are Our Greenfields?: A Conversation with Frederick M. Hess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    In an interview with Educational Leadership, Frederick M. Hess talks about greenfield schooling--a policy approach that attempts to knock down the formal and informal barriers that stand in the way of innovation in education. Greenfield schooling, he explains, "doesn't imagine that we should go around razing districts or schools or taking…

  14. Dick receives 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Henry J. B. Dick was awarded the 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets."

  15. Dick receives 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Henry J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Henry J. B. Dick was awarded the 2011 Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 7 December 2011 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of Earth and other planets."

  16. Hesse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection contains essays by Thomas Mann, Andre Gide, Martin Buber, Ernst Robert Curtius, Oskar Seidlin, Hans Mayer, G. W. Field, Jeffrey Sammons, and the editor, Theodore Ziolkowski--all dealing with the biography and literary work of Hermann Hesse.…

  17. Karen Hesse: From Grade School Writer to Newbery Medalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses author Karen Hesse's books for children and young adults; suggests ideas for related activities that include appropriate Web sites; and presents an annotated bibliography for books for young readers, books for older readers, audio, video, Web biographical information, print biographical information, and additional sources. (LRW)

  18. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is not evenly distributed in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-isolates associated with CDI in different healthcare facilities in Hesse were analysed. The most common ribotypes were 001 (31.1%) and 027 (27.0%). The proportion of ribotype 027 among regional C. difficile-isolates was 10.8% in North Hesse, 17.2% in Middle Hesse, and 33.5% in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Area. In the latter region, ribotype 027 was the most prevalent ribotype.

  19. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  20. Giving Teens a Chance: Karl Kendall--Phoenix Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Karl Kendall knows that while comic books, computers, and daily movies will grab teens' interest, what they long for most is respect. As head of Teen Central, a 4,000 square foot space on the fourth floor of Phoenix's Burton Barr Central Library, Kendall provides teens with a place where their ideas and opinions are listened to, their talents…

  1. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable.

  2. The Power of Prevention: Dr. Karl Augustus Menninger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillogly, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    This issue's "Voices of Pioneers" segment features the work of Karl Menninger, pre-eminent psychiatrist, and his contributions to prison reform, mental health, and child care systems. Notes many of Menninger's books and writings, including relevant quotes throughout the article. Also describes Menninger's concern over the plight of…

  3. Trial by Newspaper: The Strange Case of Dr. Karl Muck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sheldon S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the case of Dr. Karl Muck, conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra who was accused of espionage in 1917. Suggests that the espionage charge was a fiction created by newspapers, beginning with "The Providence Journal." Concludes that Muck admitted to being a spy rather than reveal the name of the woman with whom he had an…

  4. Karl Krueger, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Karl Krueger received a PhD in biochemistry from Vanderbilt University and continued his research training at NIH as a postdoctoral fellow before joining the faculty at Georgetown University School of Medicine. His research throughout this period focused on different aspects of drug receptors and their role in the nervous system. |

  5. A 3-D Flyby of Karl Sees Heavy Rain

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyby animation from NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite on Sept. 24 at 1156 UTC (7:56 a.m. EDT) GPM found heavy rainfall at 299 mm (11.8 inches) per hour north of Karl's center where storm tops reached...

  6. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  7. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  8. Geochemistry and age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.

    2016-07-01

    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship between these plateaus and associated seamounts. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and trace element and Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic data for the recovered dredged rocks and new trace elements and isotopic data for a few drill core samples from Hess Rise. Chemically, the samples can be subdivided into plateau basalt-like tholeiites and trachytic to alkalic ocean-island basalt compositions, indicating at least two types of volcanic activity. Tholeiites from the northern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 464) and the trachytes from Toronto Ridge on Shatsky's TAMU massif have isotopic compositions that overlap with those of the drilled Shatsky Rise plateau basalts, suggesting that both Rises formed from the same mantle source. In contrast, trachytes from the southern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 465A) have more radiogenic Pb isotopic ratios that are shifted toward a high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU-type mantle) composition. The compositions of the dredged seamount samples show two trends relative to Shatsky Rise data: one toward lower 143Nd/144Nd but similar 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the other toward similar 143Nd/144Nd but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios. These trends can be attributed to lower degrees of melting either from lower mantle material during hotspot-related transition to plume tail or from less refractory shallow mantle components tapped during intermittent deformation-related volcanism induced by local tectonic extension between and after the main volcanic-edifice building episodes on Shatsky

  9. Möbius' disciple Karl (Carl) Friedrich Heym (German Title: Der Möbiusschüler Karl (Carl) Friedrich Heym )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgauds, Hans-Joachim

    Karl Friedrich Heym was a scientist of international renown in the field of insurance business, especially of insurance mathematics, and an author of numerous publications. However, his studies on astronomy in Leipzig, his work at Leipzig Observatory, and his teaching activity, e.g. at the Thomas school, are little known. The present contribution analyzes this particular aspect of the scientist's work.

  10. Life, Death and Transformation: Education and Incompleteness in Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the main part of Hermann Hesse's classic novel, "The Glass Bead Game," the central character, Joseph Knecht, dies suddenly. In this article, I consider the educational significance of Hesse's portrayal of Knecht's death. This pivotal moment in the book tells readers much about the process of educational transformation. I argue that…

  11. Technology, Utopia and Scholarly Life: Ideals and Realities in the Work of Hermann Hesse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between technology, utopia and scholarly life in Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game." In the first part of Hesse's book, the Glass Bead Game and the society of which it is a part, Castalia, are portrayed in idealistic terms. The second part of the novel chronicles the educational life of Joseph…

  12. Honoring the Complexities of Our Lives: An Interview with Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Ellen Huntington

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interview with award-winning author Karen Hesse, discussing her writing for children and young adults. Discusses how ideas for particular books arose, as well as the research and writing processes that went into them. Appends reviews of nine books by Karen Hesse. (SR)

  13. Education, Death and Awakening: Hesse, Freire and the Process of Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Education is a key theme in a number of Hermann Hesse's novels and short stories. This paper focuses on Hesse's last and longest fictional work, "The Glass Bead Game", and analyses the transformation of Joseph Knecht, the central character, in the light of Paulo Freire's theory of education. It is argued that over time Knecht develops a critical…

  14. Seismotectonics of mid-ocean ridge propagation in Hess Deep.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Jacqueline S; Tolstoy, Maya; Mutter, John C; Scholz, Christopher H

    2002-11-29

    Hydroacoustic data from the eastern equatorial Pacific reveal low-magnitude seismicity concentrated at the propagating tip of the Galapagos Rise in Hess Deep. The patterns of seismicity and faulting are similar to those observed in the process zone of laboratory-scale propagating tensile cracks. Because the fracture energy required for propagation scales with crack length and process zone size, it follows that ridges can propagate stably in the brittle crust without exceptional resisting forces as proposed by previous models based on linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  15. Review of the genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 (Insecta: Diptera: Mydidae: Syllegomydinae).

    PubMed

    Dikow, Torsten; Leon, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytespallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesmaculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytesprozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesvansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed.

  16. HESS J1640–465 AND HESS J1641–463: TWO INTRIGUING TeV SOURCES IN LIGHT OF NEW FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Laffon, H.; Reposeur, T.

    2014-10-10

    We report on γ-ray analysis of the region containing the bright TeV source HESS J1640–465 and the close-by TeV source HESS J1641–463 using 64 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Previously only one GeV source was reported in this region and was associated with HESS J1640–465. With an increased data set and the improved sensitivity afforded by the reprocessed data (P7REP) of the LAT, we now report the detection, morphological study, and spectral analysis of two distinct sources above 100 MeV. The softest emission in this region comes from the TeV source HESS J1641–463 which is well fitted with a power law of index Γ = 2.47 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 and presents no significant γ-ray signal above 10 GeV, which contrasts with its hard spectrum at TeV energies. The Fermi-LAT spectrum of the second TeV source, HESS J1640–465 is well described by a power-law shape of index Γ = 1.99 ± 0.04 ± 0.07 that links up naturally with the spectral data points obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). These new results provide new constraints concerning the identification of these two puzzling γ-ray sources.

  17. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders.

  18. Hurricane Karl's Structure and Some Thoughts for 2014 Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Leppert, Ken, II

    2014-01-01

    Karl has interesting data, but far below the standards we should be able to achieve in HS3. We need to fly AV-1 over hurricanes in 2014. Most of the cold cloud shield in the inner core of hurricanes should be safe for AV-1 to fly. Significant convection occupies a small region, but we sometimes unnecessarily apply the 5000-ft separation rule to the entire cold cloud shield.

  19. Upgraded cameras for the HESS imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gérard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-François; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, James; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Lypova, Iryna; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; de Naurois, Mathieu; Nayman, Patrick; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, François

    2016-08-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of five imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, sensitive to cosmic gamma rays of energies between 30 GeV and several tens of TeV. Four of them started operations in 2003 and their photomultiplier tube (PMT) cameras are currently undergoing a major upgrade, with the goals of improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the failure rate of the ageing systems. With the exception of the 960 PMTs, all components inside the camera have been replaced: these include the readout and trigger electronics, the power, ventilation and pneumatic systems and the control and data acquisition software. New designs and technical solutions have been introduced: the readout makes use of the NECTAr analog memory chip, which samples and stores the PMT signals and was developed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The control of all hardware subsystems is carried out by an FPGA coupled to an embedded ARM computer, a modular design which has proven to be very fast and reliable. The new camera software is based on modern C++ libraries such as Apache Thrift, ØMQ and Protocol buffers, offering very good performance, robustness, flexibility and ease of development. The first camera was upgraded in 2015, the other three cameras are foreseen to follow in fall 2016. We describe the design, the performance, the results of the tests and the lessons learned from the first upgraded H.E.S.S. camera.

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HESS J1741–302

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, Jeremy; Rangelov, Blagoy; Sonbas, Eda; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Volkov, Igor

    2016-01-10

    We present the results of two Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of TeV γ-ray source HESS J1741–302. We investigate whether there is any connection between HESS J1741−302 and the sources seen at lower energies. One of the brightest X-ray sources in the HESS J1741–302 field, CXOU J174112.1−302908, appears to be associated with a low-mass star (possibly representing a quiescent low-mass X-ray binary or cataclysmic variable (CV)), hence, it is unlikely to be a source of TeV γ-rays. In the same field we have potentially detected X-rays from WR 98a, which is likely to be a colliding wind binary with massive stars. No TeV emission has been reported so far from such systems although predictions have been made. Finally, we found that the previously reported Suzaku source, Suzaku J1740.5–3014 (which is not covered by the CXO observations), appears to be a hard X-ray source detected by INTERGAL ISGRI, which supports the magnetized CV classification but makes its association with the TeV emission unlikely. The young pulsar PSR B1737–30, so far undetected in X-rays and projected on the sky near the CV, may be the contributor of relativistic particles responsible for the TeV emission.

  1. BPS black holes, the Hesse potential, and the topological string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, G. L.; de Wit, B.; Mahapatra, S.

    2010-06-01

    The Hesse potential is constructed for a class of four-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric effective actions with S- and T-duality by performing the relevant Legendre transform by iteration. It is a function of fields that transform under duality according to an arithmetic subgroup of the classical dualities reflecting the monodromies of the underlying string compactification. These transformations are not subject to corrections, unlike the transformations of the fields that appear in the effective action which are affected by the presence of higher-derivative couplings. The class of actions that are considered includes those of the FHSV and the STU model. We also consider heterotic N = 4 supersymmetric compactifications. The Hesse potential, which is equal to the free energy function for BPS black holes, is manifestly duality invariant. Generically it can be expanded in terms of powers of the modulus that represents the inverse topological string coupling constant, g s , and its complex conjugate. The terms depending holomorphically on g s are expected to correspond to the topological string partition function and this expectation is explicitly verified in two cases. Terms proportional to mixed powers of g s and bar{g}s are in principle present.

  2. The unidentified source HESS J1908+063/MGRO J1908+06

    SciTech Connect

    Ona Wilhelmi, E. de; Djannati-Atai, A.; Renaud, M.

    2008-12-24

    The extended H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey overlaps with some regions covered by the water Cherenkov detector Milagro sky survey. The latter experiment has reported 3 new sources and 4 hot spots, including MGRO J1908+06 above 12 TeV. The H.E.S.S. observations around 40 degrees of longitude confirm this detection. We take advantage of the superior sensitivity of H.E.S.S. above 0.2 TeV and its better energy and angular resolution to study in detail the morphology, spectrum and possible counterparts for this source.

  3. Bernard J. Wood Receives 2013 Harry H. Hess Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    President Finn, friends, and colleagues, I am truly delighted to accept the Hess Medal for 2013. It is difficult to express one's feelings adequately on receipt of such a prestigious award, but a mixture of pride, humility, and thankfulness for a long and lucky career all occur. It did not start propitiously as my high school grades would only ensure undergraduate entry into the Northern Polytechnic, a second-tier institution in London. Nevertheless, I was enthused by several great teachers, including John Charalambous (inorganic chemistry) and Stephen Morel, a field geologist who had worked for many years in Malawi. They pushed me into trying for graduate school, and I was fortunate to find the eclectic Roger Strens my supervisor at Newcastle.

  4. A SELF-CONSISTENT EXPLANATION OF TeV EMISSIONS FROM HESS J1640-465 AND HESS J1641-463

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yunyong; Yang, Chuyuan; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Li

    2015-10-10

    The bright TeV source HESS J1640-465 is positionally coincident with the young supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and the nearby HESS J1641-463 with TeV gamma-ray emission seems to be closely associated with it. Based on the nonlinear diffusion shock acceleration model, we explore the emission from these two TeV sources, the particle diffusion is assumed to be different inside and outside the absorbing boundary of the particles accelerated in the SNR shock. The results indicate that (1) the GeV–TeV emission from the region of the HESS J1640-465 is produced as a result of the particle acceleration inside the SNR G338.3-0.0 and (2) the runaway cosmic-ray particles outside the SNR are interacting with the nearby dense molecular cloud (MC) at the region of the HESS J1641-463, corresponding π{sup 0} decay gamma-ray in proton–proton collision contribute to the TeV emission from the HESS J1641-463. Also, we investigate the possible X-ray emission in MC from the synchrotron procedure by secondary e{sup ±} produced through escaped protons interaction with the MC.

  5. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory.

  6. Discovery of the Hard Spectrum VHE γ-Ray Source HESS J1641-463

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641-463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641-463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640-465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of phi(E>1 TeV) = (3.64 ± 0.44stat ± 0.73sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 2.07 ± 0.11stat ± 0.20sys. It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of σ = 3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE γ-ray flux of HESS J1641-463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641-463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE γ-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641-463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

  7. A multivariate analysis approach for the Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes System H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, F.; Lamanna, G.

    2008-12-24

    We present a multivariate classification approach applied to the analysis of data from the H.E.S.S. Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray IACT stereoscopic system. This approach combines three complementary analysis methods already successfully applied in the H.E.S.S. data analysis. The proposed approach, with the combined effective estimator X{sub eff}, is conceived to improve the signal-to-background ratio and therefore particularly relevant to the morphological studies of faint extended sources.

  8. Energy Dependent Morphology in the PWN Candidate HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; deJager, O.C.; /North West U., South Africa

    2007-09-26

    Observations with H.E.S.S. revealed a new source of very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays above 100 GeV - HESS J1825-137 - extending mainly to the south of the energetic pulsar PSRB1823-13. A detailed spectral and morphological analysis of HESS J1825-137 reveals for the first time in VHE gamma-ray astronomy a steepening of the energy spectrum with increasing distance from the pulsar. This behavior can be understood by invoking radiative cooling of the IC-Compton gamma-ray emitting electrons during their propagation. In this scenario the vastly different sizes between the VHE gamma-ray emitting region and the X-ray PWN associated with PSRB1823-13 can be naturally explained by different cooling timescales for the radiating electron populations. If this scenario is correct, HESS J1825-137 can serve as a prototype for a whole class of asymmetric PWN in which the X-rays are extended over a much smaller angular scales than the gamma-rays and can help understanding recent detections of X-ray PWN in systems such as HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1813-178. The future GLAST satellite will probe lower electron energies shedding further light on cooling and diffusion processes in this source.

  9. Reaction rates between water and the Karl Fischer reagent.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1974-04-01

    Reaction rates between water and the Karl Fischer reagent have been determined by potentiometric measurement for various compositions of the Karl Fischer reagent. The study has been made with an iodine complex concentration of 0.3-1.2 mM and sulphur dioxide complex at 0.01-0.5M. The concentration of excess of pyridine had no measurable effect on the rate of the main reaction. The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to iodine complex, to sulphur dioxide complex, and to water. The rate constant was (1.2+/-0.2) x 10(3) 1(2). mole(-2). sec(-1). In an ordinary titration it is therefore essential to keep the sulphur dioxide concentration high for the reaction to go to completion within a reasonable time. The extent of side-reactions was found to be independent of the iodine concentration at low concentrations. The side-reactions increased somewhat with increasing sulphur dioxide pyridine concentrations and decreased to about 60% when the temperature was lowered from 24 degrees to 7 degrees.

  10. German Astronomer Karl Menten Is 2007 Jansky Awardee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    Associated Universities, Inc., (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have awarded the 2007 Karl G. Jansky Lectureship to Professor Karl M. Menten of the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany. The Jansky Lectureship is an honor established by the trustees of AUI to recognize outstanding contributions to the advancement of astronomy. Karl M. Menten Professor Karl M. Menten CREDIT: NRAO/AUI Click on image for high-resolution file (433 KB) Professor Menten is an extraordinarily productive scientist whose research has improved our fundamental understanding in a number of areas of astronomy. He has studied the chemistry of molecular clouds from which new stars are formed, the process of star formation in our own Milky Way Galaxy and in the early Universe, and the outer atmospheres of stars nearing the end of their "normal" lives. In 1991, Menten used NRAO's 140-foot Telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, to discover strong radio emission from methanol masers in star-forming regions. These masers amplify, or strengthen, radio emission the same way a laser amplifies visible-light emission. Menten developed the observation of these methanol masers into a powerful tool for studying the formation of stars much more massive than our Sun, because the strong maser emission points astronomers to the stellar birthplaces. In addition, Menten pioneered the use of ultra-high-resolution observations with NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array to observe masers to make precision determinations of the structure, size and dynamics of the Milky Way. Menten received his doctoral degree in 1987 from the University of Bonn, Germany. He then joined the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, working there until 1996, when he became the Director for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy. In addition to that position, he also has been a Professor for Experimental Astrophysics at the University of Bonn since

  11. Taxonomic revision of Ectyphus Gerstaecker, 1868 and Parectyphus Hesse, 1972 with a key to world Ectyphinae (Insecta, Diptera, Mydidae).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen M; Dikow, Torsten

    2010-12-29

    The Afrotropical Mydidae genera Ectyphus Gerstaecker, 1868 and Parectyphus Hesse, 1972 are revised. Six species of Ectyphus are recognised (Ectyphus abdominalis Bezzi, 1924, Ectyphus armipes Bezzi, 1924, Ectyphus capillatus Hesse, 1969, Ectyphus pinguis Gerstaecker, 1868, and Ectyphus pretoriensis Bezzi, 1924), of which one is newly described from Kenya, Ectyphus amboselisp. n. Two species, Ectyphus bitaeniatus Hesse, 1969 and Ectyphus flavidorsalis Hesse, 1969, are newly synonymised with Ectyphus pinguis. The monotypic genus Parectyphus Hesse, 1972 and the male of its type species Parectyphus namibiensis Hesse, 1972 are re-described while the female is described for the first time. Comments on the distribution of all species within biodiversity hotspots are given. A dichotomous identification key to the genera and species of world Ectyphinae is provided and illustrated keys to the world Ectyphinae are made available online in both dichotomous and multi-access, matrix-based formats.

  12. [Hospitals in Hesse in the view of enlightened travellers].

    PubMed

    Vanja, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The "Hohen Hospitäler", hospitals founded by landgrave Philipp dem Grossmütigen during the years 1533-1542, were seen as an expression of greatest caritas in Early Modern times. These protestant institutions for the poor and sick underlings of Hesse were appreciated as charitable shelters by noblemen and commoners. This situation changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century. The first critics were travelling philosophers of the Enlightenment, who visited the "mad houses" of Hesse as well as other oddities. They published their experiences in travel reports. Although the hospitals as integrated institutions still cared for both psychiatric and somatic patients, these authors only concentrated on the mad inmates. The fact that these were kept in "dark and dirty cloistral corridors" was the central point of criticism. This negative situation was confronted by the travellers not only with a demand for more hygiene but also with a call for an academically trained physician. Furthermore, they claimed for dissecting deceased patients in order to explore the nature of madness. A comparison of these travel reports with the first psychiatric publications of the early 19th century discloses a literary discourse. It leads from the reports of travellers with a general interest to specialist literature of early psychiatry. Obviously it had a formative influence on the self-conception of this new medical field, which benefited from the criticism concerning the allegedly inhumane conditions in the old hospitals. Three questions follow from this statement: 1. Which were the images produced or reproduced by the travellers in their reports? 2. Which were the standards against which the critics measured their reports? 3. In how far were the philanthropic aims of the enlightened travellers related to the self-conception of the hospitals and their inmates? Travelling reports are compared with the circumstances in the hospitals. This comparison throws light in the "invention" of

  13. Interstellar gas towards the TeV γ-ray sources HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1641-463

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J. C.; Rowell, G.; Burton, M. G.; Fukui, Y.; Aharonian, F. A.; Oya, I.; Vink, J.; Ohm, S.; Casanova, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the interstellar medium towards the tera electron volt (TeV) γ-ray sources HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1641-463 using results from the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey and from a Mopra 7 mm-wavelength study. The γ-ray sources are positionally coincident with two supernova remnants (SNRs) G338.3-0.0 and G338.5+0.1, respectively. A bright complex of H II regions connect the two SNRs and TeV objects. Observations in the CO(1-0) transition lines reveal substantial amounts of diffuse gas positionally coincident with the γ-ray sources at multiple velocities along the line of sight, while 7 mm observations in CS, SiO, HC3N and CH3OH transition lines reveal regions of dense, shocked gas. Archival H I data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey was used to account for the diffuse atomic gas. Physical parameters of the gas towards the TeV sources were calculated from the data. We find that for a hadronic origin for the γ-ray emission, the cosmic ray enhancement rates are ˜103 and 102 times the local solar value for HESS J1640-465 and HESS J1641-463, respectively.

  14. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  15. Coulometric Karl Fischer determination of trace amounts of water

    SciTech Connect

    Nichugovskii, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The authors maintain that it is convenient to determine small amounts of water by coulometric titration in spent Fischer reagent because this method is highly sensitive and provides an absolute measurement. The water content of the sample is calculated from the amount of electricity consumed in the electrochemical production of enough molecular iodine to bond completely with the water. This paper attempts to correct for the effect of various factors on the indicator current in the coulometric titration of trace quantities of water by the Karl Fischer reagent. The paper discusses the sources of error by biamperometric indication of the titration endpoint. When the water content is lower than 0.001%, it is absolutely necessary according to the authors, to correct for the effect of the analytical sample. Analytical and graphical methods of calculating the correction are suggested.

  16. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  17. [The psychopathology of Karl Jaspers: then and now].

    PubMed

    Hengeveld, M W

    2006-01-01

    The book entitled 'Allgemeine Psychopathologie' by the German psychiatrist-philosopher Karl Jaspers, first published in 1913, has had a lasting influence on the way in which psychiatry defines subjective psychiatric symptoms--phenomena. His psychopathology of meaningful connections, however, which purports to provide an empathic 'understanding' of the causes of mental disorders, is more controversial, particularly now that neurobiology claims it can explain all material causes. This article presents an enthusiastic summary of Jaspers' original work and culminates with a plea for a re-appraisal and revaluation of Jaspers phenomenology and methodological dualism. Jaspers' view on this subject is particularly important in our days of DSM-criteria, neuro-imaging and molecular biology.

  18. Review of the genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 (Insecta: Diptera: Mydidae: Syllegomydinae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytes pallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes maculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytes prozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes vansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed. PMID:24891827

  19. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    KArLE is intended to yield in situ geochronology data and enhance functionality of existing flight instruments using flight hardware that would be reliable, reconfigurable and adaptable to multiple partner instruments and mission architectures.

  20. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Hess Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority... authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. ]...

  1. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma…

  2. Enemy Images, Developmental Psychology, And Peace Education. Peace Education Miniprints No. 29. Petra Hesse and the Project "Preparedness for Peace."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund Univ. (Sweden). Malmo School of Education.

    An interview on peace education with Petra Hesse, of the Center for Psychological Studies in the Nuclear Age (Cambridge, Massachusetts), is presented. The Center for Psychological Studies in the Nuclear Age was founded out of a concern about children's fears of the future and the risks of nuclear war. Petra Hesse coordinates a research project on…

  3. X-ray observations of Galactic H.E.S.S. sources: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puehlhofer, G.; Eger, P.; Sasaki, M.; Gottschall, D.; Capasso, M.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    X-ray diagnostics of TeV sources continues to be an important tool to identify the nature of newly detected sources as well as to pinpoint the physics processes that are at work in these highly energetic objects. The contribution aims at giving a review of recent studies that we have performed on TeV sources with H.E.S.S. and XMM-Newton and also other X-ray facilities. Here, we will mainly focus on Galactic objects such as gamma-ray binaries, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants (SNRs). Particular emphasis will be given to SNR studies, including recently identified SNRs such as HESS J1731-347 and HESS J1534-571 as well as a revisit of RX J1713.7-3946.

  4. The Central Trigger System of the H.E.S.S. Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.; Hermann, G.; Berge, D.; Bernloehr, K.; Hofmann, W.; Nayman, P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.

    2005-02-21

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is a new system of large atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for GeV/TeV {gamma}-ray astronomy. This paper describes the array level trigger system of H.E.S.S. The system trigger requires the simultaneous detection of air-showers by several telescopes at the hardware level. This requirement allows a suppression of background events which in turn leads to a lower system energy threshold for the detection of gamma-rays.

  5. Online Analysis of {gamma}-ray Sources with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Fuessling, M.; Dalton, M.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Schwanke, U.; Jung, I.; Stegmann, C.

    2008-12-24

    Some of the {gamma}-ray sources detected by the H.E.S.S. experiment display irregular, often flare-like emission behaviour. A method to detect these outbursts as fast as possible is highly desirable. At H.E.S.S., first results from an offline analysis of pre-calibrated data can be obtained on-site approximately one hour after run end. We present a development and implementation of online analysis software that performs calibration and analysis of data at the time they are being taken allowing for a fast confirmation of observational results and appropriate reaction by the on-site shift crew.

  6. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  7. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.

  8. Karl Gebhardt (1897-1948): a lost man.

    PubMed

    Silver, J R

    2011-12-01

    Karl Gebhardt (1897-1948) had a distinguished career as professor of sports medicine before the Second World War. He developed sports for the disabled at a specialised orthopaedic clinic at Hohenlychen and was President of the Red Cross in Germany. During the war, Gebhardt also acted as Heinrich Himmler's personal physician and was responsible for medical experimentation on prisoners in the concentration camps at Auschwitz and Ravensbrück. In his capacity as SS consultant surgeon, he treated Reinhard Heydrich (a high ranking Nazi official, also known as 'the Hangman') after an attempt was made on his life. When Heydrich died, Gebhardt was accused of failing to treat him with sulphonamides. To prove his innocence he carried out a series of experiments on Ravensbrück concentration camp prisoners, breaking their legs and infecting them with various organisms in order to prove the worthlessness of the drugs in treating gas gangrene. He also attempted to transplant the limbs from camp victims to German soldiers wounded on the Russian front. He was tried after the war and executed for these crimes in 1948. This paper explores the paradox of a gifted doctor who was also the perpetrator of inhuman crimes.

  9. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  10. Conscientisation in Castalia: A Freirean Reading of Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game," in the light of Paulo Freire's educational philosophy. "The Glass Bead Game" is set in Castalia, a "pedagogical province" of the 23rd century. It is argued that the central character in the book, Joseph Knecht, undergoes a complex process of conscientisation. Knecht develops an…

  11. HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Peter; Ohm, Stefan

    HESS J1640-465 is among the brightest Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources ever discovered by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Its likely association with the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0 at a distance of ˜10 kpc makes it the most luminous Galactic source in the TeV regime. Our recent analysis of follow-up observations with H.E.S.S. reveal a significantly extended TeV morphology with a substantial overlap with the northern part of the SNR shell. Furthermore, the source features a seamless powerlaw spectrum over four orders of magnitude from GeV to TeV energies, with a spectral index of Gamma = 2.15± 0.10_mathrm{stat}± 0.10_mathrm{sys} and a cut-off energy of E_c = 7.3(+2.5}_{-1.8) TeV. These new spectral and morphological results suggest that a significant fraction of the TeV emission is likely of hadronic origin where the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W_p n_H ˜ 4 × 10(52}(d/10mathrm{kpc) )(2) erg cm(-3) . This would make HESS J1640-465 one of the most extreme and efficient Galactic particle accelerators.

  12. HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV γ-ray supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    The results of follow-up observations of the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Γ = 2.11 ± 0.09stat ± 0.10sys, and a cut-off energy of E_c = 6.0^{+2.0}_{-1.2} TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the northwestern part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new HESS results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data and multiwavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the γ-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the supernova remnant shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as WpnH ˜ 4 × 1052(d/10kpc)2 erg cm-3.

  13. A Response to Frederick Hess: Some Questions for Advocates of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Joe

    2004-01-01

    At this point in his long and varied career in public education, Joe Nathan, the author of this article is beginning to doubt some of his previous stances about the principles under which public schools should operate. He remains, however, a staunch supporter of public charter schools. As he reads Frederick Hess' argument that we need to…

  14. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY SEARCH FOR THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF HESS J1943+213

    SciTech Connect

    Gabanyi, K. E.; Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Frey, S.

    2013-01-01

    HESS J1943+213, a TeV point source close to the Galactic plane recently discovered by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, was proposed to be an extreme BL Lacertae object, though a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature could not be completely discarded. To investigate its nature, we performed high-resolution radio observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and reanalyzed archival continuum and H I data. The EVN observations revealed a compact radio counterpart of the TeV source. The low brightness temperature and the resolved nature of the radio source are indications against the beamed BL Lacertae hypothesis. The radio/X-ray source appears immersed in a {approx}1' elliptical feature, suggesting a possible galactic origin (PWN nature) for the HESS source. We found that HESS J1943+213 is located in the interior of a {approx}1 Degree-Sign diameter H I feature and explored the possibility of them being physically related.

  15. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  16. Newbery Medal Winner Karen Hesse Brings Billie Jo's Voice "Out of the Dust."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interview with children's author Karen Hesse, discussing such things as how she chose writing as a career, her use of figurative language and her skillful crafting of dialog, where her book ideas come from, and her latest projects. (SR)

  17. Consider the Source: Feminism and Point of View in Karen Hesse's "Stowaway" and "Witness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2003-01-01

    Notes how Karen Hesse strays from her typical pattern of exploring gender issues to provide a look at patriarchal culture from within, in one case, and from multiple points of view in the other, ultimately strengthening the feminist pulse that beats within her earlier works. Concludes that in "Stowaway" and "Witness," the voice of a boy and the…

  18. X-ray follow-ups of TeV unID sources using Suzaku--HESS J1745--303--

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Hironori; Wagner, Stefan; Puehlhofer, Gerd; Kosack, Karl

    2008-12-24

    H.E.S.S. TeV gamma-ray telescope discovered many new sources on the Galactic plane. They should be Galactic particle accelerators but their nature is still unknown since they have few information in other wavelength. Jp-US X-ray telescope Suzaku has made follow-up observations for several TeV unID sources, using the low and stable background and the large effective area. The results are full of varieties; compact counterparts (HESS J1804-216, HESS J1837-609) and diffuse counterparts (HESS J1614-518, CTB 37B). Most interesting results are no-detection even with long exposure (HESS J1616-508, HESS J1745-303). In this talk, we present one of the most interesting result, HESS J1745-303, which is located on near the Galactic center.

  19. Progress in Karl Fischer coulometry using diaphragm-free cells.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A; Jonsson, S

    2001-11-15

    Different designs of a semiopen, drainable cathode compartment of a medium-sized coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) cell for the determination of water in the range 0.1-500 microg were evaluated. The main criterion for the design was to keep the resistance between the anolyte and catholyte low enough to permit the generation of currents larger than 20 mA (for an output voltage of 28 V). It was found that a good compromise between the size of this current and a minimal influence from diffusing/migrating oxidizable reduction products from the catholyte was achieved by means of an interface having a channel length and diameter of 8 and 2.1 mm, respectively (catholyte volume, approximately 1 mL). To show the general applicability of the concept, the following different types of coulometric reagents suitable for nonpolar and polar samples, as well as for samples containing active carbonyl compounds, were investigated: Hydranal Coulomat A, AD, AK, AG-H (modified with chloroform, Merck), and two homemade methanolic reagents modified with 40% (v/v) chloroform and 50% (v/v) formamide, respectively. Except for Hydranal Coulomat A, the mean value of five consecutive titrations of 50 microg water did not deviate by more than 0.2% from the expected value for all reagents. Draining after every titration was sufficient to obtain accurate results, even for Coulomat A which, when used in the commercial diaphragm-free system of Metrohm, gave values which were about 10% too high. As compared to earlier reported results for diaphragm-free coulometry, the descibed modified cell represents a significant improvement, mainly because of the high accuracy achieved for all types of reagents.

  20. Coulometric determination of trace water in active carbonyl compounds using modified Karl Fischer reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin-Andersson, I.; Cedergren, A.

    1987-03-01

    Improved conditions for the coulometric determination of trace water in samples containing potentially interfering substances like aldehydes and ketones were obtained by using a formamide-based, rapidly reacting Karl Fischer reagent in which methanol was replaced by 2-methoxyethanol. The shape of the potentiometric titration curves obtained by titrating spent Karl Fischer reagents with iodine indicates a less degree of triiodide formation in the presence of formamide. The corresponding increase in iodine results in a more rapid overall reaction rate since the reaction involving iodine is much more rapid than that with triiodide. For water amounts corresponding to less than 0.1% the stoichiometry of the Karl Fischer reaction was found to be 1:1, relatively independent of the concentration of 2-methoxyethanol. For larger amounts of water this stoichiometric ratio was attained by using a reagent containing 2-methoxyethanol/formamide 80/20 (v/v), 0.6 M imidazole, and 0.4 M sulfur dioxide.

  1. The spectral energy distribution of the core of Cen A with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Jeff; Prokhorov, Dmitry; Becherini, Yvonne; Buson, Sara; Gasparini, Dario; Perkins, Jeremy; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cen A, the nearest radio galaxy, was detected as a faint emitter of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays by the H.E.S.S. telescopes in Namibia. The flux derived from the H.E.S.S. data is much higher than that expected from a single zone synchrotron self-Compton model, which adequately describes the emission from Cen A at lower frequencies. New observations with H.E.S.S. were performed to clarify the spectral characteristics of the VHE emission from Cen A. We report the results of the analysis of the complete H.E.S.S. dataset with twice the live time of the previously published spectrum and an update of the Cen A spectrum obtained with Fermi-LAT at GeV energies.

  2. [The Hygienist Karl Roelcke, M.D. (1907-1982). Annotations to the family biography].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian G

    2016-01-01

    Volker Roelcke, the well-known historian of medicine, wrote a biographical sketch on his father's role in National Socialism. Karl Roelcke (1907-1982) was an important hygienist at the University of Heidelberg and assistant to Ernst Rodenwaldt (1878-1965). Attempts to discuss the Nazi issue with his father directly ended unsuccessfully in the 1970s. In his essay of 2014, Volker Roelcke portrayed his father as quite sophisticated, but did not mention all aspects of his work. The present essay therefore offers new insights into the person of Karl Roelcke which are not constrained by family interests.

  3. The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Steven T.; Baum, S. A.; Chandler, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array is a recently completed rejuvenation of the VLA, providing observers with significantly increased continuum sensitivity and spectral survey speeds (by factors of 100 or more in select cases) from 1-50 GHz and in key bands below 1 GHz. Given the potential for new centimeter-wavelength sky surveys with this enhanced facility, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) has been initiated to explore the science and technical opportunities of a new large survey. A community-led Science Survey Group (SSG) will define the science program and key components of VLASS, and NRAO will support its technical design and implementation. The VLASS could start observing in early 2015, with the data available immediately with no proprietary period and science data products provided to the community in a timely manner. The new VLA can image young stars and massive black holes, measure the strength and topology of the cosmic magnetic field, follow the rapid evolution of energetic phenomena, and study the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies, AGN, and the Universe itself. We can follow the evolution of gas and galaxies and particles and fields to bridge the eras from cosmic dawn to the dawn of new worlds. To address these and other key science challenges requires the VLASS to address a number of key challenges in data management, computation, image processing, and analysis. The development and implementation of capable, efficient, and robust pipeline processing of data, and the production of a basic suite of science data products such as images and catalogs, are all high priorities for VLASS. We will describe the salient capabilities of the Jansky VLA, and highlight complementarity with multi-wavelength multi-messenger sky surveys with other facilities, ultimately leading into the era of the LSST. Exemplary VLA science and commissioning observations will illustrate these features. We will also summarize the outcome of the public NRAO VLASS Science Planning

  4. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  5. Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

  6. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Guerin, Gilles; Abe, Natsue; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; Adriao, Alden de Brito; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite M.; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen H.; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  7. TeV Remnants in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Ryan C. G.

    2016-06-01

    The H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS), sensitive to very-high-energy gamma rays from ~0.2 to ~50 TeV, is now complete and shows supernova remnants to be one of the dominant TeV source populations in the Galaxy. The HGPS is the culmination of a decade-long, 2800-hour observation program that provides the first comprehensive view of the TeV Galaxy with high angular resolution (~5 arcmin) and sensitivity (~1-2% Crab Nebula flux). In some composite SNRs, we are able to distentangle TeV emission originating in interior pulsar wind nebulae from that of the SNR shells. We also can resolve SNR shells themselves, and not only the most well-known high-energy SNRs, but some unexpected discoveries as well. We recently searched for new TeV shell morphologies in the HGPS dataset, revealing: HESS J1534-571, coincident with the cataloged SNR candidate G323.7-1.0; HESS J1912+101, intruigingly with noobvious MWL counterpart; and HESS J1614-518, with a possible GeV gamma-ray counterpart. The TeV properties of these and other shells can reveal the non-thermal particle acceleration processes at work in SNRs and shed light on the important questions concerning cosmic-ray acceleration up to PeV energies and young remnants in the Galaxy that are possibly missing from current surveys. A public release of the HGPS survey maps, as well as a standardized catalog of Galactic TeV sources and study of multi-wavelength associations (notably SNRcat), is in preparation and will also be presented.

  8. Marine geology of the hess rise, 1, bathymetry, surface sediment distribution, and environment of deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, K.; Kroenke, L.W.

    1981-11-10

    New charts of bathymetry, acoustic character, and sediment distribution describe the Hess Rise, a large oceanic plateau in the central north Pacific. Discrete physiographic provinces on the Hess Rise are the High Plateau, shallower than 3900 m, trending N30/sup 0/W; the Northeastern Flank, a smooth, gentle slope gradually increasing in depth to the northeast; the Woollard Abyssal Plain, extending farther to the northeast; the Volcanic Province with its high peaks and ridges along the southern margin of the Hess Rise; the Mendocino Fracture Zone to the south, expressed by broad, planar seafloor regions bordered by ridges and scarps; the Western Steps, formed by structural benches on the western side of the Rise; and the Emperor Deep, between the rise and the Emperor Seamounts. Five types of acoustic units have been mapped and interpreted: a transparent layer, predominantly of biosiliceous pelagic clay; a stratified layer, predominantly of nannofossil ooze; a diffuse layer of debris flows that seem to have originated mostly in the Volcanic Province; an opaque horizon commonly formed of volcaniclastic sediments that are usually found on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone; and a hyperbolic horizon, indicating outcrops of igneous rock. The pronounced effect of bottom currents on the present-day environment of deposition in the Hess Rise is evidenced by the presence of the opaque horizon, which is interpreted as an erosion surface, and by current moating, abrupt thinning of surface layers and truncation of subbottom reflectors. The widespread erosion on the seafloor of the Mendocino Fracture Zone is attributed to the flow of Antarctic bottom water.

  9. Diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse γ -ray emission is the most prominent observable signature of celestial cosmic-ray interactions at high energies. While already being investigated at GeV energies over several decades, assessments of diffuse γ -ray emission at TeV energies remain sparse. After completion of the systematic survey of the inner Galaxy, the H.E.S.S. experiment is in a prime position to observe large-scale diffuse emission at TeV energies. Data of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey are investigated in regions off known γ -ray sources. Corresponding γ -ray flux measurements were made over an extensive grid of celestial locations. Longitudinal and latitudinal profiles of the observed γ -ray fluxes show characteristic excess emission not attributable to known γ -ray sources. For the first time large-scale γ -ray emission along the Galactic plane using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes has been observed. While the background subtraction technique limits the ability to recover modest variation on the scale of the H.E.S.S. field of view or larger, which is characteristic of the inverse Compton scatter-induced Galactic diffuse emission, contributions of neutral pion decay as well as emission from unresolved γ -ray sources can be recovered in the observed signal to a large fraction. Calculations show that the minimum γ -ray emission from π0 decay represents a significant contribution to the total signal. This detection is interpreted as a mix of diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission and unresolved sources.

