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  1. Remote mobile health service utilization post 2005 Kashmir-Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jacqueline J

    2010-06-01

    Limited published studies have examined patient characteristics and disease patterns served by mobile clinics in remote areas post natural disaster. By comparing users of a remote mountainous stationary clinic and a mobile helicopter outreach clinic in Neelam Valley, 4 months post Pakistan-Kashmir earthquake, this study aims to: (i) compare the demographic and disease profile of health service users, (ii) examine how acute and chronic disease patterns vary with clinical settings, and (iii) discuss the potential implications to mobile emergency clinical service planning acute phase of natural disaster in remote areas. Cross-sectional, retrospective record-based study in two remote clinical settings in Neelam Valley, Kashmir-Pakistan. Patients who presented to clinics from 21 January to 20 February, and whose diagnoses were available, were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and chi significance tests were conducted. Different users and disease profiles were found between mobile and stationary clinics. While older age, female sex, living further way from clinics, earthquake-related trauma, wound and gastrointestinal infections were found to be more significantly associated with mobile clinic users, stationary clinics patients tended to be younger, living closer to the clinic site, and disease profiles were predominantly chronic in nature. In addition to the provision of acute and chronic medical clinical service, mobile clinics operating during post acute emergency phase of natural disaster in remote areas should be sex sensitive, with highly trained and experienced staff as well as the capacity to provide trauma care.

  2. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface Rupture of the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan, Earthquake and its Active Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, H.; Nakata, T.; Tsutsumi, H.; Kondo, H.; Sugito, N.; Awata, Y.; Akhtar, S. S.; Majid, A.; Khattak, W.; Awan, A. A.; Yeats, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of Mw 7.6 struck the westernmost area of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, resulting in the worst earthquake disaster ever recorded along the frontal Himalaya. Although none of the historical Himalayan earthquakes is reported to have produced primary surface rupture, our field mapping reveals that the 2005 earthquake accompanied a NW-trending ~70-km-long distinctive surface rupture with maximum and mean vertical separations of ~7 m and ~3 m, respectively. Typical surface expression of faulting is a NE-side-up fault scarp or warp with surface shortening features at its base and tension cracks on its crest. Bulging and back-tilting are also observed on the upthrown side at many places. The surface rupture is subdivided into three geometrical segments separated by small steps. Location of the hypocenter suggests that the rupture was initiated at a deep portion of the northern-central segment boundary and bilaterally propagated to eventually break three segments. Mapped surface rupture trace clearly shows that neither the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) nor the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) is responsible for the earthquake, but a geomorphologically-evident active fault within the Sub-Himalaya, the Balakot-Garhi fault, is a causative fault, although a part of the Balakot-Garhi fault appears to coincide with the surface trace of the MBT. Cumulative vertical separation of the most extensively recognized fluvial terrace surface is 7-8 times larger than the 2005 separation, implying occurrence of 7-8 similar earthquakes after the surface abandonment. If this deeply-incised fill surface is related to sediment yield increase due to the last major glaciation around 20 ka, the rupture interval and vertical slip rate of the Balakot-Garhi fault are estimated to be on the order of ~3000 years and ~1 mm/yr, respectively. By using the seismologically determined fault dip of ~30 degrees, horizontal shortening rate across the fault is then

  4. Comparision of health needs of older people between affected rural and urban areas after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Griffiths, Sian

    2009-01-01

    On 08 October 2005, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale, struck Pakistan's autonomous state of Kashmir and part of Indian-administrated Kashmir.The official death toll in Pakistan was 79,000, and nearly 1,400 in Kashmir. This study reports the findings of a three-week health needs assessment to understand the needs of rural, older people postearthquake. This study was conducted in February 2006 in the Neelum Valley of Kashmir, Pakistan, four months after the earthquake. During emergency relief, the vulnerability and health needs of older people in rural settings are different than are those in of urban areas. A comparative, descriptive study was performed using health information to compare the differences between rural and urban health needs and the utilization of services of older people after the earthquake. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect information regarding demographic background, medical and drug history, self-reported health status, healthcare access and utilization, and social/financial concerns. Clinical records were reviewed and physical indicators for older patients also were collected on-site. The health profile, access to health care, service availability, and prevalence of non-communicable diseases differ between urban and rural settings. The greatest gap in health services at all sites was that non-communicable disease management was inadequate during non-acute, post-earthquake medical care. Health service utilization varied by gender, as in conservative rural areas, older, traditional women were less likely to receive medical services while older men were less likely to access psychological services in all sites. This is the first study to compare the post-earthquake healthcare needs of older people in urban and rural settings. Findings highlight specific health needs and issues related to long-term, chronic disease management. Given the global pattern of aging of the population, it is important to strengthen the

  5. Conferees Examine Deadly 2005 Kashmir Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Kausar, Allah Bakhsh; Nakata, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The last major urban earthquake to strike Pakistan prior to 2005 severely damaged the city of Quetta in 1935 and killed 35,000 people. In the last 70 years, although much progress has been made in studying the location of active faults and zones of seismicity in Pakistan, the general public in Pakistan has not yet fully understood or recognized the earthquake hazard. The near-destruction of two towns- Balakot in the North-West Frontier Province, and Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu Kashmir Province-and the deaths of more than 70,000 people caused by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) led the government of Pakistan to request a scientific response and plan of action. Accordingly, the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) organized a recent international conference, which was attended by Pakistani scientists and participants from Austria, France, India, Iran, Japan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States [Kausar et al., 2006].

  6. Why are older peoples' health needs forgotten post-natural disaster relief in developing countries? A healthcare provider survey of 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang

    2009-01-01

    Although older people may be recognized as a vulnerable group post-natural disasters, their particular needs are rarely met by the providers of emergency services. Studies about older people's health needs post disasters in the South East Asia Tsunami, Kashmir, Pakistan, China, and United States has revealed the lack of concern for older people's health needs. Recent study of older people's health needs post the Kashmir Pakistan earthquake (2005) found older peoples' health needs were masked within the general population. This survey study examines the providers' perceptions of older people's vulnerabilities post-2005 Pakistan earthquake. It aims to understand the awareness of geriatric issues and issues related to current service provision/planning for older people's health needs post disasters. Specifically, service delivery patterns will be compared among different relief agencies. Cross-sectional, structured stakeholder interviews were conducted within a 2 weeks period in February 2006, 4 months post-earthquake in Pakistan-administrated Kashmir. Health/medical relief agencies of three different types of organizational nature: international nongovernmental organization (INGO), national organization, and local/community group were solicited to participate in the study. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Important issues identified include the need to sensitize relief and health workers about older people's health needs post disaster the development of relevant clinical guidelines for chronic disease management postdisaster in developing countries and the advocacy of building in geriatric related components in natural disaster medical relief programs. To effectively address the vulnerability of older people, it is important for governments, relief agencies, and local partners to include and address these issues during their relief operations and policy planning.

  7. Characteristics and health outcomes of internally displaced population in unofficial rural self-settled camps after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jacqueline J

    2010-06-01

    No published study, to date, has examined the characteristics and health outcomes of natural disaster-affected populations in unofficial rural self-settled internally displaced camps. By examining resident profiles in various unofficial rural displaced settlements after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake, this study aims to (i) describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of residents, (ii) compare their health outcomes with those of residents in official displaced camps, and (iii) highlight health needs and discuss implications for future disaster health relief operations. A cross-sectional, cluster-sampling, face-to-face household survey was conducted in 167 households in various forms of internally displaced camps within a 185 km radius around Muzafarabad city 4 months after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake. Demographic characteristics, earthquake damage, and self-reported health outcomes were collected from these camps, and descriptive statistics were determined and chi significance comparison conducted. Significant differences in demographic characteristics and health outcomes were found according to the size of the unofficial internally displaced camps. Although residents of larger unofficial self-settled camps seemed to have similar characteristics and health outcomes to residents of official camps, those living in smaller unofficial camps had the largest average family size; received the least assistance and resources to sustain livelihood; had less access to information, medical service, and chronic disease medication for underlying medical problems; and worse self-reported health outcomes. The study results indicate that future post-earthquake medical relief operations should evaluate health needs and consider delivery of direct medical assistance to small unofficial self-settled camps in affected rural communities.

  8. October 08, 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake: New Data on the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone and its extension into the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NW Himalayas of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisa, M.; Khwaja, A.; Jan, M.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper deals with the data obtained from local networks in northern Pakistan for 251 earthquakes of magnitude ¡Ý 4.0 for October 8, 2005 to December 31, 2006 period. The study presents focal mechanism solutions (FMS) of 12 pre- (1904-2005) and 17 post- (October 8, 2005-December, 2005) Muzaffarabad Earthquake, their detailed tectonic interpretation, and correlation with surface evidence of co-seismic rupture with published Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Distribution of landslides obtained from National Engineering Services of Pakistan and the earthquake damages are also discussed. Aftershock distribution, which is more prominent in the crystalline zone (northwest of Muzaffarabad), defines a 50 km wide NW-SE trending zone that extends for 200 km from the Main Mantle Thrust to the centre of the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis (HKS). The FMS of the main shock and 16 aftershocks having magnitude ¡Ý 4.0 indicate thrusting to be the dominant mechanism with rupture planes having NW-SE trend and NE dip. In addition, 12 FMS of pre-Muzaffarabad Earthquake (1904- 2004) from the same area have been determined and results are compared. This leads to the conclusion that the wedge-shaped NW-SE trending blind zone, referred to by earlier workers as the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ), has been activated during the Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The right-lateral component in all FMS, supported by the surface evidences, suggests the involvement of Balakot-Bagh Fault (BBF). We propose that the IKSZ is the source of the October 8, 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake that reactivated the BBF. Furthermore, the IKSZ does not end at the nose of the syntaxis, but extends further southeast of it. Tectonic complexity seems to be due to a variety of factors. Also, thrust and reverse solutions near the northern collisional boundary (Main Mantle Thrust) have mostly NE-SW directed P-axis orientations. From the detailed FMS analysis, three conclusions have been drawn: 1) Shallow events (depth ¡Ü 10

  9. Investigation of atmospheric anomalies associated with Kashmir and Awaran Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Irfan; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Qaiser, Saddam

    2017-02-01

    The earthquake precursors' anomalies at diverse elevation ranges over the seismogenic region and prior to the seismic events are perceived using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) techniques and reanalysis datasets. In the current research, seismic precursors are obtained by analyzing anomalies in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Air Temperature (AT), and Relative Humidity (RH) before the two strong Mw>7 earthquakes in Pakistan occurred on 8th October 2005 in Azad Jammu Kashmir with Mw 7.6, and 24th September 2013 in Awaran, Balochistan with Mw 7.7. Multi-parameter data were computed based on multi-year background data for anomalies computation. Results indicate significant transient variations in observed parameters before the main event. Detailed analysis suggests presence of pre-seismic activities one to three weeks prior to the main earthquake event that vanishes after the event. These anomalies are due to increase in temperature after release of gases and physical and chemical interactions on earth surface before the earthquake. The parameter variations behavior for both Kashmir and Awaran earthquake events are similar to other earthquakes in different regions of the world. This study suggests that energy release is not concentrated to a single fault but instead is released along the fault zone. The influence of earthquake events on lightning were also investigated and it was concluded that there is a significant atmospheric lightning activity after the earthquake suggesting a strong possibility for an earthquake induced thunderstorm. This study is valuable for identifying earthquake precursors especially in earthquake prone areas.