  10. Anatomy of the Hesse photoreceptor cell axonal system in the central nervous system of amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio; Becerra, Manuela; Manso, María Jesús; Sherwood, Nancy M; Anadón, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports the organization of the Hesse cell axonal system in the central nervous system of the amphioxus, with the use of a polyclonal antiserum raised against lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I). In the spinal cord, the rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells of the bicellular organs were well labeled with this antibody. These cells sent smooth, straight, lateral processes that bent and became beaded as they passed ventrally and crossed to the contralateral side of the cord. There, the processes of several cells aggregated to give rise to a longitudinal fiber bundle. Beaded collaterals of these processes were directed to ventral neuropil and did not appear to contact giant Rohde cell axons. The crossed projections of the Hesse photoreceptors are compared with those of vertebrate retinal ganglion cells. Other antisera raised against GnRH weakly labeled rhabdomeric photoreceptors located dorsally in the brain, the Joseph cells. The finding that GnRH antibodies label amphioxus photoreceptor cells and axons is not definitive proof that the photoreceptors contain GnRH. Regardless of whether the antibody recognizes amphioxus GnRH, which has not yet been identified by structure, the antibody has revealed the processes of the Hesse photoreceptor cells.

  11. Microsecond Time Resolution Optical Photometry using a H.E.S.S. Cherenkov Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Deil, Christoph; Domainko, Wilfried; Hermann, German

    2008-02-22

    We have constructed an optical photometer with microsecond time resolution, which is currently being operated on one of the H.E.S.S. telescopes. H.E.S.S. is an array of four Cherenkov telescopes, each with a 107 m{sup 2} mirror, located in the Khomas highland in Namibia. In its normal mode of operation H.E.S.S. observes Cherenkov light from air showers generated by very high energy gamma-rays in the upper atmosphere. Our detector consists of seven photomultipliers, one in the center to record the lightcurve from the target and six concentric photomultipliers as a veto system to reject disturbing signals e.g. from meteorites or lightning at the horizon. The data acquisition system has been designed to continuously record the signals with zero deadtime. The Crab pulsar has been observed to verify the performance of the instrument and the GPS timing system. Compact galactic targets were observed to search for flares on timescales of a few microseconds to {approx}100 ms. The design and sensitivity of the instrument as well as the data analysis method are presented.

  12. Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in Hesse, Germany, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Arvand, M; Vollandt, D; Bettge-Weller, G; Harmanus, C; Kuijper, E J

    2014-03-13

    After the first outbreak of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 027 in Germany in 2007, no further outbreaks were reported until the recent re-emergence of RT 027 in Hesse, a federal state with 6 million inhabitants located in south-west Germany. We undertook a survey to determine the prevalence of RT 027 and other strains in a prospective study. From January 2011 to July 2013, we analysed 291 specimens from patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) in 40 healthcare facilities in Hesse. The mean incidence of CDI in hospitals including at least 10 patients in the survey was 9.9 per 10,000 patient days (range 4.8-22.8) in November 2012. We obtained 214 toxigenic C. difficile isolates. RT 001 was the most prevalent (31.8%). RT 027, the second most common type (26.6%), was prevalent in all hospitals (n=14) from which at least seven isolates were available for typing, but its frequency varied considerably (range: 9.1–70%). The annual frequency of RT 027 increased from 21.4% in 2011 to 30.0% in 2013 (p=0.04). Our study indicates that infections with C. difficile RT 027 are now prevalent in Hesse. It underscores the need for surveillance programmes to analyse the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile.

  13. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  14. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  15. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  16. Recalling Karl Jaspers' Classic: The Idea of the University. IHE Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This essay revisits Karl Jaspers' classic, "The Idea of the University." Jaspers was reinstated as president of Heidelberg University in 1945, and he presided over its rebuilding. His book, "The Idea of the University," written in 1946, was published in English 13 years later. It interprets an ideal of the university and…

  17. Reaction rates between water and some modified rapidly-reacting Karl Fischer reagents.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1978-04-01

    Rate constants were determined for the reaction between water and various modified Karl Fischer reagents containing formamide, dimethylformamide or N-methylformamide. It was shown that the reaction rate can be increased by a factor of 100 by using a reagent containing 40% v/v formamide in pyridine compared to that obtained by use of the conventional methanolic reagent.

  18. Validation studies of Karl Fisher reference method for moisture in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With current international standard oven drying (SOD) techniques lacking precision and accuracy statements, a new standard reference method is needed. Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) is a widely used measure of moisture content. The method is used in many ASTM methods, 14 NIST SRMs, and te...

  19. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  20. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KARLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Devismes, D.; Miller, J. S.; Swindle, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration events. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for geochronology to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement, on multiple samples rather than just those returned. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The K-Ar Laser Experiment (KArLE) brings together a novel combination of several flight-proven components to provide precise measurements of potassium (K) and argon (Ar) that will enable accurate isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using mass spectrometry (MS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the ablated pit by optical imaging. Our work indicates that the KArLE instrument is capable of determining the age of planetary samples with sufficient accuracy to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses useful for most planetary surface missions.

  1. Developement of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Thus far, radiometric geochronology of planetary samples has only been accomplishable in terrestrial laboratories on samples from dedicated sample return missions and meteorites. In situ instruments to measure rock ages have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6, because isotopic measurements with sufficient resolution are challenging. We have begun work under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) to develop the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), a novel combination of several flight-proven components that will enable accurate KAr isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the abated pit using a optical methods such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to 100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses common to most planetary surface missions.

  2. Large-scale influences on the pre-genesis of tropical cyclone Karl (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Kyle S.

    The genesis of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Karl (2010) in September 2010 provided a unique opportunity to examine the continuing problem of understanding tropical cyclogenesis. The precursor disturbance to Karl originated from a cluster of showers east of the Windward Islands and was well sampled by ongoing field campaigns, particularly the PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT), as the targeted disturbance progressed westward. While traditional genesis theories focusing on moisture and mass fields (e.g. top-down showerhead method) can explain the initial spin-up of the disturbance several days prior to its official genesis, additional perspectives are examined in concert with more traditional methods in order to provide a more complete analysis of the synoptic-scale patterns that influenced the pre-Karl disturbance. A surge of westerly winds from northern South America aids the initial spin-up of the pre-Karl disturbance on 8-9 September, leading to the formation of a nearly closed earth-relative circulation. It can be shown that these anomalous westerly winds are tied to the convectively active phase of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW). The observed formation of the nearly closed circulation on 10 September is well timed with the passage of this convectively active phase, a relationship that has been shown to hold true in cases of CCKW-TC interactions around the globe. Physically, the CCKW increases deep convection and aids in the generation of low-level relative vorticity on the cyclonic shear side of the low-level westerly wind anomalies, both of which serve to help organize the pre-Karl disturbance. Finally, the passage of the CCKW coincides with an equatorward surge of cold air and southerly winds in the lee of the Andes, triggered by a passing mid-latitude disturbance on 31 August. As the surge passes the equator on 7 September, little temperature perturbation remains with the surge, but terrain-channeled low-level flow

  3. Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834-087 using H.E.S.S. and Fermi LAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the γ-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods: The γ-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the γ-ray emission toward W41. Results: The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (σTeV = 0.17° ± 0.01°), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index ΓTeV ≃ 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (σGeV = 0.15° ± 0.03°) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index ΓGeV = 2.15 ± 0.12 and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the γ-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions: Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to γ-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected

  4. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1-100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  5. A Major Upgrade of the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lypova, Iryna; Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gerard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-Francois; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, Jim; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; de Naurois, Mathieu; Nayman, Patrick; Ohm, Stefan; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, Francois

    2017-03-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in Namibia. It was built to detect Very High Energy (VHE, >100 GeV) cosmic gamma rays, and consists of four 12 m diameter Cherenkov telescopes (CT1-4), built in 2003, and a larger 28 m telescope (CT5), built in 2012. The larger mirror surface of CT5 permits to lower the energy threshold of the array down to 30 GeV. The cameras of CT1-4 are currently undergoing an extensive upgrade, with the goals of reducing their failure rate, reducing their readout dead time and improving the overall performance of the array. The entire camera electronics has been renewed from ground-up, as well as the power, ventilation and pneumatics systems, and the control and data acquisition software. Technical solutions forseen for the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory have been introduced, most notably the readout is based on the NECTAr analog memory chip. The camera control subsystems and the control software framework also pursue an innovative design, increasing the camera performance, robustness and flexibility. The CT1 camera has been upgraded in July 2015 and is currently taking data; CT2-4 will upgraded in Fall 2016. Together they will assure continuous operation of H.E.S.S at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. This contribution describes the design, the testing and the in-lab and on-site performance of all components of the newly upgraded H.E.S.S. camera.

  6. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; Espinoza, C. M.; Johnston, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, B. W.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Dark Accelerator HESS J1745-303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Reviewing the two MeV-GeV investigations in the field of the HESS J1745-303 performed using Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we confirmed that the emission peak comfortably coincides with ‘Region A’ in the TeV regime, which is the brightest part of this feature. The MeV–TeV spectrum can be precisely described by a single power-law. Also, recent investigation has shown that the MeV-GeV feature is elongated from ‘Region A’ toward the north-west, which is similar to the case of large- scale atomic/molecular gas distribution.

  8. Large-Scale Influences on the Genesis of Tropical Cyclone Karl (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, K.; Bosart, L. F.

    2012-12-01

    The events leading up to the genesis of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Karl (2010) provides a unique opportunity to examine the continuing problem of understanding tropical cyclogenesis. The PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign allowed for detailed investigation of the tropical disturbance that served as the precursor to TC Karl as it progressed westward through the Caribbean Sea. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the evolution of the pre-Karl disturbance using both common synoptic-scale analyses as well as statistically-based equatorial wave analyses, focusing on where these analyses complement and enhance each other. One of the major factors in the initial spin-up of the pre-Karl tropical disturbance is a surge of southerly and westerly winds from northern South America on 8-10 September 2010. As the surge entered the Caribbean on 9 September, it aided in the formation of a nearly closed earth-relative cyclonic circulation near the southern Leeward Islands. This circulation weakened late on 10 September and remained weak through 13 September before increased organization led to TC genesis on 14 September. This southerly wind surge can be traced to a well-defined surge of anomalously cold air and enhanced southerly winds originating in the lee of the Argentinian Andes over a week prior. While the temperature anomalies wash out prior to reaching the equator, anomalous low-level winds progress into Colombia and Venezuela, where topography aids in turning the southerly winds eastward. An investigation of the pre-Karl environment utilizing wavenumber-frequency filtering techniques also suggests that the initial spin-up of pre-Karl can be associated with the active phase of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW). The observed formation of the nearly closed cyclonic circulation on 10 September is well timed with the passage of anomalous westerly winds along and behind the convectively active phase of a CCKW. These

  9. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  10. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  11. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  12. The politics of psychiatry and the vicissitudes of faith circa 1950: Karl Stern's psychiatric novel.

    PubMed

    Burston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Karl Stern, MD (1906-1975) was the author of The Pillar of Fire (1951) and three nonfiction books on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and religion. His novel, Through Dooms of Love (1960), written with the assistance of his friend and admirer Graham Greene, covers a number of topics that were to psychiatric theory, treatment, and research at mid-century, and reflects several features of his own personal and professional vicissitudes.

  13. VHE {gamma}-ray emitting pulsar wind nebulae discovered by H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Y. A.; Komin, Nu.; Djannati-Ataie, A.; Lemiere, A.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.; Jager, O. C. de; Khelifi, B.

    2008-02-27

    Recent advances in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new observational window on the physics of pulsars. The high sensitivity of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, and in particular of the H.E.S.S. array, has already led to the discovery of about a dozen VHE-emitting pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and PWN candidates. These include the plerions in the composite supernova remnants MSH 15-52, G21.5-0.9, Kes 75, and Vela, two sources in the Kookaburra, and the nebula of PSR B1823-13. This VHE emission is generally interpreted as inverse Compton emission from the relativistic electrons and positrons accelerated by the pulsar and its wind; as such, it can yield a more direct spatial and spectral view of the accelerated particles than can be inferred from observations of their synchrotron emission. The VHE-emitting PWNe detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes are reviewed and the implications for pulsar physics discussed.

  14. VHE gamma-ray Emitting Pulsar Wind Nebulae Discovered by H.E.S.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Y.A.; Carrigan, S.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Hoppe, S.; de Jager, O.C.; Khelifi, B.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lemiere, A. Masterson, C.; /Dublin Inst.

    2008-06-05

    Recent advances in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new observational window on the physics of pulsars. The high sensitivity of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, and in particular of the H.E.S.S. array, has already led to the discovery of about a dozen VHE-emitting pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and PWN candidates. These include the plerions in the composite supernova remnants MSH 15-52, G21.5-0.9, Kes 75, and Vela, two sources in the Kookaburra, and the nebula of PSR B1823-13. This VHE emission is generally interpreted as inverse Compton emission from the relativistic electrons and positrons accelerated by the pulsar and its wind; as such, it can yield a more direct spatial and spectral view of the accelerated particles than can be inferred from observations of their synchrotron emission. The VHE-emitting PWNe detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes are reviewed and the implications for pulsar physics discussed.

  15. Observations of SNR RX J1713.7-3946 with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, D.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    2005-02-21

    The shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 (G347.3-0.5) was discovered with ROSAT in X-rays and later claimed as source of TeV {gamma}-rays. This object, together with several other southern hemisphere SNRs, is a prime target for observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), a new system of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which was completed at the end of 2003 in Namibia and is now in full operation. Here we report on observations of the SNR RX J1713.7-3946 which have been performed during the construction and commissioning of the H.E.S.S. system (data originally published here). We confirm TeV emission from this source and present the first ever {gamma}-ray image of an astronomical object resolved on arc minute scales. This image shows shell morphology similar to that seen in X-rays, however at photon energies some nine orders of magnitude higher. The characteristics of the energy spectrum imply efficient acceleration of charged particles to energies beyond 100 TeV, consistent with current ideas of particle acceleration in young SNR shocks.

  16. A high energy Space Station (HESS) array for studying extremely energetic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific aims and design concept of a High-Energy Space Station (HESS) cosmic-ray detector array are discussed. The current state of knowledge on cosmic-ray acceleration and high-energy interactions is briefly reviewed, and the need for observations yielding elemental composition and spectra in the 10-10,000-TeV/nucleon range is demonstrated. It is predicted that 2 yr of observations with a space-borne detector of geometry factor 30 sq m sr would provide adequate data to determine the acceleration mechanism (by comparing the energy level at which the spectra of He nuclei and protons break). A modular HESS array comprising W/scintillator/PM-tube calorimeter modules and Cerenkov charge-sensitive detector modules and weighing about 30 tonnes is described. The array could be assembled on orbit after transport in the Space Shuttle cargo bay, and data could be taken as soon as one or two layers of modules had been attached to the mounting-frame/support-electronics unit.

  17. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment.

  18. The Search for Identity in Selected Novels of Hermann Hesse: A Thematic Study for the Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jean Sawyer

    This study used four novels by Hermann Hesse as models to illustrate for secondary school English teachers a thematic analysis of the search for identity motif using the triadic view of individual growth. The novels are "Peter Camenzind,""Beneath the Wheel,""Demian," and "Siddhartha." In summary, this study…

  19. Legislating German University Structure: The Politics of Tradition in Hesse, 1960-1966. Yale Higher Education Program Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Graffe, John F.

    The protracted process by which Hesse's University Law of 1966 was enacted is traced. It is shown how that process gave rein to the still dominant forces of accommodation to traditional ideals of university mission and structure. As the last important attempt at moderate university reform in Germany, the law mandated certain changes in university…

  20. MAGIC reveals a complex morphology within the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1857+026

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MAGIC Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: HESS J1857+026 is an extended TeV gamma-ray source that was discovered by H.E.S.S. as part of its Galactic plane survey. Given its broadband spectral energy distribution and its spatial coincidence with the young energetic pulsar PSR J1856+0245, the source has been put forward as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate. MAGIC has performed follow-up observations aimed at mapping the source down to energies approaching 100 GeV in order to better understand its complex morphology. Methods: HESS J1857+026 was observed by MAGIC in 2010, yielding 29 h of good quality stereoscopic data that allowed us to map the source region in two separate ranges of energy. Results: We detected very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from HESS J1857+026 with a significance of 12σ above 150 GeV. The differential energy spectrum between 100 GeV and 13 TeV is described well by a power law function dN/dE = N0(E/1TeV)-Γ with N0 = (5.37 ± 0.44stat ± 1.5sys) × 10-12 (TeV-1 cm-2 s-1) and Γ = 2.16 ± 0.07stat ± 0.15sys, which bridges the gap between the GeV emission measured by Fermi-LAT and the multi-TeV emission measured by H.E.S.S.. In addition, we present a detailed analysis of the energy-dependent morphology of this region. We couple these results with archival multiwavelength data and outline evidence in favor of a two-source scenario, whereby one source is associated with a PWN, while the other could be linked with a molecular cloud complex containing an Hii region and a possible gas cavity.

  1. First multicolour polarimetry of TeV γ-ray binary HESS J0632+057 close to periastron passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, R. V.; Potter, S. B.; Townsend, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of UBVRI polarimetry of the TeV γ-ray binary HESS J0632+057 obtained on 2015 March 24 (JD 245 7106) and 2015 December 12 (JD 245 7369). The detected polarization values of HESS J0632+057, just after periastron passage (March 24), are higher than all previously published values (pV ˜ 4.2 per cent), and the position angle (Θobs ˜ 171°-172°) is also different by ˜6°-10° from previously published values. The data obtained just before the subsequent periastron passage (December 12) show a statistically lower polarization in all photometric bands (pV ˜3.9 per cent) and a different position angle Θobs ˜ 167°-168°. From observations of a nearby field star, the interstellar component of the measured polarization was estimated as p_{is}V ˜ 0.65 per cent and Θis ˜ 153°. This estimate was used with the previous `V'-band estimation by the `field-stars method' (p_{is}V ˜ 2 per cent and Θis ˜ 165°) of Yudin to identify the wavelength dependence of the intrinsic polarization in HESS J0632+057. It was found that after subtraction of the interstellar component (for both pis estimates), the wavelength dependence of the intrinsic polarization in HESS J0632+057 is essentially flat. We propose that the formation of an additional source of polarization or some perturbation of circumstellar material at this orbital phase can explain the changes in the level of polarization in HESS J0632+057 close to periastron passage.

  2. Analysing neutron star in HESS J1731-347 from thermal emission and cooling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Kaminker, A. D.; Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The central compact object in the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 appears to be the hottest observed isolated cooling neutron star. The cooling theory of neutron stars enables one to explain observations of this star by assuming the presence of strong proton superfluidity in the stellar core and the existence of the surface heat blanketing envelope which almost fully consists of carbon. The cooling model of this star is elaborated to take proper account of the neutrino emission due to neutron-neutron collisions which is not suppressed by proton superfluidity. Using the results of spectral fits of observed thermal spectra for the distance of 3.2 kpc and the cooling theory for the neutron star of age 27 kyr, new constraints on the stellar mass and radius are obtained which are more stringent than those derived from the spectral fits alone.

  3. On Some Implications of the Local Theory Th(ℊ) and of Popper'Sexperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Thomas D.

    Writing this paper in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier's 80th birthday, brings to mind the time when I was first introduced to him by my late friend Karl Popper in 1979 at a seminar. Since then I found in Vigier not only a most captivating person, but also a thinker utterly devoted to his problems. We both, I trust, belong to the fraternity of critical rationalists, the fraternity of those who are eager to argue, to learn from one another, and who have the intellectual courage in changing their mind, under the influence of criticism, even on points of fundamental importance to their cherished conjectures and beliefs.

  4. Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974): His ambitions, approach and achievements.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Urs

    2016-02-01

    Karl Meyer was one of the outstanding scientists in the areas of medical and veterinary microbiology, infectious diseases, pathology, epidemiology, ecology, academic education and public health during the first half of the 20th century. He was an exceptional scientist with an enormous drive to deepen knowledge and understanding, in the interest of the people, to improve diagnosis and treatment of many zoonoses including prevention and improvement in health laws. This paper presents a survey of the extraordinarily wide-ranging achievements of Meyer and his systems approach.

  5. Karl Jaspers' phenomenology in the light of histological and X-ray metaphors.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Olga Alexandrovna; Beveridge, Allan

    2014-03-01

    The study considers the origins of Karl Jaspers' phenomenology. What did phenomenology mean to Jaspers and what was his personal perspective? What metaphors did he associate with it? This paper describes his phenomenological method by using the metaphors of histology and the X-ray. This perspective enables a better understanding, not only of the origins and essence of his phenomenology but also of its value for Jaspers himself. In Jaspers' daily life, he would have been familiar with microscopes and X-ray machines.

  6. Probing the possibility of hotspots on the central neutron star in HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Poutanen, J.; Werner, K.

    2017-03-01

    The X-ray spectra of the neutron stars located in the centers of supernova remnants Cas A and HESS J1731-347 are well fit with carbon atmosphere models. These fits yield plausible neutron star sizes for the known or estimated distances to these supernova remnants. The evidence in favor of the presence of a pure carbon envelope at the neutron star surface is rather indirect and is based on the assumption that the emission is generated uniformly by the entire stellar surface. Although this assumption is supported by the absence of pulsations, the observational upper limit on the pulsed fraction is not very stringent. In an attempt to quantify this evidence, we investigate the possibility that the observed spectrum of the neutron star in HESS J1731-347 is a combination of the spectra produced in a hydrogen atmosphere of the hotspots and of the cooler remaining part of the neutron star surface. The lack of pulsations in this case has to be explained either by a sufficiently small angle between the neutron star spin axis and the line of sight, or by a sufficiently small angular distance between the hotspots and the neutron star rotation poles. As the observed flux from a non-uniformly emitting neutron star depends on the angular distribution of the radiation emerging from the atmosphere, we have computed two new grids of pure carbon and pure hydrogen atmosphere model spectra accounting for Compton scattering. Using new hydrogen models, we have evaluated the probability of a geometry that leads to a pulsed fraction below the observed upper limit to be about 8.2%. Such a geometry thus seems to be rather improbable but cannot be excluded at this stage.

  7. Multi-Zone Modeling of the Pulsar Win Nebula HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-08

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy source with an angular extent of {approx} 1{sup o} and spatially-resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as 3-D time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data places significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r, t) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.7} E(t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx} 80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high energy particles with {tau}{sub esc} {approx} 90 (R/10 pc){sup 2}(E{sub e}/100TeV){sup -1} year, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi LAT surface brightness out to {approx} 1{sup o} from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.5{sup o} southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.6 {+-} 0.1{sup o}.

  8. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE TeV SOURCE HESS J1834-087

    SciTech Connect

    Misanovic, Zdenka; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G. E-mail: oyk100@astro.ufl.edu

    2011-07-01

    Chandra ACIS observed the field of the extended TeV source HESS J1834-087 for 47 ks. A previous XMM-Newton EPIC observation of the same field revealed a point-like source (XMMU J183435.3-084443) and an offset region of faint extended emission. In the low-resolution, binned EPIC images the two appear to be connected. However, the high-resolution Chandra ACIS images do not support the alleged connection. In these images, XMMU J183435.3-084443 is resolved into a point source, CXOU J183434.9-084443 (L{sub 0.5-8keV} {approx_equal} 2.3 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, for a distance of 4 kpc; photon index {Gamma} {approx_equal} 1.1), and a compact ({approx}< 20'') nebula with an isotropic morphology and a softer spectrum (L{sub 0.5-8keV} {approx_equal} 4.1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, {Gamma} {approx_equal} 2.7). The nature of the nebula is uncertain. We discuss a dust scattering halo and a pulsar-wind nebula as possible interpretations. Based on our analysis of the X-ray data, we re-evaluate the previously suggested interpretations of HESS J1834-087 and discuss a possible connection to the Fermi Large Area Telescope source 1FGL J1834.3-0842c. We also obtained an upper limit of 3 x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on the unabsorbed flux of the SGR J1833-0832 (in quiescence), which happened to be in the ACIS field of view.

  9. MULTI-ZONE MODELING OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.

    2011-12-01

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy (VHE) source with an angular extent of {approx}1 Degree-Sign and spatially resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as three-dimensional time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data place significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r){proportional_to}r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r,t){proportional_to}r{sup -0.7} E-dot (t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx}80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high-energy particles, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) surface brightness out to {approx}1 Degree-Sign from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.{sup 0}5 southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.{sup 0}6 {+-} 0.{sup 0}1.

  10. Decoupling of Serpentinization and Prehnitization in Lower East Pacific Rise Crust at Hess Dee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, R. T.; Wintsch, R. P.; Meyer, R.; Bish, D. L.; Gasaway, C.; Heimdal, T.

    2014-12-01

    Our down-hole mineralogical and geochemical analyses from the East Pacific Rise fast-spreading lower oceanic crust indicate that alteration of olivine to serpentine and of plagioclase to prehnite were independent, and neither alone monitors the total "alteration." The results are based on representative channel sub-samples recovered from every Hole J core during IODP Expedition 345 to the Hess Deep tectonic window. Samples have been analyzed for trace element, Sr isotopic, and quantitative mineralogical compositions (the latter by Rietveld refinement using X-ray diffraction data). Hole J is the most representative rock succession drilled at the Hess Deep as it penetrated the two principle plutonic lithologies: an upper gabbro and a lower troctolite. Units are significantly distinguished by XRD modal mineralogy and trace element abundances. The more heterogeneous gabbro contains 23-32 wt% clinopyroxene (cpx), 34-54 wt% plagioclase (plag), and <4 wt% olivine (ol). The troctolite contains 3-11% cpx, 14-36% plag, and ≤6% ol. Alteration minerals comprise together 18-31% in the gabbro versus 55-80% of the troctolite. The most abundant alteration products are prehnite and chlorite. Gabbro samples with lowest abundances of alteration minerals (18-20 wt%) preserve 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70275-0.7028) consistent with unaltered mantle. The abundance of plag in the gabbro, the major host for Sr, suggests retention of mantle Sr isotopic compositions there is due to the large reservoir of magmatic Sr. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70300-0.70342 in the troctolite samples indicate seawater interaction, even where olivine is most abundant, and serpentine is at or below the ~1% detection limit by XRD. Significant alteration of the deep crust by seawater thus predates the first appearance of serpentine. These data suggest that the timing and operation of prehnite- and serpentine-producing alteration reactions are independent.

  11. Update on Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. We are addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) -- Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument. KArLE ablates a rock sample, determines the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relates the two by the volume of the ablated pit using laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Our goal is for the KArLE instrument to be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to address a wide range of geochronolgy problems in planetary science.

  12. Informatics in radiology: Hesse rendering for computer-aided visualization and analysis of anomalies at chest CT and breast MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wiemker, Rafael; Dharaiya, Ekta D; Bülow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A volume-rendering (VR) technique known as Hesse rendering applies image-enhancement filters to three-dimensional imaging volumes and depicts the filter responses in a color-coded fashion. Unlike direct VR, which makes use of intensities, Hesse rendering operates on the basis of shape properties, such that nodular structures in the resulting renderings have different colors than do tubular structures and thus are easily visualized. The renderings are mouse-click sensitive and can be used to navigate to locations of possible anomalies in the original images. Hesse rendering is meant to complement rather than replace conventional section-by-section viewing or VR. Although it is a pure visualization technique that involves no internal segmentation or explicit object detection, Hesse rendering, like computer-aided detection, may be effective for quickly calling attention to points of interest in large stacks of images and for helping radiologists to avoid oversights.

  13. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for in Situ Geochronology Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    KArLE (Potassium-­-Argon Laser Experiment) has been developed for in situ planetary geochronology using the K - Ar (potassium-­-argon) isotope system, where material ablated by LIBS (Laser-­-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is used to calculate isotope abundances. We are determining the accuracy and precision of volume measurements of these pits using stereo and laser microscope data to better understand the ablation process for isotope abundance calculations. If a characteristic volume can be determined with sufficient accuracy and precision for specific rock types, KArLE will prove to be a useful instrument for future planetary rover missions.

  14. Interlaboratory assessment of measurement precision and bias in the coulometric Karl Fischer determination of water.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Angelo, Jacob B

    2002-10-01

    The precision and bias of the coulometric Karl Fischer ASTM method D1533-00 have been assessed in a collaborative ASTM round robin program for a group of 34 laboratories. The test materials used in this study included water saturated 1-octanol (WSO), water saturated 1-butanol (WSB), and a series of new and used transformer oil samples. Fundamental systematic biases have been demonstrated in the accuracy of the measurement of water in the WSO, WSB, and transformer oil samples. The systematic bias in the measurement of the WSO and WSB standards indicates that for some laboratories either the instruments were not accurate or the quantity of the standard was not measured accurately. A second type of systematic bias consisted of measurement errors associated with the selection of the Karl Fischer solvent that was used with each instrument, and this was superimposed upon the error in the measurement of the water in the standards. Using the statistical calculation method ASTM D 6300 the repeatability and reproducibility for water in transformer oil were found to be 7 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg respectively. The method detection limit of water was 8 mg/kg oil. The method bias was estimated based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, WSO, since no suitable reference material for water in transformer oil was available for this study.

  15. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge.

  16. [The search for "od." Karl Ludwig Freiheer von Reichenbach (1788-1869) and Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer (1806-1853), two joined against Justus von Liebig].

    PubMed

    Habacher, M

    1980-05-01

    The author describes the controversy between Justus von Liebig on one side and Reichenbach and Mayrhofer on the other side. It is a controversy about problems of science and medicine which are characteristic for the late 18th and the first half of the 19th century, when Mesmerism and similar ideas of occultic and comparative phenomenona were discussed and often refused as being "not scientific". Justus von Liebig and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach were both chemists, both interested in scientific progress and working in this field. They were friends in the years 1830 to 1848. But later on this friendship ended when Reichenbach--who in the mean time moved to Vienna--became more and more interested in phenomenons seen by sensitive persons concerning effects of light. Although Reichenbach himself was not able to recognize the phenomenons he was sure that other persons had this ability. He had the impression that there is a special force floating through the universe, and this force he called "od". Liebig, who was not able to follow this theory and rejected it has speculation, turned against Reichenbach in 1852-3. So the controversy began and their old friendship came to an end. Reichenbach's theory of the "od", characteristic for the time of the romanticism and leading back to Mesmerism was accepted and supported by the Austrian physician Dr. Karl Wilhelm Mayrhofer who had aroused his interest by describing similar phenomenos some of this patients had. The letters of both men, the chemist and the doctor, which are well preserved (Technical Museum of Vienna) and discussed here, give a good impression of Reichenbach's ideas concerning his theory of the "od" and his philosophical ideas. As Reichenbach tried to find a philosophy corresponding to his theory and as he meant to have found this in the philosophy of Friedrich Eduard Beneke his remarks in those letters give a good information about Beneke's discussion of Reichenbach's theory. Mayrhofer, on the other hand

  17. Neutrinos and γ -rays from the Galactic Center Region after H.E.S.S. multi-TeV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Silvia; Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The hypothesis of a PeVatron in the Galactic Center, emerged with the recent γ -ray measurements of H.E.S.S. [1], motivates the search for neutrinos from this source. The effect of γ -ray absorption is studied: at the energies currently probed, the known background radiation fields lead to small effects, whereas it is not possible to exclude large effects due to new IR radiation fields near the very center. Precise upper limits on neutrino fluxes are derived and the underlying hypotheses are discussed. The expected number of events for ANTARES, IceCube and KM3NeT, based on the H.E.S.S. measurements, are calculated. It is shown that km^3-class telescopes in the Northern hemisphere have the potential of observing high-energy neutrinos from this important astronomical object and can check the existence of a hadronic PeV galactic accelerator.

  18. Monitoring of the Tev Blazar 1ES 1101-232 with RXTE and H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    We want to carry out an observation campaign of 10 nights with HESS and RXTE on 1ES 1101-232, the by far most distant object detected in TeV gamma-rays. HESS is a second generation TeV Cherenkov telescope system with a much better sensitivity and lower energy threshold compared to previous instruments. The campaign will be accompanied by observations of various other instruments. Our goals are (a) to measure and understand the temporal evolution of the broad-band spectral energy distribution of Blazars, in order to allow more detailed modeling of radiation processes and particle acceleration in Blazar jets, and (b) to investigate the cosmic Extragalactic Background Light by studying the absorption of TeV gamma-rays, for which 1ES 1101-232 (z=0.186) is an extremely important target.

  19. Dark matter searches with H.E.S.S.: nearby dwarf galaxies and IMBH mini-spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, E.; Vivier, M.; Brun, P.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Peyaud, B.

    2008-12-24

    WIMP pair annihilations produce high energy gamma-rays in the final state, which can be detected by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes such as the H.E.S.S. array. We focus in this contribution on searches towards dwarf galaxies and mini-spikes around intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in the Galactic halo. H.E.S.S. observations towards the nearby dwarf galaxies Sagittarius and Canis Major are presented. Using realistic modellings for the dark matter (DM) density profiles, constraints on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section {sigma}v of DM particles are derived in the framework of Supersymmetric and Kaluza-Klein models. A search for DM mini-spikes around IMBHs is described as well as constraints on the particle physics parameters.

  20. HESS-II reconstruction strategy and performance in the low-energy (20-150 GeV) domain

    SciTech Connect

    Becherini, Y.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Punch, M.; Bernloehr, K.; Ehlert, S.; Masbou, J.; Moulin, E.

    2008-12-24

    In mid-2009 a notable upgrade of the H.E.S.S. telescope system will take place: a new telescope with a 600 m{sup 2} mirror area and very-high-resolution camera (0.07 deg.) will be positioned at the centre of the present configuration, with the aim of lowering the threshold and enhance its sensitivity in the 100 GeV to several TeV energy range. HESS-II will permit the investigation of the lower energy {gamma}-ray spectra in various cosmic accelerators, giving information on the origin of the {gamma}-rays observed, and will detect AGNs with a redshift greater than 0.2 (being less affected by absorption by Extragalactic Background Light--EBL--in this energy range) and will search for new classes of very high energy {gamma}-ray emitters (pulsars, microquasars, GRB, and dark matter candidates)

  1. Search for gamma rays from dark matter annihilations around intermediate mass black holes with the HESS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Sahakian, V.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Goret, P.; Moulin, E.; Vivier, M.; Beilicke, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Horns, D.

    2008-10-01

    The HESS array of Cherenkov telescopes has performed, from 2004 to 2007, a survey of the inner galactic plane at photon energies above 100 GeV. About 400 hours of data have been accumulated in the region between -30 and +60 degrees in galactic longitude, and between -3 and +3 degrees in galactic latitude. Assuming that dark matter is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, we calculate here the HESS sensitivity map for dark matter annihilations, and derive the first experimental constraints on the ('minispikes') scenario, in which a gamma-ray signal arises from dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes. The data exclude the proposed scenario at a 90% confidence level for dark matter particles with velocity-weighted annihilation cross section {sigma}v above 10{sup -28} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} and mass between 800 GeV and 10 TeV.

  2. HESS J1427-608: An Unusual Hard, Unbroken Gamma-Ray Spectrum in a Very Wide Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Xin, Yu-Liang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV γ-ray source that spatially overlaps and is thus very likely associated with the unidentified very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J1427‑608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power law with an index of 1.85 ± 0.17 in the energy range of 3–500 GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427‑608 at a few hundred gigaelectronvolts. This source shows no significant extension and time variation. The broadband GeV to TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427‑608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss the possible nature of HESS J1427‑608 according to the multiwavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multiwavelength data from radio to VHE γ-rays. The inferred magnetic field strength is a few micro-Gauss, which is smaller than the typical values of supernova remnants (SNRs) and is consistent with some pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). On the other hand, the flat γ-ray spectrum is slightly different from typical PWNe but is similar to that of some known SNRs.

  3. HESS J1023-575: Non-Thermal Particle Acceleration Associated With the Young Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, O.; Hinton, J.; Hofmann, W.; Hoppe, S.; Masterson, C.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-11-14

    The results from H.E.S.S. observations towards Westerlund 2 are presented. The detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the HII complex RCW49 by H.E.S.S. provides ample evidence that particle acceleration to extreme energies is associated with this region. A variety of possible emission scenarios is mentioned, ranging from high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a, collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. These scenarios are briefly compared to the characteristics of the associated new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575, and conclusions on the validity of the respective emission scenarios for high-energy gamma-ray production in the Westerlund 2 system are drawn.

  4. A NEW TeV BINARY: THE DISCOVERY OF AN ORBITAL PERIOD IN HESS J0632+057

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiorno, S. D.; Falcone, A. D.; Stroh, M.; Holder, J.; Skilton, J. L.; Hinton, J. A.; Gehrels, N.; Grube, J. E-mail: afalcone@astro.psu.edu

    2011-08-10

    HESS J0632+057 is a variable, point-like source of very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays located in the Galactic plane. It is positionally coincident with a Be star, it is a variable radio and X-ray source, has a hard X-ray spectrum, and has low radio flux. These properties suggest that the object may be a member of the rare class of TeV/X-ray binary systems. The definitive confirmation of this would be the detection of a periodic orbital modulation of the flux at any wavelength. We have obtained Swift X-Ray Telescope observations of the source from MJD 54857 to 55647 (2009 January-2011 March) to test the hypothesis that HESS J0632+057 is an X-ray/TeV binary. We show that these data exhibit flux modulation with a period of 321 {+-} 5 days and we evaluate the significance of this period by calculating the null hypothesis probability, allowing for stochastic flaring. This periodicity establishes the binary nature of HESS J0632+057.

  5. Flux upper limits for 47 AGN observed with H.E.S.S. in 2004-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-03-01

    Context. About 40% of the observation time of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is dedicated to studying active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the aim of increasing the sample of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sources and constraining the physical processes at play in potential emitters. Aims: H.E.S.S. observations of AGN, spanning a period from April 2004 to December 2011, are investigated to constrain their γ-ray fluxes. Only the 47 sources without significant excess detected at the position of the targets are presented. Methods: Upper limits on VHE fluxes of the targets were computed and a search for variability was performed on the nightly time scale. Results: For 41 objects, the flux upper limits we derived are the most constraining reported to date. These constraints at VHE are compared with the flux level expected from extrapolations of Fermi-LAT measurements in the two-year catalog of AGN. The H.E.S.S. upper limits are at least a factor of two lower than the extrapolated Fermi-LAT fluxes for 11 objects. Taking into account the attenuation by the extragalactic background light reduces the tension for all but two of them, suggesting intrinsic curvature in the high-energy spectra of these two AGN. Conclusions: Compilation efforts led by current VHE instruments are of critical importance for target-selection strategies before the advent of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  6. H.E.S.S. observations of the Crab during its March 2013 GeV gamma-ray flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. On March 4, 2013 the Fermi-LAT and AGILE reported a flare from the direction of the Crab nebula in which the high-energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) flux was six times above its quiescent level. Simultaneous observations in other energy bands give us hints about the emission processes during the flare episode and the physics of pulsar wind nebulae in general. Aims: We search for variability in the emission of the Crab nebula at very-high energies (VHE; E > 100 GeV), using contemporaneous data taken with the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes. Methods: Observational data taken with the H.E.S.S. instrument on five consecutive days during the flare were analysed for the flux and spectral shape of the emission from the Crab nebula. Night-wise light curves are presented with energy thresholds of 1 TeV and 5 TeV. Results: The observations conducted with H.E.S.S. on March 6 to March 10, 2013 show no significant changes in the flux. They limit the variation in the integral flux above 1 TeV to less than 63% and the integral flux above 5 TeV to less than 78% at a 95% confidence level.

  7. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH INVESTIGATION OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J1708-410

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Funk, Stefan; Hinton, Jim E-mail: sfunk@stanford.ed

    2009-12-20

    We report on recent XMM-Newton observations, archival radio continuum and CO data, and spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of the unidentified Galactic plane source HESS J1708-410. No significant extended X-ray emission is observed, and we place an upper limit of 3.2 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 2-4 keV range for the region of TeV emission. Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey data are used to place an upper limit of 0.27 Jy at 843 MHz for the source, with a 2.4 GHz limit of 0.4 Jy from the Parkes survey of the southern Galactic plane. {sup 12}CO (J 1 -> 0) data of this region indicates a plausible distance of 3 kpc for HESS J1708-410. SED modeling of both the HESS detection and flux upper limits offer useful constraints on the emission mechanisms, magnetic field, injection spectrum, and ambient medium surrounding this source.

  8. Discovery of new X-ray sources near the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1841-055

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, K. K.; Nobukawa, M.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.