  10. Very High Resolution Optical Images for Detecting Co-seismic Surface Effects: the Cases of the 2005 Kashmir (Pakistan) and the 2003 Bam (Iran) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Stramondo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite panchromatic image has revealed to be a reliable tool to detect surface effects of natural disasters. This is particularly true whereas the hit territory is a remote land and/or with logistic and security problems. Data from this kind of sensor have a potential for more exhaustive and accurate mapping of the environment with details of sub-meter ground resolution. We show two large earthquake case studies, the 2005 Mw 7.6 Kashmir and the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam events, both producing significant surface effects as ruptures, landslides and building damages. In order to test the capability of VHR images to recognize and evaluate such features we used panchromatic QuickBird imagery (0.6 m spatial resolution) acquired before and after the events (kindly provided by DigitalGlobe). Concerning the Pakistan we focus on the Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas, both crossed by the earthquake fault and experiencing edifice collapses. Same sort of analysis is performed for the ancient town of Bam. We proceed with: 1. identification on the images of the main rupture trace and of major landslides; 2. generation of a detailed spatial distribution of damage and collapses through a single building automatic classification approach; 3. cross-comparison of the different surface effects. The QuickBird panchromatic images provide a view of the co-seismic features at large scale, revealing complex geometric pattern of the cracks and compressional deformation features. It is possible to detect the lateral sense of movement, and based on the sun shade projection in the images, we infer the facing of the scarp, thus the uplifted side. Regarding point two, if in one hand the use of QuickBird images leads to detect very small details, on the other hand buildings become rather complex structures. Furthermore they may be surrounded by scattering objects making less evident the contrast between the roofs and the ground, thus increasing the difficulties in the

  11. A review of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-induced landslides; from a remote sensing prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad; van der Meijde, Mark; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-03-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, supported with field observations, to develop inventories of the earthquake-triggered landslides, analyzed their spatial distribution and subsequently developed landslide-susceptibility maps. Earthquake causative fault rupture, geology, anthropogenic activities and remote sensing derived topographic attributes were observed to have major influence on the spatial distribution of landslides. These were subsequently used to develop a landslide susceptibility map, thereby demarcating the areas prone to landsliding. Temporal studies monitoring the earthquake-induced landslides shows that the earthquake-induced landslides are stabilized, contrary to earlier belief, directly after the earthquake. The biggest landslide induced dam, as a result of the massive Hattian Bala landslide, is still posing a threat to the surrounding communities. It is observed that remote sensing data is effectively and efficiently used to assess the landslides triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, however, there is still a need of more research to understand the mechanism of intensity and distribution of landslides; and their continuous monitoring using remote sensing data at a regional scale. This paper, provides an overview of remote sensing and GIS applications, for the Kashmir-earthquake triggered landslides, derived outputs and discusses the lessons learnt, advantages, limitations and recommendations for future research.

  12. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  13. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  14. Rate and predictors of psychotic symptoms after Kashmir earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Kingdon, David; Naeem, Farooq

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic symptoms are more common in general population than validated diagnosis of psychosis. There is evidence to suggest that these symptoms, hallucinations, paranoia, elated mood, thought insertion, are part of a spectrum of psychosis and may have association with the same risk factors that determine development of psychosis. These symptoms have an association with exposure to psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the population affected by a natural disaster, earthquake in this case and possible correlates of these symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a population sample affected by the disaster, comprising of 1,291 individuals, 18 months after 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir to look at the prevalence of these symptoms and their correlates. Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors and Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Psychosis Screening Questionnaire were used as tools. We examined association between the symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD and psychotic symptoms. We performed logistic regression analysis where hallucinations and delusions were dependent variables and demographic and trauma exposure variables were independent variables. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms ranged between 16.8 and 30.4 %. They were directly correlated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder as well as concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Lower level of education had a strong association in all the regression models. For hallucinations, living in a joint family had a negative association and participation in rescue, history of exposure to previous trauma and past psychiatric history had positive association. Paranoia was associated with female gender. Any psychiatric symptom was associated death of a family member, history of past psychiatric illness and living in a tent at the time of

  15. The M=7.6 Earthquake in the Pakistani-Administered Region of Kashmir on Oct. 8, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Q.; Nisar, A.; Mooney, W. D.; Loeffler, K.

    2006-12-01

    On October 8, 2005 a M=7.6 earthquake struck the northwestern portion of the Himalayan region. Damage was extensive in the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The mainshock occurred at 03:50 (UTC/GMT), 8:50 AM local time with the epicenter located in the Kishenganga (Neelam) Valley, approximately 100 km north of Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad. The earthquake ruptured the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone, accompanied by rupture of the Balakot-Bagh fault that runs along the Jhelum River in the northwest direction and passes close to the city of Muzaffarabad (Capital of Pakistani-administered Kashmir), and Balakot. The tremors lasted for about 50 seconds. Approximately 200,000 houses collapsed and entire towns and villages were destroyed (Harp &Crone, 2006; Parsons et al., 2006). The northern regions of Mansehra and Muzaffarabad were the worst-affected areas, and the majority of deaths occurred in the town of Muzaffarabad where an estimated 80% of the buildings collapsed. The nearby town of Balakot was completely destroyed along with several mountain villages. It is estimated that approximately 87,000 people were killed, and 74,000 were injured (Parsons et al., 2006; Khattri, 1986, Rai & Murty, 2006). Within 24 hours of the mainshock, aftershocks were registered of which more than 20 were over M=5.0. Since Pakistan's formation in 1947, the population has increased from c. 32 Million to c. 165 Million today. The official average is 166 persons/km2, but the population-density varies significantly throughout the country. Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore (up to 550 persons/km2) have some of the highest densities in the world. Because of the population increase in Pakistan, there are larger settlements and cities developing in earthquake-prone regions. This subjects more people to potential seismic hazards. As demonstrated during the recent earthquake, construction in the earthquake-prone areas is highly

  16. Landslide in Kashmir

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-12

    This image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on Oct. 11, 2005, depicts a 30-kilometer 19-mile wide region southeast of the epicenter of the magnitude 7.6 Pakistan earthquake, between Muzaffarabad and Uri in the Pir Punjal range of Kashmir.

  17. Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean F.

    2009-07-01

    The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.

  18. Pakistan’s Kashmir Policy and Strategy Since 1947

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    of the conflict lies in the partition of the Indian subcontinent and each nation’s struggle for identity. Since Kashmir’s population was seventy...Defense Donald Rumsfeld linked the Kashmir struggle to the primary target of the U.S. war on terror when he stated that he had “seen indications...not account for the near unanimous support Pakistan’s policy in Kashmir receives from the population and throughout the government. On the whole

  19. Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Khattak, G.A.; Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.; Bauer, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides. These were mainly rock falls and debris falls, although translational rock and debris slides also occurred. In addition, a sturzstrom (debris avalanche) comprising ??? 80??million m3 buried four villages and blocked streams to create two lakes. Although landsliding occurred throughout the region, covering an area of > 7500??km2, the failures were highly concentrated, associated with six geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings, including natural failures in (1) highly fractured carbonate rocks comprising the lowest beds in the hanging wall of the likely earthquake fault; (2) Tertiary siliciclastic rocks along antecedent drainages that traverse the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis; (3) steep (> 50??) slopes comprising Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic rocks; (4) very steep (?? 50??) lower slopes of fluvially undercut Quaternary valley fills; and (5) ridges and spur crests. The sixth setting was associated with road construction. Extensive fissuring in many of the valley slopes together with the freshly mobilized landslide debris constitutes a potential hazard in the coming snowmelt and monsoon seasons. This study supports the view that earthquake-triggered landslides are highly concentrated in specific zones associated with the lithology, structure, geomorphology, topography, and human presence. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Landslides Triggered by October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Irfan; Qureshi, Shahid Nadeem; Tariq, Shahina; Atique, Luqman; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake. These landslides were mainly rock and debris falls. Hattian Bala rock avalanche was largest landslide associated with the earthquake which completely destroyed a village and blocked the valley creating a lake. Discussion: The present study shows that the fault rupture and fault geometry have direct influence on the distribution of landslides and that along the rupture zone a high frequency band of landslides was triggered. There was an increase in number of landslides due to 2005 earthquake and its aftershocks and that most of earthquakes have occurred along faults, rivers and roads. It is observed that the stability of landslide mass is greatly influenced by amplitude, frequency and duration of earthquake induced ground motion. Most of the slope failures along the roads resulted from the alteration of these slopes during widening of the roads, and seepages during the rainy season immediately after the earthquake. Conclusion: Landslides occurred mostly along weakly cemented and indurated rocks, colluvial sand and cemented soils. It is also worth noting that fissures and ground crack which were induced by main and after shock are still present and they pose a major potential threat for future landslides in case of another earthquake activity or under extreme weather conditions. PMID:26366324

  1. Analysis of Landslides Triggered by October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Irfan; Qureshi, Shahid Nadeem; Tariq, Shahina; Atique, Luqman; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-08-26

    The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake. These landslides were mainly rock and debris falls. Hattian Bala rock avalanche was largest landslide associated with the earthquake which completely destroyed a village and blocked the valley creating a lake. The present study shows that the fault rupture and fault geometry have direct influence on the distribution of landslides and that along the rupture zone a high frequency band of landslides was triggered. There was an increase in number of landslides due to 2005 earthquake and its aftershocks and that most of earthquakes have occurred along faults, rivers and roads. It is observed that the stability of landslide mass is greatly influenced by amplitude, frequency and duration of earthquake induced ground motion. Most of the slope failures along the roads resulted from the alteration of these slopes during widening of the roads, and seepages during the rainy season immediately after the earthquake.  Landslides occurred mostly along weakly cemented and indurated rocks, colluvial sand and cemented soils. It is also worth noting that fissures and ground crack which were induced by main and after shock are still present and they pose a major potential threat for future landslides in case of another earthquake activity or under extreme weather conditions.

  2. Consanguinity and its sociodemographic differentials in Bhimber District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nazish; Malik, Sajid

    2014-06-01

    Kashmiri population in the northeast of Pakistan has strong historical, cultural and linguistic affinities with the neighbouring populations of upper Punjab and Potohar region of Pakistan. However, the study of consanguineous unions, which are customarily practised in many populations of Pakistan, revealed marked differences between the Kashmiris and other populations of northern Pakistan with respect to the distribution of marriage types and inbreeding coefficient (F). The current descriptive epidemiological study carried out in Bhimber district of Mirpur division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, demonstrated that consanguineous marriages were 62% of the total marriages (F=0.0348). First-cousin unions were the predominant type of marriages and constituted 50.13% of total marital unions. The estimates of inbreeding coefficient were higher in the literate subjects, and consanguinity was witnessed to be rising with increasing literacy level. Additionally, consanguinity was observed to be associated with ethnicity, family structure, language, and marriage arrangements. Based upon these data, a distinct sociobiological structure, with increased stratification and higher genomic homozygosity, is expected for this Kashmiri population. In this communication, we present detailed distribution of the types of marital unions and the incidences of consanguinity and inbreeding coefficient (F) across various sociodemographic strata of Bhimber/Mirpuri population. The results of this study would have implication not only for other endogamous populations of Pakistan but also for the sizeable Kashmiri community immigrated to Europe.

  3. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  4. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  5. Epidemiology and impact of early rehabilitation of spinal trauma after the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Keshkar, Sanjay; Kumar, Ratnesh; Bharti, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-10-01

    The Kashmir earthquake, also known as the South Asia earthquake, hit Jammu and Kashmir (India) on 8th October 2005 (registered as 7.6 on Richter scale) and was quite devastating, with the official toll being 1,360 (some estimates being around 1,800). The injured registered around 6,300. In such an enormous disaster, rescue operations, relief and rehabilitation is a great challenge. One week after the Kashmir earthquake (2005), a multidisciplinary rehabilitation team headed by the corresponding author went to Srinagar (Kashmir). The purpose was to tackle the medical rehabilitation issues of the victims of the earthquake and later study the epidemiology of various injuries, especially the spinal injuries, so as to improve the future rehabilitation strategies in similar scenarios. This is a single-phase, hospital-based study of spinal injury patients of the Kashmir earthquake (October 2005) admitted in various hospitals of Srinagar (the capital city of Kashmir, India) and around it. This was conducted one week after the Kashmir earthquake (October 2005). Detailed history of patients, clinical and radiological evaluation was done. In consultation with neurosurgeons and spine surgeons, issues of rehabilitation were noted, and need based on early rehabilitation care was provided by means of rehabilitation orthoses (aids/appliances), physiotherapy, psychotherapy, etc. Out of 2,621 cases who received various injuries (as per records of different hospitals and health institutions), 1,366 (52.11%) were referred to different health institutions of Kashmir valley, of which 429 (31.40%) cases were admitted for orthopaedic intervention at different referral hospitals of Srinagar and Baramula. Out of 429 admitted patients of different hospitals, we covered 266 patients of four major hospitals, of which 38 (12.33%) cases were spinal injuries, 20 cases (52.7%) had dorsolumber segment involvement with 12 cases (31.5%) having cervical and six cases (15.8%) sacrococcigeal injury. In a

  6. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2017-03-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (<1.0) indicates a higher stress regime in all the zones except Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  7. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (<1.0) indicates a higher stress regime in all the zones except Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  8. Coulomb stress change due to 2005 Kashmir earthquake and implications for future seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, Vineet K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate static stress change due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake ( M = 7.6). We suggest that the earthquake caused significant increase in stress in the Indo-Kohistan seismic zone (IKSZ) region, lying to the NW of the rupture and moderate increase in the adjacent Himalayan region, lying to the SE of rupture. Thus, these regions have been brought closer to the failure. On the other hand, the Salt Range region lies in the stress shadow of the earthquake, implying that future earthquakes in this region will be inhibited. We find that this earthquake may not be compared with typical Himalayan earthquake, and hence, rupture features of this earthquake may not be directly applicable to the earthquakes of the Himalayan region.

  9. Coulomb stress change due to 2005 Kashmir earthquake and implications for future seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, Vineet K.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate static stress change due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake ( M = 7.6). We suggest that the earthquake caused significant increase in stress in the Indo-Kohistan seismic zone (IKSZ) region, lying to the NW of the rupture and moderate increase in the adjacent Himalayan region, lying to the SE of rupture. Thus, these regions have been brought closer to the failure. On the other hand, the Salt Range region lies in the stress shadow of the earthquake, implying that future earthquakes in this region will be inhibited. We find that this earthquake may not be compared with typical Himalayan earthquake, and hence, rupture features of this earthquake may not be directly applicable to the earthquakes of the Himalayan region.

  10. Source Properties of the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake and its Aftershocks: Seismotectonics of J&K Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Powali, D.; Kumar, A.; Penney, C.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 October 8 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) occurred NW of Muzaffarabad, Pakistan and produce a well documented surface rupture. This was followed by a series of moderate to strong aftershocks. Global CMT solution revealed that the mainshock occurred on an oblique thrust fault at a centroid depth of 12 km. We use global dataset to study (a) the rupture time history and source mechanism of the mainshock, and (b) source mechanism of the larger aftershocks (Mw > 5.0) to unravel the seismotectonics of the region.Back projection results of the mainshock reveals that the rupture initiated at the center of the faulted segment of the MHT and propagated bi-laterally to the SE and NW. The rupture occurred over 50 seconds duration with a distinct source time function (STF) pulse at 10 seconds. Moment tensor inversion of long period teleseismic P- and SH waveform data of the mainshock reveals oblique thrust fault with strike, dip and rake of 329°, 30° and 124°, respectively, and centroid depth of 9±3 km. The source mechanism of the aftershocks reveals that these events lie between depth of 5 and 9 km and occurred on NE dipping oblique thrust faults with strike, dip and rake ranging between 310°-340°, 34°-61° and 80°-100°, respectively. From their spatial distribution and focal mechanisms, it is evident that these aftershocks occurred at the edges of the mainshock rupture and resulted in release of residual stress following the mainshock.

  11. Three Cups of Tea: Building Collaborations to Assess Earthquake Hazard in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Modern Methods in Seismic Hazard Assessment; Nagarkot, Nepal, 8-12 June 2009; The M7.6 Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, earthquake struck the Pakistani Kashmir on 8 October 2005, claiming more than 80,000 lives. The earthquake underscored two points about earthquake hazard in Pakistan: first, that it is high, and, second, that it is poorly understood. In Karachi, for example, hazard is generally considered to be low, yet this rapidly growing megacity is as close to a major strike-slip fault system as Los Angeles is to the San Andreas fault. The Pakistani engineering community has sought guidance from seismologists on improved characterization of seismic hazard. This requires both improved hazard assessment methodology and improved constraints on the critical inputs to seismic hazard maps, for example, assessment of fault slip rates and geological site characterization. These inputs are currently unavailable. Efforts to map seismicity and attenuation and to estimate fault slip rates have been hampered by political instability. Yet there is no shortage of intellectual energy—Pakistan boasts an eager community of trained earthquake professionals.

  12. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Mir Ajab; Hussain, Mazhar; Mujtaba, Ghulam

    2014-09-01

    The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.

  13. Static stress change from the 8 October, 2005 M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Yeats, R.S.; Yagi, Y.; Hussain, A.

    2006-01-01

    We calculated static stress changes from the devastating M = 7.6 earthquake that shook Kashmir on 8 October, 2005. We mapped Coulomb stress change on target fault planes oriented by assuming a regional compressional stress regime with greatest principal stress directed orthogonally to the mainshock strike. We tested calculation sensitivity by varying assumed stress orientations, target-fault friction, and depth. Our results showed no impact on the active Salt Range thrust southwest of the rupture. Active faults north of the Main Boundary thrust near Peshawar fall in a calculated stress-decreased zone, as does the Raikot fault zone to the northeast. We calculated increased stress near the rupture where most aftershocks occurred. The greatest increase to seismic hazard is in the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone near the Indus River northwest of the rupture termination, and southeast of the rupture termination near the Kashmir basin.

  14. Earthquake Births New Island off Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On September 24, 2013, a major strike-slip earthquake rattled western Pakistan, killing at least 350 people and leaving more than 100,000 homeless. The 7.7 magnitude quake struck the Baluchistan province of northwestern Pakistan. Amidst the destruction, a new island was created offshore in the Paddi Zirr (West Bay) near Gwadar, Pakistan. On September 26, 2013, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured the top image of that new island, which sits roughly one kilometer (0.6 miles) offshore. Likely a “mud volcano,” the island rose from the seafloor near Gwadar on September 24, shortly after the earthquake struck about 380 kilometers (230 miles) inland. The lower image, acquired by the Operational Land Imager on the Landsat 8 satellite, shows the same area on April 17, 2013. In the satellite images, lighter shades of green and tan in the water reveal shallow seafloor or suspended sediment. The water depth around the new island is roughly 15 to 20 meters (50 to 65 feet), according to marine geologist Asif Inam of Pakistan’s National Institute of Oceanography. “The floor in that area is generally flat, but the gradient in this area changes quite abruptly,” Inam said. The top image from ALI is also clear enough to show the parallel ripples of waves marching toward the shore. Read more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=82146 NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Determination of boron contents in water samples collected from the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Matiullah; Iqbal, Arshid; Husaini, S N; Malik, Fariha

    2011-03-01

    Intake of boron from food and drinking water may pose a risk to the public health above a certain concentration level. Therefore, knowledge of boron concentration in drinking water and food items is essential. In this context, samples of drinking water were collected from natural springs of the Neelum valley, Azad Kashmir, hit by devastating earthquake in 2005. In these samples, boron concentration was determined using neutron-induced radiography technique. To do so, unknown water samples, along with standard of known boron dried on CR-39 detectors, were irradiated with thermal neutrons. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6 M NaOH at 70°C. The tracks produced due to the alpha particles and (7)Li ions as a result of (10)B(n,α)(7)Li reaction were counted under an optical microscope. The tracks produced in theses samples were then related to the boron contents. The measured boron concentration in water samples was found to vary from 0.105 ± 0.005 to 0.247 ± 0.013 mg/l with an average value of 0.17 ± 0.04 mg/l, which are within the acceptable limits.

  16. Rock magnetic properties and structural development in the core of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NE Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossart, Paul; Ottiger, Robert; Heller, Friedrich

    1990-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural analyses have been conducted on three well-exposed sections through a 6-8 km thick pile of molassic red beds (Murree formation) in the lowermost tectonic unit of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis. Micropaleontological age determinations of the lowermost Murree sediments indicate Late Paleocene deposition (55 m.y.). From south to north, the sections are situated in the Jhelum, Neelum (both in Azad Kashmir), and Kaghan (northeastern Pakistan) valleys. Thermal demagnetization experiments suggest that haematite with high unblocking temperatures carries stable characteristic remanence directions. The relationship between finite strain and magnetic fabric was established by mapping deformed reduction spot strain markers and by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). For the Jhelum valley the weakly tectonized Murree beds are characterized by flattened AMS ellipsoids resulting from diagenetic compaction. Inclination values suggest that the Murree foreland basin started to develop at about 8°N during the early suturing of India and the development of island arcs to the north. India has moved northward by at least 2600 km since collision with Eurasia in the Paleocene. Declination values suggest 45° of clockwise rotation of the block supporting the Murree formation relative to the Indian craton. For the Neelum and Kaghan valleys, quantitative strain mapping shows a progressive increase of deformation northward. NRM directions rotate passively toward the cleavage plane which parallels the foliation of the AMS ellipsoids. NRM directions and AMS ellipsoids are deformed because of superposition of tectonic strain on a primary compactional strain. The AMS pattern is interpreted in light of this superposition, and a regional deformation path from south to north is suggested. A tectonic rotation model is proposed which is consistent with the transport directions around the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis and the rotation of thrust sheets

  17. Kashmir--The Key to Peace in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Even Jinnah stated during the partition process that Kashmir must join Pakistan.46 Pakistan and Kashmir would be first to enter into a signed agreement...Kashmir is through a religious context. By the general policy of partition Kashmir, being a majority Muslim state, should have acceded to Pakistan and...representation without input or protest to the British plan of partition and the drawing of boundaries. Pakistan, therefore, does not recognize

  18. Kashmir -- Key to Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    223. 1]lbid. As a means of pressure on Kashmir to accede to Pakistan, which was clearly assumed by Mohammed Ali Jinnah , Prime Minister of...would meet with Mohammed Ali Jinnah , the newly appointed Governor-General of Pakistan. Because ol illness Mr. Nehru did not I 8 make (he meeting. Mr...1 . INT [ODVC1 ION I Prelude 1 Purpose 2 2, THE KASHMIR DISPUTE 3 Gene r.i 1 3 Kashmi r 4 Partit ion 7 Invasion oi Kashmir by

  19. New data on the Indus Kohistan seismic zone and its extension into the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, NW Himalayas of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monalisa; Khwaja, Azam A.; Jan, M. Qasim; Yeats, Robert S.; Hussain, Ahmad; Khan, Shahid A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the data obtained from local networks in northern Pakistan for 251 earthquakes of magnitude ≥4.0 for October 8, 2005 to December 31, 2006 period. The study presents focal mechanism solutions (FMS) of 12 pre- (1904-2005) and 17 post- (October 8, 2005-December, 2005) Muzaffarabad Earthquake, their detailed tectonic interpretation, and correlation with surface evidence of co-seismic rupture with published synthetic aperture radar data. Distribution of landslides obtained from National Engineering Services of Pakistan and the earthquake damages are also discussed. Aftershock distribution, which is more prominent in the crystalline zone (northwest of Muzaffarabad), defines a 50-km-wide NW-SE trending zone that extends for 200 km from the main mantle thrust to the center of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis. The FMS of the main shock and 16 aftershocks having magnitude ≥4.0 indicate thrusting to be the dominant mechanism with rupture planes having NW-SE trend and NE dip. In addition, 12 FMS of pre-Muzaffarabad Earthquake (1904-2004) from the same area have been determined and results are compared. This leads to the conclusion that the wedge-shaped NW-SE trending blind zone, referred to by earlier workers as the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ), has been activated during the Muzaffarabad earthquake. The right-lateral component in all FMS, supported by the surface evidences, suggests the involvement of Balakot-Bagh Fault (BBF). We propose that the IKSZ is the source of the October 8, 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake that reactivated the BBF. Furthermore, the IKSZ does not end at the nose of the syntaxis but extends further southeast of it. Tectonic complexity seems to be due to a variety of factors. Also, thrust and reverse solutions near the northern collisional boundary (main mantle thrust) have mostly NE/SW-directed P-axis orientations. From the detailed FMS analysis, three conclusions have been drawn: (1) Shallow events (depth ≤10 km) with prominent