    2015-06-01

    HESS J1841-055 is a diffuse unidentified gamma-ray source with the size of ∼1°.3 × 1°. No conclusive counterpart in other wavelengths has so far detected. To search for X-rays responsible for the TeV emission, the Suzaku observations were conducted, which covered a half region of the HESS source. In the soft band (0.5-2.0 keV), we discovered a diffuse emission, Suzaku J1840.2-0552, with the size of ∼10‧ . Since its spectrum was fitted by an optically thin thermal plasma model, Suzaku J1840.2-0552 is likely to be a supernova remnant. We also discovered an extended source, Suzaku J1840.2-0544, in the hard band (2.0-8.0 keV) with an emission line at 6.1 keV. From the spectral feature and large interstellar absorption, this source is likely to be a cluster of galaxies behind the Galactic plane at the red-shift of ∼0.09. The other diffuse source spatially overlaps with the SNR candidate G26.6-0.2, which shows a non-thermal dominant spectrum. Since no other candidate is found in the hard X-ray band, we infer that these largely extended sources could be possible counterparts of HESS J1841-055.

  9. A Multi-Wavelength Investigation of the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1708-410

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Funk, Stefan; Hinton, Jim; /Leeds U.

    2009-12-16

    We report on recent XMM-Newton observations, archival radio continuum and CO data, and SED modeling of the unidentified Galactic plane source HESS J1708-410. No significant extended X-ray emission is observed, and we place an upper limit of 3.2 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 2-4 keV range for the region of TeV emission. Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey data is used to place an upper limit of 0.27 Jy at 843 MHz for the source, with a 2.4 GHz limit of 0.4 Jy from the Parkes survey of the southern Galactic plane. {sup 12}CO (J 1 {yields} 0) data of this region indicates a plausible distance of 3 kpc for HESS J1708-410. SED modeling of both the H.E.S.S. detection and flux upper limits offer useful constraints on the emission mechanisms, magnetic field, injection spectrum, and ambient medium surrounding this source.

  10. Evaluating Effectiveness of Modeling Motion System Feedback in the Enhanced Hess Structural Model of the Human Operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaychik, Kirill; Cardullo, Frank; George, Gary; Kelly, Lon C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to use the Hess Structural Model to predict the need for certain cueing systems, George and Cardullo significantly expanded it by adding motion feedback to the model and incorporating models of the motion system dynamics, motion cueing algorithm and a vestibular system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate effectiveness of these innovations by performing a comparison analysis of the model performance with and without the expanded motion feedback. The proposed methodology is composed of two stages. The first stage involves fine-tuning parameters of the original Hess structural model in order to match the actual control behavior recorded during the experiments at NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The parameter tuning procedure utilizes a new automated parameter identification technique, which was developed at the Man-Machine Systems Lab at SUNY Binghamton. In the second stage of the proposed methodology, an expanded motion feedback is added to the structural model. The resulting performance of the model is then compared to that of the original one. As proposed by Hess, metrics to evaluate the performance of the models include comparison against the crossover models standards imposed on the crossover frequency and phase margin of the overall man-machine system. Preliminary results indicate the advantage of having the model of the motion system and motion cueing incorporated into the model of the human operator. It is also demonstrated that the crossover frequency and the phase margin of the expanded model are well within the limits imposed by the crossover model.

  11. Secondary transmissions during the outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104 in Hesse, Germany, 2011.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Am; Gotsch, U; Strotmann, I; Krahn, J; Bettge-Weller, G; Westbrock, Hj; Bellinger, O; Uphoff, H

    2011-08-04

    During the recent outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 in Germany most cases notified in the State of Hesse (6 million inhabitants) were linked to satellite clusters or had travelled to the outbreak area in northern Germany. Intensified surveillance was introduced to rapidly identify cases not linked to known clusters or cases and thus to obtain timely information on possible further contaminated vehicles distributed in Hesse, as well to describe the risk of secondary transmission among known cases. As of 2 August 2011* [corrected], 56 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) including two fatal cases, and 124 cases of STEC gastroenteritis meeting the national case definitions have been reported in Hesse. Among the 55 HUS and 81 STEC gastroenteritis cases thatmet the outbreak case definition, one HUS case and eight STEC gastroenteritis cases may have acquired their infection through secondary transmission. They include six possible transmissions within the family, two possible nosocomial and one possible laboratory transmission. Our results do not suggest an increased transmissibility of the outbreak strain compared to what is already known about E. coli O157 and other STEC serotypes.

  12. Understanding the Relationships Between Lightning, Cloud Microphysics, and Airborne Radar-derived Storm Structure During Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Brad; Fuelberg, Henry; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Andrew; Bansemer, Aaron; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Heymsfield, Gerald; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lightning, cloud microphysics, and tropical cyclone (TC) storm structure in Hurricane Karl (16 September 2010) using data collected by the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk (GH) aircraft during NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment. The research capitalizes on the unique opportunity provided by GRIP to synthesize multiple datasets from two aircraft and analyze the microphysical and kinematic properties of an electrified TC. Five coordinated flight legs through Karl by the DC-8 and GH are investigated, focusing on the inner-core region (within 50km of the storm center) where the lightning was concentrated and the aircraft were well coordinated. GRIP datasets are used to compare properties of electrified and nonelectrified inner-core regions that are related to the noninductive charging mechanism, which is widely accepted to explain the observed electric fields within thunderstorms. Three common characteristics of Karl's electrified regions are identified: 1) strong updrafts of 10-20ms21, 2) deep mixed-phase layers indicated by reflectivities.30 dBZ extending several kilometers above the freezing level, and 3) microphysical environments consisting of graupel, very small ice particles, and the inferred presence of supercooled water. These characteristics describe an environment favorable for in situ noninductive charging and, hence, TC electrification. The electrified regions in Karl's inner core are attributable to a microphysical environment that was conducive to electrification because of occasional, strong convective updrafts in the eyewall.

  13. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  14. [Territorial differences in the occurrence of caries in Karl Marx Stadt children and adolescent after 12 years of water fluoridation].

    PubMed

    Künzel, W

    1976-01-01

    Cariostatistical comparisons made since the start of drinking-water fluoridation in Karl-Marx-Stadt suggested territorial differences in the prevalence of dental decay. In the present paper an attempt is made to analyse the problems involved, with due consideration being given to both demographic and ecological factors.

  15. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971).

  16. Mapping a Space of Biography: Karl Triebold and the Waldschule of Senne I-Bielefeld (c.1923-1939)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Starting from a "life geography" of Karl Triebold, a leading figure in open-air education, this article provides an understanding of the seemingly ordinary but still idiosyncratic development of a German open-air school. Triebold's life's work, the fight against tuberculosis, conceived as character education through healthy occupation,…

  17. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  18. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  19. In Situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Roark, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    If extinct and/or extant life is discovered on Mars, knowledge of the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. KArLE will provide absolute ages of Mars 2020 rocks, which will allow us to understand them in the context of Mars' geologic history, connect them to other landing sites, and compare Martian epochs of habitability with the Earth's history and evolution of life. KArLE significantly enhances the ability of Mars 2020 to meet its science objectives by performing in situ age dating on key lithologies, enabling targeted searches for ancient biosignatures and increasing the chances of identifying evidence for Martian microbial life. The KArLE investigation makes its measurements on a core sample obtained with the rover drill, inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber, followed by interrogation by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of the Mars 2020 payload to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  20. Vendian microfossils in metasedimentary cherts of the Scotia Group, Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.

    1992-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of the Scotia Group, Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, have been metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Yet Scotia chert nodules contain abundant organic-walled microfossils belonging to at least seventeen taxa. Their black colour indicates that the fossils underwent substantial thermal alteration. However, it is suggested that preservation in a matrix of early diagenetic silica shielded them from the most destructive mechanical and chemical effects of metamorphism. Microbial mats and large acanthomorphic acritarchs suggest a coastal marine depositional environment; the acritarchs further indicate an early Vendian age for the sediments. The Scotia fossils bear a close resemblance to assemblages described from the Doushantuo Formation, China and elsewhere, demonstrating the broad geographical distribution of biostratigraphically important Vendian taxa. Briareus and Echinosphaeridium are described as new genera; Briareus borealis is described as a new species, while Echinosphaeridium maximum is proposed as a new combination.

  1. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    PubMed

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  2. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program.

  3. Hurricanes Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew Structure Observed by HIWRAP During GRIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Guimond, S. R.; Tian, L.

    2012-12-01

    The dual-wavelength (Ku and Ka band) High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) flew for the first time on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). HIWRAP is conical scanning and Doppler, and winds and reflectivity can be mapped within the swath below the Global Hawk. Two interesting cases from the HIWRAP flights were the rapid intensification of Hurricane Karl and the intensification of Tropical Storm Matthew. This presentation will highlight the precipitation and wind structure of these storms during their intensification as derived from the HIWRAP observations. If time permits and if available, highlights from HIWRAP observations from the Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field campaign in September 2012 will be presented.

  4. Investigation of amine-buffered amide reagents for coulometric Karl Fischer titration.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Cedergren, Anders

    2009-06-15

    Formamide (FA), N-methylformamide (NMF), and dimethylformamide (DMF), were evaluated as solvents for coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) reagents in combination with several amine bases. Except for the effect of the iodine species (iodine or triiodide), the pH of the reagent and the position of the sulfur dioxide/hydrogen sulfite equilibrium were found to be the main factors explaining the large difference in the observed reaction rates between water and the KF reagent in these solvents. Acid-base titrations showed that hydrogen sulfite is the main sulfur reactant in these media. The results will be of great importance in finding suitable combinations of base and solvent with respect to stoichiometry, side reactions caused by active carbonyl compounds, and reagent stability.

  5. Coulometric trace determination of water by using Karl Fischer reagent and potentiometric end-point detection.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A new approach to the determination of water via the Karl Fischer reaction is described. Iodine is coulometrically generated and the end-point corresponding to a slight excess of iodine, is detected potentiometrically with a non-polarized platinum electrode. Samples of 1-500 mul containing 0.05-200 mug of water were analysed with a standard deviation of 0.015 mug in the range 0.05-20 mug of H(2)O. A specially constructed electrolysis cell was used in combination with an LKB 16300 Coulometric Analyzer and the time for a complete analysis was 1-4 min, depending on sample size. The reagent composition has been optimized in order to enhance the rate of the main reaction and to minimize the extent of side-reactions. Decreasing the temperature reduced the extent of side-reactions. The displacement of end-point potential on dilution was studied and a correction is discussed.

  6. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R2 = 0.997). PMID:22567558

  7. The Application of the Karl Fischer Oven for the Determination of Water in Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Houston, T E; Poore, M W

    1996-10-01

    The direct Karl Fischer (KF) titration method has known interferences for measuring water content. In addition, in analyzing some paints, KF can fail to produce an accurate analysis. The California Air Resources Board (GARB) staff has developed a KF procedure that can be used to determine the water content of consumer products. The procedure uses an oven accessory to the titration system, and is based on a distillation method developed by the California Polytechnical University at San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly). Samples are diluted in l-methoxy-2-propanol (MPA), and an aliquot is injected into an enclosed oven system, where the MPA/water azeotrope is swept directly into the KF titration vessel. The technique is accurate and precise and, thus far, proves to be a fast and reliable method for analysis.

  8. ["Homesickness and crime"--a contribution of Karl Jaspers to criminal psychology].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Even a century after its first publication in "Archives of Criminology" (in German: Archiv für Kriminologie), the doctoral thesis of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), which was newly edited in 1996, continues to be of interest. Although the crimes described by Jaspers, which took place in a rural area, do no longer occur in this form just as the rural culture itself has disappeared, this paper nevertheless contains reflections that may also be relevant for the interpretation of modern potentials of conflict and violence and crimes rooted therein. The former homesickness has developed into novel phenomena of uprooting. In both cases, problems of maladjustment are a contributing factor to crime motivation. Thus despite all terminological and methodological change, Jaspers' thesis is an example for the continuing relevance of certain subjects in criminological discourse.

  9. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    PubMed Central

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  10. The use of the Karl sub-scale laser for Raman beam clean-up experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudas, Alan J.; Burris, Harris R.

    1987-03-01

    The two X-ray preionized discharge pumped front end lasers for the Raman Beam Clean-up Experiment (LARBC) have been examined both optically and electrically in an effort to increase the optical and temporal quality of the injection locked beam produced. The KARL subscale has been successfully injection locked by the front end lasers and preliminary studies of the stability of the injection locking begun. An isolator system has been designed and constructed to prevent damage to system optics from energy moving the wrong way in the system. A gas processing system was tested to remove contaminants in the laser gas. Additional units have been purchased for use on all lasers in the system. Diagnostics for the experiment will be coordinated through the WP3202 digitizing system.

  11. Clever Hans and his effects: Karl Krall and the origins of experimental parapsychology in Germany.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Fabio; Marazia, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, the so-called Elberfeld horses, the counting and speaking animals, were among the most debated subjects of the newborn comparative psychology. Yet, they have left little trace in the historiography of this discipline, mostly as an appendix of the more famous Clever Hans. Their story is generally told as the prelude to the triumph of reductionistic experimental psychology. By paying a more scrupulous attention than has so far being done to the second life of Hans, and to the endeavours of his second master, Karl Krall, this article explores the story of the Elberfeld horses as an important, if so far neglected, chapter in the history of experimental parapsychology.

  12. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    PubMed

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology.

  13. X-Ray Observations of Unidentified H.E.S.S. Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; /SLAC

    2007-10-10

    In a survey of the inner part of the Galaxy, performed with the H.E.S.S. Instrument (High energy stereoscopic system) in 2004 and 2005, a large number of new unidentified very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray sources above an energy of 100 GeV was discovered. Often the {gamma}-ray spectra in these sources reach energies of up to {approx} 10 TeV. These are the highest energy particles ever attributed to single astrophysical objects. While a few of these sources can be identified at other wavebands, most of these sources remain unidentified so far. A positive identification of these new g-ray sources with a counterpart object at other wavebands requires (a) a positional coincidence between the two sources,( b) a viable {gamma}-ray emission mechanism and (c) a consistent multiwavelength behavior of the two sources. X-ray observations with satellites such as XMM-Newton, Chandra or Suzaku provide one of the best channels to studying these enigmatic {gamma}-ray sources at other wavebands, since they combine high angular resolution and sensitivity with the ability to access non-thermal electrons through their synchrotron emission. We therefore have started a dedicated program to investigate VHE {gamma}-ray sources with high-sensitivity X-ray instruments.

  14. Search for photon-linelike signatures from dark matter annihilations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M-H; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2013-01-25

    Gamma-ray line signatures can be expected in the very-high-energy (E(γ)>100 GeV) domain due to self-annihilation or decay of dark matter (DM) particles in space. Such a signal would be readily distinguishable from astrophysical γ-ray sources that in most cases produce continuous spectra that span over several orders of magnitude in energy. Using data collected with the H.E.S.S. γ-ray instrument, upper limits on linelike emission are obtained in the energy range between ∼ 500 GeV and ∼ 25 TeV for the central part of the Milky Way halo and for extragalactic observations, complementing recent limits obtained with the Fermi-LAT instrument at lower energies. No statistically significant signal could be found. For monochromatic γ-ray line emission, flux limits of (2 × 10(-7) -2 × 10(-5)) m(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) and (1 × 10(-8) -2 × 10(-6)) m(-2) s(-1)sr(-1) are obtained for the central part of the Milky Way halo and extragalactic observations, respectively. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩(χχ → γγ) reach ∼ 10(-27) cm(3)s(-1), based on the Einasto parametrization of the Galactic DM halo density profile.

  15. Study of intrinsic anchoring in nematic liquid crystals based on modified Gruhn Hess pair potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2008-01-01

    A nematic liquid crystal slab composed of N molecular layers is investigated using a simple cubic lattice model, based upon the molecular pair potential which is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. A perfect nematic order is assumed in the theoretical treatment, which means the orientation of the molecular long axis coincides with the director of liquid crystal and the total free energy equals to the total interaction energy. We present a modified Gruhn Hess model, which is relative to the splay-bend elastic constant K. Furthermore, we have studied the free nematic interfacial behavior (intrinsic anchoring) by this model in the assumption of the perfect nematic order. We find that the preferred orientation at the free interface and the intrinsic anchoring strength change with the value of modification, and that the director profile can be determined by the competition of the intrinsic anchoring with external forces present in the system. Also we simulate the intrinsic anchoring at different temperatures using Monte Carlo method and the simulation results show that the intrinsic anchoring favors planar alignment and the free interface is more disordered than the bulk.

  16. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE NON-THERMAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT HESS J1731-347

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo; Puehlhofer, Gerd; Klochkov, Dmitry; Acero, Fabio; Li Zhiyuan; Horns, Dieter; Kosack, Karl

    2012-09-10

    A detailed analysis of the non-thermal X-ray emission from the northwestern and southern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 with Suzaku is presented. The shell portions covered by the observations emit hard and lineless X-rays. The spectrum can be reproduced by a simple absorbed power-law model with a photon index {Gamma} of 1.8-2.7 and an absorption column density N{sub H} of (1.0-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. These quantities change significantly from region to region; the northwestern part of the SNR has the hardest and most absorbed spectrum. The western part of the X-ray shell has a smaller curvature than the northwestern and southern shell segments. A comparison of the X-ray morphology to the very high energy gamma-ray and radio images was performed. The efficiency of the electron acceleration and the emission mechanism in each portion of the shell are discussed. Thermal X-ray emission from the SNR was searched for but could not be detected at a significant level.

  17. The Hesse potential, the c-map and black hole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, T.; Vaughan, O.

    2012-07-01

    We present a new formulation of the local c-map, which makes use of a symplectically covariant real formulation of special Kähler geometry. We obtain an explicit and simple expression for the resulting quaternionic, or, in the case of reduction over time, para-quaternionic Kähler metric in terms of the Hesse potential, which is similar to the expressions for the metrics obtained from the rigid r- and c-map, and from the local r-map. As an application we use the temporal version of the c-map to derive the black hole attractor equations from geometric properties of the scalar manifold, without imposing supersymmetry or spherical symmetry. We observe that for general (non-symmetric) c-map spaces static BPS solutions are related to a canonical family of totally isotropic, totally geodesic submanifolds. Static non-BPS solutions can be obtained by applying a field rotation matrix which is subject to a non-trivial compatibility condition. We show that for a class of prepotentials, which includes the very special (`cubic') prepotentials as a subclass, axion-free solutions always admit a non-trivial field rotation matrix.

  18. Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

  19. Hydrothermal spinel, corundum and diaspore in lower oceanic crustal troctolites from the Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, Toshio; Meyer, Romain; Wintsch, Robert P.; Wathen, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    Aluminous spinel, corundum and diaspore are reported from intensely altered parts of primitive troctolites recovered from IODP Site U1415 at the Hess Deep Rift. The spinel is green-colored, has an irregular shape, has low Cr concentrations, and is so distinct from primary igneous chromite. Corundum and diaspore occur mainly at the rims of green spinel grains with a texture suggesting a sequential replacement of spinel by corundum, and then corundum by diaspore. The green spinel is associated with anorthite and pargasite, which is overgrown by tremolite that forms coronitic aggregates with chlorite around olivine. These petrographic observations are supported by pressure-temperature pseudosections, which predict spinel + pargasite stability field, and tremolite/hornblende + chlorite field at lower temperature conditions. From these pseudosections and simplified system phase diagrams, estimated formation temperature conditions calculated at 2 kbar are 650-750 °C for spinel + pargasite, 410-690 °C for tremolite/hornblende + chlorite, 400-710 °C for corundum, and <400 °C for diaspore. Because the aluminous spinel occurs in the domains that were previously occupied by magmatic plagioclase, and because spinel-bearing rocks characteristically have high Al2O3/CaO and Al2O3/SiO2 ratios, it is likely that the stabilization of spinel was caused by the loss of Ca2+ and SiO2(aq) in high-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The results of this study suggest that (1) the concentrations of aluminous phases in the lower oceanic crust are presently underestimated, and (2) chemical modification of the lower oceanic crust due to high-temperature hydrothermal metasomatic reactions could be common near spreading axes.

  20. Discovery of the source HESS J1356-645 associated with the young and energetic PSR J1357-6429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füssling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. Several newly discovered very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources in the Galaxy are thought to be associated with energetic pulsars. Among them, middle-aged (≳ 104 yr) systems exhibit large centre-filled VHE nebulae, offset from the pulsar position, which result from the complex relationship between the pulsar wind and the surrounding medium, and reflect the past evolution of the pulsar. Aims: Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have been successful in revealing extended emission from these sources in the VHE regime. Together with radio and X-ray observations, this observational window allows one to probe the energetics and magnetic field inside these large-scale nebulae. Methods: H.E.S.S., with its large field of view, angular resolution of ≲0.1° and unprecedented sensitivity, has been used to discover a large population of such VHE sources. In this paper, the H.E.S.S. data from the continuation of the Galactic Plane Survey (- 80° < ℓ < 60°, |b| < 3°), together with the existing multi-wavelength observations, are used. Results: A new VHE γ-ray source was discovered at RA (J2000) = 13h56m00s, Dec (J2000) = -64°30'00'' with a 2' statistical error in each coordinate, namely HESS J1356-645. The source is extended, with an intrinsic Gaussian width of (0.20 ± 0.02)°. Its integrated energy flux between 1 and 10 TeV of 8 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 represents ~11% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy band. The energy spectrum between 1 and 20 TeV is well described by a power law dN/dE ∝ E-Γ with photon index Γ = 2.2 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2sys. The inspection of archival radio images at three frequencies and the analysis of X-ray data from ROSAT/PSPC and XMM-Newton/MOS reveal the presence of faint non-thermal diffuse emission coincident with HESS J1356-645. Conclusions: HESS J1356-645 is most likely associated with the young and energetic pulsar PSR J1357-6429 (d = 2.4 kpc, τc = 7.3 kyr and Ė = 3.1 × 1036 erg s-1), located at

  1. Theodor Billroth's vision and Karl Ziegler's action: commemoration of the 40th day of death and the 50th anniversary of conferment of Nobel Prize for Chemistry of Karl Ziegler.

    PubMed

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Alloplastic materials are broadly used in modern surgery. Until the middle of the 20th century, metal materials and especially silver were used because of their antimicrobial properties. With the development of a new catalytic process for the production of high-density polyethylene and polypropylene materials, a new era of prosthesis was introduced. These polymers are integral part of our everyday operations surgery, especially in hernia repair. The famous surgeon Billroth mentioned to his pupil Czerny in 1878: "If we could artificially produce tissues of the density and toughness of fascia and tendon, the secret of the radical cure of hernia would be discovered". The polypropylene developed by Karl Ziegler gave the surgeon a material for daily practice, which in its properties (nearly) achieved Billroth's initial vision. In 1963 the Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta in Stockholm. Furthermore, August 11, 2013 will be the 40th anniversary of Karl Ziegler's death. This manuscript honors both days.

  2. Discovery of a variable X-ray counterpart to HESS J1832-093: a new gamma-ray binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, P.; Laffon, H.; Bordas, P.; de Oña Whilhelmi, E.; Hinton, J.; Pühlhofer, G.

    2016-04-01

    The TeV gamma-ray point source HESS J1832-093 remains unidentified despite extensive multiwavelength studies. The gamma-ray emission could originate in a very compact pulsar wind nebula or an X-ray binary system composed of the X-ray source XMMU J183245-0921539, and a companion star (2MASS J18324516-0921545). To unveil the nature of XMMU J183245-0921539 and its relation to HESS J1832-093, we performed deeper follow-up observations in X-rays with Chandra and Swift to improve source localization and to investigate time variability. We observed an increase of the X-ray flux by a factor of ˜6 in the Chandra data compared to previous observations. The source is point-like for Chandra and its updated position is only 0.3 arcsec offset from 2MASS J18324516-0921545, confirming the association with this infrared source. Subsequent Swift target of opportunity observations resulted in a lower flux, again compatible with the one previously measured with XMM-Newton, indicating a variability time-scale of the order of two months or shorter. The now-established association of XMMU J183245-0921539 and 2MASS J18324516-0921545, and the observed variability in X-rays are strong evidence for binary nature of HESS J1832-093. Furthermore, observations to characterize the optical counterpart as well as to search for orbital periodicity are needed to confirm this scenario.

  3. SPECTRA OF COSMIC RAY ELECTRONS AND DIFFUSE GAMMA RAYS WITH THE CONSTRAINTS OF AMS-02 AND HESS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ding; Jin, Hong-Bo; Huang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Recently, AMS-02 reported their results of cosmic ray (CR) observations. In addition to the AMS-02 data, we add HESS data to estimate the spectra of CR electrons and the diffuse gamma rays above TeV. In the conventional diffusion model, a global analysis is performed on the spectral features of CR electrons and the diffuse gamma rays by the GALRPOP package. The results show that the spectrum structure of the primary component of CR electrons cannot be fully reproduced by a simple power law and that the relevant break is around 100 GeV. At the 99% confidence level (C.L.) the injection indices above the break decrease from 2.54 to 2.35, but the ones below the break are only in the range of 2.746–2.751. The spectrum of CR electrons does not need to add TeV cutoff to also match the features of the HESS data. Based on the difference between the fluxes of CR electrons and their primary components, the predicted excess of CR positrons is consistent with the interpretation that these positrons originate from a pulsar or dark matter. In the analysis of the Galactic diffuse gamma rays with the indirect constraint of AMS-02 and HESS data, it is found that the fluxes of Galactic diffuse gamma rays are consistent with the GeV data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the high-latitude regions. The results indicate that inverse Compton scattering is the dominant component in the range of hundreds of GeV to tens of TeV, respectively from the high-latitude regions to the low ones, and in all of the regions of the Galaxy the flux of diffuse gamma rays is less than that of CR electrons at the energy scale of 20 TeV.

  4. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  5. [Management of functional sterility using clomiphene and cyclophenyl at the Karl-Marx-Stadt District Hospital Gynecologic Clinic].

    PubMed

    Neubert, S; Melzer, H

    1977-01-01

    We report on 39 barren patients suffering from anovulatory cycle disturbances or corpus luteum inadequacies. Them were given treatment in the Gynecological Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt County at Karl-Marx-Stadt in the past few years and were administered Clomiphendihydrogencitrate or Cyclophenyl to provoke ovulation. Before and during therapy, the total of estrogenes and pregnanediol were determined in the 24h-urine every two days. The clinical data and the results of the hormone investigations were analysed, and an attempt was made to derive a forecast from the estrogene and pregnanediol secretion so as to be able to form an opinion on the positive or negative result of the treatment.

  6. [Anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism--hypotheses and thoughts].

    PubMed

    Talarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.

  7. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  8. Observations of 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. and at lower frequencies: A hard spectrum blazar and constraints on the extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd; Benbow, Wystan; Costamante, Luigi; Sol, Helene; Boisson, Catherine; Emmanoulopoulos, Dimitrios; Wagner, Stefan; Horns, Dieter; Giebels, Berrie

    VHE observations of the distant (z=0.186) blazar 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. are used to constrain the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the optical to near infrared band. As the EBL traces the galaxy formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution models can therefore be tested with the data. In order to measure the EBL absorption effect on a blazar spectrum, we assume that usual constraints on the hardness of the intrinsic blazar spectrum are not violated. We present an update of the VHE spectrum obtained with H.E.S.S. and the multifrequency data that were taken simultaneously with the H.E.S.S. measurements. The data verify that the broadband characteristics of 1ES 1101-232 are similar to those of other, more nearby blazars, and strengthen the assumptions that were used to derive the EBL upper limit.

  9. The inner 300 parsecs of the Milky Way seen by H.E.S.S.: a Pevatron in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    The Galactic Centre region has been observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes since 2004 leading to the detection of the very-high-energy γ-ray source HESS J1745-290 spatially coincident with the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*. Diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission has been detected along the Galactic plane, most likely due to hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with the dense gas of the Central Molecular Zone. The rich 2004-2013 dataset permits detailed spectral and morphological studies of the diffuse emission in the inner 300 pc of the Galactic Centre region. The new results provide an important statement regarding the location and origin of the accelerator of PeV protons. The H.E.S.S. observations of the Pevatron are discussed in the context of the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  10. Very high energy gamma-ray emission from SHBL J001355.9-185406 detected by HESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2010-11-01

    The AGN SHBL J001355.9-185406 (z=0.095), selected from a list of extremely high X-ray to radio flux ratio targets in the Sedentary High energy peaked BL Lac catalog (Giommi et al. 2005, A&A, 434, 385), has been detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Using published advanced analysis methods a statistical significance of more than 5 standard deviations above 300 GeV is found in 38 hours of live time taken between July 2008 and August 2010.

  11. Extreme blazars studied with Fermi-lat and Suzaku: 1ES 0347–121 and blazar candidate HESS J1943+213

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Finke, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Kataoka, J.; Bamba, A.; Dubus, G.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the 'extreme blazar' 1ES 0347–121 and the 'extreme blazar candidate' HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347–121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 ± 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347–121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field strength and source energetics. We conclude that although the classification of HESS J1943+213 has not yet been determined, the blazar hypothesis remains the most plausible option since, in particular, the broadband spectra of the two analyzed sources along with the source model parameters closely resemble each other, and the newly available Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey data for HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the presence of an elliptical host at the distance of approximately ∼600 Mpc.

  12. Prison break: Karl Menninger's The Crime of Punishment and its reception in U.S. psychology.

    PubMed

    Devonis, David C; Triggs, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    In 1968, Karl Menninger, a highly visible and vocal U.S. psychiatrist, published a call to action on prison reform, The Crime of Punishment (Menninger, 1966/1968). This widely circulated book's central idea is that punishment as practiced in penal settings is an injustice amounting to a crime. At the outset, The Crime of Punishment quickly achieved national attention. Within mainstream psychology, its antipunishment message encountered a changed climate in which punishment, thought ineffective during the period 1930 through 1960, was redefined as an effective component in learning. It also met competition from the contemporaneous Stanford Prison Experiment (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973), which quickly rose to equivalent media presence and superior disciplinary prominence. Both the Stanford Prison Experiment and The Crime of Punishment survived in the antireform era of hyperincarceration after 1974 as parallel examples of reform activism, one secular and one religious in character, illustrating some convergences of aim between psychology and psychiatry outside of specifically clinical issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. A comparison of the Glidescope and Karl Storz DCI videolaryngoscopes in a paediatric manikin.

    PubMed

    Hurford, D M; White, M C

    2010-08-01

    A new paediatric Glidescope (Cobalt GVL Stat) has recently become available. This varies in design from the Karl Storz DCI videolaryngoscope, as it possesses a short curved disposable blade compared with the narrower straighter blade of the Storz. We compared the time taken for tracheal intubation under normal and difficult intubation conditions in a paediatric manikin. A total of 32 anaesthetists completed four intubations in a random order, with each participant blinded to the airway condition. We hypothesised there would be no difference between the devices. The results showed no difference in tracheal intubation time between the Glidescope and the Storz videolaryngoscope. The mean (SD) times under normal conditions were 18.8 (5.2) s vs 19.9 (6.1) s, (p = 0.16), respectively. Under difficult conditions the times were 22.6 (10.5) vs 27.0 (14.2) s, (p = 0.13), respectively. There were no differences in the visual analogue scores for field of view, ease of use, willingness to use in an emergency, and overall satisfaction.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  15. Electrochemical determination of water in environmental hydraulic fluids using the karl Fischer reaction.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A; Lundström, M

    1997-10-01

    Different procedures based on the Karl Fischer reaction were investigated with respect to their applicability for water determinations in environmental hydraulic fluids:  (i) continuous coulometry using a recently described diaphragm-free cell; (ii) on-line stripping of water at elevated temperature using either continuous coulometry or direct potentiometry for detection of the liberated water. Except for one of the oils, Statoil PA, which is a poly(α-olefin) with certain polymers added, no significant difference was found among coulometry using an optimized imidazole-buffered methanolic reagent containing 75% (v/v) chloroform, the two different stripping techniques (working in the temperature interval 100-110 °C), and the commercially available Hydranal Coulomat AG-H. The high stability and sensitivity of the coulometric technique described made it possible to work with sample amounts in the low milligram-range, and this is shown to increase the reliability of the coulometric method as compared to normally used procedures.

  16. Progress in pulsed-current Karl Fischer coulometry using diaphragm-free cells.

    PubMed

    Nordmark, U; Cedergren, A

    2000-07-01

    Factors influencing the accuracy of water determinations using diaphragm-free, pulsed current Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry were investigated with the new Metrohm 756 instrument. Results obtained with commercially available reagents from Riedel-deHaen and Merck were compared with home-made ones that were especially designed to minimize the formation of iodine-consuming reduction products generated in the cathode reaction. Positive errors in the range 2-5% were found for the commercial reagents as compared to 0.2-1% for the home-made ones which were buffered at about pH 10 containing modifiers like chloroform, hexanol or ethylene glycol. Except for the composition of the KF-reagent, the cathode current density and the titration rate were found to be critical parameters for the accuracy of the determinations. For all reagents investigated, the best results were obtained for the maximum generator current 400 mA (corresponding to a current density of 1,400 mA cm(-2)) in combination with a maximum titration rate of 2,000 microg min(-1). Surprisingly, the errors found under optimum conditions for the pulse technique were always somewhat larger than the corresponding values obtained with continuous coulometry.

  17. Water determination in iron oxyhydroxides and iron ores by Karl Fischer titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, Camila C. R. F.; da Costa, Geraldo M.

    2016-11-01

    Protohematite (Fe2- x/3(OH) x O3- x 1 ≤ x < 0.5) and hydrohematite (Fe2- x/3(OH) x O3- x 0.5 ≤ x < 0) are iron-defective phases containing hydroxyl groups in their structures. These species were described in prior studies mainly with the aid of X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. The existence of these phases in soils might have influence in redox processes, and they were considered as a possible water reservoir in Martian soils. In this study, we have used for the first time the Karl Fischer titration method to determine the amount of water released after heating several synthetic samples of goethite, hematite and natural iron ores at 105, 400, 600 and 900 °C. It was found that heating at 105 °C did not remove all moisture from the samples, and higher temperatures were necessary to completely remove all the absorbed water. The water contents determined at 400, 600 and 900 °C were found to be the same within the experimental errors, suggesting the inexistence of both protohematite and hydrohematite in the investigated samples. Therefore, the above-mentioned effects of these phases in soils might have to be reevaluated.

  18. [Karl Jaspers. 100 years of “Allgemeine Psychopathologie” (General Psychopathology)].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    2013-11-01

    With his "Allgemeine Psychopathologie" (general psychopathology) published in 1913, Karl Jaspers laid a comprehensive methodological and systematic foundation in psychiatry. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced "static understanding" into psychopathology, i.e. the unprejudiced reproduction of conscious phenomena. From the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey he further adopted the distinction between causal understanding as a means of accessing nature and pathological processes and hermeneutic understanding, also called genetic understanding, as a way of accessing mental phenomena. The intrusion of an event that is incomprehensible in terms of an understandable development is seen as indicating an extraconscious phenomenon or transition to a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early in his life. After quitting law studies he graduated in medicine, arrived in psychopathology without any psychiatric training, to psychology without ever studying psychology and to a chair in philosophy without a degree in philosophy. Despite believing himself to be chronically ill and to die early, Jaspers produced a life’s work almost immeasurable in scope. He died in 1969 aged 86 years.

  19. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Hack, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination.

  20. Search for dark matter annihilation signatures in H.E.S.S. observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goudelis, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Serpico, P.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group are close satellites of the Milky Way characterized by a large mass-to-light ratio and are not expected to be the site of nonthermal high-energy gamma-ray emission or intense star formation. Therefore they are among the most promising candidates for indirect dark matter searches. During the last years the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes observed five of these dwarf galaxies for more than 140 hours in total, searching for TeV gamma-ray emission from annihilation of dark matter particles. The new results of the deep exposure of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, the first observations of the Coma Berenices and Fornax dwarves and the reanalysis of two more dwarf spheroidal galaxies already published by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, Carina and Sculptor, are presented. In the absence of a significant signal new constraints on the annihilation cross section applicable to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are derived by combining the observations of the five dwarf galaxies. The combined exclusion limit depends on the WIMP mass and the best constraint is reached at 1-2 TeV masses with a cross-section upper bound of ˜ 3.9 ×10-24 cm3 s-1 at a 95% confidence level.

  1. PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. results and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Helne; Zech, Andreas; Benbow, Wystan; Buehler, Rolf; Costamante, Luigi; Raue, Martin; Giebels, Berrie; Superina, Giulia; Punch, Michael; Volpe, Francesca

    2008-12-24

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE {gamma}-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes {approx}100 times the usual values. We present results from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray observations with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 observed by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.

  2. Observations of AGN at very-high energy gamma rays with the H.E.S.S. telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert

    2016-08-01

    At the high-energy end of their electromagnetic spectra, the emission of AGNs is based on non-thermal particle acceleration processes. Ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, like the H.E.S.S. array of gamma-ray telescopes, offer excellent sensitivity at E>100 GeV, a superb time resolution, and in combination with multi-wavelength instruments, represent powerful tools for investigating the particle accelerators within AGN. In the past decade, non-thermal emission from relativistic jets in numerous blazars and radio galaxies could be investigated. The gamma-rays are likely due to Compton scattering of lower energy photons, either from within the jet or from the surrounding gas. The physical properties of the jet and the way in which it is produced are still largely a unknown, but are probably related in some way to accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. In the presentation, we will discuss H.E.S.S. results of observations of AGN, both highlighting substantial new lessons learned at the high energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum and in multi wavelength contexts.

  3. An exploration and modeling of the crustal conductivity aberration through Hesse and Thuringia in Central Germany with Geomagnetic Depth Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, N. A.; Bahr, D.

    2011-12-01

    With geomagnetic depth sounding we analyze geomagnetic field variations within the earth and detect electrical conductivity contrasts. Using this method Peter (1994) and Hippmann (2010) found an strongly increased By-component around Göttingen in Central Germany, and this electrical conductivity anomaly was expanded to the middle of Hesse through an additional survey by Reich in 2010. Now we can set the boundaries in a new way. In spring and summer 2011 we installed 13 new magnetometer stations in Hesse, Thuringia and Lower Saxony to specify the anomaly boundaries. Our result shows that the "Göttingen By anomaly" is spreading further into the North than expected and far into the South-West. In addition the boundaries to the West and East could be confirmed. The result suggests that the anomaly spreads over the conurbation around Frankfurt and connects to the Rhine rift valley which is part of the European Cenozoic rift system. Therefor the "Göttingen By anomaly" goes over in a central German conductivity anomaly which exact North and South border is yet to be specified. Besides the data for geomagnetic depth sounding we also collected magnetotelluric data which help constraining the conductivity contrasts. Preliminary models of the conduction mechanism suggest that fluids alone are insufficient to explain the conductance of this structure.

  4. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration in Fault Zones Cutting the Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, Andrew; Titarenko, Sofya; Cliff, Robert; Ivan, Savov; Adrian, Boyce

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros [1]. Alteration occurred as: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration, predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with mainly talc and serpentine replacing olivine, and prehnite replacing plagioclase. Talc sometimes overprints serpentine mesh texture. 2) an overprinting metasomatic alteration, spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins, dominated by prehnite and chlorite. Secondary clinopyroxene and epidote locally overprint the prehnite-chlorite assemblage, but the last events are veins of prehnite and zeolite. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are themselves affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading forming Hess Deep. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of small whole rock samples of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. Sampling of individual minerals has been undertaken using a microscope mounted drill, and shows that alteration is mainly affecting secondary minerals, with late prehnite veins ranging up to Sr isotope ratios of 0.7054. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil. Combined with metamorphic data this indicates alteration at temperatures between 200 and 400 °C. Secondary clinopyroxene and talc replacing serpentine are interpreted to indicate transient prograde hydrothermal events. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration, as well as transient prograde events, could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. The prehnite-chlorite assemblage is predicted to be important in off

  5. Transient Hydrothermal Alteration In Fault Zones Cutting The Lower Oceanic Crust, Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaig, A. M.; Titarenko, S.; Cliff, R. A.; Savov, I. P.; Boyce, A.; Dutt, R.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros [1]. Alteration occurred as: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration, predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with mainly talc and serpentine replacing olivine, and prehnite replacing plagioclase. Talc sometimes overprints serpentine mesh texture. 2) an overprinting metasomatic alteration, spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins, dominated by prehnite and chlorite. Secondary clinopyroxene and epidote locally overprint the prehnite-chlorite assemblage, but the last events are veins of prehnite and zeolite. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are themselves affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading forming Hess Deep. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of small whole rock samples of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. Sampling of individual minerals has been undertaken using a microscope mounted drill, and shows that alteration is mainly affecting secondary minerals, with late prehnite veins ranging up to 0.7054. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil. Combined with metamorphic data this indicates alteration at temperatures between 200 and 400 °C. Secondary clinopyroxene and talc replacing serpentine are interpreted to indicate transient prograde hydrothermal events. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration, as well as transient prograde events, could be achieved in a permeable fault slot cutting through crust 0.5 to 1 m.y. old. The prehnite-chlorite assemblage is predicted to be important in off-axis alteration, common in any

  6. The origin of layered gabbros from the mid lower ocean crust, Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheadle, M. J.; Brown, T. C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Meyer, R.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Exp. 345 Holes U1415 I & J cored a ~30m thick unit of conspicuously layered gabbroic rocks from the lower plutonic crust at Hess Deep. These rocks likely come from >1500m below the dike gabbro transition and thus provide an unique opportunity to study the origin of layering and the formation of relatively deep, fast spread plutonic crust formed at the EPR. Here we report the initial results of a comprehensive high-resolution petrologic, geochemical and petrographic study of this unit, which focuses on a fairly continuous 1.5m long section recovered at Hole I. The rocks consist of opx-bearing olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbro and exhibit 1-10cm scale modal layering. Some layers host spectacular 2-3 cm diameter cpx oikocrysts encapsulating partially resorbed plagioclase laths. Downhole variations in mineral chemistry are complicated. Olivine, cpx and opx Mg#'s partly reflect equilibration and show a subtle metre-scale variation (1-2 Mg#), whereas, for example, plagioclase anorthite, and cpx TiO2 contents reveal a more complicated 10-20 cm-scale variation (2-4 An, and 0.2 TiO2). Mineral zonation, for all but Mg# in equilibrated olivine, is of higher magnitude than downhole variations in average mineral compositions. Trace element geochemistry reveals rather homogeneous plagioclase and opx compositions; however cpx exhibits variation at the mineral scale. Cpx shows an increased range of, and highest REE concentrations, in the more olivine rich, near cotectic, composition gabbros, whereas the more plagioclase rich, cumulates show no variation of, and low REE, concentrations.Plagioclase fabrics are moderate to weak and partially modally controlled, but the strength of the plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) varies dramatically, within the 1.5m core showing a significant part of the variation recorded by Oman ophiolite plutonic crust. Plagioclase shape preferred orientation and CPO match well suggesting that diffusion enabled compaction

  7. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE UNIDENTIFIED SOURCE HESS J1841-055 WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Cardarelli, R.; Cattaneo, C.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2013-04-20

    We report the observation of a very high energy {gamma}-ray source whose position is coincident with HESS J1841-055. This source has been observed for 4.5 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment from 2007 November to 2012 July. Its emission is detected with a statistical significance of 5.3 standard deviations. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gaussian function, we estimate an extension {sigma}=(0.40{sup +0.32}{sub -0.22}){sup o}, which is consistent with the HESS measurement. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = (9.0 {+-} 1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13}(E/5 TeV){sup -2.32{+-}0.23} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range 0.9-50 TeV. The integral {gamma}-ray flux above 1 TeV is 1.3 {+-} 0.4 Crab, which is 3.2 {+-} 1.0 times the flux derived by HESS. The differences in the flux determination between HESS and ARGO-YBJ and possible counterparts at other wavelengths are discussed.