  20. Illuminating the seismicity pattern of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod

    2017-09-01

    Aftershocks of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake continued for many weeks and covered a region extending over an aperture exceeding 100 km. Several hundred events were recorded well at teleseismic distances while many hundreds more are only observed at regional distances. Existing earthquake catalogs for this sequence are poor given an unfavorable distribution of stations, a complex tectonic setting, lack of local and near-regional data, and under-exploitation of the most sensitive stations. Advances in automated signal processing, improvements in seismic velocity models, and innovations in multiple event location algorithms have made it worthwhile revisiting this sequence and attempting a large-scale relocation of the aftershocks. A vast number of new phase readings have been made on permanent and temporary seismic stations both at regional and teleseismic distances and the Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location program Bayesloc was employed in multiple stages, resulting in a far more structured distribution to the seismicity. The relocated aftershocks fall mainly into two distinct clusters. One cluster lies predominantly North East of the Balaklot-Bagh Thrust and South of the Main Central Thrust, with the October 8 main shock at its most northern point. The second cluster occupies the Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone, North of the Main Central Thrust and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. Both clusters lie North East of a NW-SE trending boundary almost parallel to the southern part of the surface rupture. An East South East trending strand of earthquakes extends from the most northerly turning point of the Main Central Thrust into the Kashmir Basin, and a scattering of events are located North of this line and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. The new location estimates result in those aftershocks with the most similar focal mechanisms being far more spatially clustered than in previously published catalogs. Mapping global CMT solutions before and

  1. Landslides triggered by the October 8, 2005, Pakistan earthquake and associated landslide-dammed reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The October 8, 2005, Kashmir earthquake (M 7.6) triggered several thousand landslides, mainly rock falls and rock slides, in the epicentral area near the cities of Muzafarrabad and Balakot, Pakistan. Most of these were shallow, coalescing rock slides emanating from highly sheared and deformed limestone and dolomite of the Precambrian Muzafarrabad Formation. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake is located approximately 32 kilometers southeast of Muzafarrabad in a tributary valley of the Jhelum River. This landslide is a debris avalanche of approximately 80 million cubic meters volume within the Miocene Murree Formation consisting of mixed sandstone, mudstone, shale, and limestone. The avalanche buried the village of Dandbeh and resulted in approximately 1,000 fatalities, according to local residents. The avalanche deposit traveled approximately 1.5 kilometers downslope and 300 meters or more up the opposite slope in the adjacent Karli stream drainage and also extended into the Tang stream drainage where the Tang stream joins the Karli drainage. The landslide mass has impounded two lakes within the blocked drainages. The lake in the Karli drainage was approximately 800 meters long and 20 meters deep as of December 19, 2005. The lake in the Tang drainage was approximately 400 meters long and 10 meters deep as of this same date. Downstream populations are at risk from possible flash flooding when these debris dams are overtopped by the reservoir water. The closest village, Hattian, is 2.8 kilometers downstream at the junction of the Jhelum River and the landslide-dammed Karli tributary. Other populations along the Jhelum River may also be at risk. Pakistan military engineers are preparing to construct a spillway within the landslide deposits to lessen the severity of the flood if the lake in the Karli stream drainage breaches the landslide dam catastrophically.

  2. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem Awan, Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Charles Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002-2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8 ± 6.47 pairs per km², with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002-2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed.

  3. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    AWAN, Muhammad Naeem; ALI, Hassan; LEE, David Charles

    2014-01-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002−2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8±6.47 pairs per km2, with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002−2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed. PMID:25017755

  4. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  5. Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in drinking water from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Khattak, N U; Qureshi, A A; Iqbal, A; Tufail, M; Qureshi, I E

    2004-03-01

    The analysis of uranium in water samples can be very helpful for providing guidelines to the general public regarding necessary remedial measures. A fission-track technique has been applied for the estimation of the uranium concentration in drinking water collected from natural springs of Muzaffarabad and hilly areas of Reshian, Azad Kashmir. The technique involved simultaneous irradiation with thermal neutrons of a sample and a standard in contact with a track detector, and the counting of the fission tracks in the detector from the (n, f) nuclear reaction. Uranium concentrations of the samples were determined by comparing fission-track density with that of a standard of known uranium concentration. Uranium concentration in water samples from the Muzaffarabad and Reshian area varied from 0.03 +/- 0.01 microgL(-1) to 6.67 +/- 0.14 microgL(-1) with an average of 1.36 +/- 0.05 microgL(-1). The observed concentrations of uranium in drinking water were found to be less than the Maximum Acceptable Concentration levels of 9-30 microgL(-1). Thus, the observed values are within safe limits as far as uranium related health hazards are concerned.

  6. The 2005, Mw 7.6 Kashmir earthquake: Sub-pixel correlation of ASTER images and seismic waveforms analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Ayoub, Francois; Leprince, Sebastien; Konca, Ozgun; Helmberger, Don V.

    2006-09-01

    We analyze the Mw7.6 Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, using sub-pixel correlation of ASTER images to measure ground deformation, and modeling seismic waveforms. The surface rupture is continuous over a distance of 75 km and cuts across the Hazara syntaxis reactivating the Tanda and the Muzaffarabad faults. North of Muzaffarabad the surface rupture coincides approximately with the MBT, on the southwestern flank of the syntaxis, although the two faults have opposite dip angles. The rupture terminates abruptly at the hairpin turn of the MBT showing a strong structural control. The fault offset is 4 m on average and peaks to 7 m northwest of Muzaffarabad. The rupture lasted about 25 s and propagated updip and bi-laterally by ˜ 2 km/s, with a rise time of 2-5 s. The shallowness and compactness of the rupture, both in time and space, provide an explanation for the intensity of destructions. This kind of analysis could be achieved as soon as a post-earthquake image is available, and would provide key information for early assessment of damages. The study sheds some light on seismic hazard in the Himalaya, and raises concern regarding the possibility of a repetition of the 1555 event which presumably ruptured the Himalayan front south of the Kashmir basin and may have reached a magnitude Mw > 8.

  7. Changes in gravitational parameters inferred from time variable GRACE data-A case study for October 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Matloob; Eshagh, Mehdi; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sadiq, M.; Fatolazadeh, Farzam

    2016-09-01

    The earth's gravity changes are attributed to the redistribution of masses within and/or on the surface of the earth, which are due to the frictional sliding, tensile cracking and/or cataclastic flow of rocks along the faults and detectable by earthquake events. Inversely, the gravity changes are useful to describe the earthquake seismicity over the active orogenic belts. The time variable gravimetric data are hardly available to the public domain. However, Gravity Recovery and Climatic Experiment (GRACE) is the only satellite mission dedicated to model the variation of the gravity field and an available source to the science community. Here, we have tried to envisage gravity changes in terms of gravity anomaly (Δg), geoid (N) and the gravity gradients over the Indo-Pak plate with emphasis upon Kashmir earthquake of October 2005. For this purpose, we engaged the spherical harmonic coefficients of monthly gravity solutions from the GRACE satellite mission, which have good coverage over the entire globe with unprecedented accuracy. We have analysed numerically the solutions after removing the hydrological signals, during August to November 2005, in terms of corresponding monthly differentials of gravity anomaly, geoid and the gradients. The regional structures like Main Mantle Thrust (MMT), Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT), Herat and Chaman faults are in closed association with topography and with gravity parameters from the GRACE gravimetry and EGM2008 model. The monthly differentials of these quantities indicate the stress accumulation in the northeast direction in the study area. Our numerical results show that the horizontal gravity gradients seem to be in good agreement with tectonic boundaries and differentials of the gravitational elements are subtle to the redistribution of rock masses and topography caused by 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Moreover, the gradients are rather more helpful for extracting the coseismic gravity signatures caused by seismicity over the area

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  9. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems

  10. Landslide in Kashmir 3-D Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-12

    This 3D image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on October 11, 2005 with digital topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It depicts a large landslide which occurred in Kashmir, Pakistan.

  11. Pakistani Options for Resolution of the Kashmir Dispute.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    were far from uniform in the degree of resistance that they put up against negotiated settlement. Of those that have persisted as major sources of...over Kashmir between Pakistan and India. The Kashmir issue was born amidst circumstances that were uniquely well tailored to stir up bitter...the dogra rajput ruler, the Afghans attacked Kashmir and in 1772, Jawan Sher set himself up as the independent ruler of Kashmir. The Afghan

  12. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Asghar; Ahmed, Sajjad; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Aamir; Khan, Muhammad Younis

    2015-10-01

    The seismotectonic structure of north Pakistan has been formed by ongoing collision between the Eurasian and Indian plates. North Pakistan and the adjoining areas experienced many large earthquakes in the past, which resulted in considerable damages and loss of life. A magnitude-homogenous earthquake catalogue for north Pakistan and its surrounding areas for the instrumental period from 1964 to 2007 is used for analysis. We presented seismicity picture of the Hindukush-Pamir-Karakoram (HPK), Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) and Hazara-Kashmir-Himalayas (HKH) using various histograms and time series plots of the dataset. The b-value for each accreted domain is derived separately and investigated through a process of mutual correlation. Our computed temporal variation of b-value in Hazara region shows a significant decrease prior to 2005 Kashmir earthquake.

  13. Profile of Patients Admitted in a Large Teaching Hospital as a Result of Earthquake in Kashmir During October 2005

    PubMed Central

    Yatoto, GH; Syed, AT; Rangrez, RA; Singh, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Among natural calamities Earthquakes are more devastating, as much of the life and property is affected. Methods: The study was carried- out in Accident & Emergency Department of SKIMS, to determine personnel and medical profile of earthquake victims of October 2005, when the state was rattled by a major tremor. Data was obtained from Accident & Emergency Department. Total no of patients Admitted were 166, which were followed from admission to discharge/Death. Each patient was subjected to a pretested questionnaire indicating age, sex, rural/urban distribution, Glasgow coma score, out come of treatment and referral to other care facility. Results: The study revealed that children were mostly affected, being the valnerable group. Most of the patients had head and bone injuries. 143 patients out of 166 patients had a Glasgow coma score of 15. Only 9 patients died. The reason for better end result was because of initial first Aid, Rapid transportatation to Hospital and prompt treatment in the Hospital. Conclusion: As Jammu and Kashmir falls in seismic zone 5, it needs a central trauma centre, having all the specialties and sub specialties under one roof. This will save precious time, as cross referral to other hospitals will not be needed PMID:21475539

  14. Profile of patients admitted in a large teaching hospital as a result of earthquake in kashmir during october 2005.

    PubMed

    Yatoto, Gh; Syed, At; Rangrez, Ra; Singh, Dara

    2009-07-01

    Among natural calamities Earthquakes are more devastating, as much of the life and property is affected. The study was carried- out in Accident & Emergency Department of SKIMS, to determine personnel and medical profile of earthquake victims of October 2005, when the state was rattled by a major tremor. Data was obtained from Accident & Emergency Department. Total no of patients Admitted were 166, which were followed from admission to discharge/Death. Each patient was subjected to a pretested questionnaire indicating age, sex, rural/urban distribution, Glasgow coma score, out come of treatment and referral to other care facility. The study revealed that children were mostly affected, being the valnerable group. Most of the patients had head and bone injuries. 143 patients out of 166 patients had a Glasgow coma score of 15. Only 9 patients died. The reason for better end result was because of initial first Aid, Rapid transportatation to Hospital and prompt treatment in the Hospital. As Jammu and Kashmir falls in seismic zone 5, it needs a central trauma centre, having all the specialties and sub specialties under one roof. This will save precious time, as cross referral to other hospitals will not be needed.