  8. XMM-Newton Observations Reveal the X-ray Counterpart of the Very-high-energy gamma-ray Source HESS J1640-465

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puhlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puehlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.

    2007-03-05

    We present X-ray observations of the as of yet unidentified very high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1640-465 with the aim of establishing a counterpart of this source in the keV energy range, and identifying the mechanism responsible for the VHE emission. The 21.8 ksec XMM-Newton observation of HESS J1640-465 in September 2005 represents a significant improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution over previous ASCA studies in this region. These new data show a hard-spectrum X-ray emitting object at the centroid of the H.E.S.S. source, within the shell of the radio Supernova Remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0. This object is consistent with the position and flux previously measured by both ASCA and Swift-XRT but is now shown to be significantly extended. We argue that this object is very likely the counterpart to HESS J1640-465 and that both objects may represent the Pulsar Wind Nebula of an as of yet undiscovered pulsar associated with G338.3-0.0.

  9. Preliminary results from a search for TeV {gamma}-ray emission from SN1987A and the surrounding field with H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, G.; Hinton, J.; Benbow, W.

    2005-02-21

    H.E.S.S. has observed the very young supernova remnant SN1987A during 2003 in a search for TeV {gamma}-ray emission. These observations were taken during a build-up phase of H.E.S.S. with 2 operating telescopes, {approx}6400 days after the initial explosion. Preliminary analysis so far reveals no convincing evidence for TeV emission and the 99% upper limit is compared with a predicted light curve. The H.E.S.S. field of view encompasses a number of other interesting objects including the X-ray shell 30 Dor C, the Crab-like plerion PSR B0540-69, the SNR N157B, and the X-ray binary LMC X-1. These objects may be associated with several features seen in the H.E.S.S. skymaps at marginal significances, and further observations in 2004/2005 with 4 telescopes will be valuable for confirmation.

  10. [Book review] Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and its Dependence on Chemical Site Factors in Differently Elevated Dieback-affected Spruce Stands of the Harz Mountains, by Volker Hesse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Epiphytic lichen diversity and its dependence on chemical site factors in differently elevated dieback-affected spruce stands of the Harz Mountains. (Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 354). Volker Hesse. 2002. 191 pages, 66 figures, 49 tables, 23x14cm, 390 g. ISBN 978-3-443-64266-2.

  11. Metagabbro associated with the shear zone on Prins Karls Forland (Svalbard, Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraszewska, Maria; Manecki, Maciej; Czerny, Jerzy; Schneider, David; Myhre, Per Inge; Faehnrich, Karol; Barnes, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Prins Karls Forland (PKF) is a N-S elongated island situated west of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago, High Arctic. The northern part of the island is dominated by siliciclastic metasediments regionally metamorphosed to greenshist facies assemblages during one distinct stage of tectonism. Amphibolite facies garnet-mica schists, mica schists, quartzites and carbonate-silicate rocks exhibiting evidence of at least two distinct, strong deformation episodes (including mylonitization) locally outcrop on the east coast of PKF, termed the Pinkie Unit. A ~1 km wide shear zone containing ductile to brittle structures and distinct outcrops of greenstones (metagabbros and greenschists), associated with magnetite ore, separates these two contrasting tectonic units. Ten samples of greenstones were collected on the slopes of Lauratzonfjellet and Boureefjellet for petrologic and geochemical analyses. Despite intense localized shearing, the metagabbros are undeformed and preserve coarse crystalline, magmatic texture, which is locally poikilitic. The primary magmatic assemblage consists of brown hornblende, plagioclase, biotite and opaque minerals, with accessory apatite and titanite. No relicts of pyroxenes are preserved. Formation of secondary uralite, sericite and chlorite is observed. Metamorphic assemblage consists of actinolite pseudomorhs after hornblende, epidote, and second generation biotite. Blue amphibole is observed in one sample from Boureefjellet; greenschists from Boureefjellet also contain fibrous blue amphibole, as well as garnets, actinolite, epidote and biotite. Some rocks sampled on Boureefjellet are more strongly deformed and exhibit probably two stages of metamorphism: amphibolite facies metamorphism resulting in blue amphibole-garnet assemblage followed by greenschist facies metamorphism resulting in actinolite-epidote-biotite paragenesis. Parallel and overlapping patterns on chondrite-normalized REE diagrams and spider diagrams indicate that these

  12. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  13. Commissioning and operation of the new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Claire J.; Butler, Bryan J.

    2014-08-01

    We give an overview of the scientific commissioning and early operation of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The Expanded VLA Construction Project was a decade-long project to transform the capabilities of the VLA, culminating in its re-dedication in 2012 as the Jansky VLA. The need to keep a vibrant and engaged user community throughout the entire construction project translated into operational requirements (one of which was allowing the minimum down-time possible), and the need for a mechanism to provide the community with early access to the new capabilities alongside on-going construction and commissioning, using a staged approach. This access was enabled during the EVLA Construction Project by defining an Open Shared Risk Observing (OSRO) program for the general community, and a Resident Shared Risk Observing (RSRO) program for those requesting capabilities not fully commissioned in exchange for a period of residency to help commission and test those capabilities with the assistance of NRAO staff. The OSRO program has become the General Observing (GO) program in full operations, and the RSRO program has continued as a means of maintaining, and adding to, an active pool of users with innovative ideas for new capabilities, driven by their science. Besides the new technical capabilities, the start of full operations of the Jansky VLA also introduced full dynamic scheduling, including the ability for fast (less than 24 hour) response to triggers and targets of opportunity, and the delivery of pipeline-calibrated visibility data for continuum projects. We discuss some of the challenges resulting from the new capabilities and operational model for the VLA.

  14. Conditions for accurate Karl Fischer coulometry using diaphragm-free cells.

    PubMed

    Nordmark, U; Cedergren, A

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing the extent of formation of oxidizable reduction products in coulometric cells used for Karl Fischer (KF) determination of water were investigated. For methanolic KF reagents buffered with imidazole (Im) or diethanolamine (DEA) (separately or in combination), three parameters were found to be of outmost importance: the cathodic current density, the pH, and the concentration of protonated base (ImH+ or DEAH+). For reagents buffered with only Im, the relative formation of oxidizable reduction products varied in the range 2-40%; i.e., 51-70 micrograms of water was found for a 50 micrograms water sample, depending on the above-mentioned parameters. The lowest values were observed for reagents having a pH around 10 in combination with cathodic current densities in the range 2000-5000 mA cm-2. For all the Imbuffered reagents investigated, the addition of modifiers such as chloroform, hexanol, and carbon tetrachloride was found to decrease the formation of oxidizable reduction products significantly. For example, a reagent buffered at pH 10 containing 1 M hexanol gave less than 0.3% formation in the current density interval from 200 to 4000 mA cm-2. The best reagents based on the above-mentioned modifiers were tested in the continuous coulometric mode with errors typically in the interval 0-0.5% using optimum conditions. One prerequisite for obtaining such small errors with diaphragm-free continuous coulometry is to use a cathode area no larger than 0.002 cm2. For some of the reagents based on both Im and DEA, the formation of oxidizable reduction products was close to zero at certain current densities, although the analytical performance was not as good as for the reagents buffered solely by Im due to longer conditioning and titration times.

  15. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  16. Comparative studies on pheno- and genotypic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in central Java in Indonesia and Hesse in Germany.

    PubMed

    Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Khusnan, Zaini; Lammler, Christoph; Zschock, Michael

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, 35 Staphylococcal strain isolated from milk samples of 16 cows from eight farms of three different geographic locations in Central Java, Indonesia, and from milk samples of 19 cows from 19 farms of different geographic locations in Hesse, Germany, were compared pheno- and genotypically. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties as well as by amplification of the 23S rRNA specific to Staphylococcus aureus, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. In addition, all S. aureus isolates harboured the genes clfA and coa encoding staphylococcal clumping factor and coagulase, and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X-region of protein A gene spa. By PCR amplification, the genes seb, seg, seh, and sei was observed for the S. aureus cultures isolated in Central Java, Indonesia and the genes sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej and tst for the S. aureus cultures isolated in Hesse, Germany. None of the S. aureus of both origins harboured the genes sea, see, eta and etb. All isolates were additionally positive for the genes nuc, fnbA, hla, and set1. The gene hlb was found for 6 cultures from Central Java, Indonesia and 16 cultures from Hesse, Germany. However, the gene fnbB and the gene segments cnaA and cnaB were not present among the strains isolated in Central Java, Indonesia and rare among the strains isolated in Hesse, Germany. It was of interest that most of the S. aureus isolated in Central Java, Indonesia harboured the gene cap5 and most of the strains isolated in Hesse, Germany the gene cap8. The phenotypic and genotypic results of the present study might help to understand the distribution of prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates of both countries and might help to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds.

  17. Search for TeV Gamma-ray Emission from GRB 100621A, an extremely bright GRB in X-rays, with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H. T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-05-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100621A, at the time the brightest X-ray transient ever detected by Swift-XRT in the 0.3-10 keV range, has been observed with the H.E.S.S. imaging air Cherenkov telescope array, sensitive to gamma radiation in the very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime. Due to its relatively small redshift of z ~ 0.5, the favourable position in the southern sky and the relatively short follow-up time (<700 s after the satellite trigger) of the H.E.S.S. observations, this GRB could be within the sensitivity reach of the H.E.S.S. instrument. The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data shows no indication of emission and yields an integral flux upper limit above ~380 GeV of 4.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (95% confidence level), assuming a simple Band function extension model. A comparison to a spectral-temporal model, normalised to the prompt flux at sub-MeV energies, constraints the existence of a temporally extended and strong additional hard power law, as has been observed in the other bright X-ray GRB 130427A. A comparison between the H.E.S.S. upper limit and the contemporaneous energy output in X-rays constrains the ratio between the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes to be greater than 0.4. This value is an important quantity for modelling the afterglow and can constrain leptonic emission scenarios, where leptons are responsible for the X-ray emission and might produce VHE gamma rays.

  18. PKS 2005-489 at VHE: four years of monitoring with HESS and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Benbow, W.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) γ-ray emission from BL Lac objects and the evolution in time of their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods: VHE observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from 2004 through 2007. Three simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns at lower energies were performed during the HESS data taking, consisting of several individual pointings with the XMM-Newton and RXTE satellites. Results: A strong VHE signal, ~17σ total, from PKS 2005-489 was detected during the four years of HESS observations (90.3 h live time). The integral flux above the average analysis threshold of 400 GeV is ~3% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula and varies weakly on time scales from days to years. The average VHE spectrum measured from ~300 GeV to ~5 TeV is characterized by a power law with a photon index, Γ = 3.20± 0.16_stat± 0.10_syst. At X-ray energies the flux is observed to vary by more than an order of magnitude between 2004 and 2005. Strong changes in the X-ray spectrum (ΔΓX ≈ 0.7) are also observed, which appear to be mirrored in the VHE band. Conclusions: The SED of PKS 2005-489, constructed for the first time with contemporaneous data on both humps, shows significant evolution. The large flux variations in the X-ray band, coupled with weak or no variations in the VHE band and a similar spectral behavior, suggest the emergence of a new, separate, harder emission component in September 2005. Supported by CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil.Now at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA.Now at W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory & Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

  19. Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust (Hess Deep) using near-source vector magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Tivey, Maurice A.; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Morris, Antony; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Shillington, Donna J.; Ferrini, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins. We conducted a high-resolution, near-bottom, vector magnetic survey of crust exposed in the Hess Deep "tectonic window" using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Isis during RRS James Cook cruise JC21 in 2008. Hess Deep is located at the western tip of the propagating rift of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary near the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (2°15'N, 101°30'W). ROV Isis collected high-resolution bathymetry and near-bottom magnetic data as well as seafloor samples to determine the in situ lithostratigraphy and internal structure of a section of EPR lower crust and mantle exposed on the steep (~20°dipping) south facing slope just north of the Hess Deep nadir. Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile (VMP) approach of Tivey (1996) by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as "vector vertical magnetic profiling" approach. We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope. The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a "bench" and lobe

  20. H.E.S.S. reveals a lack of TeV emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Puppis A is an interesting ~4 kyr-old supernova remnant (SNR) that shows strong evidence of interaction between the forward shock and a molecular cloud. It has been studied in detail from radio frequencies to high-energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) γ-rays. An analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has shown extended HE γ-ray emission with a 0.2-100 GeV spectrum exhibiting no significant deviation from a power law, unlike most of the GeV-emitting SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. This makes it a promising target for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) to probe the γ-ray emission above 100 GeV. Aims: Very-high-energy (VHE, E ≥ 0.1 TeV) γ-ray emission from Puppis A has been, for the first time, searched for with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the direction and energy of the incident γ-rays in order to produce sky images and source spectra. The profile likelihood method is applied to find constraints on the existence of a potential break or cutoff in the photon spectrum. Results: The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data does not reveal any significant emission towards Puppis A. The derived upper limits on the differential photon flux imply that its broadband γ-ray spectrum must exhibit a spectral break or cutoff. By combining Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. measurements, the 99% confidence-level upper limits on such a cutoff are found to be 450 and 280 GeV, assuming a power law with a simple exponential and a sub-exponential cutoff, respectively. It is concluded that none of the standard limitations (age, size, radiative losses) on the particle acceleration mechanism, assumed to be continuing at present, can explain the lack of VHE signal. The scenario in which particle acceleration has ceased some time ago is considered as an alternative explanation. The HE/VHE spectrum of Puppis A could then exhibit a break of non-radiative origin (as

  1. IODP Expedition 345: Bulk Mineralogy From Lower Oceanic Crustal Rocks of the Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Bish, D. L.; Meyer, R.

    2013-12-01

    Young lower oceanic crustal rocks produced along the East Pacific Rise are exposed at the sea floor of the Hess Deep by rifting of the Cocos-Nazca ridge. Coring into these rocks (IODP Expedition 345) had the goal of understanding the petrologic processes that produce lower oceanic crust. Variable orientations of magmatic layering and foliation and magnetic remanance directions in the recovered gabbro and troctolite suggest that these samples were extracted from large blocks slumped into the rift. The overall poor recovery of core (~30%) and thick sections of broken rock disaggregated by cataclasis suggest that associated fractures produced the locally intense alteration of the magmatic mineralogy. We characterized this alteration by collecting the cuttings from the rock saw that divided the core into archive and working halves. The resultant ~1 mm wide slot should yield a calculated ~150 g/m of core, constituting the most representative sample of the entire core possible. A plastic housing surrounding the entire saw assembly captured all sedimented cuttings as well as distilled wash and lubricating water. All cuttings and a final wash water (holding suspended clay-size particles) were collected through the single drain at the base of the housing. We recovered 132 g/m of core, in close agreement with the calculations above. Our results show that the suspended material constitutes 10- 30 wt.% of the total sample, demonstrating the need for collection of the rinse water. Modal mineralogy of a few samples was measured by quantitative X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld methods. These results revealed in descending order of abundance the magmatic plagioclase, augite, and Fe-forsterite identified optically. The higher-temperature alteration mineral actinolite was present at low concentrations. Alteration phyllosilicates included chlorite > prehnite > lizardite > talc. Chrysotile and antigorite were not identified. Rietveld refinements confirmed the presence of low

  2. Numerical modelling of triple-junction tectonics at Karlıova, Eastern Turkey, with implications for regional magma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Browning, John; Bazargan, Mohsen; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    Few places on Earth are as tectonically active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey. In this region, complex interactions between the Arabian, Eurasian and Anatolian plates occur at the Karlıova Triple Junction (KTJ). The relationship between tectonics and magma propagation in triple-junction tectonic settings is poorly understood. Here we present new field and numerical results on the mechanism of magma propagation at the KTJ. We explore the effects of crustal heterogeneity and anisotropy, in particular the geometry and mechanical properties of many faults and layers, on magma propagation paths under a variety of tectonic loadings. We propose that two major volcanic centres in the area, the Turnadağ volcano and the Varto caldera, are both fed by comparatively shallow magma chambers at depths of about 8 km, which, in turn, are fed by a single, much larger and deeper reservoir at about 15-18 km depth. By contrast, the nearby Özenç volcanic area is fed directly by the deeper reservoir. We present a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical models showing that the present tectonic stresses encourage magma-chamber rupture and dyke injection. The results show that inversion tectonics encourages the formation of magma paths as potential feeder dykes. Our three-dimensional models allow us to explore the local stresses induced by complex loading conditions at the Karlıova triple junction, using an approach that can in future be applied to other similar tectonic regions. The numerical results indicate a great complexity in the potential magma (dyke) paths, resulting from local stresses generated by interaction between mechanical layers, major faults, and magma chambers. In particular, the results suggest three main controls on magma path formation and eventual eruptions at KTJ: (1) the geometry and attitude of the associated faults; (2) the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the crust; and (3) mechanical (stress) interactions between deep and shallow

  3. In-situ Geochronology on the Mars 2020 Rover with KArLE (The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z. -H.; Miller, J. S.; Devismes, D.; Swindle, T. D.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Kelley, S. P.; Zacny, K. A.; Roark, S. E.; Hardaway, L. R.; Weinberg, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A successful Mars exploration program has revealed chapters of Mars history, but in this book, the pages are ripped out of the binding and scattered across the surface. An examination of each page reveals interesting information, but there is no way to read the book in a logical order. Geochronology is the tool that puts page number onto the individual pages, and allows the book of Martian history to be read in its proper order. The KArLE experiment performs the first dedicated in situ geochronology investigation on Mars, bringing clarity to Mars 2020 samples and context to its landing site.

  4. Spectral study of the HESS J1745-290 gamma-ray source as dark matter signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A.L. E-mail: vivigamm@ucm.es

    2013-04-01

    We study the main spectral features of the gamma-ray fluxes observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In particular, we show that these data are well fitted as the secondary gamma-rays photons generated from dark matter annihilating into Standard Model particles in combination with a simple power law background. We present explicit analyses for annihilation in a single standard model particle-antiparticle pair. In this case, the best fits are obtained for the uū and d d-bar quark channels and for the W{sup +}W{sup −} and ZZ gauge bosons, with background spectral index compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. The fits return a heavy WIMP, with a mass above ∼ 10 TeV, but well below the unitarity limit for thermal relic annihilation.

  5. Analytical energy gradient based on spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess method with local unitary transformation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-12-28

    In this study, the analytical energy gradient for the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method at the levels of the Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is developed. Furthermore, adopting the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme for the IODKH method improves the efficiency in computation of the analytical energy gradient. Numerical assessments of the present gradient method are performed at the HF, DFT, and MP2 levels for the IODKH with and without the LUT scheme. The accuracies are examined for diatomic molecules such as hydrogen halides, halogen dimers, coinage metal (Cu, Ag, and Au) halides, and coinage metal dimers, and 20 metal complexes, including the fourth-sixth row transition metals. In addition, the efficiencies are investigated for one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. The numerical results confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the present method.

  6. Accurate calculation and Matlab based fast realization of merit function's Hesse matrix for the design of multilayer optical coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Su-Yong; Long, Xing-Wu; Yang, Kai-Yong

    2009-09-01

    To improve the current status of home multilayer optical coating design with low speed and poor efficiency when a large layer number occurs, the accurate calculation and fast realization of merit function’s gradient and Hesse matrix is pointed out. Based on the matrix method to calculate the spectral properties of multilayer optical coating, an analytic model is established theoretically. And the corresponding accurate and fast computation is successfully achieved by programming with Matlab. Theoretical and simulated results indicate that this model is mathematically strict and accurate, and its maximal precision can reach floating-point operations in the computer, with short time and fast speed. Thus it is very suitable to improve the optimal search speed and efficiency of local optimization methods based on the derivatives of merit function. It has outstanding performance in multilayer optical coating design with a large layer number.

  7. Certification by the Karl Fischer method of the water content in SRM 2890, Water Saturated 1-Octanol, and the analysis of associated interlaboratory bias in the measurement process.

    PubMed

    Margolis, S A; Levenson, M

    2000-05-01

    The calibration of Karl Fischer instruments and reagents and the compensation for instrumental bias are essential to the accurate measurement of trace levels of water in organic and inorganic chemicals. A stable, nonhygroscopic standard, Water Saturated Octanol, which is compatible with the Karl Fischer reagents, has been prepared. This material, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, is homogeneous and is certified to contain 39.24 +/- 0.85 mg water/mL (expanded uncertainty) of solution (47.3 +/- 1.0 mg water/g solution, expanded uncertainty) at 21.5 degrees C. The solubility of water in -octanol has been shown to be nearly constant between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C (i.e., within 1% of the value at 21.5 degrees C). The results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise illustrate the utility of SRM 2890 in assessing the accuracy and bias of Karl Fischer instruments and measurements.

  8. The epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis: a contemporary reassessment of Karl Jaspers’ account

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In his classic essay “The phenomenological approach to psychopathology”, Karl Jaspers defended the irreducible reality of the “subjective” mental symptoms and stressed the pivotal role of empathy in their diagnostic assessment. However, Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis was far from clear: whereas at several places Jaspers claimed that empathy provides a direct access to patients’ abnormal mental experiences, at other places he stressed that it did so only indirectly, through a whole battery of their observable clinical indicators. The aim of this paper is to reassess Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis. Methods I examine thoroughly Jaspers’ assertions on in the role of empathy in the diagnosis of “subjective” symptoms. Moreover, I explicate briefly the epistemological status of psychopathological diagnostic examination with the aid of the distinction between direct and indirect observation. Results Diagnostic assessment of “subjective” mental symptoms involves necessarily indirect psychopathological observation. Jaspers’ ambiguity is traced to his failure to distinguish clearly between direct and indirect psychopathological observation along with his excessive reliance on empathy. Relatedly, Jaspers’ ambiguity is also traced to his conflation of the semantics with the epistemology of psychopathological concepts representing patients’ “subjective” mental symptoms. These results apply also to contemporary phenomenological approaches to psychopathological diagnostic examination which maintain that patients’ abnormal mental experiences are invariably expressed in their overt behavior. Conclusions Jaspers was right in stressing that psychopathological concepts of subjective mental symptoms represent patients’ genuine abnormal experiences irreducible to concepts representing their associated behavioral

  9. Coulometric Karl Fischer titration of trace water in diaphragm-free cells.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Cedergren, Anders

    2005-03-15

    Factors influencing the accuracy and precision for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer coulometric determinations of low mug-amounts of water have been studied using the Metrohm 756 (pulsed current) coulometer and eight different types of commercial coulometric reagents and some modifications of these. As in the case of diaphragm-free coulometric titration of large amounts of water, the positive errors, due to the formation of oxidizable reduction products (of sulfur dioxide) in the cathode reaction (besides hydrogen), were found to be minimized by the use of highest possible pulse current (in the range 100-400mA) in combination with the fastest possible titration rate. Most accurate (102-103%) and precise results (typical relative standard deviation 1.8%) were obtained for reagents containing very large concentrations of imidazole in combination with the presence of modifiers like hexanol, chloroform and propylene glycol (i.e. the HYDRA-POINT reagents). Similar results were obtained when this type of reagent was mixed 60/40 with xylene according to the ASTM recommendation for water determinations in petroleum products like crude and lubricating oils. Addition of decanol to this type of reagent mixture was found to reduce the influence from the oxidative reduction products significantly. A reduction of the error from 3.6% relative to 1.6% was achieved by addition of 9% (v/v) of decanol to a 60/40 reagent mixture of HYDRA-POINT Coulometric Gen (containing hexanol as modifier) and xylene. For larger concentrations of decanol the pulse current had to be lowered to 100mA and this might explain why no further improvement was observed. An additional attempt to minimize the interference by lowering the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the reagents gave no significant effect. However, by means of a home-built computer-controlled coulometric instrumentation based on continuous instead of pulsed current (including a large cathodic current density) it was possible to achieve

  10. Determination of kinetics of the karl Fischer reaction based on coulometry and true potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1996-03-01

    A new measurement technique based on a combination of coulometry and zero-current potentiometry is described for determination of the kinetics of rapidly reacting Karl Fischer (KF) reagents. This makes it possible to determine the order as well as the rate constant for large variations in the concentrations of iodine and water present during a titration. It was shown that for imidazole-based methanolic reagents exposed to a large variation in the concentration of water, the KF reaction is first order with respect to iodine, sulfur dioxide, and water only for reagents in which the concentration of nonprotonated imidazole is very low. The rate constant determined for such a reagent (1 M imidazole, 0.8 M sulfur dioxide, 0.1 M iodine) was equal to that reported earlier in the literature. Regions showing first-order kinetics were also found for low concentrations of water when imidazole concentrations up to 2 mol/L were used, provided that these reagents had a quotient [Im](free)/[ImH(+)] around 4. In the interval 2-8 mol/L of imidazole, the order of the reaction with respect to iodine was, in most cases, one-half, while it was changed to between one-half and one with respect to water. The rate of the KF reaction was found to increase by nearly 5 orders of magnitude for a reagent in which the concentration of nonprotonated imidazole was increased from 0 (rate constant equal to 2.6 × 10(3) L(2) mol(-)(2) s(-)(1)) to about 7 mol/L. For most of these reagents, a recovery rate close to 100% was attained. A high concentration of nonprotonated imidazole in combination with a high concentration of sulfur dioxide could, however, lead to a change in stoichiometry of the KF reaction when larger amounts of water were determined (250 μg of water added to 3.4 mL of reagent solution). A reaction scheme is proposed which might explain this change in stoichiometry observed for some reagent compositions. By use of the described most rapidly reacting reagents, it was shown to be

  11. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lentati, L.; Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R.; Aravena, M.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Sargent, M.; Smolčć, V.

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  12. Practical predictability of tropical cyclones: Hurricanes Karl (2010), Sandy (2012), and Edouard (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melhauser, Christopher Lee

    Various aspects of the practical predictability -- the limit on atmospheric prediction using the current optimal analysis procedures to derive the initial state and the best available atmospheric model forecast -- of tropical cyclones (TC) are examined using Hurricane Karl (2010), Hurricane Sandy (2012), and Hurricane Edouard (2014) as case studies. The practical predictability of TCs is limited by uncertainties in the forecast model and initial conditions. The uncertainties include the adequacy of observations (i.e. accuracy, spatial and temporal coverage, and usability), data assimilation procedures, and deficiencies in the forecast models. This dissertation is partitioned into three parts that explore: (I) model uncertainties by examining the sensitivity of a model pre-genesis environment of a developing TC to the radiation parameterization, (II) the use of wind retrievals for TC prediction by creating a simplified wind retrieval algorithm using tail-Doppler radar measurements of TCs and generating low error wind field estimates for the purpose of TC data assimilation, and (III) model uncertainties by examining the impact of model dynamic core and physics configurations on the ensemble mean and spread using identical initial conditions to initialize three TC-tuned regional models. In Part I, if was found that the pre-genesis environmental stability and intensity of deep moist convection associated with a TC can be considerably modulated by the diurnal extremes in radiation. In Part II, it was found that assimilating u-wind and v-wind from a new simplified coplane retrieval algorithm can impact track and intensity forecasts differently compared to assimilating direct radial velocity even though similar information is being assimilated. The computational efficiency and real-time low error wind field retrieval of the new simplified coplane retrieval algorithm make this a competitive method for observation generation for TC prediction. Finally, the findings in Part

  13. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  14. KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    A collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language, is presented. Information is given on data retrieval, natural language database front ends, generic design objectives, processing capababilities and the query processing cycle.

  15. 325 and 610 MHz Radio Counterparts of SNR G353.6-0.7 a.k.a. HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayana, A. J.; Chandra, Poonam; Roy, Subhashis; Green, David A.; Acero, Fabio; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Marcowith, Alexandre; Ray, Alak K.; Renaud, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    HESS J1731-347 a.k.a. SNR G353.6-0.7 is one of the five known shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting in the very high energy (VHE, Energy > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray domain. We observed this TeV SNR with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in 1390, 610 and 325 MHz bands. In this paper, we report the discovery of 325 and 610 MHz radio counterparts of the SNR HESS J1731-347 with the GMRT. Various filaments of the SNR are clearly seen in the 325 and 610 MHz bands. However, the faintest feature in the radio bands corresponds to the peak in VHE emission. We explain this anti-correlation in terms of a possible leptonic origin of the observed VHE γ-ray emission. We determine the spectral indices of the bright individual filaments, which were detected in both the 610 and the 325 MHz bands. Our values range from -1.11 to -0.15, consistent with the non-thermal radio emission. We also report a possible radio counterpart of a nearby TeV source HESS J1729-345 from the 843 MHz Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey and the 1.4 GHz Southern Galactic Plane Survey maps. The positive radio spectral index of this possible counterpart suggests a thermal origin of the radio emission of this nearby TeV source.

  16. New constraints on the TeV SNR shells RX J1713.7-3946 and HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puehlhofer, G.; Eger, P.; Doroshenko, V.; Cui, Y.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Resolved TeV-emitting supernova remnants remain a small and precious class of sources to study cosmic ray acceleration in SNRs. We present new multi-wavelength results of the two prominent objects RX J1713.7-3946 and HESS J1731-347. For RX J1713.7-3946, extensive new H.E.S.S. data have permitted to study the nature of the TeV-emitting CR particles through improved broadband spectral studies, as well as through detailed investigations of morphological differences between TeV gamma-rays and X-rays. Concerning HESS J1731-347, the TeV morphology of the object and its surroundings has been studied using cosmic ray acceleration simulations of the object. The SNR also hosts a luminous X-ray emitting central compact object (CCO). Investigations of the CCO in X-rays and in the infrared have permitted to set interesting constraints on the SNR and its progenitor.

  17. [The Concept of Typology in Psychiatry in the Context of Historical Contributions of Max Weber and Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2016-08-01

    Against the background of Max Weber's and Karl Jaspers' outstanding historical contributions to the conceptual development of different typologies, the importance of a psychiatric typology is examined. The term "ideal type" was introduced into social science by Weber as an analytical construct to describe and classify cultural phenomena. This concept was adopted for the psychiatric context by Jaspers who proposed to establish a typological system in the field of psychotic disturbances without an organic correlate. He emphasized the importance of the course of psychopathological symptoms for such a typological system. The concept of typology can be regarded as a promising heuristic approach in psychiatry, providing a classification system for complex psychopathological symptoms. Even though several historic typologies exist in psychopathology, their usefulness in the fields of therapy and prognosis needs to be critically assessed. Also, new typologies will have to be developed, taking into account neurobiological knowledge now available.

  18. Differentiation of rye and wheat flour as well as mixtures by using the kinetics of Karl Fischer water titration.

    PubMed

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Costescu, Corina I; Corpaş, Laura; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Isengard, Heinz-Dieter

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to find a simple way to differentiate between rye and wheat flour and their mixtures by using the kinetic parameters of Karl Fischer water titration (KFT). Consequently, the water content and type of molecules in rye and wheat mixtures used in Romanian bread making have been investigated by means of volumetric KFT. Further, the kinetics of KFT have been determined and novel kinetic parameters corresponding to "surface" and "strongly-retained" water molecules have been identified to discriminate between rye and wheat flour and their mixtures. The "surface" and "strongly-retained" water reaction rates well correlate with the rye content in the flour mixtures, especially at higher temperature analysis (r>0.95). These parameters can be used as indicators for quality evaluation of such type of mixtures, as well as to identify adulteration by improper use of the rye-wheat flour ratios in bread making.

  19. DETECTION OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Hinton, J. A.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Theureau, G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Possenti, A.; Skilton, J. L. E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr E-mail: ave@stanford.edu

    2011-09-01

    We announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825-137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of {sigma} = 0.{sup 0}56 {+-} 0.{sup 0}07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 3.90) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. The spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826-1334.

  20. The 2012 Flare of PG 1553+113 Seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiaßon, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; FüSSling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemiére, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553+113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. The flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE γ-ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting γ-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 ± 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. The indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are EQG,1 > 4.10 × 1017 GeV and EQG,2 > 2.10 × 1010 GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.

  1. THE 2012 FLARE OF PG 1553+113 SEEN WITH H.E.S.S. AND FERMI-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Collaboration: Collaboration; and others

    2015-03-20

    Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553+113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. The flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE γ-ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting γ-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 ± 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. The indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are E{sub QG,1} > 4.10 × 10{sup 17} GeV and E{sub QG,2} > 2.10 × 10{sup 10} GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.

  2. H.E.S.S. and CTA, present and perspectives in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sol, H.

    2016-12-01

    Very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy emerged as a new branch of astronomy about ten years ago with the major discoveries achieved by the High Energy Stereocopic System (H.E.S.S.) operating in Namibia, quickly followed by the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes (MAGIC) in the Canary Islands and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) in the USA. These experiments succeeded to start exploring the cosmos at TeV energies, with the present detection of 178 sources in this range, mostly pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, binary systems, blazars, and a variety of other types of sources. Based on these promizing results, the scientific community soon defined a next generation global project with significantly improved performance, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), in order to implement an open observatory at extreme energies, allowing a deep analysis of the sky in the highest part of the electromagnetic spectrum, from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The CTA preparation phase is now completed. Production of the first telescopes should start in 2017 for deployment in 2018, in the perspective of an array fully operational at the horizon 2022.

  3. Transfer of metals in soil-grass ecosystems under long-term N, P, K fertilization in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    With this study focuses on the influence of long-term (14 years) fertilization on metal transition from soil to plants is presented. Accumulation of metals in plants due to long-term fertilization and predicting the bioavailability and transfer of metals in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regard to human health as plants represent the first compartment of the terrestrial food chain. Soil and plant (Lolio-Cynosuretum) samples were taken from a 14 years long-term fertilization field experiment which was carried out in Hesse, Germany. Correlation coefficients, transfer factors, and regression analysis was performed for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to quantify the relative difference in bioavailability of metals to plants or to identify the capacity of plants to accumulate a given metal. Correlation coefficients between metals in soils and in plants show significant relationships (p<0.01) for selected metals. Metal bioavailability from soil to plant based on transfer factor (TF) was observed to decrease in the order Cd>Cu>Zn>Mn>Pb. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that Corg, CEC and bioavailable metal content are the most important predictors for plant metal uptake.

  4. Hydrothermal Spinel, Corundum and Diaspore in Gabbroic Rocks from the Hess Deep Rift, IODP Site U1415

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, T.; Meyer, R.; Wintsch, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of oceanic lower crust has significant implications on geophysical properties of oceanic plates and global-scale geochemical cycles. A first order observation on the hydrothermal alteration at fast-spreading ridges is provided by the gabbroic rocks recovered from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1415 at the Hess Deep Rift near the East Pacific Rise. Shipboard observations of these rocks have revealed an alteration sequence formed under temperature conditions ranging from amphibolite to zeolite facies with mineral assemblages including amphibole, secondary clinopyroxene, chlorite, talc, serpentine, prehnite, zeolite and clay minerals (Gillis et al., 2014). Amphibolite-facies alteration is illustrated by the tremolite-chlorite corona textures between primary olivine and plagioclase in primitive olivine gabbro or troctolite lithologies (Nozaka and Fryer, 2011). The abundance of these alteration mineral assemblages within some sampled intervals suggests localized high-temperature fluid flow near the spreading axis. Our post-cruise studies prove that some of the coronitic amphiboles, particularly those of incipient-stage corona have hornblendic compositions, suggesting a somewhat higher-temperature formation condition than tremolite. We report here another set of alteration products from Site U1415: that is, Al-spinel, corundum and diaspore. They occur in intensely altered parts of the drilled troctolites. The Al-spinel is associated with An-rich plagioclase and pargasitic amphibole that points to even higher temperature conditions than the amphibole-chlorite corona formation. The Al-spinel is partly replaced by corundum, and the corundum, in turn, is pseudomorphically replaced by diaspore. From modes of occurrence and chemical compositions of minerals, and thermodynamic calculations of the stability conditions for these mineral assemblages, we conclude that the highly aluminous phases were formed by localized fluid flow at

  5. Search for extended γ-ray emission around AGN with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Atäı, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemie`re, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Malyshev, D.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from blazars inevitably gives rise to electron-positron pair production through the interaction of these γ-rays with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Depending on the magnetic fields in the proximity of the source, the cascade initiated from pair production can result in either an isotropic halo around an initially beamed source or a magnetically broadened cascade flux. Aims: Both extended pair-halo (PH) and magnetically broadened cascade (MBC) emission from regions surrounding the blazars 1ES 1101-232, 1ES 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 were searched for using VHE γ-ray data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Methods: By comparing the angular distributions of the reconstructed γ-ray events to the angular profiles calculated from detailed theoretical models, the presence of PH and MBC was investigated. Results: Upper limits on the extended emission around 1ES 1101-232, 1ES 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 are found to be at a level of a few per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 1 TeV, depending on the assumed photon index of the cascade emission. Assuming strong extra-Galactic magnetic field (EGMF) values, >10-12 G, this limits the production of pair haloes developing from electromagnetic cascades. For weaker magnetic fields, in which electromagnetic cascades would result in MBCs, EGMF strengths in the range (0.3-3)× 10-15 G were excluded for PKS 2155-304 at the 99% confidence level, under the assumption of a 1 Mpc coherence length.

  6. Multiresistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from humans, companion animals and horses in central Hesse, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are an emerging problem in human and veterinary medicine. This study focused on comparative molecular characterization of β-lactamase and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from central Hesse in Germany. Isolates originated from humans, companion animals (dogs and cats) and horses. Results In this study 153 (83.6%) of the human isolates (n = 183) and 163 (91.6%) of the animal isolates (n = 178) were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Predominant ESBL subtypes in human and animal samples were CTX-M-15 (49.3%) and CTX-M-1 (25.8%) respectively. Subtype blaCTX-M-2 was found almost exclusively in equine and was absent from human isolates. The carbapenemase OXA-48 was detected in 19 ertapenem-resistant companion animal isolates in this study. The Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene aac(‘6)-Ib-cr was the most frequently detected antibiotic- resistance gene present in 27.9% of the human and 36.9% of the animal ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Combinations of two or up to six different resistance genes (penicillinases, ESBLs and PMQR) were detected in 70% of all isolates investigated. The most frequent species in this study was Escherichia coli (74%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (4.2%). Investigation of Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups revealed underrepresentation of group B2 within the animal isolates. Conclusions Isolates from human, companion animals and horses shared several characteristics regarding presence of ESBL, PMQR and combination of different resistance genes. The results indicate active transmission and dissemination of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among human and animal populations. PMID:25014994

  7. PROBING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE HESS J0632+057 WITH SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, A. D.; Stroh, M.; Grube, J.; Hinton, J.; Skilton, J.; Holder, J.; Maier, G.; Mukherjee, R.

    2010-01-01

    New generation TeV gamma-ray telescopes have discovered many new sources, including several enigmatic unidentified TeV objects. HESS J0632+057 is a particularly interesting unidentified TeV source since: it is a point source, it has a possible hard-spectrum X-ray counterpart and a positionally consistent Be star, it has evidence of long-term very high energy gamma-ray flux variability, and it is postulated to be a newly detected TeV/X-ray binary. We have obtained Swift X-ray telescope observations of this source from MJD 54857 to 54965, in an attempt to ascertain its nature and to investigate the hypothesis that it is a previously unknown X-ray/TeV binary. Variability and spectral properties similar to those of the other three known X-ray/TeV binaries have been observed, with measured flux increases by factors of {approx}3. X-ray variability is present on multiple timescales including days to months; however, no clear signature of periodicity is present on the timescales probed by these data. If binary modulation is present and dominating the measured variability, then the period of the orbit is likely to be {>=}54 days (half of this campaign), or it has a shorter period with a variable degree of flux modulation on successive high states. If the two high states measured to date are due to binary modulation, then the favored period is approximately 35-40 days. More observations are required to determine if this object is truly a binary system and to determine the extent that the measured variability is due to inter-orbit flaring effects or periodic binary modulation.

  8. Ammonia excitation imaging of shocked gas towards the W28 gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Nigel I.; de Wilt, Phoebe; Rowell, Gavin P.; Nicholas, Brent P.; Burton, Michael. G.; Walsh, Andrew; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko

    2016-10-01

    We present 12 mm Mopra observations of the dense (>103 cm-3) molecular gas towards the north-east of the W28 supernova remnant (SNR). This cloud is spatially well matched to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233 and is known to be an SNR-molecular cloud interaction region. Shock-disruption is evident from broad NH3 (1,1) spectral linewidths in regions towards the W28 SNR, while strong detections of spatially extended NH3 (3,3), NH3(4,4) and NH3(6,6) inversion emission towards the cloud strengthen the case for the existence of high temperatures within the cloud. Velocity dispersion measurements and NH3(n,n)/(1,1) ratio maps, where n = 2, 3, 4 and 6, indicate that the source of disruption is from the side of the cloud nearest to the W28 SNR, suggesting that it is the source of cloud-disruption. Towards part of the cloud, the ratio of ortho to para-NH3 is observed to exceed 2, suggesting gas-phase NH3 enrichment due to NH3 liberation from dust-grain mantles. The measured NH3 abundance with respect to H2 is ˜(1.2 ± 0.5) × 10-9, which is not high, as might be expected for a hot, dense molecular cloud enriched by sublimated grain-surface molecules. The results are suggestive of NH3 sublimation and destruction in this molecular cloud, which is likely to be interacting with the W28 SNR shock.

  9. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  10. Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HESS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Clapson, A.-C.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-01-01

    The region around the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 contains several TeV sources and has prompted the HESS Collaboration to perform deep observations of this field of view. This resulted in the discovery of the new very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1832-093, at the position {RA=18^h 32^m 50^s ± 3^s_{stat} ± 2^s_{syst}}, {Dec=-9*deg;22'36" ± 32"}_{stat} ± 20^' '}_{syst} (J2000)}, spatially coincident with a part of the radio shell of the neighbouring remnant G22.7-0.2. The photon spectrum is well described by a power law of index Γ = 2.6 ± 0.3stat ± 0.1syst and a normalization at 1 TeV of Φ _0=(4.8 ± 0.8_stat± 1.0_syst) × 10^{-13} cm ^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}. The location of the gamma-ray emission on the edge of the SNR rim first suggested a signature of escaping cosmic rays illuminating a nearby molecular cloud. Then a dedicated XMM-Newton observation led to the discovery of a new X-ray point source spatially coincident with the TeV excess. Two other scenarios were hence proposed to identify the nature of HESS J1832-093. Gamma-rays from inverse Compton radiation in the framework of a pulsar wind nebula scenario or the possibility of gamma-ray production within a binary system are therefore also considered. Deeper multiwavelength observations will help to shed new light on this intriguing VHE source.

  11. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    SciTech Connect

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Hailey, J. C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Christensen, F. E.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10{sup –13}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ{sub c}≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 1.4 × 10{sup 13} G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P {sub 0} ∼ 15 ms.

  12. X-RAY EMISSION FROM HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 AND CENTRAL COMPACT SOURCE XMMS J173203-344518

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W. W.; Li, Z.; Leahy, D. A.; Yang, J.; Lu, D.; Yang, X. J.; Yamazaki, R. E-mail: wtian@ucalgary.c

    2010-04-01

    We present new results of the HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 system from XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray observations and Delinha CO observations. We discover extended hard X-rays coincident with the bright, extended TeV source HESS J1731-347 and the shell of the radio supernova remnant (SNR). We find that spatially resolved X-ray spectra can generally be characterized by an absorbed power-law model, with a photon index of {approx}2, typical of non-thermal emission. A bright X-ray compact source, XMMS J173203-344518, is also detected near the center of the SNR. We find no evidence of a radio counterpart or an extended X-ray morphology for this source, making it unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebular (PWN). The spectrum of the source can be well fitted by an absorbed blackbody with a temperature of {approx}0.5 keV plus a power-law tail with a photon index of {approx}5, reminiscent of the X-ray emission of a magnetar. CO observations toward the inner part of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source reveal a bright cloud component at -20 +- 4 km s{sup -1}, which is likely located at the same distance of {approx}3.2 kpc as the SNR. Based on the probable association between the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions and likely association between the CO cloud and the SNR, we argue that the extended TeV emission originates from the interaction between the SNR shock and the adjacent CO clouds rather than from a PWN.

  13. Human and animal health on three continents--a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography.

  14. H.E.S.S. Limits on Linelike Dark Matter Signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV Energy Range Close to the Galactic Center.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Andersson, T; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Liu, R; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Öttl, S; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-10-07

    A search for dark matter linelike signals iss performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Center by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis iss developed to improve the sensitivity to linelike signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% C.L. the presence of a 130 GeV line (at l=-1.5°, b=0° and for a dark matter profile centered at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps significantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S.

  15. KARL FRIEDRICH ZOELLNER and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry A collection of papers on the History of Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  16. The environment of the γ-ray emitting SNR G338.3-0.0: a hadronic interpretation for HESS J1640-465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supan, L.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Castelletti, G.

    2016-05-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0 spatially correlates with HESS J1640-465, which is considered the most luminous γ-ray source associated with a SNR in our Galaxy. The X-ray pulsar PSR J1640-4631 has been recently discovered within the SNR shell, which could favor a leptonic origin for the detected very-high-energy (VHE) emission. In spite of this, the origin of the VHE radiation from HESS J1640-465 has not been unambiguously clarified so far. Indeed, a hadronic explanation cannot be ruled out by current observations. On the basis of atomic (HI) and molecular (12CO) archival data, we determine, for the first time, the total ambient density of protons in the region of the G338.3-0.0/HESS J1640-465 system, a critical parameter for understanding the emission mechanisms at very high energies. The value obtained is in the 100-130 cm-3 range. Besides this, we developed a new hadronic model to describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the HESS J1640-465 source, which includes the latest total γ-ray cross-section for proton-proton collisions available in the literature. By using the assessed ambient proton density, we found that the total energy in accelerated protons required to fit the data is 5.4+4.7-2.3 ×1049 erg and 1.6+1.4-0.7 ×1050 erg for a source distance of 8.5 and 13 kpc, respectively. The case where the source distance is 8.5 kpc agrees with the typical scenario in which the energy released is on the order of 1051 erg and ~10% of that energy is transferred to the accelerated protons, whereas the case corresponding to a source distance of 13 kpc requires either a higher value of the energy released in the explosion or a larger energy fraction to accelerate protons.

  17. Tangent-linear and ensemble-based four-dimensional data assimilation strategies applied for assimilating conventional data and field observations for Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poterjoy, J.; Zhang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Two advanced four-dimensional ensemble data assimilation systems are applied for studying the genesis of Hurricane Karl (2010) using conventional observations and measurements collected during the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign. Both methods combine strategies from four-dimensional variational (4DVar) and Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation techniques that have been developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The first method, denoted E4DVar, operates in a manner similar to the traditional 4DVar data assimilation system, but with hybrid climate/ensemble background errors. The second method, denoted 4DEnVar, uses an ensemble of nonlinear model trajectories to replace the function of tangent linear and adjoint model operators in 4DVar, thus improving the parallelization of the data assimilation. Simulations initialized from E4DVar and 4DEnVar analyses provide track, genesis and intensity forecasts for Karl that are more accurate than an ensemble hybrid data assimilation method based on 3DVar (E3DVar). The two 4-D data assimilation methods are applied for studying Karl's genesis, while comparing their theoretical advantages and disadvantages for an application where the system dynamics evolve quickly in time, and are constrained by an unusually high number of in situ observations.

  18. First Detection of Thermal Radio Emission from Solar-type Stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-06-01

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  19. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    SciTech Connect

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  20. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  1. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  2. Continued Development of in Situ Geochronology for Planetary Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Geochronology is a fundamental measurement for planetary samples, providing the ability to establish an absolute chronology for geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration events, and providing global and solar system context for such events. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for geochronology to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement, on multiple samples rather than just those returned. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The K-Ar radiometric dating approach to in situ dating has been validated by the Curiosity rover on Mars as well as several laboratories on Earth. Several independent projects developing in situ rock dating for planetary samples, based on the K-Ar method, are giving promising results. Among them, the Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) at MSFC is based on techniques already in use for in planetary exploration, specifically, Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS, used on the Curiosity Chemcam), mass spectroscopy (used on multiple planetary missions, including Curiosity, ExoMars, and Rosetta), and optical imaging (used on most missions).

  3. Monitoring observations of the interaction between Sgr A* and G2 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Chandler, Claire J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on an ongoing community service observing program to follow the expected encounter of the G2 cloud with the black hole Sgr A* in 2013. The NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has been observing the Sgr A region since 2012 October on roughly a bi-monthly interval, each for two hours, cycling through eight observing bands at their default continuum frequencies, using 2 GHz of bandwidth. The data from the monitoring program are publicly available through the NRAO data archive immediately after observing has completed, and the flux densities are published by NRAO staff as soon as the data are reduced. The cumulative results of the monitoring effort are posted on the service observing web page https://science.nrao.edu/science/service-observing and so far do not indicate a significant brightening of the emission from the direction of Sgr A* over the period 2012 October to 2013 September, within the calibration uncertainties.

  4. Long-term TeV and X-ray observations of the gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J. E-mail: afalcone@astro.psu.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2014-01-10

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315{sub −4}{sup +6} days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 ± 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (>6.5σ) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  5. Long-term TeV and X-Ray Observations of the Gamma-Ray Binary HESS J0632+057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rousselle, J.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sheidaei, F.; Skole, C.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Stroh, M.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füssling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System and High Energy Stereoscopic System Cherenkov telescopes and the X-ray satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system's orbit. The very-high-energy (VHE) emission is found to be variable and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of 315 ^{+6}_{-4} days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, P = (321 ± 5) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant (>6.5σ) detection at orbital phases 0.6-0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

  6. The Paradox of the Axial Melt Lens: Petrology and Geochemistry of the Upper Plutonics at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; Loocke, M. P.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The axial melt lens (AML) is a steady-state magma-rich body located at the dyke-gabbro transition at intermediate- and fast-spreading ridges. It is widely believed to be the reservoir from which mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is erupted. The paradox of the axial melt lens is that the plutonic rocks that occur at this level are far too evolved to be in equilibrium with MORB, which is basaltic by definition; hence, the plutonic and volcanic records do not match. We explore this paradox by study of the first comprehensive sample suite of the uppermost plutonics of a fast-spreading ridge, taken by remotely-operated vehicle from the Hess Deep rift during cruise JC21. 23 samples (8 dolerites, 14 gabbronorites, and 1 gabbro) were collected from a section containing the transition from the uppermost gabbroic section into sheeted dykes. We present the results of a detailed petrographic and microanalytical investigation of these samples. They are dominated by evolved, varitextured (both in hand sample and thin section) oxide gabbronorites; olivine occurs in only one sample. A preponderance of the samples have positive Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr*, indicating a cumulate origin. However, the minerals have evolved compositions, and are in equilibrium with melts significantly more evolved than East Pacific Rise MORB. Furthermore, the trace element contents of clinopyroxene differ significantly from clinopyroxene in equilibrium with MORB, being more enriched in incompatible elements. To account for both the evidence of derivation of MORB from the AML and the evolved nature of its rock record, we posit that the AML must be fed by melts on two different timescales: continual low-volume feeding by evolved interstitial melt from the cumulus pile below is augmented episodically by delivery of high volumes of more primitive melt. The latter episodes may trigger eruptions; hence the primitive melts are held in the magma chamber for only short periods, and erupt on the seafloor before significant

  7. H.E.S.S. Limits on Linelike Dark Matter Signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV Energy Range Close to the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Liu, R.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Öttl, S.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    A search for dark matter linelike signals iss performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Center by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis iss developed to improve the sensitivity to linelike signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% C.L. the presence of a 130 GeV line (at l =-1.5 ° , b =0 ° and for a dark matter profile centered at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps significantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. results. No significant excess associated with dark matter annihilations was found in the energy range of 100 GeV to 2 TeV and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux and the velocity weighted annihilation cross section are derived adopting an Einasto dark matter halo profile. Expected limits for present and future large statistics H.E.S.S. observations are also given.

  8. [Development and status of intensive care medicine in internal medicine at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, L; Schneider, D

    1989-01-15

    Issuing from the accomplishments of Köhler for the development of the intensive medicine in internal medicine-in 1964 he performed the first long-term respiration at the then Medical Clinic of the Karl Marx University, in 1969 he institutionalized the young subdiscipline at the clinic, in 1978 he founded the department for intensive medicine and is at work by his decisions concerning the development of young scientists, by the handbook "Intensive Medicine. Internal Medicine and Adjacent Subjects" as well as a member of the presidium of the GDR Society for Internal Medicine for the development of the internal intensive medicine-a description of the development of the department, its achievements and problems is given. The promotion of the intensive medicine by Köhler results, as we think, also from the comprehension that it has the duty to perform a function integrating the subdisciplines, which the modern internal medicine oriented to organs and systems threatens to lose, which, however, makes its self-apprehension, which the patient wishes and the teaching is demanding. From this and from the charge for a highly specialized care of patients who life-threateningly fell ill with internal diseases as well as from the duty to create a scientific forerunning results the stringent necessity of the development of the non-operative, in reality internal intensive medicine in the clinics for internal medicine of the county hospitals and university institutions as well as the greater identification of the internist with the subdiscipline in the district hospitals dealing with multidisciplinary intensive medicine.

  9. Tectonic controls on the Karlıova triple junction (Turkey): Implications for tectonic inversion and the initiation of volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-01-01

    Few places on Earth are tectonically as active as the Karlıova region of eastern Turkey which comprises a triple junction (KTJ). Triple junctions result in complex kinematic and mechanical interactions within the lithosphere generating tectonic inversions and uplift, extensive seismicity and volcanism. Here we present new data, and summarize existing data, on the tectonic evolution of the KTJ in eastern Turkey over the past 6 Ma. In particular, we present a kinematic model for the KTJ and the surrounding area as well as new structural maps. The deformation or strain rate has varied over this 6 million year period. The maximum strain rate occurred between 6 Ma and 3 Ma, a period that coincides with the initiation of activity in Varto Volcano. We suggest that increased strain rate and the initiation of activity at the Varto Volcano may be tectonically related. Subsequent to its formation, the Varto Volcano was dissected by active faults associated with the Varto Fault Zone, including reverse, normal and strike-slip faults. During the past 3 Ma, however, the KTJ area was deformed dominantly through dextral crustal movements associated to right-lateral faults. This deformation resulted in the development of a NE-SW-trending extensional/transtensional regime, together with a complementary NW-SE-trending contractional regime. In the past 6 Ma the east end of the KTJ has been subjected to incremental deformation. This deformation has resulted in many episodes of faulting during (i) ongoing shortening phases driven by a regional-scale thrust tectonic regime, and (ii) local-scale transtensional phases caused by westward extrusion.

  10. Insights into Oceanic Crust Accretion from a Comparison of Rock Magnetic and Silicate Fabrics from Lower Crustal Gabbros from Hess Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Morris, A.; Friedman, S. A.; Cheadle, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of lower crustal accretion remain a long-standing question for those who study fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. One of the goals of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 345 is to test accretionary models by investigating the structure of the lower oceanic crust exposed within the Hess Deep Rift. Located near the tip of the westward-propagating Cocos-Nazca spreading center, Hess Deep Rift exposes crust formed at the East Pacific Rise. During IODP Expedition 345, primitive gabbroic rocks were recovered from a dismembered lower crustal section at ~4850 meters below sealevel. Constraints on physical processes during magmatic accretion are provided by the relative orientation and strength of rock fabrics. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabric data from gabbros recovered from the two deepest holes (U1415J and U1415P). AMS measurements provide petrofabric data that may be used to constrain magma emplacement and subsequent magmatic flow. Bulk susceptibility ranges from 1.15 x 10-4 to 5.73 x 10-2 SI, with a majority of the samples having susceptibility greater than 10-3 SI, suggesting magnetite is the dominant contributor to the AMS signal. Low-temperature demagnetization data show Verwey transitions near 125K indicating the presence of nearly stoichiometric magnetite in most samples. AMS reveals dominantly oblate fabrics with a moderate degree of anisotropy (P') ranging from 1.01 to 1.38 (average P' = 1.13). Fabric strength varies within each of the petrologically-defined units recovered from different crustal blocks. Additional remanence anisotropy fabric analyses of a few specimens reveal nearly identical directions of principal axes compared to AMS, but with larger degrees of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from one sample shows a moderate plagioclase crystallographic preferred orientation best defined by a b-axis maxima that is coincident with the AMS minimum principal axis. This comparison

  11. Discovery of a Young, Energetic 70.5 ms Pulsar Associated with the TeV Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1837-069

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    We report the discovery of 70.5 ms pulsations from the X-ray source AX J1838.0-0655 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE). PSR J1838-0655 is a rotation-powered pulsar with spin-down luminosity Ė = 5.5 × 1036 ergs s-1, characteristic age τc ≡ P/2dot P = 23 kyr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 1.9 × 1012 G. It coincides with an unresolved INTEGRAL source and the extended TeV source HESS J1837-069. At an assumed distance of 6.6 kpc by association with an adjacent massive star cluster, the efficiency of PSR J1838-0655 converting spin-down luminosity to radiation is 0.8% for the 2-10 keV ASCA flux, 9% for the 20-300 keV INTEGRAL flux and ~3% for the >200 GeV emission of HESS J1837-069, making it a plausible power source for the latter. A Chandra X-ray observation resolves AX J1838.0-0655 into a bright point source surrounded by a 2' diameter, centrally peaked nebula. The spectra of the pulsar and nebula are each well fitted by power laws, with photon indices Γ = 0.5(0.3-0.7) and Γ = 1.6(1.1-2.0) , respectively. The 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities of the pulsar and nebula are LPSR = 4.6 × 1034 d26.6 ergs s-1 and LPWN = 5.2 × 1033 d26.6 ergs s-1. A second X-ray source adjacent to the TeV emission, AX J1837.3-0652, is resolved into an apparent pulsar/PWN; it may also contribute to HESS J1837-069. The star cluster RSGC 1 may have given birth to one or both pulsars, while fueling TeV emission from the extended PWN with target photons for inverse Compton scattering.

  12. Gamma-ray blazar spectra with H.E.S.S. II mono analysis: The case of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; LAT Collaboration; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Donaggio, B.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Larsson, S.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spinelli, P.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The addition of a 28 m Cherenkov telescope (CT5) to the H.E.S.S. array extended the experiment's sensitivityto lower energies. The lowest energy threshold is obtained using monoscopic analysis of data taken with CT5, providing access to gamma-ray energies below 100 GeV for small zenith angle observations. Such an extension of the instrument's energy range is particularly beneficial for studies of active galactic nuclei with soft spectra, as expected for those at a redshift ≥0.5. The high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) and PG 1553+113 (0.43 < z < 0.58) are among the brightest objects in the gamma-ray sky, both showing clear signatures of gamma-ray absorption at E > 100 GeV interpreted as being due to interactions with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Aims: The aims of this work are twofold: to demonstrate the monoscopic analysis of CT5 data with a low energy threshold, and to obtain accurate measurements of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553+113 near their SED peaks at energies ≈100 GeV. Methods: Multiple observational campaigns of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553+113 were conducted during 2013 and 2014 using the full H.E.S.S. II instrument (CT1-5). A monoscopic analysis of the data taken with the new CT5 telescope was developed along with an investigation into the systematic uncertainties on the spectral parameters which are derived from this analysis. Results: Using the data from CT5, the energy spectra of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553+113 were reconstructed down to conservative threshold energies of 80 GeV for PKS 2155-304, which transits near zenith, and 110 GeV for the more northern PG 1553+113. The measured spectra, well fitted in both cases by a log-parabola spectral model (with a 5.0σ statistical preference for non-zero curvature for PKS 2155-304 and 4.5σ for PG 1553+113), were found consistent with spectra derived from contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data, indicating a sharp break in the

  13. HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of the remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G 15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV γ-ray source, HESS J1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G 15.4+0.1 is detected by H.E.S.S. and featurs a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of -2.3 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys and an integral flux of F(> 0.42 TeV) = (0.9 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, a recent observation with XMM-Newton reveals extended X-ray emission strongly peaked in the center of G 15.4+0.1. The X-ray source shows indications of an energy-dependent morphology featuring a compact core at energies above 4 keV and more extended emission that fills the entire region within the SNR at lower energies. Together, the X-ray and VHE γ-ray emission provide strong evidence of a PWN located inside the shell of G 15.4+0.1 and this SNR can therefore be classified as a composite based on these observations. The radio, X-ray, and γ-ray emission from the PWN is compatible with a one-zone leptonic model that requires a low average magnetic field inside the emission region. An unambiguous counterpart to the putative pulsar, which is thought to power the PWN, has been detected neither in radio nor in X-ray observations of G 15.4+0.1.

  14. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  15. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan`s work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL.

  16. A two-dimensional position sensitive charged-particle detector for the magnetic spectrograph ``Big Karl'' of the Jülich Cyclotron ``Jülich''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Müller, K. D.; Stoff, H.; Teske, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Hardt, A.; Martin, S.; Mayer-Böricke, C.; Meißburger, J.

    1980-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive detector with an area of 300 mm × 40 mm and a charged-particle spatial resolution of ΔX = ΔY ⩽ 0.5 mm is described. Some test results point out the detector properties. Results of the experiments 102Ru(d,p) 103Ru and 208Pb(p,p') 208Pb done at 45 MeV incident particle energy using the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL are shown with sections of the proton spectra.

  17. Detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232 with HESS and broadband characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brown, A. M.; Bühler, R.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Ferrero, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, Seb.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Le Gallou, R.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, G.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moulin, E.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Noutsos, A.; Olive, J.-P.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Panter, M.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Ranchon, S.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rolland, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Saugé, L.; Schlenker, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Spanier, F.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.

    2007-08-01

    Context: The blazar 1ES 1101-232 was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) of Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACT) in 2004 and 2005, for a live time of 43 h. VHE (E > 1011 eV) γ-rays were detected for the first time from this object. Aims: VHE observations of blazars are used to investigate the inner parts of the blazar jets, and also to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-infrared band. Methods: Observations in 2005 were conducted in a multiwavelength campaign, together with the RXTE satellite and optical observations. In 2004, simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton were obtained. Results: 1ES 1101-232 was detected with HESS with an excess of 649 photons, at a significance of 10σ. The measured VHE γ-ray flux amounts to dN/dE = (5.63 ± 0.89) × 10-13 (E/TeV)-(2.94±0.20) cm-2 s-1 TeV-1, above a spectral energy threshold of 225 GeV. No significant variation of the VHE γ-ray flux on any time scale was found. 1ES 1101-232 exhibits a very hard spectrum, and at a redshift of z = 0.186, is the blazar with the highest confirmed redshift detected in VHE γ-rays so far. Conclusions: The data allow the construction of truly simultaneous spectral energy distributions of the source, from the optical to the VHE band. Using an EBL model with ν Fν = 14 nWm-2 sr-1 at 1.5~μm as presented in Aharonian et al. (2006a) suggests an intrinsic VHE power output peak of the source at above 3 TeV.

  18. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Lui, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Öttl, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ -ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ -ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σ v ⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σ v ⟩ values of 6 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the W+W- channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2 ×10-26 cm3 s-1 in the τ+τ- channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ -ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σ v ⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  19. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations towards the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lui, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Öttl, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spieß, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-09-09

    The inner region of the Milky Way halo harbors a large amount of dark matter (DM). Given its proximity, it is one of the most promising targets to look for DM. We report on a search for the annihilations of DM particles using γ-ray observations towards the inner 300 pc of the Milky Way, with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. The analysis is based on a 2D maximum likelihood method using Galactic Center (GC) data accumulated by H.E.S.S. over the last 10 years (2004-2014), and does not show any significant γ-ray signal above background. Assuming Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White DM density profiles at the GC, we derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σv⟩. These constraints are the strongest obtained so far in the TeV DM mass range and improve upon previous limits by a factor 5. For the Einasto profile, the constraints reach ⟨σv⟩ values of 6×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the W^{+}W^{-} channel for a DM particle mass of 1.5 TeV, and 2×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1} in the τ^{+}τ^{-} channel for a 1 TeV mass. For the first time, ground-based γ-ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to probe ⟨σv⟩ values expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  20. Interstellar protons in the TeV γ-ray SNR HESS J1731-347: Possible evidence for the coexistence of hadronic and leptonic γ-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sano, H.; Torii, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Fukui, Y.; Acero, F.

    2014-06-10

    HESS J1731-347 (G353.6-0.7) is one of the TeV γ-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) that shows the shell-like morphology. We have made a new analysis of the interstellar protons toward the SNR by using both the {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) and H I data sets. The results indicate that the TeV γ-ray shell shows significant spatial correlation with the interstellar protons at a velocity range from –90 km s{sup –1} to –75 km s{sup –1}. The total mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) protons is estimated to be 6.4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, 25% of which is atomic gas, and the distance corresponding to the velocity range is ∼5.2 kpc, a factor of 2 larger than the previous figure, 3 kpc. We have identified the cold H I gas observed as self-absorption which shows significant correspondence with the northeastern γ-ray peak. While the good correspondence between the ISM protons and TeV γ-rays in the north of the SNR lends support to the hadronic scenario for the TeV γ-rays, the southern part of the shell shows a break in the correspondence; in particular, the southwestern rim of the SNR shell shows a significant decrease of the interstellar protons by a factor of two. We argue that this discrepancy can be explained due to leptonic γ-rays because this region coincides well with the bright shell that emits non-thermal radio continuum emission and non-thermal X-rays, suggesting that the γ-rays of HESS J1713-347 consist of both the hadronic and leptonic components. The leptonic contribution corresponds to ∼20% of the total γ-rays.

  1. Methanotrophic activity in the water column above shallow gas flares west of Prins Karls Forland, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründger, Friederike; Svenning, Mette M.; Niemann, Helge; Silyakova, Anna; Serov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Ferre, Bénédicte; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Numerous gas flares, interpreted to be streams of methane bubbles, were discovered in shallow waters (average water depth about 90 m) on the continental shelf west of Prins Karls Forland (Western Svalbard) in the Arctic Ocean. Gas is released from the seabed to the water column and potentially transferred into the atmosphere where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In order to resolve the fate of dissolved methane in the water column, we carried out grid-pattern biogeochemical measurements in the study area of 30 x 15 km. Specifically, we measured concentrations of dissolved methane and microbial methane oxidation (MOx) rates at 8 water depths at 31 sampling stations and performed 16S rRNA sequencing analysis on selected samples to characterize the microbial community composition. Availability of dissolved methane is essential for the process of microbial methane oxidation. However, our measurements reveal that high concentrations of dissolved methane in the water column do not necessarily lead to high MOx rates. Our results indicated that the presence of marine methanotrophic biomass as well as dissolved organic matter is of larger importance for the process of microbial methane oxidation. For example, we found MOx hot spots with values up to 13 nmol l-1 d-1 at bottom water depth with dissolved methane concentrations less than 160 nmol l-1. In contrast, at stations where bottom methane concentration values reached 640 nmol l-1, MOx rates were less than 0.7 nmol l-1 d-1. To interpret observed interconnection between methane concentrations and MOx rates, we use vertical distributions of seawater temperature, salinity and properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This information helps us characterize the oceanographic setting and circulation patterns in the area, which we believe has a major impact on the origin and distribution of methanotrophic microbial biomass and methane oxidation in methanerich bottom water. This study is part of the Centre for

  2. Diaphragm-free cell for trace determination of water based on the karl Fischer reaction using continuous coulometric titration.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A; Jonsson, S

    1997-08-01

    A new type of diaphragm-free coulometric cell for continuous coulometric Karl Fischer titrations of water in the range 0.1-1000 μg is described. The relative standard deviation obtained for titrations of 1 μg amounts of water was typically 1%. The background due to diffusion of water from the air was normally in the range 0.3-0.9 μg of water min(-1) depending on environmental humidity. The variation in the background was normally ±0.01 μg min(-1). The construction makes it possible, at any time in a sequence of titrations, to renew the catholyte by means of a Teflon plunger inside the cathode compartment. In this way, the interference effects caused by oxidizable reduction products of methyl sulfite which are formed at the cathode can be controlled in a very simple way. These products are rapidly eliminated by means of a normal titration before a new titration starts. The need for this draining step differs depending on the type of reagent used. The coulometric titration system makes use of true potentiometric end-point detection, and this principle makes it possible to control the iodine level at the end-point at much lower levels as compared with commercial instrumentation. The analytical advantages gained by this option are demonstrated for the determination of water in ethylenediamine, a task which was found to be impossible when using end-point concentrations in the range (3-7) × 10(-5) M, which is typical for the bipotentiometric indicating system used in commercial instruments. Recovery rates in the range 100-102% were obtained and are shown to be dependent on the type of reagent used. The most accurate results were obtained for an imidazole-buffered methanolic reagent in which the concentration of sulfur dioxide was kept relatively low (0.10 M). The diaphragm-free cell described was shown to be compatible with all of the commercial reagents (designed for coulometry) investigated, including the well-known Hydranal products Coulomat A, AK, AG, AG-H, and

  3. Capturing Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.

    2009-02-01

    Science communication, like other areas of study, features prominent figures who lead the field. One such individual is Jean-Pierre Luminet, a researcher, communicator, artist and author. As recipient of the 2007 European Science Communication Prize for Communicator of the Year, Jean-Pierre is at the forefront of his field. The CAPjournal editorial team interviewed Jean-Pierre to discover more about the man, his mission and his methods.

  4. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  5. Representation of solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions and nonintegrability of the Hess case by quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A method for the representation of Delaunay's solutions and some other particular solutions to the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body in the Kovalevskaya case in terms of the Weierstrass \\zeta- and \\wp-functions is put forward. The Hess case in the problem of the motion of a heavy rigid body is shown to be nonintegrable by quadratures. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  6. [Profile and tasks of a medical university polyclinic in the past and present using as example the Medical Polyclinical Institutes of the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hambsch, K; Treutler, H; Pietruschka, W D

    1981-03-15

    After a short survey of the historical development of the Medico-Policlinical Institute of the Karl Marx University Leipzig tasks and developmental tendencies of university medical policlinics are described, evaluating hereby the results of the Vth conference of higher education. They are understood as a university representation of ambulatorily working internists and to a large extent of the specialists for general medicine. Their main tasks consist in education and continued professional training of this group of physicians under integrative description of the whole subject internal medicine, a research oriented to practice as well as a guiding and coordination function for the ambulatory internistic care, taking into particular consideration the early recognition of a disease, in primary and secondary prevention as well as in a scientifically based ambulatory therapy of epidemiologically important diseases.

  7. [Development of the legal abortion situation at the gynecologic hospital of Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig from 1.1.1960 to 30.6.1972].

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Henning, G

    1973-07-13

    Statistics on legal abortions at the Women's Clinic, Karl Marx University, Leipzig, East Germany, are reported. Between 1960-June 30, 1972, there were 3955 abortions and 53,972 births. Of these, 1368 abortions and 1831 births occurred in 1972; a similar large increase in abortions has been reported from other socialist countries. Average age of patients was 30.6 years in 1960, 27.7 years in 1972. In 1960, 83.1% of patients were married, but only 66.4% in 1972. Average hospital stay was 10.3 days in 1960, 3.7 days in 1972. Complications were seen in 32.5% of cases in 1960, and in 8.3% in 1972. Statistics for each year, 1960-1972, are given, and the implications of this information for medical practice and social policy are discussed.

  8. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  9. Interference-free coulometric titration of water in lithium bis(oxalato)borate using Karl Fischer reagents based on N-methylformamide.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Panitz, Jan-Christoph; Cedergren, Anders

    2006-03-15

    A non-alcoholic coulometric reagent based on N-methylformamide (NMF) was shown to eliminate the severe interference effect caused by the alcohol component of the conventional Karl Fischer (KF) reagent on the battery electrolyte lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). For sample amounts up to 240 microg of water, the stoichiometry of the KF reaction deviated only slightly from the ideal 1:1 ratio for the best reagent composition. Both solid and dissolved (in acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate) LiBOB were titrated successfully using a Metrohm 756 KF Coulometer with a diaphragm cell. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.5-1 microg of water using 100ml of reagent in this system.

  10. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA.

  11. A hundred-year of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology (Allgemeine Psychopathologie)--1913-2013: a pivotal book in the history of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Freire, Rafael Christophe; Machado, Sergio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Crippa, José Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    After a hundred-years of its publication, the Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, is still an indispensable book to psychiatrists and for all those who study psychopathology. It's a clear delineation of the phenomenological method for describing the symptoms of mental disorders that remains unmatched until nowadays. The book focuses on the relevance of phenomenological and hermeneutical methods in psychopathology. Although this work is grounded in the clinical thought and practices of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Jaspers' delineation of psychiatric methods in this work is still evaluated as unmatched to this day, a work that is indispensable to contemporary psychiatry. Jaspers also contributed with important articles and book reviews to psychiatric periodicals during the first two decades of the twentieth century.

  12. A coulometric method for determining substances that interfere with the measurement of water in oils and other chemicals by the Karl Fischer method.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Paulsen, Jeffery; Park, Edward

    2002-12-01

    In order to fulfill a need to measure water in crude oils containing materials that interfere with the measurement of water by the Karl Fischer method, by reacting with iodine or iodide, a coulometric method has been developed and validated using 0.1 mol L(-1) Sodium thiosulfate as a calibrant. These interfering substances were measured in water-mass-equivalents, which were expressed as the mass of water that reacts with an equal mass of iodine in the Karl Fischer method. The SO(2)-free reagent that has been modified reacts quantitatively with sodium thiosulfate, cysteine and ascorbic acid but does not react with vinyl acetate. The level of interfering substances was measured in five transformer oils (including Reference Materials RM 8506 and RM 8507), a high and a low sulfur crude oil (Standard Reference Materials SRM 2721 and SRM 2722 respectively), a white oil, a high-vacuum oil and a high-viscosity base-stock oil. One oil contained less than 10 mg kg(-1) (water-mass-equivalents of interfering substances in oil) and two oils (RM 8507 and Drakeol 35) contained no measurable amount of interfering material (<0.2 mg kg(-1)). SRM 2271, a sour crude oil contained 834 mg kg(-1) (standard deviation (SD)=25 mg kg(-1)) (water-mass-equivalents of interfering substances in oil). Approximately 20% of this material was volatile and an additional 20% appeared to undergo some degradation (possibly oxidation) once the oil was exposed to air. These results indicate that this is a general method for measuring substances in oils that react with iodine and that it is capable of measuring in a variety of oils, using commercial instrumentation, interfering substances that inflate water measurements.

  13. Constraints on an annihilation signal from a core of constant dark matter density around the milky way center with H.E.S.S.

    PubMed

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2015-02-27

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of ∼9  h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, ⟨σv⟩, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of ∼300  GeV to ∼10  TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of ⟨σv⟩ that are larger than 3×10^{-24}  cm^{3}/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between ∼1 and ∼4  TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on ⟨σv⟩ for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region.

  14. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) < 1.33 × 10-8 m-2 s-1. Differential flux upper limits as function of the photon energy were derived and used to constrain the intrinsic high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  15. Long-term monitoring of PKS 2155-304 with ATOM and H.E.S.S.: investigation of optical/γ-ray correlations in different spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy γ-ray (>200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy γ-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy γ-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct γ-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and γ-ray emission of PKS 2155-304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a γ-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.

  16. Constraints on an Annihilation Signal from a Core of Constant Dark Matter Density around the Milky Way Center with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of ˜9 h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, ⟨σ v ⟩, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of ˜300 GeV to ˜10 TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of ⟨σ v ⟩ that are larger than 3 ×10-24 cm3/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between ˜1 and ˜4 TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on ⟨σ v ⟩ for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF PKS 2155-304 WITH HESS, FERMI, RXTE, AND ATOM: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND VARIABILITY IN A LOW STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A.; Buehler, R.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Brucker, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Brion, E.; Brun, P.; Buesching, I.; Boutelier, T. E-mail: berrie@in2p3.fr E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.edu

    2009-05-10

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  18. Simultaneous Observations of PKS 2155--304 with H.E.S.S., Fermi, RXTE and ATOM: Spectral Energy Distributions and Variability in a Low State

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlohr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bochow, A.; Borrel, V.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Brun, P.; Buhler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P.M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R.C.G.; /more authors..

    2009-05-07

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  19. New constraints on the structure of Hess Deep from regional- and micro-bathymetry data acquired during RRS James Cook in Jan-Feb 2008 (JC021)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Cazenave, P. W.; Hurst, S. D.; Scientific Party, J.

    2008-12-01

    In January-February 2008, new geophysical and geological data were acquired in Hess Deep using the RRS James Cook and the British ROV Isis. Hess Deep provides a tectonic window into oceanic crust emplaced by fast seafloor spreading at the East Pacific Rise, thereby offering the opportunity to test competing hypotheses for oceanic crustal accretion. The goal of this cruise was to collect datasets that can constrain the structure and composition of the lower crustal section exposed in the south-facing slope of the Intrarift Ridge just north of the Deep, and thus provide insights into the emplacement of gabbroic lower crust at fast spreading rates. Additionally, the acquired datasets provide site survey data for IODP Proposal 551-Full. The following datasets were acquired during JC021: 1) regional multibeam bathymetry survey complemented with sub-bottom profiler (SBP) data (in selected areas), 2) two micro-bathymetry surveys, and 3) seafloor rock samples acquired with an ROV. Here we present grids of regional multibeam and microbathymetry data following post-cruise processing. Regional multibeam bathymetry were acquired using the hull-mounted Kongsberg Simrad EM120 system (12 kHz). These data provide new coverage of the northern flank of the rift as far east as 100°W, which show that it comprises of a series of 50- to 100-km-long en echelon segments. Both E-W and NE-SW striking features are observed in the immediate vicinity of the Deep, including in a newly covered region to the SW of the rift tip. Such features might arise due to the rotation of the Galapagos microplate(s), as proposed by other authors. The ROV Isis acquired micro-bathymetry data in two areas using a Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam sonar. Data were acquired at a nominal altitude of ~100 m and speed of 0.3 kts to facilitate high-resolution mapping of seabed features and also permit coverage of two relatively large areas. Swath widths were ~200- 350 m depending on noise and seabed characteristics

  20. MT-HESS: an efficient Bayesian approach for simultaneous association detection in OMICS datasets, with application to eQTL mapping in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Alex; Saadi, Habib; Peters, James E.; Moreno-Moral, Aida; Lee, James C.; Smith, Kenneth G. C.; Petretto, Enrico; Bottolo, Leonardo; Richardson, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Analysing the joint association between a large set of responses and predictors is a fundamental statistical task in integrative genomics, exemplified by numerous expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) studies. Of particular interest are the so-called ‘hotspots’, important genetic variants that regulate the expression of many genes. Recently, attention has focussed on whether eQTLs are common to several tissues, cell-types or, more generally, conditions or whether they are specific to a particular condition. Results: We have implemented MT-HESS, a Bayesian hierarchical model that analyses the association between a large set of predictors, e.g. SNPs, and many responses, e.g. gene expression, in multiple tissues, cells or conditions. Our Bayesian sparse regression algorithm goes beyond ‘one-at-a-time’ association tests between SNPs and responses and uses a fully multivariate model search across all linear combinations of SNPs, coupled with a model of the correlation between condition/tissue-specific responses. In addition, we use a hierarchical structure to leverage shared information across different genes, thus improving the detection of hotspots. We show the increase of power resulting from our new approach in an extensive simulation study. Our analysis of two case studies highlights new hotspots that would remain undetected by standard approaches and shows how greater prediction power can be achieved when several tissues are jointly considered. Availability and implementation: C++ source code and documentation including compilation instructions are available under GNU licence at http://www.mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk/software/. Contact: sylvia.richardson@mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk or lb664@cam.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26504141

  1. Toward a comprehensive model for feedback by active galactic nuclei: New insights from M87 observations by LOFAR, Fermi, and H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Pfrommer, Christoph

    2013-12-10

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and in mitigating the star formation of elliptical galaxies. New observations of M87 enable us to put forward a comprehensive model for the physical heating mechanism. Low-frequency radio observations by LOFAR revealed the absence of fossil cosmic-ray (CR) electrons in the radio halo surrounding M87. This puzzle can be resolved by accounting for the CR release from the radio lobes and the subsequent mixing of CRs with the dense ambient intracluster gas, which thermalizes the electrons on a timescale similar to the radio halo age of 40 Myr. Hadronic interactions of similarly injected CR protons with the ambient gas should produce an observable gamma-ray signal in accordance with the steady emission of the low state of M87 detected by Fermi and H.E.S.S. Hence, we normalize the CR population to the gamma-ray emission, which shows the same spectral slope as the CR injection spectrum probed by LOFAR, thereby supporting a common origin. We show that CRs, which stream at the Alfvén velocity with respect to the plasma rest frame, heat the surrounding thermal plasma at a rate that balances that of radiative cooling on average at each radius. However, the resulting global thermal equilibrium is locally unstable and allows for the formation of the observed cooling multi-phase medium through thermal instability. Provided that CR heating balances cooling during the emerging 'cooling flow', the collapse of the majority of the gas is halted around 1 keV—in accordance with X-ray data. We show that both the existence of a temperature floor and the similar radial scaling of the heating and cooling rates are generic predictions of the CR heating model.