  15. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  16. Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies and Non-Communicable Diseases in Women of Age 12-75 Years in District Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nazish; Malik, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in the healthcare systems, stringent interventions for infectious diseases and improved diet has significantly shifted the patterns of morbidities, and consequently hereditary and congenital anomalies (CA) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, there is no systematic health surveillance system to assess the impact of such diseases particularly on the young and adult populations. In order to glean into the health and morbidity profile of Azad Jammu and Kashmir we have carried out an epidemiological study in Bhimber District in the north-east of Pakistan. A total of 1,731 female subjects of age 12-75 yr originating from Bhimber were recruited through a cross-sectional study. There were 74 cases (and 15 types) of CA with a prevalence estimate of 42.75/1,000. CA was significantly higher in subjects who were illiterate and married, speaking Pahari language and belonged to rural areas and nuclear families. Additionally, there were 104 cases (and 21 types) of NCDs (prevalence 60.08/1,000). NCDs were observed to have higher prevalence in subjects who were illiterate and married, speaking Punjabi language, and belonged to higher age groups and nuclear families. This study explores the types and dynamics of morbidity across the major socio-demographic parameters of adult females of Bhimber and would be helpful in estimating the impact of morbidity in this population. A comprehensive country-wide study is the need of the time to identify specific risk factors associated with certain morbidity types and help prioritize areas for interventions.

  17. Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies and Non-Communicable Diseases in Women of Age 12-75 Years in District Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    JABEEN, Nazish; MALIK, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The advancement in the healthcare systems, stringent interventions for infectious diseases and improved diet has significantly shifted the patterns of morbidities, and consequently hereditary and congenital anomalies (CA) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, there is no systematic health surveillance system to assess the impact of such diseases particularly on the young and adult populations. Methods In order to glean into the health and morbidity profile of Azad Jammu and Kashmir we have carried out an epidemiological study in Bhimber District in the north-east of Pakistan. A total of 1,731 female subjects of age 12-75 yr originating from Bhimber were recruited through a cross-sectional study. Results There were 74 cases (and 15 types) of CA with a prevalence estimate of 42.75/1,000. CA was significantly higher in subjects who were illiterate and married, speaking Pahari language and belonged to rural areas and nuclear families. Additionally, there were 104 cases (and 21 types) of NCDs (prevalence 60.08/1,000). NCDs were observed to have higher prevalence in subjects who were illiterate and married, speaking Punjabi language, and belonged to higher age groups and nuclear families. Conclusion This study explores the types and dynamics of morbidity across the major socio-demographic parameters of adult females of Bhimber and would be helpful in estimating the impact of morbidity in this population. A comprehensive country-wide study is the need of the time to identify specific risk factors associated with certain morbidity types and help prioritize areas for interventions. PMID:26060678

  18. Geological structures control on earthquake ruptures: The Mw7.7, 2013, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Lacassin, R.; Delorme, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2016-10-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, ruptured the Hoshab fault. Left-lateral motion dominated the deformation pattern, although significant vertical motion is found along the southern part of the rupture. Correlation of high-resolution (2.5 m) optical satellite images provided horizontal displacement along the entire rupture. In parallel, we mapped the ground rupture geometry at 1:500 scale. We show that the azimuth of the ground rupture distributes mainly between two directions, N216° and N259°. The direction N216° matches the direction of preexisting geologic structures resulting from penetrative deformation caused by the nearby Makran subduction. Hence, during a significant part of its rupture, the 2013 Balochistan rupture kept switching between a long-term fault front and secondary branches, in which existence and direction are related to the compressional context. It shows unambiguous direct interactions between different preexisting geologic structures, regional stress, and dynamic-rupture stress, which controlled earthquake propagation path.

  19. L'aspidolite fluorée : rôle des évaporites dans la genèse du rubis des marbres de Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Virginie; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Giuliani, Gaston

    2004-11-01

    Ruby-bearing marbles from Nangimali, in the Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan, contain, besides phengite, different mica intergrowths: paragonite, phlogopite and aspidolite (sodium phlogopite). Both phlogopites, intimately linked and coexisting with paragonite, are fluorine rich, contrary to phengite and paragonite. F-enriched aspidolite is described for the first time. Phengite is either associated with phlogopite or could be isolated. The presence of aspidolite in the ruby-bearing marbles, together with other arguments such as salt solid inclusions and presence of anhydrite, suggest the implication of evaporites in the genesis of gem corundums. To cite this article: V. Garnier et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  20. Earthquake Surface Rupture of the Salt Range Thrust at the Himalayan Thrust Front in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Madden, C.; Yeats, R.; Hussain, A.; Akhtar, S. S.; Latif, A.; Waliullah, A.; Ashraf, M.; Ramzan, S.; Dasti, N.

    2007-12-01

    Considerable evidence from Nepal and India now indicates that the basal detachment of the Himalaya produces great earthquakes that result in large coseismic displacements at the thrust front in India and Nepal (the Main Frontal thrust). In contrast, knowledge of the earthquake potential of the Salt Range thrust in Pakistan (SRT) is virtually absent. It has been clear since the publication of the Salt Range maps of Gee (1989) that the SRT deforms young surficial deposits and is an active fault. What remains uncertain is whether surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, with what frequency those events occur, and what is the size of the associated earthquakes. In a field reconnaissance of the SRT in Spring, 2007, we were able to confirm that this thrust is an active fault, and we discovered numerous localities where the fault nearly reaches the surface, cutting all but the youngest few meters of colluvial deposits. Whereas our observations suggest that surface rupturing events occur on the SRT, a number of characteristics of the Pakistani Himalaya suggests the earthquake behavior of the basal detachment and thrust front may be substantially different than it is in India and Nepal to the southeast. Key differences include an uncertain, but lower, convergence rate at the thrust front (5 to 13 mm/yr), a low tapered thrust wedge, and localization of the basal detachment in a weak evaporite unit. In this sense, the front of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in Iran may be a more appropriate analog for the thrust front in Pakistan than the Himalayan thrust front to the southeast. Future mapping of deformed geomorphic surfaces and paleoseismic trenching along the SRT will provide the first direct evidence of the earthquake potential and recurrence of plate- boundary earthquakes in Pakistan. This knowledge is critical for hazard assessment in north-central Pakistan where more than 7 million people are likely to be affected by a great earthquake on the plate boundary.

  1. Intercomparison of environmental gamma doses measured with A NaI (Tl) survey meter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in the Poonch division of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Muhammad; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Ahmad, Khalil; Akhter, Jabeen; Khan, Abdul Razzaq; Saeed, Raja Azhar; Rahman, Saeed Ur; Matiullah; Rajput, Muhammad Usman

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the intercomparison of the outdoor environmental gamma dose rates measured using a NaI (Tl) based survey meter along with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and estimation of excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), for the inhabitants of Poonch division of the Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. CaF2: Dy (TLD-200) card dosimeters were installed at height of 1 m from ground at fifteen different locations covering the entire Poonch division comprising of three districts. During three distinct two month time periods within the six month study period, all the installed dosimeters were exposed to outdoor environmental gamma radiations, retrieved and read out at Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Health Physics Division, PINSTECH laboratory, Islamabad. The ambient outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were also taken with NaI (Tl) based portable radiometric instrument at 1 m above the ground. To estimate the annual gamma doses, NaI (Tl) based survey data were used for one complete year following the deployment of the dosimeters. The mean annual gamma dose rates measured by TLDs and survey meter were found as 1.47±0.10 and 0.862±0.003 mGy/y respectively. Taking into account a 29% outdoor occupancy factor, the annual average effective dose rate for individuals was estimated as 0.298±0.04 and 0.175±0.03 mSv/y by TLDs and survey meter, respectively. For outdoor exposure, the ELCR was calculated from the TLD and survey meter measurements. The environmental outdoor average annual effective dose obtained in present study are less than the estimated world average terrestrial and cosmic gamma ray dose rate of 0.9 mSv/y reported in UNSCEAR 2000. The possible origins of gamma doses in the area and incompatibilities of results obtained from the two different measurement techniques are also discussed.

  2. Aid and stability in Pakistan: lessons from the 2005 earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    United States foreign assistance to Pakistan has always been driven by security considerations. By 2010, US counter-terrorism and stabilisation objectives resulted in Pakistan becoming the second largest recipient of US foreign aid globally. Given the policy impact of the assumption that aid promotes US security objectives in Pakistan, there is surprisingly little analysis or evidence of its effectiveness in this regard. This paper helps to address this gap by first reviewing the history and assumptions underpinning current US aid and stabilisation policies. It then uses field research on the 2005 earthquake relief efforts in northern Pakistan to assess the impact of the 'War on Terror' on the humanitarian response. In particular, it examines the assumption of influential US policymakers that humanitarian aid following the earthquake was an effective way to promote US security objectives by 'winning hearts and minds'-an assumption that has been used to justify all subsequent major US foreign aid commitments to Pakistan. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  3. Success in Kashmir: a positive trend in civil-military integration during humanitarian assistance operations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Wiley C

    2010-01-01

    The modern cast of disaster relief actors includes host nations, non-governmental organisations, private volunteer organisations, military organisations and others. Each group, civilian or military, has valuable skills and experiences critical to disaster relief work. The goal of this paper is to supplement the study of civil-military relief efforts with contemporary anecdotal experience. The paper examines the interaction between US military forces and other disaster relief actors during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake relief effort. The author uses direct observations made while working in Pakistan to contrast the relationships and activities from that effort with other accounts in prevailing scholarly disaster literature and military doctrine. Finally, this paper suggests that the Kashmir model of integration, coordination and transparency of intent creates a framework in which future humanitarian assistance operations could be successfully executed. Recommendations to improve civil-military interaction in future relief efforts will also be addressed.

  4. Precursory effects in the nighttime VLF signal amplitude for the 18th January, 2011 Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Sasmal, S.

    2012-02-01

    We have presented the result of the analysis of the nighttime VLF signals transmitted from the Indian Navy station VTX (latitude 8.43°N, longitude 77.73°E) at 19.2 kHz and received at Kolkata (latitude 22.57°N, longitude 88.24°E). On 18th January, 2011 an earthquake of magnitude 7.4 occurred at Southwestern Pakistan (latitude 28.9°N, longitude 64°E). We have analyzed the nighttime VLF signals for 2 weeks around 18th of January, 2011 to see if there have been any precursory effects of this earthquake. We have found that the amplitude of the nighttime VLF signals anomalously fluctuated 4 days before the earthquake. This agrees well with our previous findings based on the analysis of 1 year of earthquake data.

  5. Focal mechanisms and depths of earthquakes in central Pakistan: A tectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quittmeyer, Richard C.; Kafka, Alan L.; Armbruster, John G.

    1984-04-01

    Focal mechanisms and depths for seven earthquakes in central Pakistan were determined from an analysis of Rayleigh waves of 20-to 50-s periods. In east-central Pakistan, the nodal planes for some solutions strike obliquely to the grain of surface structures. This observation supports the contention of other workers that a thin surficial unit, decoupled from the basement along a surface of decollement, characterizes this region. In west-central Pakistan, relative movement between the Indian and Eurasian plates is at least partially accommodated by seismic slip along the Chaman fault. Other faults, which are situated to the east of and lie subparallel to the Chaman fault, may also take up some of the relative plate motion. Observed activity within the zone of convergent-type structure in central Pakistan may be a result of the greater component of convergence across the Indian-Eurasian plate boundary north of Quetta, Pakistan. Appendix is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document B83-010; $2.50. Payment must accompany order.

  6. The emerging role of preventive medicine in health diplomacy after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, James D; Price, Owen; West, David F

    2008-02-01

    On October 22, 2005, a preventive medicine team deployed with the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital to assist with earthquake relief efforts in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. These efforts included core field preventive medicine but quickly extended into other efforts. In collaboration with the host nation and other organizations, the preventive medicine team performed additional support for operations outside the U.S. compound, including water and sanitation assessments of camps for internally displaced persons, communicable disease investigation and control, and vaccination programs. Preventive medicine personnel were vital to health diplomacy efforts in this operation, particularly because of security concerns that prevented other U.S. medical assets from leaving the compound. Comparisons with the U.S. responses during other humanitarian operations are made. Preventive medicine missions in health diplomacy will continue to increase. Training and collaborative relationships with other government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development, and with nongovernmental organizations should continue to be developed.