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and economic importance of infestations with Sarcoptes scabiei and Haematopinus suis in sows of pig breeding farms in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Damriyasa, I M; Failing, K; Volmer, R; Zahner, H; Bauer, C

    2004-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed in 110 randomly selected pig-breeding farms of southern Hesse, Germany to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations and to find possible risk factors. Ear scrapings of, if available, 10 sows per farm were examined for Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (De Geer) (Acaridida: Sarcoptidae) by the potassium hydroxide digestion method, and a total of 2754 sows was inspected for skin lesions and infestations with Haematopinus suis (L.) (Anoplurida: Haematopinidae). Data on farm profiles and sows were collected by a questionnaire. In total, 19.1% and 2.5% of the sows were found to be infested with S. scabiei or H. suis, respectively. The percentage of mite or louse infestation was significantly higher in sows showing pruritus than in those without skin lesions. Both ectoparasite infestations were related neither to the age of sows nor their reproduction status, nor to the time interval to last ectoparasite treatment. Using farms as the unit of analysis, the estimated prevalence of mange mite and louse infestations was 45.4% and 14.5%, respectively. There was no significant association between the presence of S. scabiei and H. suis in the farms. Risk factors for S. scabiei infestation were mixed housing of dry and nursing sows in the same unit (vs. separate housing) and straw bedding (vs. strawless). For louse infestation, only mechanical cleaning of stable units (vs. additional use of disinfection methods) and pasturing of gilts and dry sows were identified as risk factors. The economic loss by S. scabiei infestation in the study population was assessed at euro 4200 per affected farm and year on average.

  3. Soil data from fire and permafrost-thaw chronosequences in upland Picea mariana stands near Hess Creek and Tok, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Soils of the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost region harbor 1,672 petagrams (Pg) (1 Pg = 1,000,000,000 kilograms) of organic carbon (OC), nearly 50 percent of the global belowground OC pool (Tarnocai and others, 2009). Of that soil OC, nearly 88 percent is presently stored in perennially frozen ground. Recent climate warming at northern latitudes has resulted in warming and thawing of permafrost in many regions (Osterkamp, 2007), which might mobilize OC stocks from associated soil reservoirs via decomposition, leaching, or erosion. Warming also has increased the magnitude and severity of wildfires in the boreal region (Turetsky and others, 2011), which might exacerbate rates of permafrost degradation relative to warming alone. Given the size and vulnerability of the soil OC pool in permafrost soils, permafrost thaw will likely function as a strong positive feedback to the climate system (Koven and others, 2011; Schaefer and others, 2011). In this report, we report soil OC inventories from two upland fire chronosequences located near Hess Creek and Tok in Interior Alaska. We sampled organic and mineral soils in the top 2 meters (m) across a range of stand ages to evaluate the effects of wildfire and permafrost thaw on soil C dynamics. These data were used to parameterize a simple process-based fire-permafrost-carbon model, which is described in detail by O’Donnell and others (2011a, b). Model simulations examine long-term changes in soil OC storage in response to fire, permafrost thaw, and climate change. These data also have been used in other papers, including Harden and others (2012), which examines C recovery post-fire, and Johnson and others (2011), which synthesizes data within the Alaska Soil Carbon Database. Findings from these studies highlight the importance of climate and disturbance (wildfire, permafrost thaw) on soil C storage, and loss of soil C from high-latitude ecosystems.

  4. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2014-06-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH-value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and by the way increase their concentrations in agricultural products. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg and CEC) and pseudo total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations 210, 260, 360, and 620 m a.s.l., in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Fertilization is one of the major paths for metal input to agricultural soils, therefore monitoring of the long term impact of fertilization is necessary. 8 years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6%, 54.2%, 48.5%, 74.4%, and 56.9%, respectively, in pseudo total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents was determined.

  5. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  6. Characterizing the γ-ray long-term variability of PKS 2155-304 with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2017-01-01

    Studying the temporal variability of BL Lac objects at the highest energies provides unique insights into the extreme physical processes occurring in relativistic jets and in the vicinity of super-massive black holes. To this end, the long-term variability of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 is analyzed in the high (HE, 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high energy (VHE, E > 200 GeV) γ-ray domain. Over the course of 9 yr of H.E.S.S. observations the VHE light curve in the quiescent state is consistent with a log-normal behavior. The VHE variability in this state is well described by flicker noise (power-spectral-density index ) on timescales larger than one day. An analysis of 5.5 yr of HE Fermi-LAT data gives consistent results (, on timescales larger than 10 days) compatible with the VHE findings. The HE and VHE power spectral densities show a scale invariance across the probed time ranges. A direct linear correlation between the VHE and HE fluxes could neither be excluded nor firmly established. These long-term-variability properties are discussed and compared to the red noise behavior (β 2) seen on shorter timescales during VHE-flaring states. The difference in power spectral noise behavior at VHE energies during quiescent and flaring states provides evidence that these states are influenced by different physical processes, while the compatibility of the HE and VHE long-term results is suggestive of a common physical link as it might be introduced by an underlying jet-disk connection.

  7. Mid-tropospheric Moisture Variations During the Development of Hurricane Karl as Resolved by Airborne GPS Radio Occultation with Open Loop Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Wang, K. N.; Garrison, J. L.; Adhikari, L.; Xie, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of hurricane Karl in 2010 was investigated with dropsonde and airborne radio occultation (ARO) measurements from the stage of tropical disturbance within an easterly wave through to genesis of the tropical storm. Infrared imagery showed deep convection with extensive cold cloud tops on 11 September however the storm failed to develop until 3 days later. One possible explanation is the horizontal offset of the mid and lower level circulation centers. We illustrate with airborne radio occultation measurements additional information on the moisture distribution during this stage of development that indicates that average mid-level moisture was lower the following day and then increased again over the next two days prior to development. High sample rate RF data recorded by the GNSS instrument system for multistatic and occultation sensing (GISMOS) was analyzed with a version of the Purdue Software Receiver that has open-loop tracking implemented. Open loop tracking eliminates the feedback loop of conventional receivers that fails in the complex signal propagation environment typical of atmosphere with sharp moisture gradients. The open-loop excess phase profiles routinely sample below 4 km, with half of the profiles extending below 2 km. We retrieve slanted vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity that can be considered a proxy for moisture in this tropical environment. We illustrate that in the mid to upper troposphere, ARO refractivity profiles sampling different areas within the tropical wave showed characteristics that were consistent with (~150 to 200 km scale) horizontal moisture gradients present in the NWP model representation of the developing tropical storm. Variation in refractivity preceding the development of the pre-Karl system is consistent with increasing moisture near the storm center. The ARO observations almost double the amount of thermodynamic data over that provided by the dropsondes. They provide interesting complementary

  8. The jet and arc molecular clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023–575; {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P. E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; and others

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call 'jet' and 'arc' clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023–575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023–575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ∼Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ∼Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  9. The Jet and Arc Molecular Clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023-575 12CO and 13CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P.; Matsumoto, R.; Asahina, Y.; Fukui, Y.

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call "jet" and "arc" clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023-575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023-575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ~Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ~Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  10. [Peripartal mortality in an autopsy sample of the Pathologic Institute of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University in Leipzig 1960-1982].

    PubMed

    Emmrich, P; Wötzel, E

    1986-01-01

    Between 1960 and 1982 we have autopsied 88 cases of peripartal mortality in the pathological institute of the department of medicine, Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig. According to the legal instruction in the GDR we have subdivided in direct and indirect peripartal death cases (direct and indirect relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy). We have compared both the groups (1960-1969, 1970-1982) and have found: The number of cases with indirect and direct relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy is decreased markedly in the second time period. The composition within the two time groups is very different in respect to the cause of the mortality: Between 1960 and 1969 amnioticfluid embolism, thromboembolism and air embolism, furthermore preeclampsia and their consequences as well as hemorrhages sub partu and postpartum could be found. In the second time group the most frequent causes of peripartal mortality are the different forms of embolism and preeclampsia, but then cases with a indirect relation between mortality and pregnancy with diseases of the cardiopulmonary system and of the kidneys.

  11. THE DISCOVERY OF A MOLECULAR CAVITY IN THE NORMA NEAR ARM ASSOCIATED WITH H.E.S.S {gamma}-RAY SOURCE LOCATED IN THE DIRECTION OF WESTERLUND 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Abraham; Mayya, Y. D.; Carrasco, Luis; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2010-04-10

    We report on the discovery of a molecular cavity in the Norma near arm in the general direction of Westerlund 1 (Wd1), but not associated with it. The cavity has a mean radial velocity of -91.5 km s{sup -1}, which differs by as much as {approx}40 km s{sup -1} from the mean radial velocity of the Wd1 stars. The cavity is surrounded by a fragmented molecular shell of an outer diameter of about 100 pc and 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}, which is expanding at velocities of 6 to 8 km s{sup -1}. The amount of kinetic energy involved in the expanding shell is {approx}10{sup 51} erg. Inside this cavity, the atomic H I gas surface density is also the lowest. Structure of the extended Very High Energetic {gamma}-ray emission, recently reported by the H.E.S.S. collaboration, coincides with the cavity. The observed morphology suggests that the inner wall of the molecular shell is the zone of the {gamma}-ray emission, and not the dense gas surrounding massive stars of Wd1 as had been speculated by the H.E.S.S. collaboration. A likely candidate responsible for creating the observed cavity and the {gamma}-ray emission is the pulsar PSR J1648 - 4611.

  12. A Dual-Porosity, In Situ Crystallisation Model For Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge Magma Chambers Based Upon Direct Observation From Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Lissenberg, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a revised magma chamber model for fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges based upon a synthesis of new data from a complete section of lower crust from the East Pacific Rise, reconstructed from samples collected from the Hess Deep rift valley during cruise JC21. Our investigation includes detailed sampling across critical transitions in the upper part of the plutonic section, including the inferred axial melt lens (AML) within the dyke-gabbro transition. We find that an overall petrological progression, from troctolite and primitive gabbro at the base up into evolved (oxide) gabbro and gabbronorite at the top of the lower crustal section, is mirrored by a progressive upward chemical fractionation as recorded in bulk rock and mineral compositions. Crystallographic preferred orientations measured using EBSD show that the downward increase in deformation of mush required in crystal subsidence models is not observed. Together these observations are consistent only with a model in which crystallisation of upward migrating evolving melts occurs in situ in the lower crust. Over-enrichment in incompatible trace element concentrations and ratios above that possible by fractional crystallisation is ubiquitous. This implies redistribution of incompatible trace elements in the lower crust by low porosity, near-pervasive reactive porous flow of interstitial melt moving continuously upward through the mush pile. Mass balance calculations reveal a significant proportion of this trace element enriched melt is trapped at mid-crustal levels. Mineral compositions in the upper third to half of the plutonic section are too evolved to represent the crystal residues of MORB. Erupted MORB therefore must be fed from melts sourced in the deeper part of the crystal mush pile, and which must ascend rapidly without significant modification in the upper plutonics or AML. From physical models of mush processes we posit that primitive melts are transported through transient, high porosity

  13. Occurrences of Orthopyroxene in the "Multi-textured" Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise (the Site U1415P, IODP Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshide, T.; Machi, S.; Maeda, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Exp.345 drilled three main holes (Holes U1415 I, J & P) from the lowermost plutonic crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise and primitive layered gabbroic rocks were newly discovered from these holes (Gillis et al., 2014). One of the mysteries about the layered gabbros is the fact that Opx, which is considered to appear in the late stage of crystallization on the basis of crystallization experiments of MORB, occurs as a dominant phase in many of the layered gabbros. In this presentation, we report the occurrence of Opx from the Hole U1415P and consider the significance of Opx in the origin of the layered gabbros. Hole U1415P (about 100m in thickness) is divided into two units, the upper Multi-textured Layered Gabbro Series (MLGS) and lower Troctolite Series (TS). Gabbroic rocks from the MLGS contain Opx (< 4 vol%) and are macroscopically classified into Opx-bearing olivine gabbro. However, these rocks are mesoscopically (on cm scale) inhomogeneous and have a great variation of mode, grain size and texture. On the other hand, TS consists of homogeneous troctolites and Opx rarely occurs in the series. The occurrences of Opx from the MLGS are as follows: (i) coarse-grained Opx+Cpx+Pl vein parallel to the layered structure of the surrounding troctolite (ii) undeformed Opx+Pl veinlets in kinked Ol (iii) Opx in the concave of anhedral Ol (iv) Opx rimming Cr-spl crystals in contact with Ol. The occurrence of Opx like (ii) and (iii) resembles the texture which is considered to be formed by the reaction between mantle peridotite and a SiO2-saturated melt (e.g, Piccardo et al., 2007). The facts that Opx is often found in association with Cr-spl and Cr-spl lamellae occur in pyroxenes of the Opx+Cpx+Pl vein suggest that the SiO2-saturated melt which reacted with Ol was rich in chromium. In addition, Cr-spl crystals rimmed by Opx contain multiphase-solid inclusions. The inclusions should be key in understanding the chemical composition of the reacted melt.

  14. The neutron star in HESS J1731-347: Central compact objects as laboratories to study the equation of state of superdense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Pühlhofer, G.; Yakovlev, D. G.; Santangelo, A.; Werner, K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants are isolated thermally emitting neutron stars (NSs). They are most probably characterized by a magnetic field strength that is roughly two orders of magnitude lower than that of most of the radio and accreting pulsars. The thermal emission of CCOs can be modeled to obtain constraints on the physical parameters of the star such as its mass, radius, effective temperature, and chemical composition. Aims: The CCO in HESS J1731-347 is one of the brightest objects in this class. Starting from 2007, it was observed several times with different X-ray satellites. Here we present our analysis of two new XMM-Newton observations of the source performed in 2013 which increase the total exposure time of the data available for spectral analysis by a factor of about five compared to the analyses presented before. Methods: We use our numerical spectral models for carbon and hydrogen atmospheres to fit the spectrum of the CCO. From our fits, we derive constraints on the physical parameters of the emitting star such as its mass, radius, distance, and effective temperature. We also use the new data to derive new upper limits on the source pulsations and to confirm the absence of a long-term flux and spectral variability. Results: The analysis shows that atmosphere models are clearly preferred by the fit over the blackbody spectral function. Under the assumption that the X-ray emission is uniformly produced by the entire star surface (supported by the lack of pulsations), hydrogen atmosphere models lead to uncomfortably large distances of the CCO, above 7-8 kpc. On the other hand, the carbon atmosphere model formally excludes distances above 5-6 kpc and is compatible with the source located in the Scutum-Crux (~3 kpc) or Norma-Cygnus (~4.5 kpc) Galactic spiral arm. We provide and discuss the corresponding confidence contours in the NS mass-radius plane. The measured effective temperature indicates that the NS is

  15. Updates of the KArLE Experiment: New Libs Calibration Under High Vacuum for the Quantification of Potassium in Basalt for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary exploration, in situ absolute geochronology is one of the main important measurements that needs to be accomplished. Until now, on Mars, the age of the surface is only determined by crater density counting, which gives relative ages. These ages can have a lot of uncertainty as they depend on many parameters. More than that, the curves must be ties to absolute ages. Thus far, only the lost lander Beagle 2 was designed to conduct absolute geochronology measurements, though some recent attempts using MSL Curiosity show that this investigation is feasible and should be strongly encouraged for future flight. Experimental: The Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) is being developed at MSFC through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this experiment is to provide in situ geochronology based on the K-Ar method. A laser ablates a rock under high vacuum, creating a plasma which is sensed by an optical spectrometer to do Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ablated material frees gases, including radiogenic 40Ar,which is measured by a mass spectrometer (MS). As the potassium is a content and the 40Ar is a quantity, the ablated mass needed in order to relate them. The mass is given by the product of the ablated volume by the density of this material. So we determine the mineralogy of the ablated material with the LIBS spectra and images and calculate its density. The volume of the pit is measured by using microscopy. LIBS measurement of K under high vacuum: Three independant projects [1, 2, 3] including KArLE, are developing geochronological instruments based on this LA-LIBS-MS method. Despite several differences in their setup, all of them have validated the methods with analyses and ages. However, they all described difficulties with the LIBS measurements of K [3,4]. At ambient pressure, the quantification of K by LIBS on geological materials can be accurate [5]. However the protocol of the LA

  16. EnKF OSSE Experiments Assessing the Impact of HIRAD Wind Speed and HIWRAP Radial Velocity Data on Analysis of Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, Cerese; Sippel, Jason A.; Braun, Scott A.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009, Weng et al. 2011) have shown that radial velocity data from airborne and ground-based radars can be assimilated into ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) systems to produce accurate analyses of tropical cyclone vortices, which can reduce forecast intensity error. Recently, wind speed data from SFMR technology has also been assimilated into the same types of systems and has been shown to improve the forecast intensity of mature tropical cyclones. Two instruments that measure these properties were present during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment in 2010 which sampled Hurricane Karl, and will next be co-located on the same aircraft for the subsequent NASA HS3 experiment. The High Altitude Wind and Rain Profiling Radar (HIWRAP) is a conically scanning Doppler radar mounted upon NASAs Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, and the usefulness of its radial velocity data for assimilation has not been previously examined. Since the radar scans from above with a fairly large fixed elevation angle, it observes a large component of the vertical wind, which could degrade EnKF analyses compared to analyses with data taken from lesser elevation angles. The NASA Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a passive microwave radiometer similar to SFMR, and measures emissivity and retrieves hurricane surface wind speeds and rain rates over a much wider swath. Thus, this study examines the impact of assimilating simulated HIWRAP radial velocity data into an EnKF system, simulated HIRAD wind speed, and HIWRAP+HIRAD with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and compares the results to no data assimilation and also to the Truth from which the data was simulated for both instruments.

  17. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  18. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ˜100 deg2 of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1026 snapshot observations of 2.5 min duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 × 10 arcsec resolution, and a catalogue containing 11 782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1σ noise level is 88 μJy beam-1. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ˜1σ level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ˜35σ the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  19. Development stages of Holocene soils formed in loess and loess bearing sediments at the Roman wall (Limes) in the Wetterau (Hesse, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, P.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    About 2000 years ago the Romans built a wall through Europe - named Limes (lat. border) in Middle Europe and Hadrian's wall in UK - with the aim to protect the borders of their empire. In many parts the Limes was constructed by digging a trench and by accumulating the excavated soil material at one side of the trench. The upper decimetres of the wall are mainly made of calcareous sediments, because the trench was dug to a depth of C horizons which are composed of loess with high carbonate content. One prerequisite for research on pedogenesis is to obtain most precise data about the age of the parent material of soil formation. Regarding this, the Limes gives an excellent opportunity to distinguish different stages of Late Holocene soil development. The study area is part of the soilscape of the Wetterau (100 - 250 m asl) situated between Taunus and Vogelsberg in Hesse, Germany. The precipitation is around 500 mm per year. Wetterau's gentle rolling hills were originally covered with loess and periglacial slope deposits. The soilscape is characterized by (Albic) Luvisols, Haplic Phaeozems, Luvic Phaeozems as well as Calcaric Regosols on upper slopes and Anthrosols in footslope positions. Particulary Haplic Phaeozems and Luvic Phaeozems have been of a wider interest of pedogenic research, since they have been formed in the Early and Mid-Holocene and, therefore, they are relic. It is supposed that the Wetterau was a Chernozem soilscape during the Early Holocene changing to a soilscape characterised by (Luvic) Phaeozems and Luvisols during the Atlantic period. Results of archaeological research on the Roman wall in the Wetterau showed that the wall was constructed in the 2nd century AD and that it had different functions over time. In this context soil investigations revealed three different stages of Holocene soil development: (i) a youngest (recent) soil situated in the wall, (ii) a paleosol conserved below the wall and (iii) a soil developed in the area nearby the

  20. Fracture-related fluid migration and fluid-rock interaction in outcrop analogues of Buntsandstein reservoir rocks (southern Thuringia and northern Hesse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasch, Norbert; Kley, Jonas; Köster, Jens; Wendler, Jens

    2010-05-01

    Suitable reservoir rocks for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in saline aquifers must be porous, permeable and reside at depths below c. 800 m in structurally simple, preferrably unfaulted settings. In central Europe, the Lower and particularly Middle Buntsandstein are regionally extensive stratigraphic units which often meet these requirements. While often deeply buried, the Buntsandstein is exposed at the surface and easily accessible in other areas. We have studied the evidence for natural fluid flux in Buntsandstein reservoir outcrop analogues and drill cores of southern Thuringia and northern Hesse. The clearest sign of fluid-rock interaction is local bleaching of the red sandstones. In the field and on drill cores we did not observe bleaching along faults, but commonly along joints. There, the bleached fringes may have sharp or diffuse boundaries and can be traced along individual joints for a few dm to m. They are most often observed on small joints and fine cracks. Using 3D laser scanning, photostereogrammetry and manual measurements we established the geometric properties of the joint systems. The joint systems always comprise several joint sets, but in southern Thuringia bleaching is restricted to one north-trending set. Mining reports and geological maps show that basalt dikes of Tertiary age in this region also trend north. In the underground salt mines of the Werra potassium district, potassium salt minerals show bleaching at the contacts with the dikes. Also, CO2 is found trapped within rock salt along north-trending fractures, sometimes causing violent gas eruptions during mining operations. Taken together, these observations suggest that the bleaching along north-trending joints in the Buntsandstein is causally related to the migration of CO2-bearing fluids associated with the basalt volcanism. However, the Fe-releasing process may depend on admixtures of other phases, most likely hydrocarbons released from bituminous Zechstein carbonates

  1. A low density of the extragalactic background light revealed by the H.E.S.S. spectra of the BL Lac objects 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costamante, Luigi

    2007-06-01

    The study of the TeV emission from extragalactic sources is hindered by the uncertainties on the diffuse Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). The recent H.E.S.S. results on the blazars 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309 represent a breakthrough on this issue. Their unexpectedly hard spectra allow an upper limit to be derived on the EBL in the optical/near-infrared range, which is very close to the lower limit given by the resolved galaxy counts. This result seems to exclude a large contribution to the EBL from other sources (e.g. Population III stars) and indicates that the intergalactic space is more transparent to γ-rays than previously thought. A discussion of EBL absorption effects and further observational tests with Cherenkov telescopes are presented.

  2. Implementation of Analytical Energy Gradient of Spin-Dependent General Hartree-Fock Method Based on the Infinite-Order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Relativistic Hamiltonian with Local Unitary Transformation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-05-10

    An analytical energy gradient for the spin-dependent general Hartree-Fock method based on the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method was developed. To treat realistic systems, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme was employed both in energy and energy gradient calculations. The present energy gradient method was numerically assessed to investigate the accuracy in several diatomic molecules containing fifth- and sixth-period elements and to examine the efficiency in one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. To arrive at a practical calculation, we also determined the geometrical parameters of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium and investigated the efficiency. The numerical results confirmed that the present method describes a highly accurate relativistic effect with high efficiency. The present method can be a powerful scheme for determining geometries of large molecules, including heavy-element atoms.

  3. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  4. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R.; Hills, R.; Aravena, M.; Cox, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Andreani, P.; Wolfe, A.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.

  5. An interview with Karl Steinbrugge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1985-01-01

    He has served on numerous national and international committees on earthquake hazards, and he is now a consulting structural engineer, specializing in earthquake hazard evaluation. At the present moment he is chairman of an independent panel of the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is reviewing the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. Henry Spall recently asked Steinbrugge some questions about his long career. 

  6. TeV γ-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-06-01

    The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE γ-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov Telescope Array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analysed in the context of the multiwavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant γ-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99 per cent confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index Γ = 2.5 were set at 5.6 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to BG1.9 ≳ 12 μG for G1.9+0.3 and to BG330 ≳ 8 μG for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

  7. Counting Lattice-Gas Invariants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Dominique d’Humières, Brosl Hasslacher, Pierre Lallemand, Yves Pomeau, and Jean-Pierre Rivet . Lattice gas hydrodynamics in two and three dimensions...177. Springer -Verlag, Februrary 1989. Proceedings of the Winter School, Les Houches, France. 6

  8. Artificial neural networks and ecological communities (Book Review: Modelling community structure in freshwater ecosystems)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Review info: Modeling community structure in freshwater ecosystems. Edited by Sovan Lek, Michele Scardi, Piet F.M. Verdonschot, Jean-Pierre Descy, and Young-Seuk Park, 2005. ISBN: 3-540-23940-5, 518 pp.

  9. Symposium of Naval Hydrodynamics (14th) held at Ann Arbor, Michigan on August 23-27, 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Chahine -Viscous Effects on the Stability of Cavitating Line Vortices -. 195 Jaakko V. Pylkknen Nuclei and Cavitation 215 Jean -Pierre Le G9fu and Yves...the sectional area of the sheet cavity at • ,this position. . .~ . . * , ILv ’. - ,’ 4 4- ,*-. . ... . 4.4 K"% Nuclei and Cavitation Jean -Pierre Le Goff...the experiments, with analysing .- the results and with running computer programs. Thanks are also due to U H Pinto who developed a substantial part of

  10. H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2015-01-01

    G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE; 0.1 GeV 100 GeV) γ-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. This makes it one of the farthest Galactic SNR ever detected in this domain. An integral flux F(E> 400 GeV) = (6.5 ± 1.1stat ± 1.3syst) × 10-13 ph cm-2 s-1 corresponding to ~0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of ~1034 erg s-1 above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index ΓVHE = 2.8 ± 0.27stat ± 0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index ΓHE = 2.2 ± 0.04stat+0.13-0.31 sys. The combined γ-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at Ebr,γ = 55+70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE γ-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at Ecut,γ = 1.4+1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35+0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the γ-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nHWp ~ 5 × 1051 erg cm-3.

  11. CHANG-ES. IV. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION OF 35 EDGE-ON GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH THE KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY IN D CONFIGURATION—DATA RELEASE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegert, Theresa; Irwin, Judith; MacGregor, Stephen E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca; and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the first part of the observations made for the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) project. The aim of the CHANG-ES project is to study and characterize the nature of radio halos, their prevalence as well as their magnetic fields, and the cosmic rays illuminating these fields. This paper reports observations with the compact D configuration of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for the sample of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies of CHANG-ES. With the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the VLA, an unprecedented sensitivity was achieved for all polarization products. The beam resolution is an average of 9.″6 and 36″ with noise levels reaching approximately 6 and 30 μJy beam{sup −1} for C- and L-bands, respectively (robust weighting). We present intensity maps in these two frequency bands (C and L), with different weightings, as well as spectral index maps, polarization maps, and new measurements of star formation rates (SFRs). The data products described herein are available to the public in the CHANG-ES data release available at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. We also present evidence of a trend among galaxies with larger halos having higher SFR surface density, and we show, for the first time, a radio continuum image of the median galaxy, taking advantage of the collective signal-to-noise ratio of 30 of our galaxies. This image shows clearly that a “typical” spiral galaxy is surrounded by a halo of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

  12. William IV of Hesse-Cassel - the purpose of astronomy for a princely court in the 16th century. (German Title: Wilhelm IV von Hessen-Kassel - Der Nutzen der Astronomie für einen Fürstenhof des 16. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Karsten

    For princes in the 16th century, astronomy played a major role. When God wants to give a fair warning to man about terrestrial events by means of the stars, a responsibly acting prince must pay attention to this. Thus astronomers had an influence on political events. This contribution discusses the question whether William IV of Hesse-Cassel had planned his self-formation as an «astronomer-landgrave» from the beginning. It is, however, shown that his first star catalogues can be seen in the context of the construction of astronomical clocks, and not as a pure research programme. For William, astronomical activities thus were no putting himself into service of a pure research programme, but part of his staging of princely reign.

  13. Karl Marx vs. Adam Smith Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Flanagan, Jennifer; Dubey, Anvit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ability of freshman college students to identify the founding fathers of free enterprise and of communism has improved. This study is a follow-up to four previous studies. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to College of Business and College of Education & Human Services…

  14. Karl Marx: "A Swarthy Fellow from Trier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalek, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are Marx's roles as a student, a journalist-scholar, a revolutionary, and a family member. Revealed is a political and intellectual figure of enormous stature and complexity, but a person typically human in passions and commitments, strengths, and shortcomings. (RM)

  15. Economic Heritage: Adam Smith vs. Karl Marx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the number of first semester college freshmen who could correctly identify the individuals who are generally considered the "fathers" of communism and capitalism. A questionnaire was administered to 241 freshmen students enrolled in English 101, College Reading and Writing, at Texas A&M…

  16. @KarlTheFog Has Been Mapped!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Within the world of mapping, clouds are a pesky interference to be removed from satellite remote sensed imagery.  However, to many of us, that is a waste of pixels. Cloud maps are becoming increasingly valuable in the quest to understand land cover change and surface processes. In coastal California, the dynamic summertime interactions between air masses, the ocean, and topography result in blankets of fog and low clouds flowing into low lying areas of the San Francisco Bay Area. The low clouds and fog advected from the Pacific bring moisture and shade to coastal ecosystems. This acts to reduce temperatures and evapotranspiration stress during the otherwise arid Mediterranean climate season, in turn impacting vegetation distribution, irrigation needs, and urban energy consumption.

  17. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audoin, Bertrand; Dehoux, Thomas; Guillet, Yannick

    2011-02-01

    and the gala dinner took place in a wine chateau in the medieval village. We hope this experience will remain in the attendees' memories as a pleasant and convivial time. We would like to express our thanks to the members of the organizing committee, the scientific committee, and all our generous sponsors, either institutions or companies, for their help in making this event possible. We would also like to thank the scientists involved for their confidence in our organization, and for their contributions. As unanimously decided by the attendees, the next symposium will be held in Japan, most likely in 2012. The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series provide a collection of state-of-the-art and recent advances in research and applications of laser ultrasonics as presented at this second Symposium. Bertrand Audoin - Conference ChairThomas Dehoux - Conference proceedings co-editorYannick Guillet - Conference proceedings co-editor Conference photograph Scientific committee Bertrand AudoinUniversité Bordeaux 1, France Alain BlouinNRC, Canada Christ GlorieuxKatholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Vitalyi GusevUniversité du Maine, France Peter HessUniversity of Heidelberg, Germany Alexander A KarabutovMoscow State University, Russia Sridhar KrishnaswamyNorthwestern University, USA Humphrey MarisBrown University, USA Jean-Pierre MonchalinNRC, Canada Todd MurrayBoston University, USA Makoto OchiaiToshiba Corp, Japan Menglu QianTongji University, China Daniel RoyerEcole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie, France Hervé TrétoutDassault Aviation, France Hubert VoillaumeEADS, France Oliver B WrightHokkaido University, Japan Shu-yi ZhangNanjing University, China Organizing committee Bertrand AudoinChair Sandrine GuitLocal administrator Christophe Aristégui Thomas Dehoux Evelyne Dewayse Yannick Guillet Armelle Guilloux

  18. France’s New NATO Policy: Leveraging a Realignment of the Alliance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Baden. 2. Jean-Pierre Maulny, “Frankreich und seine zukuenftige Stellung in der NATO—eine politische, keine militärische Debatte” [“France and its...see Ronja Kempin and Marco Overhaus, “ Kein grosser Sprung in der Entwicklung der ESVP: Lehren aus der französischen Ratpräsidentschaft” [“No great

  19. Congo: Elections and the Battle for Mineral Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Twenty million voters cast ballots July 30, 2006, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's first free election since 1960. A runoff election three months later, between transitional president Joseph Kabila and transitional vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba, gave Kabila a mandate to lead the war-torn nation for five more years. The elections, in…

  20. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  1. Lattice-Boltzmann methods for suspensions of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, dedicated to Prof. Jean-Pierre Hansen, I will summarise the development of lattice-Boltzmann methods for simulating the dynamics of colloidal suspensions. I will describe the main ideas and subsequent improvements, and place them in the wider context of particle-based methods for fluid dynamics.

  2. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  3. Nouvelle Critique et dix-neuvieme siecle (New Criticism and the Nineteenth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytier, Jean

    1970-01-01

    Presents contrasting views of some French literary critics including Georges Poulet, Charles Mauron, Jean-Pierre Richard, Jean-Paul Weber, and Roland Barthes. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) December 28, 1968 in New York, New York. (DS)

  4. Carleton Papers in Applied Language Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lynne, Ed.

    The papers in this collection focus on both underlying theoretical principles of language teaching, learning, and research and exchanges of information between teachers and researchers. The following titles are included: "CALS at Carleton" (Janice Yalden); "Computers in the Teaching of Linguistics" (Jean-Pierre Paillet);…

  5. The Physical Understanding of the Use of Coatings to Mitigate Hypervelocity Gouging Considering Real Test Sled Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    can only increase. This law describes irreversible processes. Written in the form of the Clausius- Duhem inequality, it places a limitation on internal...Plasticity , 20 (6) (2003). 82. Pascault, Jean- Pierre , et al. Thermosetting Polymers. New York, NY 10016: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002. 83. Washizu

  6. Book Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeinger, Philip R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents and review six books. Topics include earth science topics (Philip R. Holzinger, 1985), the wild horse controversy (Richard Symanski, 1985), historical Dutch geography (Audrey M. Lambert, 1985), urban geography (Susan L. Cutter, 1985), a geopolitical atlas (Gerard Chaliand and Jean-Pierre Rageau, 1985), and remote sensing (Robert K. Holz,…

  7. The Mechanism of Liquefaction in Layered Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    NAVFACENGCOM / CODE 04B2 (J. CECILIO), ALEXANDRIA. VA NAVF’ ENGCOM / CODE 04BE (WU), ALEXANDRIA, VA NOR- STERN UNIVERSITY / BAZANT , EVANSTON, IT...TUNG), RALETCI1. NC UNIV OF NEVADA / SIDDHARTAN, RENO, NV UNIV OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA / JEAN -PIERRE RARDET. LOS ANGELES, CA UNIV OF TEXAS / CE DEPT

  8. Conference on Standards for the Interoperability of Defense Simulations (2nd) Held in Orlando, Florida on 15-17 January 1990. Volume 2. Attendees List and Viewgraphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Gerald Zubak Hughes Aricraft Co. Richard Bouchard Lockhead/Sanders Jean Pierre Faye Thompson CSF Umberto Fontanella Agusta SPA Divisione Sistemi...SITE SCHEDULE (Chart) * ECP/ ECO MODS •SAF 3.X VERSION 6.0 S/W AIRNET * RUCKER, 31 JAN 90’ o 8 GENERIC HELO & 2 CAS SIMNET-D * FAADS (Chart) * BFIT

  9. HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, P.; Gupta, J.; Darvis, L. P.

    2009-06-01

    In this opinion paper we submit that water experts conduct comparatively little research on the more urgent challenges facing the global community. Five specific biases are identified. First, research in the field of water and sanitation is heavily biased against sanitation. Second, research on food security is biased in favour of conventional irrigation and fails to address the problems and opportunities of rainfed agriculture. Third, insufficient water research is dedicated to developmental compared to environmental issues. Fourth, too little research is conducted on adaptation to climate change by developing countries. And finally, research on water governance has a fascination for conflict but too little eye for cooperation and meeting basic needs. This paper illustrates these biases with bibliometric indicators extracted from the ISI Web of Science. There is a stark mismatch between the global demand for knowledge and the supply of it. This mismatch is identified here as a problem that we water scientists must confront and resolve. We still lack a full understanding why this divergence between demand and supply occurs and persists; an understanding that is required to guide us towards aligning our research priorities to societal demands. The paper, however, makes some inferences. On the one hand, we should promote the global South to create its own research biases and allow it to develop alternative solutions. Simultaneously we would benefit from critical examination of our own research practice. Although this paper addresses a critical challenge it does not aim to be exhaustive or definitive. We merely identify the persistence of intransigent water problems as a valid research object in itself.

  10. Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

  11. HESS Opinions "Topography driven conceptual modelling (FLEX-Topo)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H. H. G.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneity and complexity of hydrological processes offer substantial challenges to the hydrological modeller. Some hydrologists try to tackle this problem by introducing more and more detail in their models, or by setting-up more and more complicated models starting from basic principles at the smallest possible level. As we know, this reductionist approach leads to ever higher levels of equifinality and predictive uncertainty. On the other hand, simple, lumped and parsimonious models may be too simple to be realistic or representative of the dominant hydrological processes. In this commentary, a new approach is proposed that tries to find the middle way between complex distributed and simple lumped modelling approaches. Here we try to find the right level of simplification while avoiding over-simplification. Paraphrasing Einstein, the maxim is: make a model as simple as possible, but not simpler than that. The approach presented is process based, but not physically based in the traditional sense. Instead, it is based on a conceptual representation of the dominant physical processes in certain key elements of the landscape. The essence of the approach is that the model structure is made dependent on a limited number of landscape classes in which the topography is the main driver, but which can include geological, geomorphological or land-use classification. These classes are then represented by lumped conceptual models that act in parallel. The advantage of this approach over a fully distributed conceptualisation is that it retains maximum simplicity while taking into account observable landscape characteristics.

  12. HESS Opinions "Topography driven conceptual modelling (FLEX-Topo)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H. H. G.

    2010-07-01

    Heterogeneity and complexity of hydrological processes offer substantial challenges to the hydrological modeller. Some hydrologists try to tackle this problem by introducing more and more detail in their models, or by setting-up more and more complicated models starting from basic principles at the smallest possible level. As we know, this reductionist approach leads to ever higher levels of equifinality and predictive uncertainty. On the other hand, simple, lumped and parsimonious models may be too simple to be realistic or representative of the dominant hydrological processes. In this commentary, a new model approach is proposed that tries to find the middle way between complex distributed and simple lumped modelling approaches. Here we try to find the right level of simplification while avoiding over-simplification. Paraphrasing Einstein, the maxim is: make a model as simple as possible, but not simpler than that. The approach presented is process based, but not physically based in the traditional sense. Instead, it is based on a conceptual representation of the dominant physical processes in certain key elements of the landscape. The essence of the approach is that the model structure is made dependent on a limited number of landscape classes in which the topography is the main driver, but which can include geological, geomorphological or land-use classification. These classes are then represented by lumped conceptual models that act in parallel. The advantage of this approach over a fully distributed conceptualisation is that it retains maximum simplicity while taking into account observable landscape characteristics.

  13. HESS Opinions ``Classification of hydrological models for flood management"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, E. J.

    2009-10-01

    Hydrological models for flood management are components of flood risk management, which is the set of actions to be taken to prevent flood disasters. It is a cyclical process: initiated by occurrence of an extreme flood it leads through the reconstruction and rehabilitation phase to risk assessment and project planning and implementation, and finally to operation and preparedness for a next extreme flood when the cycle starts again. We subdivide the tasks of flood management into two consecutive parts: planning and operation, which basically require different kinds of hydrological models. For planning, real time runoff is not needed, one works with design scenarios. For this task models should be used appropriate to the tasks at hand, which reflect characteristics of landscape as well as of hydrological scale. For operation, hydrological forecast models are needed which have to meet a different set of conditions. In this paper, requirements for hydrological models as functions of application, geology and topography, and of area size are surveyed and classified, as a first approach for guiding users to the correct type of model to be used in a given location. It is suggested that one always should start flood modeling with an analysis of local conditions and select or develop task and locality specific models.

  14. HESS Opinions "Classification of hydrological models for flood management"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, E. J.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrological models for flood management are components of flood risk management, which is the set of actions to be taken to prevent flood disasters. It is a cyclical process: initiated by occurrence of an extreme flood it leads through the reconstruction and rehabilitation phase to risk assessment and project planning and implementation, and finally to operation and preparedness for a next extreme flood when the cycle starts again. We subdivide the tasks of flood management into two consecutive parts: planning and operation, which basically require different kinds of hydrological models. For planning, real time runoff is not needed, one works with design scenarios. For this task models should be used appropriate to the tasks at hand, which reflect characteristics of landscape as well as of hydrological scale. For operation, hydrological forecast models are needed which have to meet a different set of conditions. In this paper, requirements for hydrological models as functions of application, geology and topography, and of area size are surveyed. It is suggested that we always should start flood modeling with an analysis of local conditions and select or develop task and locality specific models.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Construction of the New Hess Fitness Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    amphibians, and reptiles. Common residents include: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), fox ( Vulpes vulpes ), coyotes (Canis latrans), mice (Peromyscus sp...or subspecies , except those species currently listed under the Endangered Species Act as Threatened or Endangerd, that meets the state criteria of...implemented by the state to preclude its listing. SD – Species of Special Concern: any wildlife species or subspecies that occurs in limited areas and

  16. [Karl Abraham, Freud's scapegoat and, guide to understanding the truth].

    PubMed

    Cremerius, J

    1997-01-01

    The history of the relationship between Freud and Abraham is characterized by the presence of third parties. There was always another, more favored one of Freud's disciples between Freud and Abraham. The first of these, from 1907 to 1912, was C.G. Jung. The second, fifteen years later, was Otto Rank. (I will omit Ferenczi, because his relationship with Freud only entered its dramatic final stage after Abraham's death.) Both Jung and Rank eventually showed signs of deviating from Freud's theories, and Abraham, as the guardian of those teachings, called attention to this. As a result, complicated triangles arose between Freud, Abraham and the favored son of the moment. Because of Freud's preference for these psychoanalytic sons, a preference of which he himself was not consciously aware, he resisted Abraham's attacks on them and felt them to be unfounded and destructive. Confusing cause with effect he blamed Abraham for the danger to the psychoanalytic movement which ensued from three conflicts. Freud loved and protected the apostates and made the defender of his theories into a scapegoat. When, however, the apostasy eventually became apparent, Freud renounced whoever was concerned and rehabilitated Abraham. However, until the final separation from the love object, Freud wavered between rejection and affection, hope and disappointment. Then, feeling deceived and betrayed, Freud's love turned to hate.

  17. [Salzburg 1908. Karl Abraham caught between Freud and Jung].

    PubMed

    van Schoonheten, Anna Bentinck

    2010-01-01

    The first psychoanalytic congress in Salzburg has often been described as a great success with one blemish: a conflict between Jung and Abraham, mainly caused by the rivalry in Abraham's behaviour. A new study of the material, and taking Abraham's perspective, provides a different view. Abraham, still a beginner in psychoanalysis, got in the way of Freud and Jung who at that time had a deep theoretical disagreement. In the end they both blamed Abraham.

  18. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  19. [The concept of "understanding" (Verstehen) in Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Villareal, Helena; Aragona, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between empathy and psychopathology. It deals with the concept of "understanding" in Jaspers' General Psychopathology, 100 years after the publication of its first edition. The Jaspersian proposal has the person and his/her experience as its primary object of study, just as in Ortegas' vital reason. Jaspers' understanding is not rational but empathetic, based on the co-presence of emotional content and detailed descriptions. Jaspers' methodology is essentially pluralistic, considering both explanation and understanding, necessary for psychopathology. Despite certain limits, the concept of understanding is the backbone of the psychopathological reasoning, and has proven useful over a century of clinical practice. However, it needs a review covering the recent epistemological and clinical findings. "To be understandable" is a relational property that emerges from a semiotic process. Therefore, an effective psychology should encompass an inter-subjective process, and get away from strict rationalism.

  20. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  1. Karl Krueger, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. 1997 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (4th) Proceedings, Held in Charlottesville, Virginia on December 10-13, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Matagne1𔃼, Jean -Pierre Leburton1 Jacques Destine2, Guy Cantraine2 1Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, IL 61820...PROCESSES R. Peter Smith, Suzanne C. Martin, Moonil Kim, Jean Bruston, Imran Mehdi, Dexter Humphrey, Michael Gaidis, Neal Erickson*, and Peter H...SEV/VSE, Feb. 1981 G. Galup-Montoro, M. Schneider, S. Acosta, R. Pinto , Proc. Brazilian Microelectronics Conference SBMICRO󈨤,1996. A. Cunha, O

  3. NATO’s New Front Line: The Growing Importance of the Southern Tier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    littoral of Africa and includes Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Gerard Chaliand and Jean -Pierre Rageau, Strategic Atlas: A Comparative...battles in the Transcaucasus region, respectively. 10. Inge R. Pinto -Dobering, South-North Migration: The Challenge of the 1990s, PSIS Occasional Paper...Middle East and North Africa, New York: Frost and Sullivan, 1989, Egypt, p. FS-2. Pinto -Dobering, South-North Migration, p. 32 and p. 31, respectively

  4. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    of Technology Prof. Jean Hertzberg, University of Colorado Dr. M. Hertzberg, Lock Haven University Dr. Gunnar Heskestad, Factory Mutual Research...Univ Catholique de Louvain Prof. Uri Vandsburger, Virginia Polytechnic Institute Dr. Jean -Pierre Vantelon, Universite de Poitiers Dr. Philip...Scientific Pub- lishing Co., Singapore, 1994. 22. a) Ionov, S., Bruckner, G. A., Jacques , C, Valachovic, L., and Wittig, C, J. Chem. Phys. 97:9486-9489

  5. Comparison of Workspace Reduction Between Kinematically Redundant Serial and Parallel Manipulators Under Joint Failures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    Bibliography [1] J. Carlson, R. Murphy, and A. Nelson. How UGVs physically fail in the field. IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 21(3):423 – 437, June 2005...Design, 110(1):35–41, 1988. [7] C. Gosselin and J. Angeles. Singularity analysis of closed-loop kinematic chains. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...locked joint failures. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 13(4):622–629, August 1997. [11] Jean-Pierre Merlet. Parallel Robots. Kluwer

  6. An alternative scheme to find glass state solutions using integral equation theory for the pair structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Pastore, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    We propose and discuss a straightforward search protocol for the glass-like solutions of the integral equations of the two-replica approach to the random first-order transition theory of the liquid-glass transition. The new numerical strategy supplements those recently introduced by Jean-Pierre Hansen and ourselves. A few results for inverse power (1/r12) fluid are discussed and critically compared with results from other approaches.

  7. Microdischarge Sources of O2(singlet Delta)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-15

    Microdischarge Sources of O2(singlet Delta) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Leanne C Pitchford ...project entitled Microdischarge sources of O2(1∆) Project partners : Leanne Pitchford and Jean-Pierre Boeuf Centre de Physique des Plasmas...et Applications de Toulouse (CPAT) University Paul Sabatier and CNRS, Toulouse, France Vincent Puech Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa Report No. 2808.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Tourism Industry Set Back 29 Sugar Industry Nationalization Demanded 30 MOZAMBIQUE Jean-Pierre Langellier Views on RNM, USSR Aid to Maputo (Jean...km on the center-north border with Chad, regretted that much has not been done to develop tourism in the region despite the exist- ing...the French tourism problem. During his stay in Paris last week, Mr Gayan began the necessary negotiations with the officials at the embassy of

  9. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting (12th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on June 10-14, 1990. Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    NIGMS) SH-1-5 ]SLEEP INDUCING EFFECTS OF LOW ENERGY EMISSION THERAPY . Martin Reite, Lisa Higgs, Niels Kuster, Jean-Pierre Lebet", and Boris Pasche...Group, CH-8092-Zurich, Switzerland’. Symtonic SA, Av. des Baumettes 9, CH-1020-Renens, Switzerland". Low energy emission therapy (LEET) consists of the...suggest that LEET may act as a sleep inducer. SH-l-6 LOW ENERGY EMISSION THERAPY DECREASES THE AMPLITUDE OF ALPHA ACTIVITY. Lisa Higgs, Martin Reite

  10. JPRS Report Science & Technology: Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Brussels XIII MAGAZINE, No 3, 92] 16 French Government To Restructure CEA [Jean-Pierre Gaudard; Paris L’USINE NOUVELLE, 27 Aug 92] 16...Framework Program [Brussels IRDAC NEWS, Jul 92] 19 Germany: Growing Government , EC Support for SME’s Microsystems Technology [Wolfgang Mock...research institutions, and other research institutes funded by the federal govern - ment or the states are working on pure research. Science and

  11. HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Flood forecasting increasingly relies on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts to achieve longer lead times (see Cloke et al., 2009; Cloke and Pappenberger, 2009). One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is when consecutive forecasts are different, leading to different conclusions regarding the issuing of forecasts, and hence inconsistent. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "jumpiness", "turning points", "continuity" or number of "swings"; Zoster et al., 2009; Mills and Pepper, 1999; Lashley et al., 2008). We begin by defining what forecast inconsistency is; why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse it; what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments (for a limited discussion on NWP inconsistency see Persson, 2011). However, in this opinion paper we restrict the discussion to a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain in which river discharge forecasts are produced using inputs from NWP. In this area of research (in)consistency is receiving recent interest and application (see e.g., Bartholmes et al., 2008; Pappenberger et al., 2011).

  12. HESS Opinions: Repeatable research: what hydrologists can learn from the Duke cancer research scandal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bakker, Mark

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade, difficulties encountered in reproducing the results of a cancer study at Duke University resulted in a scandal and an investigation which concluded that tools used for data management, analysis, and modeling were inappropriate for the documentation of the study, let alone the reproduction of the results. New protocols were developed which require that data analysis and modeling be carried out with scripts that can be used to reproduce the results and are a record of all decisions and interpretations made during an analysis or a modeling effort. In the hydrological sciences, we face similar challenges and need to develop similar standards for transparency and repeatability of results. A promising route is to start making use of open-source languages (such as R and Python) to write scripts and to use collaborative coding environments (such as Git) to share our codes for inspection and use by the hydrological community. An important side-benefit to adopting such protocols is consistency and efficiency among collaborators.

  13. HESS Opinions "Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.; Makropoulos, C.; Langousis, A.; Baki, S.; Efstratiadis, A.; Christofides, A.; Karavokiros, G.; Mamassis, N.

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990 extensive funds have been spent on research in climate change. Although Earth Sciences, including climatology and hydrology, have benefited significantly, progress has proved incommensurate with the effort and funds, perhaps because these disciplines were perceived as "tools" subservient to the needs of the climate change enterprise rather than autonomous sciences. At the same time, research was misleadingly focused more on the "symptom", i.e. the emission of greenhouse gases, than on the "illness", i.e. the unsustainability of fossil fuel-based energy production. There is a real risk of severe socioeconomic crisis in the not-too-distant future, unless energy saving and use of renewables become the norm. A framework for drastic change is needed, in which water plays a central role, due to its unique link to all forms of renewable energy, from production (hydro, wave) to storage (for time-varying wind and solar sources), to biofuel production (irrigation). The expanded role of water should be considered in parallel to usual roles in domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Hydrology, the science of water on Earth, must reinvent itself within this new paradigm and radically rethink its fundaments, which are unjustifiably trapped in the 19th-century myths of deterministic theories and the zeal to eliminate uncertainty. Guidance is offered by modern statistical and quantum physics, revealing the intrinsic character of uncertainty/entropy in nature, thus advancing towards a new understanding and modelling of physical processes, which is fundamental for the effective use of renewable energy and water resources.

  14. HESS Opinions: "Climate, hydrology, energy, water: recognizing uncertainty and seeking sustainability"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.; Makropoulos, C.; Langousis, A.; Baki, S.; Efstratiadis, A.; Christofides, A.; Karavokiros, G.; Mamassis, N.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1990 extensive funds have been spent on research in climate change. Although Earth Sciences, including climatology and hydrology, have benefited significantly, progress has proved incommensurate with the effort and funds, perhaps because these disciplines were perceived as "tools" subservient to the needs of the climate change enterprise rather than autonomous sciences. At the same time, research was misleadingly focused more on the "symptom", i.e. the emission of greenhouse gases, than on the "illness", i.e. the unsustainability of fossil fuel-based energy production. Unless energy saving and use of renewable resources become the norm, there is a real risk of severe socioeconomic crisis in the not-too-distant future. A framework for drastic paradigm change is needed, in which water plays a central role, due to its unique link to all forms of renewable energy, from production (hydro and wave power) to storage (for time-varying wind and solar sources), to biofuel production (irrigation). The extended role of water should be considered in parallel to its other uses, domestic, agricultural and industrial. Hydrology, the science of water on Earth, must move towards this new paradigm by radically rethinking its fundamentals, which are unjustifiably trapped in the 19th-century myths of deterministic theories and the zeal to eliminate uncertainty. Guidance is offered by modern statistical and quantum physics, which reveal the intrinsic character of uncertainty/entropy in nature, thus advancing towards a new understanding and modelling of physical processes, which is central to the effective use of renewable energy and water resources.

  15. HESS Opinions: Advocating process modeling and de-emphasizing parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahremand, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Since its origins as an engineering discipline, with its widespread use of "black box" (empirical) modeling approaches, hydrology has evolved into a scientific discipline that seeks a more "white box" (physics-based) modeling approach to solving problems such as the description and simulation of the rainfall-runoff responses of a watershed. There has been much recent debate regarding the future of the hydrological sciences, and several publications have voiced opinions on this subject. This opinion paper seeks to comment and expand upon some recent publications that have advocated an increased focus on process-based modeling while de-emphasizing the focus on detailed attention to parameter estimation. In particular, it offers a perspective that emphasizes a more hydraulic (more physics-based and less empirical) approach to development and implementation of hydrological models.

  16. HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelian, K.

    2012-08-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  17. HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

    2011-07-01

    Flood forecasting increasingly relies on numerical weather prediction forecasts to achieve longer lead times. One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is what to dowhen consecutive forecasts are so different that they lead to different conclusions regarding the issuing of warnings or triggering other action. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "Jumpiness", "Turning points", "Continuity" or number of "Swings"). In thsi opinion paper we define forecast inconsistency; discuss the reasons why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse inconsistency; and what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments.

  18. HESS Opinions: Repeatable research: what hydrologistscan learn from the Duke cancer research scandal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael; Bakker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, difficulties encountered in reproducing the results of a cancer study at Duke University resulted in a scandal and an investigation which concluded that tools used for data management, analysis, and modeling were inappropriate for the documentation of the study, let alone the reproduction of the results. New protocols were developed which require that data analysis and modeling be carried out with scripts that can be used to reproduce the results and are a record of all decisions and interpretations made during an analysis or a modeling effort. In the hydrological sciences, we face similar challenges and need to develop similar standards for transparency and repeatability of results. A promising route is to start making use of open-source languages (such as R and Python) to write scripts and to use collaborative coding environments (such as Git) to share our codes for inspection and use by the hydrological community. An important side-benefit to adopting such protocols is consistency and efficiency among collaborators.

  19. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-02-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

  20. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

  1. Reactivation of Amerada Hess Corporation's Port Reading Facility and PSD Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Genetic Factors that Affect Tumorigenesis in NF1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Dooijes D, Moog U, Kehrer-Sawatzki H, Rutkowski JL, Fryns J-P, Marynen P, Stephens K, Legius E. Recombination hotspot in NF1 microdeletion patients. Hum...Dorschner MO, Brems H, Ldzaro C, Clementi M, Upadhayaya M, Dooijes D, Moog U, Kehrer-Sawatzki H, Rutkowski JL, Fryns J-P, Marynen P, Stephens K, Legius E...Meena Upadhyaya 4, Dennis Dooijes5 , Ute Moog 6 , Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki 7 J. Lynn Rutkowski8, Jean-Pierre Fryns , Peter Marynen, Karen Stephens",9

  3. European alchemy: some traditional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, V

    1999-01-01

    Three important doctrines of European alchemy are discussed: the Emerald Table of Hermes, the idea of transmutation, and the Elixir of Life. The analysis of these problems is focused on the 16th century, the epoch of the high flourish of alchemy in Renaissance Europe. As typical examples two works are chosen: the treatises of Jean-Pierre Fabre (1588-1658) and Alexander von Suchten (? 1520 - ? 1590). The arguments of these authors illustrate the ways how alchemists tried to defend their position in face of repeated failures. Just the 16th century stood in the sign of dramatic development of crafts, but, simultaneously, of growing interest in alchemy.

  4. Mitogenic properties of major extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Hatzfeld, J

    1991-08-01

    The major plasma and extracellular matrix proteins are multifunctional molecules. Some, such as fibrinogen or C3, have one domain that binds adhesion receptors and another that specifically binds and activates a separate, mitogenic receptor. In this review, Jean-Pierre Lévesque, Antoinette Hatzfeld and Jacques Hatzfeld describe adhesion and mitogenic receptors that bind to distinct domains of the same extracellular matrix protein and discuss the possibility of common ancestral genes for cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors and their receptors.

  5. Extended Abstracts. International Symposium on Halide Glasses (2nd), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA, 2-5 August 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-02

    Flemington, NJ 08822 Phone: (201) 782-5800 Jean Pierre Dumas 15 Avenue Jean Martin Alan E. Comyns 91-360 Villemoissan Laporte Industries Ltd. France Moorfield...Martlesham Heath 2100 E. El Segundo Blvd. Ipswich, U.K. El Segundo, CA 90245 Phone: (44) 473-3522 Phone: (213) 616-9620 David R. Gabbe Jean Horne...5 - J.P. RENARD, C. DUPAS , E. VELU, C. JACOBONI, G. FONTENEAU and J. LUCAS Physica 108 B, 1291-1292 (1981) Ba112 F ....... F6 /3Mn /2..1/ -A I ..i

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 8,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    over 123 ft long. diesel engines, thie ship has a cruising speed The Jean Charcot (246 ft), Le Noroit (167 ft), of 12 knots. and Le Suroit (186 ft) are...ministry’s’ vessels, construction (see ESN 36-4:79 119821). These Include the 121-ft Martin Knudsen, which * the ministry charters from a West German ITALY... Jean -Pierre difficult that may be to achieve. MIT is a Chevenement expects this shot-in-the-arm "will private institution with substantial endowment

  7. Karl Jaspers on the disease entity: Kantian ideas and Weberian ideal types.

    PubMed

    Walker, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Jaspers' nosology is indebted to Immanuel Kant's theory of knowledge. He drew the distinction of form and content from the Transcendental Analytic of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. The distinction is universal to all knowledge, including psychopathology. Individual experience is constituted by a form or category of the Understanding to give a determinate or knowable object classified into the generic type of a real disease entity. The application of form and content is limited by the boundaries of experience. Beyond this boundary are wholes whose conception requires Ideas of reason drawn from the Transcendental Dialectic. Wholes are regulated by Ideas of reason to give an object or schema of the Idea collected into ideal types of an ideal typical disease entity. Jaspers drew ideal types from Max Weber's social theory. He anticipated that, as knowledge advanced, ideal typical disease entities would become real disease entities. By 1920, this had been the destiny of general paralysis as knowledge of its neuropathology, serology and microbiology emerged. As he presented the final edition of General Psychopathology in 1946, Jaspers was anticipating the transition of schizophrenia from ideal typical to real disease entity. Almost 70 years later, with knowledge of its aetiology still unclear, schizophrenia remains marooned as an ideal typical disease entity - still awaiting that crucial advance!

  8. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.; Cohen, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    The absolute ages of geologic events are fundamental information for understanding the timing and duration of surface processes on planetary bodies. Absolute ages can place a planet's history in the context of the solar system evolution. For example, "when was Mars warm and wet?" is one of the key questions of planetary science. If Mars was warm and wet until 3.7 billion years ago, for instance, it suggests that Mars was still warm and wet when life appeared on Earth. Mars history has been discussed so far based on crater chronology, but the current constraints for Martian chronology models come from the cratering history of the Moon [1]. Moreover, the lunar chronology model itself is fraught with uncertainty because our understanding of lunar chronology is constrained only in a few time periods and itself needs further investigation relating crater-counting ages to absolute ages [2]. Although sample return missions would provide highly accurate radiometric ages of returned samples, they are very expensive and technically challenging. In situ geochronology is highly valuable because they would have larger number of mission opportunities and the capability of iterative measurements for multiple rocks from multiple geologic units. The capability of flight instruments to perform in situ dating is required in the NASA Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the NASA Technology Roadmap. Beagle 2 is the only mission launched to date with the explicit aim to perform in situ potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating [3], but it did not happen because of the communication failure to the spacecraft. The first in situ K-Ar dating on Mars, using SAM and APXS measurements on the Cumberland mudstone [4], yielded an age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 Ga and validated the idea of K-Ar dating on other planets. However, the Curiosity method is not purposebuilt for dating and requires many assumptions that degrade its accuracy. To obtain more accurate and meaningful ages, multiple groups are developing dedicated in situ dating instruments [5-8].

  9. Karl Marx and Group Therapy: An Old Warning about a New Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry D.

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marx's classic critique of religion to explore the social function of therapy groups. Investigates the manner in which groups conserve the status quo and argues that the Marxist critique can help promote a more realistic social awareness and a more effective perception of groups. (Author/JAC)

  10. Evolutionary Trends and the Salience Bias (with Apologies to Oil Tankers, Karl Marx, and Others).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    Examines evolutionary trends, specifically trends in size, complexity, and fitness. Notes that documentation of these trends consists of either long lists of cases, or descriptions of a small number of salient cases. Proposes the use of random samples to avoid this "saliency bias." (SR)

  11. Pop Culture in the Classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centellas, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of pop culture in the classroom as a means to teach foundational political science authors and concepts. I focus on my experience using "American Idol" as a point of reference to discuss Marx and Engel's "The Communist Manifesto" and Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" in undergraduate comparative politics courses.…

  12. [Fluoridation at Karl Marx Stadt. XIII. Caries reduction and oral rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Künzel, W

    1976-07-01

    12 years after water fluoridation (1971), the repercussions of the quantitative and qualitative changes in caries prevalence on the paedodontic care were studied on the basis of statistical findings from more than 36 000 subjects aged from 6 to 18 years. It was shown that the result of oral rehabilitation is substantially influenced by the increase in the number of subjects with primarily healthy dentitions and by the reduction in the number of carious teeth. Furthermore, the reduced number of cavities and fillings involving two or more surfaces and the less frequent occurrence of secondary caries have repercussion on the time spent by the paedodontist. Not least the caries reduction also influences the paedodontist/children ratio which has changed from 1:1659 in 1959 to 1:3208 in 1971.

  13. Plasma Jet Interactions with Liquids in Partial Fulfillment of an NRL Karles Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    to be crucial to the advancements of these fields1, 2. Background: Atmospheric - pressure , non-equilibrium (APNE) plasmas, like low- pressure plasmas...for atmospheric pressure plasmas can also provide a larger scope or utility over the governing chemical reactions. For example, chemical reactions...to study the interaction of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium (APNE) plasmas with static and electrified liquids, focusing on the liquid property

  14. [Karl Abraham's revolution. From sensual sucking to oral-aggressive destruction wishes].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that Abraham's paper on "The first pregenital stage of the libido" (1916-17) expounds a new conception of orality, i. e. the idea of a purposeful oral aggression directed against an object. This conception is shown to be contrary to Freud's view of orality as elaborated in his Three Essays as well as in other writings of late 1914 and early 1915. It ignores fundamental dimensions of Freud's thinking, namely the difference between autoerotism/narcissism and object love on the one hand and between libido and aggression on the other, thus representing a basic theoretical change that also had consequences for analytical practice.

  15. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  16. Plasma Jet Interactions with Liquids in Partial Fulfillment of an NRL Karles Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    working electrode, in an electrochemical cell. In the second case, a discharge is produced via alternating current (AC) excitation with driving...drive the appropriate reactions eliminating the need for a cathode physically inserted into the liquid, common to electrochemical cells. Five mL

  17. Plasma Jet Interactions with Liquids in Partial Fulfillment of an NRL Karle’s Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    working electrode, in an electrochemical cell. In the second case, a discharge is produced via alternating current (AC) excitation with driving...to drive the appropriate reactions eliminating the need for a cathode physically inserted into the liquid, common to electrochemical cells. Five mL

  18. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (karle): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events. It enables a planet's crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration to be placed into the framework of solar system history. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for this crucial measurement to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. Appropriate application of in situ dating will enable geochronology on more terrains than can be reached with sample-return missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, outer planetary satellites, and other bodies that contain rocky components. The capability of flight instruments to conduct in situ geochronology is called out in the NASA Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the NASA Technology Roadmap as needing development to serve the community's needs. Beagle 2 is the only mission launched to date with the explicit aim to perform in situ K-Ar isotopic dating [1], but it failed to communicate and was lost. The first in situ K-Ar date on Mars, using SAM and APXS measurements on the Cumberland mudstone [2], yielded an age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 Ga and validated the idea of K-Ar dating on other planets, though the Curiosity method is not purpose-built for dating and requires many assumptions that degrade its precision. To get more precise and meaningful ages, multiple groups are developing dedicated in situ dating instruments.

  19. The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Part 2: The influence of Max Weber.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The present study explores and compares Jaspers' methodology of psychopathology with Weber's methodology of sociology. In his works, Weber incorporated the arguments of many other researchers into his own methodology. Jaspers respected Weber as a mentor and presented arguments that were very similar to Weber's. Both Weber and Jaspers began from empathic understanding, but at the same time aimed for a rational and ideal-typical conceptualization. In addition, their methodologies were similar with respect to their detailed terminology. Such similarities cannot be seen with any other scholars. This suggests that Weber may have played an integral role as a mediator between his contemporary scholars and Jaspers. Thus, Weber may have had the most significant influence on Jaspers.

  20. [Resilience and Spirituality Considered from Viewpoint of Existential Philosophy of Karl Jaspers].

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After publishing "General Psychopathology" in 1913, Jaspers turned his attention to serious philosophical contemplation. Using the term grenzsituation (limit situation) as a key concept, he first presented a framework to shed light on the pathology of both individuals and groups, and this led on to include the perspective of resilience. He then used three more key concepts, transzendenz (transcendence), chiffer (cipher), and unverstädliche (unintelligible) to offer a framework to focus on the possibilities of human existence. In the field of medicine, this is useful to support a spiritual approach which is discussed in palliative treatment. The philosophy developed by Jaspers can be considered as indicating a practical form of guidance for people to find self-support from a limit situation where they have lost their own support, and finally, come to a degree of mutual acceptance. Mutual acceptance is made possible at the level of ciphers, in which specific meaning remains undefined, by directing both the self and the other toward a state of "transcendence". Nowadays there is a trend for those chaplains involved in spiritual care from a specialist point of view to be trained to effectively transcend any difference in religious belief. As a basic premise, the author considers there is a need to once again return to a state before the start of individual religions, and stand on a cross-sectional ground level, an area which could be regarded as common to all religions. When conducting such a task, in the author's view, the restrained spirituality that Jaspers expounded is thought-provoking.

  1. Plasma Jet Interactions with Liquids in Partial Fulfillment of an NRL Karles Fellowship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    UNIT NUMBER 2. REPORT TYPE1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 11. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S...biofilms, and cells are examples) which gives way for rich physics and chemistry at the plasma-surface interface. The different modes of operation

  2. Pioneering Studies on Cephalopod's Eye and Vision at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (1883-1977)

    PubMed Central

    Dröscher, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemists, and ophthalmologists to travel to the Zoological Station in Naples. Initially, their preferred research objects were fish, but it soon became evident that cephalopods have features which make them particularly suited to research. After the first studies, which outlined the anatomical structure of cephalopods' eyes and optic nerves, the research rapidly shifted to the electrophysiology and biochemistry of vision. In the twentieth century these results were integrated with behavioral tests and training techniques. Between 1909 and 1913 also the well-known debate on color vision between ophthalmologist Carl von Hess and zoologist Karl von Frisch took place in Naples. Largely unknown is that the debate also concerned cephalopods. A comparative historical analysis of these studies shows how different experimental devices, theoretical frameworks, and personal factors gave rise to two diametrically opposing views. PMID:28066256

  3. The mechanical career of Councillor Orffyreus, confidence man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    In the early 18th century, J. E. E. Bessler, known as Orffyreus, constructed several wheels that he claimed could keep turning forever, powered only by gravity. He never revealed the details of his invention, but he conducted demonstrations (with the machine's inner workings covered) that persuaded competent observers that he might have discovered the secret of perpetual motion. Among Bessler's defenders were Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Bernoulli, Professor Willem 's Gravesande of Leiden University (who wrote to Isaac Newton on the subject), and Prince Karl, ruler of the German state of Hesse-Kassel. We review Bessler's work, placing it within the context of the intellectual debates of the time about mechanical conservation laws and the (im)possibility of perpetual motion. We also mention Bessler's long career as a confidence man, the details of which were discussed in popular 19th-century German publications but have remained unfamiliar to authors in other languages.

  4. HESS Opinions Catchments as meta-organisms - a new blueprint for hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Catchment-scale hydrological models frequently miss essential characteristics of what determines the functioning of catchments. The most important active agent in catchments is the ecosystem. It manipulates and partitions moisture in a way that supports the essential functions of survival and productivity: infiltration of water, retention of moisture, mobilization and retention of nutrients, and drainage. Ecosystems do this in the most efficient way, establishing a continuous, ever-evolving feedback loop with the landscape and climatic drivers. In brief, hydrological systems are alive and have a strong capacity to adjust themselves to prevailing and changing environmental conditions. Although most models take Newtonian theory at heart, as best they can, what they generally miss is Darwinian theory on how an ecosystem evolves and adjusts its environment to maintain crucial hydrological functions. In addition, catchments, such as many other natural systems, do not only evolve over time, but develop features of spatial organization, including surface or sub-surface drainage patterns, as a by-product of this evolution. Models that fail to account for patterns and the associated feedbacks miss a critical element of how systems at the interface of atmosphere, biosphere and pedosphere function. In contrast to what is widely believed, relatively simple, semi-distributed conceptual models have the potential to accommodate organizational features and their temporal evolution in an efficient way, a reason for that being that because their parameters (and their evolution over time) are effective at the modelling scale, and thus integrate natural heterogeneity within the system, they may be directly inferred from observations at the same scale, reducing the need for calibration and related problems. In particular, the emergence of new and more detailed observation systems from space will lead towards a more robust understanding of spatial organization and its evolution. This will further permit the development of relatively simple time-dynamic functional relationships that can meaningfully represent spatial patterns and their evolution over time, even in poorly gauged environments.

  5. HESS Opinions: The need for process-based evaluation of large-domain hyper-resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-03-01

    A meta-analysis on 192 peer-reviewed articles reporting on applications of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model in a distributed way reveals that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has increased over the years, while the calibration and validation time interval has remained unchanged. We argue that the calibration and validation time interval should keep pace with the increase in spatial resolution in order to resolve the processes that are relevant at the applied spatial resolution. We identified six time concepts in hydrological models, which all impact the model results and conclusions. Process-based model evaluation is particularly relevant when models are applied at hyper-resolution, where stakeholders expect credible results both at a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. HESS Opinions: The need for process-based evaluation of large-domain hyper-resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, A. J.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis on 192 peer-reviewed articles reporting applications of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in a distributed way reveals that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has increased over the years, while the calibration and validation time interval has remained unchanged. We argue that the calibration and validation time interval should keep pace with the increase in spatial resolution in order to resolve the processes that are relevant at the applied spatial resolution. We identified six time concepts in hydrological models, which all impact the model results and conclusions. Process-based model evaluation is particularly relevant when models are applied at hyper-resolution, where stakeholders expect credible results both at a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  7. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION SIGNALS FROM THE FORNAX GALAXY CLUSTER WITH H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Brun, F.; Bolmont, J.; Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-10

    The Fornax galaxy cluster was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System for a total live time of 14.5 hr, searching for very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) {gamma}-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation. No significant signal was found in searches for point-like and extended emissions. Using several models of the DM density distribution, upper limits on the DM velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section ({sigma}v) as a function of the DM particle mass are derived. Constraints are derived for different DM particle models, such as those arising from Kaluza-Klein and supersymmetric models. Various annihilation final states are considered. Possible enhancements of the DM annihilation {gamma}-ray flux, due to DM substructures of the DM host halo, or from the Sommerfeld effect, are studied. Additional {gamma}-ray contributions from internal bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton radiation are also discussed. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, the exclusion limits at 95% of confidence level reach values of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx} 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, depending on the DM particle model and halo properties. Additional contribution from DM substructures can improve the upper limits on ({sigma}v) by more than two orders of magnitude. At masses around 4.5 TeV, the enhancement by substructures and the Sommerfeld resonance effect results in a velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section upper limit at the level of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx}10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}.

  8. A vectorization of the Hess McDonnell Douglas potential flow program NUED for the STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boney, L. R.; Smith, R. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program NUED for analyzing potential flow about arbitrary three dimensional lifting bodies using the panel method was modified to use vector operations and run on the STAR-100 computer. A high speed of computation and ability to approximate the body surface with a large number of panels are characteristics of NUEDV. The new program shows that vector operations can be readily implemented in programs of this type to increase the computational speed on the STAR-100 computer. The virtual memory architecture of the STAR-100 facilitates the use of large numbers of panels to approximate the body surface.

  9. Emergent Literacy Activities in the Final Preschool Year in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Hesse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried K.; Lehrl, Simone; Anders, Yvonne; Pohlmann-Rother, Sanna; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Emergent literacy activities are considered to be important for promoting children's emergent literacy skills. However, little research exists, especially in Germany, regarding how often such activities occur and in what context. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of emergent literacy activities occurring in the final preschool…

  10. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 3. (Ferrelli, Tony-Karl Arason)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    C’LC 0 OC (0 00PN0-)L x xI e Wc L 0 I xIUV)c I.- Ij IA I. I. I zc Ow _I UIc 4 0 n w- >- I- Ilwell J V (.)a z0- z-n 1 4-4 N < nP ~ P1 - -- ~ 100 00 z w...4 Ij 1 1I l l ~(II 5- 0 < I i.- c) OC Ln0 (jr- m f e-0 00 4-t w C-0) -4 10- 4-4 ( l P -5 - Dc D( - m L0 O- 41 . 4 ’-4 m0) o -4 44 MV iCV p1 - U)ulnM...C’z’ z CN -- P1 0 cn(~ CNNDN 04U NN -40-I -4I 00 00 O00 >_ I0w 000 <I- DN 0)0 COO ac- 0e wN ( CD- Cc 1- x c or0 -- z cc w k-c _ o 0 I I L j < < D Q

  11. Karl Jaspers'"The Idea of the University": An Existentialist Argument for an Institution Concerned with Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The origins of Jaspers' 1923 work, with its close relationship to his own intellectual development and contribution to post-World War II German universities, is described. Jaspers' main themes demonstrate his uniqueness as an existentialist in justifying a specific social institution. (MSE)

  12. Person-Centered Psychopathology of Schizophrenia: Building on Karl Jaspers’ Understanding of Patient’s Attitude Toward His Illness

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this article, building on and extending Jaspers’ concept of the “patient’s attitude toward his illness” we draw attention to the active role that the person, as a self-interpreting agent engaged in a world shared with other persons, has in interacting with his/her basic disorder and in the shaping of psychopathological syndromes. This person-centered approach helps us to see patients as meaning-making entities rather than passive individuals and their attempt at self-understanding as not necessarily pathological and potentially adaptive. We describe 3 contemporary resources for a person-centered psychopathology: dialectical psychopathology, contemporary approaches to the meanings-causes debate, and value-based practice. Each of these provides a theoretical framework and practical resources for understanding the diversity of schizophrenic phenotypes, including symptom presentation, course, and outcome as a consequence of the different ways people with schizophrenia seek to make sense of the basic changes in self and world experiences. A person-centered approach, in building on patients’ individual values and experiences as key aspects of their self-understanding of their psychosis, supports recovery and development of self-management skills. PMID:23314193

  13. Standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The referenced test method for total water content and water regain in lint cotton was developed by USDA scientists in New Orleans at the request of the cotton industry. The method covers the determination of the total water (free and bound) in raw and lint cotton at moisture equilibrium from con...

  14. Continued Development of In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Missions Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon-Laser Experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Since these techniques are very new and as they have never been used or this purpose. they will need to be replicated by several independent studies. These techniques may be very important if the optical imaging encounters difficulties, for example, if a sample is made of very dark or monochromatic material and in the case of very deep pits (>500 microns) Based on the preliminary results, the LIBS continuum technique is more appropriate to the large pits produced by long ablations The relationship may work best homogeneous samples, but the continuum is collected with every LIBS analysis so does not require any addition to the experimental suite of techniques. The integration of a QCMB in the ablation chamber may be a very interesting solution to determine the ablated mass. Even if it only measures a fraction of the total mass, its sensitivity should be able to weigh hundreds of nanograms accumulated on the crystal during ablation and relate it to the actual ablated mass. In the future. these options may help in situ K-Ar dating to give the age of the rock with the best accuracy and precision.

  15. KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    Data classification and storage are tasks typically performed by application specialists. In contrast, information users are primarily non-computer specialists who use information in their decision-making and other activities. Interaction efficiency between such users and the computer is often reduced by machine requirements and resulting user reluctance to use the system. This thesis examines the problems associated with information retrieval for non-computer specialist users, and proposes a method for communicating in restricted English that uses knowledge of the entities involved, relationships between entities, and basic English language syntax and semantics to translate the user requests into formal queries. The proposed method includes an intelligent dictionary, syntax and semantic verifiers, and a formal query generator. In addition, the proposed system has a learning capability that can improve portability and performance. With the increasing demand for efficient human-machine communication, the significance of this thesis becomes apparent. As human resources become more valuable, software systems that will assist in improving the human-machine interface will be needed and research addressing new solutions will be of utmost importance. This thesis presents an initial design and implementation as a foundation for further research and development into the emerging field of natural language database query systems.

  16. The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers’ General Psychopathology. Part 1: Reconsidering the influence of phenomenology and hermeneutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigates the methodology involved in Jaspers’ psychopathology and compares it with Husserl’s phenomenology and with Dilthey’s cultural science. Allgemeine Psychopathologie and other methodological works by Jaspers, the works of Husserl and Dilthey that Jaspers cited, and previous research papers on Jaspers are reviewed. Jaspers had conflicting views on understanding, which were comprised of both empathic understanding and rational, ideal-typical understanding. Such a standpoint on understanding is considerably different from Dilthey’s. Additionally, the present paper reconfirms that Jaspers’ ‘phenomenology’ as a form of descriptive psychology for the understanding of empirical psychic states is different from Husserl’s phenomenology. Thus, this paper casts doubt on the common opinion that Jaspers was under the profound influence of Husserl or Dilthey. PMID:24573260

  17. The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Part 1: Reconsidering the influence of phenomenology and hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2013-06-01

    The present paper investigates the methodology involved in Jaspers' psychopathology and compares it with Husserl's phenomenology and with Dilthey's cultural science. Allgemeine Psychopathologie and other methodological works by Jaspers, the works of Husserl and Dilthey that Jaspers cited, and previous research papers on Jaspers are reviewed. Jaspers had conflicting views on understanding, which were comprised of both empathic understanding and rational, ideal-typical understanding. Such a standpoint on understanding is considerably different from Dilthey's. Additionally, the present paper reconfirms that Jaspers' 'phenomenology' as a form of descriptive psychology for the understanding of empirical psychic states is different from Husserl's phenomenology. Thus, this paper casts doubt on the common opinion that Jaspers was under the profound influence of Husserl or Dilthey.

  18. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  19. Republication of: A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Georges

    2013-08-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Georges Lemaître, first published in French in 1927, in which the author, having re-discovered and generalised the Friedmann models, for the first time related them to the then-already-available observations of expansion of the Universe. The translation published in 1931 in MNRAS was not perfectly faithful to the original text—it was updated. As it turned out very recently, the updates were done by Lemaître himself, but the discrepancies between the two texts caused a temporary stir among historians. Our translation follows the 1927 version exactly. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for republication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Jean-Pierre Luminet that, among other things, lists and explains the differences between the 1927 and 1931 versions.

  20. [52th Commemoration of French Journal of Plastic Aesthetic Surgery (1956-2007). Fifty-four years of editorial; five Editors-in-chief].

    PubMed

    Cariou, J-L

    2007-08-01

    The french Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (SOF.CPRE) is born December 3th 1952. Initially without "aesthetic", this "key-word" is agreed in 1983 and the symbols are advanced since: SFCPR, SFCPRE, SOF.CPRE. Its official organ, formerly included in Annales de chirurgie (1954-1955), become Annales de chirurgie plastique in 1956, Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique in 1983 and finally Annales de chirurgie plastique esthétique (ACPE) in 1992. Since the origin, five Editors-in-chief succeded: Claude Dufourmentel, Raymond Vilain, Jean-Pierre Lalardrie, Claude Lê-Quang, Jean-Luc Cariou. Four of them are alive, Raymond Vilain is dead. The author relate here the natural story of these five editors who had all a triple route: personnal, surgical and editorial.

  1. Entering the 60th year of Acta Astronautica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Marec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The Acta Astronautica Journal was firstly published in 1955 as the official Journal of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) with the title Astronautica Acta. It is entering its 60th year in 2014. In 1962, the Astronautica Acta became the official Journal of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) established in 1960. A total of 18 volumes had been published from 1955 to 1973 under the leadership of three Editor-in-Chiefs: F. Hecht, Theodore von Karman, and Martin Summerfield. In 1974, A.K. Oppenheim became the new Editor-in-Chief and several evolved changes were performed including change of the title to Acta Astronautica (for grammatical correctness), cover page change, and format change. From 1974 to 2010, another three Editor-in-Chiefs led the journal with 67 volumes published. They were A.K. Oppenheim, Jean-Pierre Marec, and Rupert Gerzer. The current Editor-in-Chief Jeng-Shing Chern (Rock) took over the job from 2011. Total pages and articles published in 2012 are 3586 and 356, respectively. Currently, the Acta Astronautica Editorial Board consists of one Editor-in-Chief, 15 Co-Editors, one Managing Editor and one Honorary Editor-in-Chief (Jean-Pierre Marec). After 59 years, the Acta Astronautica has become a well-known journal worldwide. Its current rank and impact factor are 7/63 and 0.701, respectively. This paper presents some of the details as well as new strategies and steps. In particular, supports from the IAA Academicians are mandatory and most welcome.