  7. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza Faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered. Information on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants was collected from 64 local inhabitants and herbalists using open ended and semi-structured questionnaires over the period Aug 2013-Jul 2014. The data were recorded into a synoptic table comprising an ethnobotanical inventory of plants, the parts used, therapeutic indications and modes of application or administration. Different ethnobotanical indices i.e. relative frequencies of citation (RFC), relative importance (RI), use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (Fic), were calculated for each of the recorded medicinal plants. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 16 to check the level of association between use value and relative frequency of citation. A total of 121 species of medicinal plants belonging to 57 families and 98 genera were recorded. The study area was dominated by herbaceous species (48%) with leaves (41%) as the most exploited plant part. The Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9% each) were the dominant families in the study area. Among different methods of preparation, the most frequently used method was decoction (26 species) of different plant parts followed by use as juice and powder (24 species each), paste (22 species), chewing (16 species), extract (11 species), infusion (10 species) and poultice (8 species). The maximum Informant consensus factor (Fic) value was for gastro-intestinal, parasitic and

  8. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Background This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered. Materials and methods Information on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants was collected from 64 local inhabitants and herbalists using open ended and semi-structured questionnaires over the period Aug 2013-Jul 2014. The data were recorded into a synoptic table comprising an ethnobotanical inventory of plants, the parts used, therapeutic indications and modes of application or administration. Different ethnobotanical indices i.e. relative frequencies of citation (RFC), relative importance (RI), use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (Fic), were calculated for each of the recorded medicinal plants. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 16 to check the level of association between use value and relative frequency of citation. Results A total of 121 species of medicinal plants belonging to 57 families and 98 genera were recorded. The study area was dominated by herbaceous species (48%) with leaves (41%) as the most exploited plant part. The Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9% each) were the dominant families in the study area. Among different methods of preparation, the most frequently used method was decoction (26 species) of different plant parts followed by use as juice and powder (24 species each), paste (22 species), chewing (16 species), extract (11 species), infusion (10 species) and poultice (8 species). The maximum Informant consensus factor (Fic) value was for

  9. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  10. Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution Resulting from the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 September 2013 M7.7 earthquake in Balochistan, Pakistan, produced a ~200 km long left-lateral strike-slip surface rupture along a portion of the Hoshab fault, a moderately dipping (45-75º) structure in the Makran accretionary prism. The rupture is remarkably continuous and crosses only two (0.7 and 1.5 km wide) step-overs along its arcuate path through southern Pakistan. Displacements are dominantly strike-slip, with a minor component of reverse motion. We remotely mapped the surface rupture at 1:5,000 scale and measured displacements using high resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We mapped 295 laterally faulted stream channels, terrace margins, and roads to quantify near-field displacement proximal (±10 m) to the rupture trace. The maximum near-field left-lateral offset is 15±2 m (average of ~7 m). Additionally, we used pre-event imagery to digitize 254 unique landforms in the "medium-field" (~100-200 m from the rupture) and then measured their displacements compared to the post-event imagery. At this scale, maximum left-lateral offset approaches 17 m (average of ~8.5 m). The width (extent of observed surface faulting) of the rupture zone varies from ~1 m to 3.7 km. Near- and medium-field offsets show similar slip distributions that are inversely correlated with the width of the fault zone at the surface (larger offsets correspond to narrow fault zones). The medium-field offset is usually greater than the near-field offset. The along-strike surface slip distribution is highly variable, similar to the slip distributions documented for the 2002 Denali M7.9 earthquake and 2001 Kunlun M7.8 earthquake, although the Pakistan offsets are larger in magnitude. The 2013 Pakistan earthquake ranks among the largest documented continental strike-slip displacements, possibly second only to the 18+ m surface displacements attributed to the 1855 Wairarapa M~8.1 earthquake.

  11. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  12. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern.

  13. Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2007 M5.5 Ghazaband fault earthquake, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.; Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-05-01

    Time series analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveals coseismic and postseismic surface displacements associated with the 2007 M5.5 earthquake along the southern Ghazaband fault, a major but little studied fault in Pakistan. Modeling indicates that the coseismic surface deformation was caused by ~9 cm of strike-slip displacement along a shallow subvertical fault. The earthquake was followed by at least 1 year of afterslip, releasing ~70% of the moment of the main event, equivalent to a M5.4 earthquake. This high aseismic relative to the seismic moment release is consistent with previous observations for moderate earthquakes (M < 6) and suggests that smaller earthquakes are associated with a higher aseismic relative to seismic moment release than larger earthquakes.

  14. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  15. Landslides and vegetation cover in the 2005 North Pakistan earthquake: a GIS and statistical quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.

    2010-04-01

    The growing concern for loss of services once provided by natural ecosystems is getting increasing attention. However, the accelerating rate of natural resources destruction calls for rapid and global action. With often very limited budgets, environmental agencies and NGOs need cost-efficient ways to quickly convince decision-makers that sound management of natural resources can help to protect human lives and their welfare. The methodology described in this paper, is based on geospatial and statistical analysis, involving simple Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing algorithms. It is based on free or very low-cost data. It aims to scientifically assess the potential role of vegetation in mitigating landslides triggered by earthquakes by normalising for other factors such as slopes and distance from active fault. The methodology was applied to the 2005 North Pakistan/India earthquake which generated a large number of victims and hundreds of landslides. The study shows that if slopes and proximity from active fault are the main susceptibility factors for post landslides triggered by earthquakes in this area, the results clearly revealed that areas covered by denser vegetation suffered less and smaller landslides than areas with thinner (or devoid of) vegetation cover. Short distance from roads/trails and rivers also proved to be pertinent factors in increasing landslides susceptibility. This project is a component of a wider initiative involving the Global Resource Information Database Europe from the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Institute of Geomatics and Risk Analysis from the University of Lausanne and the "institut universitaire d'études du développement" from the University of Geneva.

  16. Constraints on plate motions in southern Pakistan and the northern Arabian Sea from the focal mechanisms of small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quittmeyer, Richard C.; Kafka, Alan L.

    1984-04-01

    The focal mechanism and depth were determined for nine small earthquakes (M0<1025 dyn cm, M<5.5) that occurred in southern Pakistan and the northern Arabian Sea from an analysis of the vertical component of Rayleigh waves in combination with limited first-motion data. Focal parameters were determined from the Rayleigh waves by using an event-pair method of analysis. For earthquakes that are located very close to each other (<≈ 50 km), the event-pair method is able to remove a significant proportion of propagation effects at all periods in the range of interest (20-50 s). For events separated by more than ≈ 100 km the propagation effects are reduced for only the longer periods (≈ 40-50 s). The earthquakes that were studied provide evidence for a model of plate interactions in the vicinity of the southern Pakistan triple junction. The Owen fracture zone is a transform fault that accommodates right-lateral motion between the Indian and Arabian plates. The plate boundary in the vicinity of the Murray ridge is also partially made up of transform segments that strike subparallel to the Owen fracture zone. Spreading centers may also exist in the vicinity of the Murray ridge but were not documented by seismic or other evidence. The slip azimuths for earthquakes along this boundary are significantly more northerly than those predicted by various regional and worldwide models of plate motion. The Arabian plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate along the southern coast of Pakistan. Slip vectors for earthquakes along this boundary trend northnortheasterly in general agreement with predicted directions. Left-lateral motion is documented along the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates in southern Pakistan. The predicted direction of relative motion between these plates is not significantly different from that observed. Two of the earthquakes studied appear to be intraplate in nature. The depth and focal mechanism of one intraplate event, which may

  17. Use of external fixators for damage-control orthopaedics in natural disasters like the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Awais, Syed; Saeed, Ayesha; Ch, Asad

    2014-08-01

    In the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the great many injured with multiple fractures and open wounds provided a unique opportunity to practice damage-control orthopaedics. External fixators remain a time-tested tools for operating surgeons on such occasions. The locally manufactured, readily available Naseer-Awais (NA) external fixator filled such needs of this disaster with good outcome. This is a retrospective descriptive study of 19,700 patients that presented over seven months to the two centres established by the lead author (SMA) in Muzaffarabad and Mansehra just one night after the 2005 earthquake. A series of local and foreign orthopaedic surgeon teams operated in succession. The computerised patient data collection of 1,145 operations was retrospectively analysed. Of the 19,700 patients presenting to the SMA centres, 50% had limb injuries. Total fracture fixations were 1,145, of which 295 were external fixations: 185 were applied on the lower limb and 90 on upper limb, the majority were applied on tibia. External fixators are valuable damage-control tools in natural disasters and warfare injuries. The locally manufactured NA external fixator served the needs of the many limb injuries during the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

  18. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  19. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  20. Deformation of conjugate compliant fault zones induced by the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Rishabh; Wang, Teng; Feng, Guangcai; Harrington, Jonathan; Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2017-04-01

    Strain localizations in compliant fault zones (with elastic moduli lower than the surrounding rocks) induced by nearby earthquakes have been detected using geodetic observations in a few cases in the past. Here we observe small-scale changes in interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements along multiple conjugate faults near the rupture of the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake. After removing the main coseismic deformation signal in the interferograms and correcting them for topography-related phase, we observe 2-3 cm signal along several conjugate faults that are 15-30 km from the mainshock fault rupture. These conjugate compliant faults have strikes of N30°E and N45°W. The sense of motion indicates left-lateral deformation across the N30°E faults and right-lateral deformation across the N45°W faults, which suggests the conjugate faults were subjected to extensional coseismic stresses along the WSW-ENE direction. The spacing between the different sets of faults is around 5 to 8 km. We explain the observed strain localizations as an elastic response of the compliant conjugate faults induced by the Baluchistan earthquake. Using 3D Finite Element models (FEM), we impose coseismic static displacements due to the earthquake along the boundaries of the FEM domain to reproduce the coseismic stress changes acting across the compliant faults. The InSAR measurements are used to constrain the geometry and rigidity variations of the compliant faults with respect to the surrounding rocks. The best fitting models show the compliant fault zones to have a width of 0.5 km to 2 km and a reduction of the shear modulus by a factor of 3 to 4. Our study yields similar values as were found for compliant fault zones near the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes in California, although here the strain localization is occurring on more complex conjugate sets of faults.

  1. Mixed permian-triassic fauna, guryul ravine, kashmir.

    PubMed

    Teichert, C; Kummnel, B; Kapoor, H M

    1970-01-09

    At Guryul Ravine near Srinagar, Kashmir, a varied fauna of productid brachiopods, including Spinomarginifera, is associated in approximately 15 feet (about 4 meters) of strata with the typical Scythian (Lower Triassic) pelecypod Claraia. These faunas are interpreted as true associations of surviving "Permian" and Lower Triassic faunal elements. Similar mixed associations have previously been identified in the lowest Triassic strata of the Salt Range and Surghar Range of West Pakistan.

  2. Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Celia; Bali, Bikram Singh; Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger

    2013-11-01

    measurements in Kashmir Himalaya reveal range-normal convergence of 11 ± 1 mm/yr with dextral shear of 5 ± 1 mm/yr. The transition from a fully locked 170 km wide décollement to the unrestrained descending Indian plate occurs at ~25 km depth over an ~23 km wide transition zone. The convergence rate is consistent with the lower bounds of geological estimates for the Main Frontal Thrust, Riasi, and Balapora fault systems, on which no surface slip has been reported in the past millennium. Of the 14 damaging Kashmir earthquakes since 1123, none may have exceeded Mw = 7.6. Therefore, either a seismic moment deficit equivalent to a Mw ≈ 8.7 earthquake exists or the historical earthquake magnitudes have been underestimated. Alternatively, these earthquakes have occurred on reverse faults in the Kashmir Valley, and the décollement has been recently inactive. Although this can reconcile the inferred and theoretical moment release, it is quantitatively inconsistent with observed fault slip in Kashmir.