  2. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    PubMed

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory.

  3. HESS Opinions: From response units to functional units: a thermodynamic reinterpretation of the HRU concept to link spatial organization and functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; van Schaik, L.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-11-01

    According to Dooge (1986) intermediate-scale catchments are systems of organized complexity, being too organized and yet too small to be characterized on a statistical/conceptual basis, but too large and too heterogeneous to be characterized in a deterministic manner. A key requirement for building structurally adequate models precisely for this intermediate scale is a better understanding of how different forms of spatial organization affect storage and release of water and energy. Here, we propose that a combination of the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) and thermodynamics offers several helpful and partly novel perspectives for gaining this improved understanding. Our key idea is to define functional similarity based on similarity of the terrestrial controls of gradients and resistance terms controlling the land surface energy balance, rainfall runoff transformation, and groundwater storage and release. This might imply that functional similarity with respect to these specific forms of water release emerges at different scales, namely the small field scale, the hillslope, and the catchment scale. We thus propose three different types of "functional units" - specialized HRUs, so to speak - which behave similarly with respect to one specific form of water release and with a characteristic extent equal to one of those three scale levels. We furthermore discuss an experimental strategy based on exemplary learning and replicate experiments to identify and delineate these functional units, and as a promising strategy for characterizing the interplay and organization of water and energy fluxes across scales. We believe the thermodynamic perspective to be well suited to unmask equifinality as inherent in the equations governing water, momentum, and energy fluxes: this is because several combinations of gradients and resistance terms yield the same mass or energy flux and the terrestrial controls of gradients and resistance terms are largely independent. We propose that structurally adequate models at this scale should consequently disentangle driving gradients and resistance terms, because this optionally allows equifinality to be partly reduced by including available observations, e.g., on driving gradients. Most importantly, the thermodynamic perspective yields an energy-centered perspective on rainfall-runoff transformation and evapotranspiration, including fundamental limits for energy fluxes associated with these processes. This might additionally reduce equifinality and opens up opportunities for testing thermodynamic optimality principles within independent predictions of rainfall-runoff or land surface energy exchange. This is pivotal to finding out whether or not spatial organization in catchments is in accordance with a fundamental organizing principle.

  4. New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen A.; Evenhuis, Neal L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new bombyliid species Marleyimyia xylocopae Marshall & Evenhuis, sp. n., an apparent mimic of the carpenter bee Xylocopa flavicollis (De Geer), is described from South Africa on the basis of photographs only. The pros and cons of species descriptions in the absence of preserved type specimens are discussed. PMID:26487819

  5. Effect of Processing on the Microflora of Norwegian Seaweed Meal, with Observations on Sporendonema minutum (Høye) Frank and Hess

    PubMed Central

    Sieburth, John McN.; Jensen, Arne

    1967-01-01

    Meal from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. is mainly used as an animal feed supplement. Since moist weed often develops a marked mold growth and since little was known about the microflora of seaweed meal, a cultural procedure was developed to enumerate the populations of bacteria, yeasts, and molds of seaweed meals manufactured by different drying processes. The microflora could be supported by a variety of media varying in levels of nutrition and in the source and concentration of salts. Fresh weed contained less than 103 bacteria and less than 102 yeasts and molds per g (dry weight). The type and extent of microbial populations in seaweed meal appeared to be dependent upon the method of seaweed drying. Rotary drum-drying at temperatures decreasing from 800 to 80 C maintained or reduced the microbial populations to 103 organisms per g (dry weight). Although meals with high nutritional quality can be obtained with warm air- or rock-dried weed, these conditions can also permit bacterial and mold development. Extended rock-drying in variable weather conditions and prolonged storage of moist weed, both of which decrease the nutritional quality, also lead to high bacterial numbers and to a marked development of the halophilic brown mold Sporendonema minutum which attained populations of 108 viable spores per g of dried weed. A poultry diet containing 5% badly molded weed had no apparent toxic or growth-depressing effect when fed to chicks. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6069160

  6. Post-larval development of the microcotylid monogenean Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Van Beneden and Hesse, 1863): comparison with species of Microcotylidae and Heteraxinidae.

    PubMed

    Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2011-12-01

    The chronology of post-larval development in S. chrysophrii, a polyopisthocotylean monogenean parasite of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), was experimentally studied. It is compared with other species within the Microcotylidae and the Heteraxinidae, including an analysis of the changes in attachment and the growth rate. Gilthead seabreams infected by larvae of S. chrysophrii were killed periodically in order to collect the different developmental stages. Parasite total body length, haptor length, largest clamp width, and total number of clamps were recorded. Specimens of S. chrysophrii in culture conditions at 20°C became gravid after 26-30 days, with 37 pairs of clamps. The S. chrysophrii growth curve appears to be sigmoid with 3 growth periods (slow-fast-slow). The haptor of S. chrysophrii grows linearly with total body length, but the main contribution to total body length growth is that of the non-haptoral body. The relationship between number of clamps and total body length during development can be fitted to an exponential curve for all the reviewed species, i.e.: Microcotyle spinicirrus, Microcotyle donavini, Microcotyle gotoi, Microcotyle sebastis, Microcotyle hiatulae, Polylabroides multispinosus, Bivagina tai, Heteraxinoides xanthophilis, Heteraxine heterocerca, and Zeuxapta seriolae. The sequence of events was common for all of the species compared: terminal lappet is lost when about 15% of clamps were developed; primordia of testes at approximately 30% of clamps developed, and maturity (as first egg appearance) at about 65% of clamps developed.

  7. HESS Opinions: Functional units: a novel framework to explore the link between spatial organization and hydrological functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-03-01

    This opinion paper proposes a novel framework for exploring how spatial organization alongside with spatial heterogeneity controls functioning of intermediate scale catchments of organized complexity. Key idea is that spatial organization in landscapes implies that functioning of intermediate scale catchments is controlled by a hierarchy of functional units: hillslope scale lead topologies and embedded elementary functional units (EFUs). We argue that similar soils and vegetation communities and thus also soil structures "co-developed" within EFUs in an adaptive, self-organizing manner as they have been exposed to similar flows of energy, water and nutrients from the past to the present. Class members of the same EFU (class) are thus deemed to belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls of the energy balance and related vertical flows of capillary bounded soil water and heat. Class members of superordinate lead topologies are characterized by the same spatially organized arrangement of EFUs along the gradient driving lateral flows of free water as well as a similar surface and bedrock topography. We hence postulate that they belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls on rainfall runoff transformation and related vertical and lateral fluxes of free water. We expect class members of these functional units to have a distinct way how their architecture controls the interplay of state dynamics and integral flows, which is typical for all members of one class but dissimilar among the classes. This implies that we might infer on the typical dynamic behavior of the most important classes of EFU and lead topologies in a catchment, by thoroughly characterizing a few members of each class. A major asset of the proposed framework, which steps beyond the concept of hydrological response units, is that it can be tested experimentally. In this respect, we reflect on suitable strategies based on stratified observations drawing from process hydrology, soil physics, geophysics, ecology and remote sensing which are currently conducted in replicates of candidate functional units in the Attert basin (Luxembourg), to search for typical and similar functional and structural characteristics. A second asset of this framework is that it blueprints a way towards a structurally more adequate model concept for water and energy cycles in intermediate scale catchments, which balances necessary complexity with falsifiability. This is because EFU and lead topologies are deemed to mark a hierarchy of "scale breaks" where simplicity with respect to the energy balance and stream flow generation emerges from spatially organized process-structure interactions. This offers the opportunity for simplified descriptions of these processes that are nevertheless physically and thermodynamically consistent. In this respect we reflect on a candidate model structure that (a) may accommodate distributed observations of states and especially terrestrial controls on driving gradients to constrain the space of feasible model structures and (b) allows testing the possible added value of organizing principles to understand the role of spatial organization from an optimality perspective.

  8. H.E.S.S. OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6388 AND M15 AND SEARCH FOR A DARK MATTER SIGNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.

    2011-07-01

    Observations of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and M15 were carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System array of Cherenkov telescopes for a live time of 27.2 and 15.2 hr, respectively. No gamma-ray signal is found at the nominal target position of NGC 6388 and M15. In the primordial formation scenario, GCs are formed in a dark matter (DM) halo and DM could still be present in the baryon-dominated environment of GCs. This opens the possibility of observing a DM self-annihilation signal. The DM content of the GCs NGC 6388 and M15 is modeled taking into account the astrophysical processes that can be expected to influence the DM distribution during the evolution of the GC: the adiabatic contraction of DM by baryons, the adiabatic growth of a black hole in the DM halo, and the kinetic heating of DM by stars. Ninety-five percent confidence level exclusion limits on the DM particle velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived for these DM halos. In the TeV range, the limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived at the 10{sup -25} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} level and a few 10{sup -24} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for NGC 6388 and M15, respectively.

  9. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  10. [The effect of daily controlled oral hygiene on the oral health of children in a town with drinking water fluoridation (Karl Marx Stadt)].

    PubMed

    Georgi, J; Künzel, W

    1976-03-01

    Under the conditions of an optimized (with regard to caries prevention) fluoride content of the drinking uater, the authors studied (in the framework of an oral hygiene measure covering 32 months) in 149 children 6.5-8 years of age the effects of supervised daily dental and oral care on dental health. The improvement in oral hygiene (OHI) by 33% is in harmony with an additional caries reduction by 33.3% (DMF/S index) and a decrease of the PM index by 47%. A wider use of oral hygiene actions as secondary preventive measures is, therefore, recommended also for towns with fluoridated drinking water.

  11. [Processes of ventricles I-III. Review of the patient population of the Neurosurgery Clinic of the Karl Marx University 1953-1983].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Goldhahn, W E

    1985-01-01

    Within three decades 254 patients with processes of the brain ventricles I-III have been treated at the Leipzig Neurosurgical Clinic. The article subdivides the patients in general and according to the histology, localisation, lateral differences, dignity, operability as well as the postoperative lethality. The evaluation gives many clues with respect to the diagnostics and therapy of these ventricular processes. Today, the improvements obtained by computer tomography and by microsurgery are well the to fore.

  12. [Development of the clinical abortion situation at the gynecologic hospital of Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig from 1.1.1960 to 30.6.1972].

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Henning, G

    1973-07-13

    During a 12-year period (1960-1972) abortions represented 27.5% of stationary gynecological complications in a Leipzig women's clinic. According to demographic analyses, the law of March 9, 1972, legalizing abortion, has brought about a reduction in this rate to 9.9% and the relationship of abortions to births was reduced from 26.9% to 12.6%. The significant decrease in the number of fever complications and septic abortions (from .05 to .001%) has been particularly encouraging, and abortion mortality has reached a low of .724%. Average recuperation stay in the clinic was shortened to 4.7 days for uncomplicated abortions and 6.2 for those with complications. The average age for abortion patients has remained constantly around 27 years with average number of previous births between 1.1-1.2. Recently there has been an increase in the number of single and divorced women undergoing abortion.

  13. [Results obtained from more intensive antenatal and intranatal attention to gemini pregnancy at gynaecological hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt region (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Cimutta, B; Müller, K

    1979-01-01

    Studies undertaken into gemini births between 1968 and 1977 have shown that reduction in perinatal mortality has been obtainable from high-intensity programmes of antenatal and intranatal attention to multiparae. Perinatal mortality had accounted for 13.4 per cent, between 1968 and 1974, and dropped to 7.4 per cent, between 1975 and 1977. This achievement is analysed and discussed. More improvement may best be expected from earlier detection of gemini pregnancy and earlier action of intensive care.

  14. Karl G. Jansky VLA 3.6 cm Continuum and RRL Observations of the Galactic Massive Star Forming Region W49A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pree, Christopher G.; Wilner, David J.; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Goss, Miller; Klessen, Ralf; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Peters, Thomas; Amason, Charlee

    2016-01-01

    We are using the VLA to make a multi-configuration study at 3.6 cm of the massive star forming region W49A. Using new observations from 2015, we have imaged W49A in the A, B, and D configurations in 3.6 cm continuum and H92α and H93α recombination line emission. We present initial continuum images, and selected line spectra of individual sources. This study is part of an ongoing campaign to search for variability in ultracompact HII regions, as predicted by models of unsteady accretion flows. Such variability has been detected in systematic searches of sources in the crowded Sgr B2 Main and North regions (De Pree et al., 2014, 2015). Deep VLA continuum and line observations were first made of W49A in 1993-94 in the B, C, and D configurations, and we will discuss preliminary comparisons of the new data with these 1993-94 archival data.

  15. Investigations of primary and secondary impact structures on the moon and laboratory experiments to study the ejecta of secondary particles. Ph.D. Thesis - Ruprecht Karl Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, B.

    1977-01-01

    Young lunar impact structures were investigated by using lunar orbiter, Apollo Metric and panorama photographs. Measurements on particularly homogeneous areas low in secondary craters made possible an expansion of primary crater distribution to small diameters. This is now sure for a range between 20m or = D or = 20km and this indicates that the size and velocity distribution of the impacting bodies in the last 3 billion years has been constant. A numerical approximation in the form of a 7th degree polynomial was obtained for the distribution.

  16. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    panel discussion on recent advances and future challenges in group theoretical methods in physics was held on Wednesday morning. The panel members were: Maia Angelova, Heinz-Dietrich Doebner, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Norbert Hounkonnou, Peter Olver and Luc Vinet, with Willard Miller Jr. as moderator. In this discussion, the importance of "symmetry" in physics (and other sciences) was emphasized, and some challenges were made explicit. On Wednesday evening there was a separate ceremony in the Aula Academica (the "University Palace") of Ghent University, for the presentation of the 2014 Wigner Medal and Hermann Weyl Prize. The Hermann Weyl Prize was established in 2000 to provide recognition for young scientists having performed original work of significant scientific quality in the area of the understanding of physics through symmetries. The 2014 Hermann Weyl Prize was awarded to Yuji Tachikawa (Tokyo University). He is praised for his outstanding contributions to the understanding of supersymmetric quantum field theories and in particular, to the discovery of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence that has led to spectacular advances in both mathematics and quantum physics. The Wigner Medal, established in 1978, is an award designed "to recognize outstanding contributions to the understanding of physics through Group Theory", and can be considered as a "lifetime achievement award". It was awarded to Joshua Zak (Technion, Haifa, Israel) for his discovery of the magnetic translation group and the phase and transform that bear his name. In his work, the relationship between mathematics and physics could hardly be closer, with mathematicians being familiar with the "Zak transform" and physicists with the "Zak phase", both concepts originating in group theory. The ceremony was graced by a saxophone quintet, "Sax Obsession", and followed by a reception in the adjacent Peristylium. The social programme included a variety of events. On Monday evening, the welcome address by

  17. Religious-Based Violence and National Security in Nigeria: Case Studies of Kaduna State and the Taliban Activities in Borno State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    December 2008). 13 Ibid. 14 Karl, H. Marx, Critique of the Hegel ‟s Philosophy of Right, http://quotationspage.com/quotes/Karl_Marx/ (accessed 6...accessed 14 March 2009). Karl, Marx, H. Critique of the Hegel ‟s Philosophy of Right, http://quotationspage.com/ quotes/Karl_Marx/ (accessed 6

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of alkyl substituted nanographene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogos, Orestis George; Theodorou, Doros Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Discotic polyaromatic molecules, similar to nanometric graphene flakes, constitute an interesting class of materials for organic electronic applications. Grafting flexible side chains around the periphery of such molecules enhances their processability and gives rise to diverse behaviours, such as the manifestation of liquid-crystalline character and anisotropic mechanical response. In this work, we examine by means of molecular dynamics simulations the properties of molecular crystals comprised of alkyl-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene mesogens. Pristine and mono-substituted systems by hydrogen or iodine atoms are modelled, with variable side chain length. A general structural and mechanical robustness to peripheral substitution is reported, with the mesogens forming tightly packed molecular wires even at elevated temperature and pressure. In their discotic ordering, the molecules present relatively low translational mobility, a beneficial phenomenon for charge transport. A thermotropic dependence of the mechanical response is identified, with the systems behaving differently in their room-temperature crystalline phase and in their liquid-crystalline phase at elevated temperatures. The melting process is also examined, elucidating an initial negative expansion along a high symmetry direction and the existence of a metastable state, before falling into the final liquid-crystalline state. Dedicated to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen, with deepest appreciation of his outstanding contributions to liquid and soft matter theory.

  19. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  20. 2004 Fellows Citations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    AGU congratulates the forty-one distinguished scientists who were selected by a committee of their peers to be AGU Fellows for 2004. This selection was based on the individuals' attainment of acknowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows selected annually is limited to no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership: Andrew D. Barry, Enrico Bonatti, Edward V. Bromwell, John P. Burrows, Philip R. Christensen, William B. Curry, Judith Curry, Margaret L. Delaney, Steven R. Emerson, Brian J. Evans, Donald H. Fairfield, Marvin Geller, David Green, William Holt, Roy Hyndman, David E. James, James F. Kasting, Peter Kelemen, Paul J. Kellogg, Michael J. Kirkby, Daniel Loucks, P.M. Mathews, Jean-Paul Montagner, William R. Normark, Gerald R. North, Michael O'Hara, Ronald S. Oremland, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Joseph Prospero, Karsten Pruess, Edmond C. Roelof, Gary Rottman, Allan Rubin, Ernest H. Rutter, John H. Seinfeld, Sharon Smith, Pieter Tans, John M. Toole, Jean-Pierre Valet, Lionel Wilson, and E. L. Winterer

  1. Division XII: Commission 46: Education & Development of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.; Hearnshaw, John; Stavinschi, Magda; Garcia, Beatriz; Gerbaldi, Michele; Greve, Jean-Pierre De; Guinan, Edward; Haubold, Hans; Jones, Barrie; Marshall, Laurence A.; Pasachoff, Jay

    2015-08-01

    C46 is a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII Union-Wide Activities. Aiming at improvement of astronomy education and research at all levels worldwide (through the various projects it initiates),maintains, develops, as well as through the dissemination of information. C46 has 332 members and it was managed by the Organizing Committee, formed by the Commission President (Rosa M. Ros, from Spain), the Vice-Presiden (John Hearnshaw, from New Zealand), the Retiring President (Magda Stavinschi, from Romania), the Vice-President of the IAU (George Miley, from Netherland) and the PG chairs: • Worldwide Development of Astronomy WWDA: John Hearnshaw • Teaching Astronomy for Development TAD: Edward Guinan and Laurence A. Marshall • International Schools for Young Astronomers ISYA; chair: Jean-Pierre de Greve • Network for Astronomy School Education NASE: Rosa M. Ros and Beatriz Garcia • Public Understanding at the times of Solar Eclipses and transit Phenomena PUTSE: Jay Pasachoff • National Liaison and Newsletter: Barrie Jones • Collaborative Programs: Hans Haubold

  2. FCS and Single Molecule Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, Rudolf

    The idea to develop Fluorescence Fluctuation spectroscopy started when working in Manfred Eigens' Laboratory in G¨ottingen in the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry as a postdoctoral fellow. I had just finished the construction and testing of a fluorescence T-jump machine [1] when Jean Pierre Changeux from Institut Pasteur arrived in G¨ottingen with a bag of freshly isolated nicotinic acetyl choline receptor to use the new fluorescence T-jump apparatus for relaxation kinetic studies of the receptor. Due to the high concentration of detergents present in the preparation and limited conductivity of the solvent leading to strong cavitation in the T-jump cell we could not perform the temperature relaxation experiments. However, this experience raised the question whether the analysis of equilibrium fluctuations by observing changes in the quantum yield of fluorescence would not be an alternative way to follow kinetic processes. In this way all problems related to the instantaneous temperature change could be avoided.

  3. Retraction RETRACTION of "Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer" by Y. Ji, H.H. Jin, M.D. Wang, W.X. Cao, J.L. Bao - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028261 (2016) - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028261.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Jin, H H; Wang, M D; Cao, W X; Bao, J L

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Ji Y, Jin HH, Wang MD, Cao WX, et al. (2016). Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15028261. There are significant parts of this article (particularly, in the discussion section) that are copied from "Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome", by Jia Xu, Priya B Shetty, Weiwei Feng, Carol Chenault, Robert C Bast Jr, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Susan G Hilsenbeck and Yinhua Yu, published in BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 243. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-243. The first paragraphs of both discussions are identical. This is concerning. The abstract and introduction sections have much of their text plagiarized. Overall, there is high plagiarism detected. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  4. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France.

  5. CrossMap: a versatile tool for coordinate conversion between genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Sun, Zhifu; Wang, Jing; Huang, Haojie; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Reference genome assemblies are subject to change and refinement from time to time. Generally, researchers need to convert the results that have been analyzed according to old assemblies to newer versions, or vice versa, to facilitate meta-analysis, direct comparison, data integration and visualization. Several useful conversion tools can convert genome interval files in browser extensible data or general feature format, but none have the functionality to convert files in sequence alignment map or BigWig format. This is a significant gap in computational genomics tools, as these formats are the ones most widely used for representing high-throughput sequencing data, such as RNA-seq, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, DNA-seq, etc. Results: Here we developed CrossMap, a versatile and efficient tool for converting genome coordinates between assemblies. CrossMap supports most of the commonly used file formats, including BAM, sequence alignment map, Wiggle, BigWig, browser extensible data, general feature format, gene transfer format and variant call format. Availability and implementation: CrossMap is written in Python and C. Source code and a comprehensive user’s manual are freely available at: http://crossmap.sourceforge.net/. Contact: Kocher.JeanPierre@mayo.edu or wang.liguo@mayo.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24351709

  6. Social Models: Blueprints or Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Graham R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)

  7. The universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field II. Topological charges and spacelike linear fields - Dedicated to Karl-Henning Rehren on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    Conditions for the appearance of topological charges are studied in the framework of the universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field, which is represented in any theory describing electromagnetism. It is shown that non-trivial topological charges, described by pairs of fields localised in certain topologically non-trivial spacelike separated regions, can appear in regular representations of the algebra only if the fields depend non-linearly on the mollifying test functions. On the other hand, examples of regular vacuum representations with non-trivial topological charges are constructed, where the underlying field still satisfies a weakened form of "spacelike linearity". Such representations also appear in the presence of electric currents. The status of topological charges in theories with several types of electromagnetic fields, which appear in the short distance (scaling) limit of asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories, is also briefly discussed.

  8. [Problems in the admission to in-hospital oral surgical care from the patient's viewpoint--results of patient interviews in the hospital for dental and maxillo-facial surgery of the Karl Marx University, Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, F; Birnbaum, K; Langanke, B; Niemand, B; Thomzyk, I

    1979-06-01

    The author deals with the results from the interviewing of oral surgery patients on their problems concerning the sending and the admission to the hospital, with special attention to the problems of waiting for admission, the familiarization with the clinical environment and the improvement suggestions of the patients. The conclusions concern tasks arising from the medical and dental care for inpatients as well as for outpatients.

  9. Commitment to Higher Education; Seven West European Thinkers on the Essence of the University: Max Horkheimer, Karl Jaspers, F. R. Leavis, J. H. Newman, Jose Ortega y Gasset, Paul Tillich, Miguel de Unamuno.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, John

    The purpose of this book is to bring back to public attention seven thinkers who wrote about what they believed to be vital in higher education. Each chapter examines a particularly "key text," in which that thinker considers the nature of higher education. The background for the occasion of the delivery of that text as a speech or…

  10. "Onkle Karl" aus Milwaukee: Deutsch-amerikanische Einwandererkultur im Spiegel der Jugendliteratur vor hundert Jahren (Uncle Carl from Milwaukee: German-American Newcomer Culture Reflected in Children's Literature a Hundred Years Ago).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Examines a late nineteenth-century Milwaukee (Wisconsin) publication for children and young people as a reflection of German-American middle-class culture of the time, showing how the spirit of the 1848 revolution and the experience of the American Civil War shaped German-American intellectuals and how the ideals of freedom and equality dominated…

  11. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  12. BOOK REVIEW: The Wraparound Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2008-11-01

    I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It is written in clear language supplemented with many very helpful photographs and drawings. I like the structure of the book, which is a collection of 45 rather short chapters that make it easier for the reader to read it at his/her own speed. The main aim of the author is to interest the reader in cosmology and to convey to him/her the amazing progress that has been made in recent years in our understanding of the universe, its shape and its future. However, even to formulate this problem and to describe some recent work in this field, the author has to explain to the reader many concepts from mathematics and physics. Jean-Pierre Luminet, in addition to being a well known astrophysicist, is also a very gifted writer and so he manages to do this very successfully. In fact the book contains very few formulae and most of the explanations are given in terms of a written narrative supplemented by drawings. The author is also extremely skillful in finding and then using appropriate analogies. The required ideas from mathematics, and topology in particular, present a further aim of the book—to explain to the interested reader the beautiful world of topology and its relevance to the description of the real world. Here, again, he succeeds very impressively. The central claim of the book is as follows: instead of a simple topology, the Universe may have a multiply-connected topology—hence 'wrapped around'; in consequence, it may be much smaller than is usually assumed. If this is so some of the galaxies we see are not real galaxies, but only images of a smaller number of genuine galaxies. The author then discusses possible topologies, and finally chooses the 'dodecahedral' one. A large part of the book is dedicated to showing how this hypothesis can be tested, and what the most recent data on the cosmic background radiation from the WMAP satellite say about this issue (they are inconclusive). Jean-Pierre Luminet's suggestions

  13. Where did the motor function of the cerebellum come from?

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Until the end of 18th century, the role of the cerebellum remained obscure. The turning point occurred when Luigi Galvani showed that muscle contraction is due to electricity and Alessandro Volta produced the battery, an apparatus based on the pairing of silver and zinc plates separated by brine soaked paper disks, capable to generate electricity. Luigi Rolando, at beginning of 19th century, was impressed by these two observations. He thought that, since the brain generates the movement, it must contain a device generating electricity. As a battery, it should be formed by overlapping disks and the cerebellum for Rolando seemed to be the right structure for such a characteristic laminar organization. He argued that, if the cerebellum is the battery that produces electricity for muscle activity, its removal would produce paralysis. Consequently, Rolando removed the cerebellum in a young goat and observed that the animal, before dying, could no longer stand up. He concluded that the cerebellum is a motor structure as it generates the electricity which produces the movement. The conclusions of Rolando were criticized by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens who observed that animals undergoing cerebellectomy were still able to move, even if with problems of balance. Flourens concluded that the role of the cerebellum "is to put in order or to coordinate movements wanted by certain parts of the nervous system, excited by others". It was necessary to wait up to 1891 when Luigi Luciani, observing a dog survived the cerebellectomy, described a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atony and astasis), unquestionably of cerebellar origin.

  14. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  15. IAGOS : operational start of atmospheric measurements on commercial Airbus aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, P.

    2011-12-01

    AUTHORS : Philippe Nedelec 1, Jean-Pierre Cammas 1, Gilles Athier 1, Damien Boulanger 1, Jean-Marc Cousin 1., Andreas Volz-Thomas 2. 1. Laboratoire d' Aerologie, CNRS and University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 2. FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany The MOZAIC program (http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr) measures atmospheric parameters since August 1994, on board 5 commercial Airbus A340 aircraft operated by European airlines, with about 33 000 flights up to present. Three aircraft are still in operation and a new project has been sponsored by the European Community, and French and German national budgets. This project is called IAGOS for "In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing system" and can be considered as an update of Mozaic systems, increasing the performances and the measuring capacity. Plans are to equip 10-20 aircraft in the coming years to ensure a global coverage of the observations. Instrumentation has been developed by the participating partners and has been certified for installation on commercial passenger aircraft. The basic instrumentation includes O3, CO, H2O and clouds sensors, as well as the position and meteorological parameters acquired by the aircraft. One of the optional equipment can also be installed: NOx or NOy or CO2/CH4 or Aerosols. Data measured during flight are automatically transmitted after aircraft landing to CNRS reception centre in Toulouse, France, and made available to scientist some days later. The installation on a Lufthansa Airbus A340 has been finalised and certified by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) on July 7th, 2011 and operations started the following day, with data transmitted every landing to the CNRS centre. We will present technical details of the IAGOS aeronautic installation, measuring instruments of the basic system and some results of the first months of IAGOS operation.

  16. Influence of Aeration and of Pantothenate on Growth Yields of Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Belaïch, Jean-Pierre; Senez, Jacques C.

    1965-01-01

    Belaïch, Jean-Pierre (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France), and Jacques C. Senez. Influence of aeration and of pantothenate on growth yields of Zymomonas mobilis. J. Bacteriol. 89:1195–1200. 1965.—The growth yields and rates of Zymomonas mobilis were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures on glucose medium containing yeast extract, amino acids, or ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source. In the absence of yeast extract, pantothenate was required. The growth yield and rate of the cultures in synthetic (amino acids) or minimal (NH4Cl) medium supplemented with pantothenate corresponded only to about one-half the “normal” values obtained in the presence of yeast extract, suggesting a situation of energetically uncoupled growth. Attempts to restore normal growth by the addition of various compounds were unsuccessful. Aeration of the cultures resulted in a partial oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetate, but did not modify the growth yield nor the division time. Both aerobic and anaerobic cells, however, contained cytochrome c and a cytochrome oxidase of the a2 type, which was completely inhibited by 10−4m cyanide. In anaerobically grown cells, an additional cytochrome of the b type was present. The absence of a Pasteur effect suggests that the transfer of electrons by the respiratory chain of Z. mobilis may not be coupled with oxidative phosphorylation. Aeration had no effect on the catalase content of the cells. As shown by C14-glucose incorporation, 2 to 3% of the glucose metabolized was assimilated by the cells in both synthetic and rich complex medium. No intracellular glycogen nor poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was accumulated when growth was limited by nitrogen or by phosphate in the presence of excess glucose. PMID:14292985

  17. Some historical reflections on the neural control of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François

    2008-01-01

    Thought on the neural control of locomotion dates back to antiquity. In this article, however, the focus is more recent by starting with some major 17th century concepts, which were developed by René Descartes, a French philosopher; Thomas Willis, an English anatomist; and Giovanni Borelli, an Italian physiologist and physicist. Each relied on his personal expertise to theorize on the organization and control of movements. The 18th and early 19th centuries saw work on both the central and peripheral control of movement: the former most notably by Johann Unzer, Marie Jean-Pierre Flourens and Julien-Jean-César Legallois, and the latter by Unzer, Jirí Procháska and many others. Next in the 19th century, neurologists used human locomotion as a precise tool for characterizing motor pathologies: e.g., Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne's description of locomotor ataxia. Jean-Martin Charcot considered motor control to be organized at two levels of the central nervous system: the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. Maurice Philippson's defined the dog's step cycle and considered that locomotion used both central and reflex mechanisms. Charles Sherrington explained that locomotor control was usually thought to consist of a succession of peripheral reflexes (e.g., the stepping reflexes). Thomas Graham Brown's then contemporary evidence for the spinal origin of locomotor rhythmicity languished in obscurity until the early 1960s. By then the stage was set for an international assault on the neural control of locomotion, which featured research conducted on both invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. These contributions have progressively became more integrated and interactive, with current work emphasizing that locomotor control involves a seamless integration between central locomotor networks and peripheral feedback.

  18. Celestial Treasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Throughout history, the mysterious dark skies have inspired our imaginations in countless ways, influencing our endeavors in science and philosophy, religion, literature, and art. Filled with 380 full-color illustrations, Celestial Treasury shows the influence of astronomical theories and the richness of illustrations in Western civilization through the ages. The authors explore the evolution of our understanding of astronomy and weave together ancient and modern theories in a fascinating narrative. They incorporate a wealth of detail from Greek verse, medieval manuscripts and Victorian poetry with contemporary spacecraft photographs and computer-generated star charts. Celestial Treasury is more than a beautiful book: it answers a variety of questions that have intrigued scientists and laymen for centuries. -- How did philosophers and scientists try to explain the order that governs celestial motion? -- How did geometers and artists measure and map the skies? -- How many different answers have been proposed for the most fundamental of all questions: When and how did Earth come about? -- Who inhabits the heavens--gods, angels or extraterrestrials? No other book recounts humankind's fascination with the heavens as compellingly as Celestial Treasury. Marc Lachièze-Rey is a director of research at the Centre National pour la Récherche Scientifique and astrophysicist at the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay. He is the author of The Cosmic Background Radiation (Cambridge, 1999), and and The Quest for Unity, (Oxford, 1999 ), as well as many books in French. Jean-Pierre Luminet is a research director of the Centre National pour la Rechérche Scientifique, based at the Paris-Meudon observatory. He is the author of Black Holes, (Cambridge 1992), as well as science documentaries for television.

  19. Counterinsurgency: Clear-Hold-Build and the Pashtun Tribes in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Taliban. The roads allowed access to more remote areas. A statement by General Karl Eikenberry left no doubt about the idea of roads being critical...counterinsurgency_field_manual_afghanistan_edition?page=0,1 (accessed 13 March 2012). 83Andrew Wilder, “Winning Hearts and Minds?” http://afghanistanforum.wordpress.com/tag/ karl -eikenberry...Wilder, Andrew. “Winning Hearts and Minds?” http://afghanistanforum.wordpress.com/tag/ karl - eikenberry/ (accessed 13 March 2012). World Food

  20. Views on German Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    32. Loewenstein , Karl . "Unity for Germany?" Current History, Vol. 38, No. 221, Jan. 1960, pp. 37-45. (Logic for recognizing that the two Germanies are...4Norman J. G. Pounds, Divided Germany and Berlin, p. 108. 5Karl Loewenstein , "Unity for Germany," Current History, Vol. 38, Jan. 1960, p. 39...continues to exist within her boundaries of December 31, 1937, iKarl Loewenstein , "Unity for Germany?", Current History, Vol. 38, Jan. 1960, p. 39. 2

  1. A Methodology for Formal Hardware Verification, with Application to Microprocessors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-29

    Bartlett (and Digital Equipment Corporation), Soumitra Bose, Chris and Aksel Bothner-By, Jerry Burch, Karl Brace, Kyeongsoon Cho, Luc Claesen, Kevin...Journal, 11(3):235-50, June 1991. Citation obtained from Inspec. [14] Derek Beatty, Karl Brace, Randal E. Bryant, Kyeongsoon Cho, and Lawrence Huang...manipulation with ordered binary- decision diagrams. A CM Computing Surveys, 24(3):293-318, September 1992. [55] Randal E. Bryant, Derek Beatty, Karl Brace

  2. Gravity Wave Characteristics in the Middle Atmosphere Derived From the Empirical Mode Decomposition Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-27

    Karl , 1989]. The local amplitude Uo(x) and the local wavenumbers •(x) and K(x) defined by (2), (4), and (10) for the analytic signal are [Cohen, 1995...Fourier transform to derive H[u(z)] [e.g., Karl , 1989]. Furthermore, evaluation of the second derivative in (10) numerically enhances any errors...The cutoff wavenumbers are determined mainly by how the continuous signal is sampled [e.g., Karl , 1989; Harris, 1978]. It is a notoriously

  3. International Data Archive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    and the International System. 20. Russett Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell, World Handbook of Political and Social...Russett, Bruce M., Karl Deutsch , Hayward Alker, and Harold Lasswell. World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators. Data for 141 polities...August, 1969, Charles McClelland. (23,000 Events) World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, First Edition, Bruce Russett, Karl Deutsch

  4. ’ISM’ Analysis: A Necessity for Effective Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Weltanschauung.” The concept has gone on to capture the attention from the likes of Peter Berger, Thomas Luckmann, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels . The same...challenging works of Western civilization: Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, Karl von Clausewitz, John Stewart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich ...notion of worldview could flourish” (Naugle, p. 59). No doubt influenced by Kant, Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel showed an interest in Weltanschauung

  5. Sino-American Relations in the 21st Century: Taking a Page from the Venezuelan Crisis of 1895

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    to stop many theorists from attempting to define the term. Karl Deutsch defines power as, “the ability to prevail in conflict and overcome...Karl Deutsch , The Analysis of International Relations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988), 22. 2 Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The...accessed September 23, 2014). Deutsch , Karl. The Analysis of International Relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1988

  6. 78 FR 77446 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket.../13. Docket Numbers: RP14-278-000. Applicants: Alliance Pipeline L.P. Description: Hess Tioga to Hess.../13. Docket Numbers: RP14-283-000. Applicants: Northern Border Pipeline Company. Description: Neg...

  7. Be a Cage-Buster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    "A cage-buster can't settle for ambiguity, banalities, or imprecision," writes well-known educator and author Rick Hess. "These things provide dark corners where all manners of ineptitude and excuse-making can hide." Hess suggests that leaders need to clearly define the problems they're trying to solve and open…

  8. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  9. Applying Image Matching to Video Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    34American Classics VII: Don’t be a Chicken of Dumplings". The frames were extracted using the ffmpeg program [29]. The first two images from the set...F. " ffmpeg software". http://www.ffmpeg.org/. 30: Hess, R. "SIFT software". http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/hess. 31: Bay, H., Van Gool, L. and

  10. 40 CFR 52.2770 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approval, the sulfur-in-fuel-oil limitation to 1.5 percent, by weight, applicable to Martin Marietta... weight, applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located..., applicable to Martin Marietta Alumina and the Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation, both located in...

  11. Forum: A New Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary E.; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Turpin, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    These brief essays by Mary Hess, Eugene Gallagher, and Katherine Turpin are solicited responses from three different contexts to the provocative book by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, "The New Culture of Learning" (2011). Mary Hess writes from a seminary context, providing a critical summary of the authors' major concepts and…

  12. Improved Method for Simulating Total Radiation Dose Effects on Single and Composite Operational Amplifiers Using PSPICE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Rays Cosmic rays were discovered in 1912 by Victor Hess. [Ref. 9] Hess placed an electroscope into a balloon and as it ascended, he found that the... electroscope discharged more rapidly as it ascended. He determined that this reaction was caused by a source of radiation that entered the

  13. How I treat hypereosinophilic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a group of rare disorders characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia of 1.5 × 109/L or higher and evidence of end organ manifestations attributable to the eosinophilia and not otherwise explained in the clinical setting. HESs are pleomorphic in clinical presentation and can be idiopathic or associated with a variety of underlying conditions, including allergic, rheumatologic, infectious, and neoplastic disorders. Moreover, the etiology of the eosinophilia in HESs can be primary (myeloid), secondary (lymphocyte-driven), or unknown. Although corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for most forms of HESs, the availability of an increasing number of novel therapeutic agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, has necessarily altered the approach to treatment of HESs. This review presents an updated treatment-based approach to the classification of patients with presumed HES and discusses the roles of conventional and novel agents in the management of these patients. PMID:25964669

  14. Modern Tactics in the Moral Domain: Smart Weapons and the Production of the Combat Stress Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-19

    Kubie , Karl A. Menninger, John Romano, and John C. Whitehorn, "Combat Exhaustion," The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v. 104 (July-Dec, 1946), pp...Bartemeier, Leo H., Kubie , Lawrence, Menninger, Karl A.,Romano, John, & Whitehorn, John C., "Combat Exhaustion." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v

  15. Sound and Complete Elimination of Singleton Kinds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Karl Crary and Stephanie Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In 1999 ACM International Conference on Functional Programming, pages 233-248, Paris...September 1999. [3] Karl Crary, Stephanie Weirich , and Greg Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure seman- tics. In 1998 ACM International

  16. Joint Special Operations University SOF-Power Workshop: A Way Forward for Special Operations Theory and Strategic Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY: 2004. Lawrence, T.E. Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Doubleday, Doran and Co., Garden City, NY: 1935. Marx , Karl . The...Pocket Books, New York: 2004. Marx , Karl . The Communist Manifesto. W.W. Norton and Co., New York: 1988. Rangarajan, L.N. Kautilya: The

  17. Cell-NPE (Numerical Performance Evaluation): Programming the IBM Cell Broadband Engine -- A General Parallelization Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) HPCC-Space GmbH Karl-Scharfenbergstr. 55-57 Salzgitter 38229 Germany 8...Aeronautical Science EOARD, London HPCC-Space GmbH Jochem Hauser, Torsten Gollnick Karl-Scharfenberg-Str.55, 38229 Salzgitter , Germany April 2008

  18. Preventing a Hollow Army: 20th Century Lessons for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    1971-1976. Source: Karl E. Cocke, William G. Bell, John B. Corr, Romana M. Danysh, Walter G. Hermes, James E. Hewes Jr., and Thomas E. Kelly III...KS: USACGS. Cocke, Karl E., William G. Bell, John B. Corr, Romana M. Danysh, Walter G. Hermes, James e. Hewes Jr., and Thomas E. Kelly III. 1977

  19. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  20. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....