  3. Shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region across the Afghan-Pakistan border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Asghar; Ali, Aamir; Barkat, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal seismicity parameters of shallow (0-70 km) and intermediate (70-300 km) depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region, which is characterized by the occurrence of large earthquakes in a small zone of intense activity. By way of comparison, intermediate depth earthquakes dominate the Hindu Kush seismicity. Using a catalogue of 3820 earthquakes, we determined the various earthquake histograms, time-series plots, variations of frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value) and seismicity rate changes (z-value). Both time periods, encompassing pre- and post-1964 subsets of earthquakes, differ significantly in terms of reporting earthquakes, b- and z-value for shallow and intermediate seismicity. The b-values appear to be lower (1.07 and 0.90) for intermediate depth earthquakes than do the b-values produced by shallow earthquakes (1.32 and 1.06) using the pre- and post-1964 data sets. The three low b-value (<0.9) areas have been identified within the intermediate depth seismicity region of the Hindu Kush. The z-value maps show that the earthquakes with magnitude of 7.0 and above can only be seen in the intermediate depth earthquake maps.

  4. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  5. Three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocenters of earthquakes beneath the Hazara Arc, Pakistan: Geometry of the underthrusting Indian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James F.; Ibenbrahim, Aomar; Roecker, Steve W.

    1991-11-01

    The three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures and hypocenters of 420 events beneath the western Hazara Arc are obtained simultaneously by inverting travel time data observed at fifteen Tarbela seismic stations. In general, the P and S wave velocity distribution of the top layer (0-6 km depth) correlates well with surface geology. Within this layer we find a low-velocity region beneath the Hazara Thrust Zone (HTZ) corresponding to the underthrusted Murree Formation, and there are high-velocity regions south of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) which are associated with the exposed Cambrian, late Paleozoic, and Tertiary granites. A low-velocity zone immediately to the west of the Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis (HKS) indicates the existence of a Miocene foreland basin which is covered by late stage southeasterly directed thrusts along the Hazara Arc and is consistent with the idea that the HKS is detached from the lower crust. From the Salt Range to the HTZ, the Indian plate dips at a shallow angle, about 2°-3° to the northeast. North of the HTZ the underthrusting Indian plate dips gently to the northeast with an increased slope of 5° to 8° until it reaches the Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). Along the NW trending IKSZ the Indian plate bends more steeply to the northeast beneath a seismically active midcrustal wedge directed to the southwest. The larger events in the IKSZ are interpreted as occurring on a major thrust zone that can be followed to a depth of 24 km. The IKSZ appears to consist of an upper seismic zone (from the surface to about 8 km) and a lower seismic zone (12 km to 24 km) separated by an aseismic region about 4 km thick. The lower IKSZ may represent the leading edge of a southwestward directed slab which has not yet ruptured the surface. Hypocenters of relocated earthquakes indicate that the HTZ is about 30 km wide with most of the larger microearthquakes occurring at 12-14 km. Seismicity along the HTZ suggests that the Panjal, and Murree

  6. Evidence for the recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes along the Makran coast of Iran and Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.D.; Alt, J.N.; Cluff, L.S.; Plafker, G.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of raised beaches and marine terraces along the Makran coast indicates episodic uplift of the continental margin resulting from large-magnitude earthquakes. The uplift occurs as incremental steps similar in height to the 1-3 m of measured uplift resulting from the November 28, 1945 (M 8.3) earthquake at Pasni and Ormara, Pakistan. The data support an E-W-trending, active subduction zone off the Makran coast. The raised beaches and wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast are extensive with some terraces 1-2 km wide, 10-15 m long and up to 500 m in elevation. The terraces are generally capped with shelly sandstones 0.5-5 m thick. Wave-cut cliffs, notches, and associated boulder breccia and swash troughs are locally preserved. Raised Holocene accretion beaches, lagoonal deposits, and tombolos are found up to 10 m in elevation. The number and elevation of raised wave-cut terraces along the Makran coast increase eastward from one at Jask, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at a few meters elevation, to nine at Konarak, 250 km to the east. Multiple terraces are found on the prominent headlands as far east as Karachi. The wave-cut terraces are locally tilted and cut by faults with a few meters of displacement. Long-term, average rates of uplift were calculated from present elevation, estimated elevation at time of deposition, and 14C and U-Th dates obtained on shells. Uplift rates in centimeters per year at various locations from west to east are as follows: Jask, 0 (post-Sangamon); Konarak, 0.031-0.2 (Holocene), 0.01 (post-Sangamon); Ormara 0.2 (Holocene). ?? 1979.

  7. Anomalous Variations of Ionosphere Associated with the Strong Earthquake at Pakistan-Iran Border at a Low Latitude Station Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.; Gupta, Saral K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the TEC data for April 2013 observed at Agra station, India (geogr. lat. 27.2° N, long. 78° E) to examine the effect of earthquake of magnitude M = 7.8 which occurred on 16 April 2013 at Pakistan-Iran border region. We process the TEC data using the s statistical criterion to find out anomalous variation in TEC data. We also study the VLF propagation signal from NPM, Hawaii (21.42° N, 158° W), which is monitored at the same station (Agra station) in the light of this earthquake as well as solar flares. The nighttime fluctuation method is used to analyze the VLF data for the period of ±5 days from the day of earthquake (11-21 April 2013). The anomalous enhancements and depletions are found in TEC data on 1-9 days before the occurrence of event.

  8. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-25

    beyond the operational control of its nominal administrators. Yet many informed observers conclude that the ISI, while sometimes willing to “push the...on Pakistani- controlled territory. With indications that terrorism on Indian soil beyond the Jammu and Kashmir state may have been linked to Pakistan...international guidelines; establishment of a modern, effective systems to control the export of sensitive dual-use items related to WMD; and the conduct of

  9. Counterinsurgency in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    As one assessment noted, “[n]ot a single shop [in Spinkai] . . . is now intact. Even petrol stations and local factories have been razed to the...Director of Opera- tions, Nurith Berstein. She can be reached by email at Nurith_Ber stein@rand.org; by phone at 703-413-1100, extension 5469; or by...Pakistan supported numerous covert cells within Indian-administered Kashmir, sometimes using operatives based in the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi. In

  10. Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

  11. The 1945 Balochistan earthquake and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höchner, Andreas; Babeyko, Andrey; Zamora, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries quite frequently affected by destructive earthquakes. For instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30'000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, but a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Additionally, some recent publications raise the question of the possiblity of rare but huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We first model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights, and then generate various synthetic earthquake and tsunami catalogs including the possibility of large events in order to asses the tsunami hazard at the affected coastal regions. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by the use of an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast.

  12. History as the Architect of the Present: What Made Kashmir the Nucleus of South Asia Terrorism? India-Pakistan Conflict and Its Impact on U.S. Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA). Bajoria, J. (2009). The troubled Afghan-Pakistani border. Council on foreign relations publications ...on foreign relations publications . Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/isi-terrorism- behind-accusations/p11644 Barfield, T. (2007). The...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HISTORY AS THE

  13. Major Earthquakes of the Past Decade (2000-2010): A Comparative Review of Various Aspects of Management

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000–2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. Results: The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter’s) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter’s). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD

  14. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  15. Different styles of postseismic deformation after the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan earthquake in Pakistan and the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Yague-Martinez, N.; Motagh, M.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Freed, A. M.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    We study postseismic deformation after the Mw 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan region of western Pakistan on 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California of northern Mexico on 4 April 2010. Pakistan InSAR measurements from the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Canadian RADARSAT-2 (RS2) satellites include TSX narrow stripmap beams on a descending track, RS2 wide strip modes, and TSX wide-swath ScanSAR images on an ascending track, specially acquired with interferometric alignment of ScanSAR bursts. For the EMC earthquake, InSAR includes Envisat, ALOS, and RS2 satellites and NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne InSAR, with piece-wise time coverage. Plate Boundary Observatory acquires continuous GPS data and others collect campaign GPS. Interferograms show significant afterslip on both main ruptures in the first weeks and months, not masked by the atmospheric effects. Balochistan shallow afterslip reaches at least 10 cm in 2-4 months in the same area as the largest coseismic slip, but less near the aftershock activity. Rapid afterslip was observed primarily at the ends of the EMC mainshock rupture where the strike changes, with magnitudes up to 30 cm. Large variations of tropospheric water vapor complicate measurement of small long-wavelength deformation so we do time series analysis. We expect viscoelastic relaxation after these two strike-slip earthquakes to differ due to completely opposite tectonic settings: EMC earthquake in the Salton Trough rift and fast-moving strike-slip system, where crust and lithosphere are thin and hot with very shallow asthenosphere, and Balochistan earthquake in the shortening Makran accretional prism with much slower strike-slip deformation rates and cold and thick lithosphere of the subducting Arabian plate directly beneath it, so asthenosphere is much deeper. Studies have found rapid and large viscoelastic relaxation for the EMC quake, but we don't expect measurable relaxation in the Balochistan area in the

  16. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  17. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  18. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  19. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  20. Intraseasonal to interannual variability of summer monsoon rainfall and its influence on the Agricultural corps in mountainous Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Z.; Saeed, S.

    2012-04-01

    By using high resolution APHRODITE precipitation and meteorological station data (1961-2007) the present study examines the intraseasonal to interannual variability of the monsoon rainfall over mountainous Kashmir and its influence on the agricultural crops such as Maiz and Wheat. It is found that an intraseasonal to interannual variability of the monsoon rainfall can severely affect the crop production in the hilly areas of Kashmir. We found an increasing trend in the extreme precipitation events over Kashmir and adjacent areas in the recent years. The associated crop production shows significant decreasing trend especially over the hilly areas in Kashmir. The enhanced rainfall can result in the soil erosion that impose a major threat to sustainable agriculture in the mountainous areas of Kashmir. The heavy rainfall associated with the orographic uplifitng removes the uppermost fertile layer of soil, depleting fertility and leaving the soil in poor physical condition. This further causes severe deficiency of most important nutrients required for plant growth and crop yield. We further analysed the IPCC AR4 ECHAM5/MPIOM climate model simulations to examine the future interannual variability of monsoon rainfall over Kashmir and adjoining areas. In the following we analysed the transient run with a 1% per year increase in CO2 until reaching double concentrations and held constant thereafter. We found enhanced interannual variability of the summer monsoon rainfall (July-August) with increasing drought like conditions over Kashmir and adjoining northern parts of Pakistan in future climate. The enhanced interannual variability of precipitation in future could further affect severely growth of various agricultural crops in mountainous parts of Kashmir.

  1. Safe water supply in emergencies and the need for an exit strategy to sustain health gains: lessons learned from the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Magan, M; Bile, K M; Kazi, B M; Gardezi, Z

    2010-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of five major urban centres affected by the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan were assessed in three phases: onset of emergency, during emergency response and post-emergency. A total of 1850 samples were randomly collected from the study area during each phase, and faecal coliforms were detected in 100%, 28% and 91% in Battagram, 81%, 22% and 77% in Mansehra, 100%, 27% and 92% in Rawalakot, 100%, 23% and 65% in Bagh and in 30%, 14% and 5% in Muzaffarabad respectively. Faecal contamination was high during the onset ofemergency and post-emergency phases in four out ofthe five surveyed towns. The organization of a timely emergency response intervention depends on the level of preparedness of local water-supply service providers as well as on their institutional capacities. Bacteriological water-quality improvements in emergencies may not be sustained unless complemented by a proper exit strategy.

  2. Effect of zinc in tablet and suspension formulations in the treatment of acute diarrhoea among young children in an emergency setting of earthquake affected region of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2010-12-01

    A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at Camp Hospital Batagram in August 2006 to ascertain the effect of Zinc utilization in tablet and suspension formulations on the frequency and recovery rates of diarrhoea among young children in the emergency settings of earthquake affected region of Pakistan. Two hundred patients were recruited and followed up, the patients were allocated either of the 2 groups i.e. A (zinc in tablets form) and B (zinc in suspension form). Both groups also received WHO recommended treatment for diarrhoea. Most of the cases recovered from the illness within 3 days after presentation. Significant p-values were established among Zinc use and reduction in frequency of stools on Day 2 and 3, with better outcome in group B. The study supports the notion that zinc reduces the frequency and improves recovery rates of diarrhoea in any form and has better compliance and outcomes with the use in suspension form.

  3. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhart, William; Briggs, Richard; Reitman, Nadine G; Gold, Ryan D.; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip – normal, reverse, or strike-slip – until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200+ km 200+km"> 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  4. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip - normal, reverse, or strike-slip - until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200 + km 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  5. Pakistan Earthquake Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    as well as relief supplies including food , medical supplies, tents and blankets. Rescue and relief workers were sent to the region from different...the World Food Program (WFP), was not seeking to exclude NGOs, but without regular contact there could be no mutual understanding of needs and...likely to be expensive. It was also determined that the UN established cluster groups (Shelter, Water/Sanitation, Food , Health, and Education) were

  6. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  7. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  8. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  9. Arthur Neve (1859-1919) and a Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Rais

    2011-11-01

    Mark Harrison has said that hospitals occupy a central place within health-care systems, not only on account of their curative functions but also as centres of teaching and research. The indigenous system of medicine practised by Hakims in Kashmir is the Unani. The Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir became the most important hospital attracting patients, not only within Kashmir but also in the surrounding countries and not only because of the curative facilities provided at the hospital but also because of the humane approach of its physicians, outstanding among them being Arthur Neve. The patients represented every class of society. Patients come from villages scattered throughout Kashmir and the Plains of India, and a few from Tibet, Afghanistan, Yarkand and Khostan. According to Neve, in 1912 there were 23,642 new outpatients and 1979 inpatients. Physical, socio-cultural and political conditions hinder access to the Mission Hospital. Neve's younger brother Ernest F Neve (1861-1946) made significant contributions when an earthquake struck and during cholera outbreaks in Kashmir at the end of the 19th century.

  10. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ford, Nathan; Kam, Saskia van de; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5). Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities. PMID:18854026

  11. On- and off-fault coseismic surface deformation associated with the September 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake measured from mapping and automated pixel correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R. D.; Reitman, N. G.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake ruptured a ~200 km-long stretch of the Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan. We remotely measured the coseismic surface deformation field using high-resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We measured ~300 near-field (0-10 m from fault) laterally offset piercing points (streams, terrace risers, roads, etc.) and find peak left-lateral offsets of ~12-15 m. We characterized the far-field (0-10 km from fault) displacement field using manual (~250 measurements) and automated image cross-correlation methods (e.g., pixel tracking) and find peak displacement values of ~16 m, which commonly exceed the on-fault displacement magnitudes. Our preliminary observations suggest the following: (1) coseismic surface displacement typically increases with distance away from the surface trace of the fault (e.g., highest displacement values in the far field), (2) for certain locations along the fault rupture, as little as 50% of the coseismic displacement field occurred in the near-field; and (3) the magnitudes of individual displacements are inversely correlated to the width of the surface rupture zone (e.g., largest displacements where the fault zone is narrowest). This analysis highlights the importance of identifying field study sites spanning fault sections with narrow deformation zones in order to capture the entire deformation field. For regions of distributed deformation, these results would predict that geologic slip rate studies underestimate a fault's complete slip rate.

  12. Mapping 3D fault geometry in earthquakes using high-resolution topography: Examples from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) and 2013 Balochistan (Pakistan) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Walker, Richard T.; Elliott, John R.; Parsons, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Fault dips are usually measured from outcrops in the field or inferred through geodetic or seismological modeling. Here we apply the classic structural geology approach of calculating dip from a fault's 3-D surface trace using recent, high-resolution topography. A test study applied to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows very good agreement between our results and those previously determined from field measurements. To obtain a reliable estimate, a fault segment ≥120 m long with a topographic variation ≥15 m is suggested. We then applied this method to the 2013 Balochistan earthquake, getting dips similar to previous estimates. Our dip estimates show a switch from north to south dipping at the southern end of the main trace, which appears to be a response to local extension within a stepover. We suggest that this previously unidentified geometrical complexity may act as the endpoint of earthquake ruptures for the southern end of the Hoshab fault.

  13. The Ilizarov method for the treatment of complex tibial fractures and non-unions in a mass casualty setting: the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tilkeridis, Konstantinos; Chari, Basavraj; Cheema, Nusrat; Tryfonidis, Marios; Khaleel, Arshad

    2015-04-01

    We report our experience in treating victims of the recent earthquake disaster in Pakistan. Our experience was based on two humanitarian missions to Islamabad: one in October 2005, 10 days after the earthquake, and the second in January 2006. The mission consisted of a team of orthopaedic surgeons and a second team of plastic surgeons. The orthopaedic team bought all the equipment for application of Ilizarov external fixators. We treated patients who had already received basic treatment in the region of the disaster and subsequently had been evacuated to Islamabad. During the first visit, we treated 12 injured limbs in 11 patients. Four of these patients were children. All cases consisted of complex multifragmentary fractures associated with severe crush injuries. All fractures involved the tibia, which were treated with Ilizarov external fixators. Nine fractures were type 3b open injuries. Eight were infected requiring debridement of infected bone and acute shortening. During a second visit, we reviewed all patients treated during our first mission. In addition, we treated 13 new patients with complex non-unions. Eight of these patients were deemed to be infected. All patients had previous treatment with monolateral fixators as well as soft tissue coverage procedures, except one patient who had had an IEF applied by another team. All these patients had revision surgery with circular frames. All patients from both groups were allowed to fully weight-bear post-operatively, after a short period of elevation to allow the flaps to take. Overall, all fractures united except one case who eventually had an amputation. Four patients had a corticotomy and lengthening, and three of them had a successful restoration of limb length. The fourth patient was the one with the eventual amputation.

  14. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  15. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  16. Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

    1998-01-01

    One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Emergency Response Operations: Haiti Earthquake in January 2010 and Pakistan’s Flood in 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    safer by implementing strict building code and educating the population on how to respond when the tremor strikes; both of these measures need...separated children, human trafficking, sexual and gender based violence and overall violence in the camps continued to be serious issues even seven months...Lessons from Earthquakes in Haiti and Chile to Reduce Global Risk,” Speech given at The National Academies Disasters Roundtable Workshop,1 March , 2011

  18. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  19. Earthquakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on this page will help you understand environmental dangers related to earthquakes, what you can do to prepare and recover. It will also help you recognize possible environmental hazards and learn what you can do to protect you and your family

  20. Pakistani options for resolution of the Kashmir dispute. Master's thesis, 7 Aug 1998--4 Jun 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hayat, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Kashmir problem is the oldest unresolved issue on the UN agenda. The present popular uprising in the Indian-held Kashmir has redeemed a forgotten cause; and the nuclear testing by both India and Pakistan sprung the issue back on the international scene, and without resolving this focal issue, a lasting peace in South Asia will remain elusive. This study deals with the issue from its origin to the present with an effort to analyze the problem impartially and dispassionately to provide an objective understanding of the dispute. However, the conclusions drawn and the options recommended are solely from a Pakistani perspective. The study explains the intricacies of this complex border dispute, which over the years has been elevated to an ideological tug of war between India and Pakistan. All of this in the melee of passion for the disputed land, legal claims, moral ascendancy, and a growing Kashmiri nationalism, not to mention the fast changing international backdrop. The paper promotes a fresh approach for Pakistan in order to engage India in a meaningful dialogue on the issue and to involve the international community to fulfill its obligation. The Kashmiri nationalism has emerged as a potent third party to the dispute and thus is addressed. A multipronged approach for Pakistan has been proposed on the covert unilateral and overt bilateral and multilateral planes in order to work on all possible facets of the problem.

  1. 2D Ball-and-Socket Tectonic Rotation in a Heterogeneous Strain Field: The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Gold, R. D.; Bilham, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan strike-slip earthquake ruptured a ~200 km long segment of the curved Hoshab fault within the Makran accretionary prism - the active zone of convergence between the northward subducting Arabia plate and overriding Eurasia. The Hoshab fault ruptured bilaterally with ~10 m of mean sinistral and ~1.7 m of dip slip along the length of the rupture, quantified jointly from geodetic and seismological observations. This rupture is unusual because the fault dips ~60o towards the focus of a small circle centered in northwest Pakistan, and, despite a 30o increase in obliquity along the curving strike of the fault with respect to Arabia:Eurasia convergence, the ratio of strike and dip slip remain relatively uniform. Static friction prior to rupture was unusually weak ( <0.05) as inferred from topographic and slab profiles, and friction may have approached zero during dynamic rupture, thus permitting in part this unusual event. In this presentation, we argue that the northward dipping Hosab fault defines the northern rim of a structural unit in southeast Makran. This unit rotates - akin to a 2-D ball-and-socket joint - counter clockwise in response to India's penetration into the Eurasia plate. According to this interpretation, the mechanically weak Makran accretionary prism is subjected to a highly heterogeneous strain and deforms in response to convergence from both the Arabia and India plates. Rotation of the southeast Makran block accounts for complexity in the Chaman fault system and, in principle, reduces the seismic potential near Karachi by accommodating some slip along the southern Ornach-Nal fault. At the same time, geological indicators and along-strike fault slip profiles indicate that the Hoshab fault may also slip as a reverse fault in response to Arabia:Eurasia convergence - indicating that a single fault may accommodate multiple components of strain partitioning in a heterogeneous strain field over several seismic cycles.

  2. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Kam, Saskia van de; Ford, Nathan; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in high levels of exposure to violence among the civilian population of Kashmir (India). A survey was done as part of routine programme evaluation to assess confrontation with violence and its consequences on mental health, health service usage, and socio-economic functioning. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts of Kashmir (India) using questionnaires adapted from other conflict areas. Analysis was stratified for gender. Results Over one-third of respondents (n = 510) were found to have symptoms of psychological distress (33.3%, CI: 28.3–38.4); women scoring significantly higher (OR 2.5; CI: 1.7–3.6). A third of respondents had contemplated suicide (33.3%, CI: 28.3–38.4). Feelings of insecurity were associated with higher levels of psychological distress for both genders (males: OR 2.4, CI: 1.3–4.4; females: OR 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.3). Among males, violation of modesty, (OR 3.3, CI: 1.6–6.8), forced displacement, (OR 3.5, CI: 1.7–7.1), and physical disability resulting from violence (OR 2.7, CI: 1.2–5.9) were associated with greater levels of psychological distress; for women, risk factors for psychological distress included dependency on others for daily living (OR 2.4, CI: 1.3–4.8), the witnessing of killing (OR 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.4), and torture (OR 2.1, CI: 1.2–3.7). Self-rated poor health (male: OR 4.4, CI: 2.4–8.1; female: OR 3.4, CI: 2.0–5.8) and being unable to work (male: OR 6.7, CI: 3.5–13.0; female: OR 2.6, CI: 1.5–4.4) were associated with mental distress. Conclusion The ongoing conflict exacts a huge toll on the communities' mental well-being. We found high levels of psychological distress that impacts on daily life and places a burden on the health system. Ongoing feelings of personal vulnerability (not feeling safe) was associated with high levels of psychological distress. Community

  3. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Tucker

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  4. Rapid, Global Assessment of the Societal Impacts of Earthquake Induced Landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godt, J. W.; Verdin, K. L.; Jibson, R. W.; Wald, D. J.; Earle, P. S.; Harp, E. L.

    2006-05-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of rapidly estimating landslide potential after large earthquakes by combining near- real-time estimates of ground shaking with a simple slope stability model that uses a new global topographic database derived from elevation data collected as part of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landslides triggered by ground shaking during earthquakes have caused widespread loss of life and damage to critical infrastructure. For example, the magnitude-7.6 earthquake of 8 October 2005 in Pakistan-administered Kashmir generated thousands of landslides that blocked many roads and damned rivers in the mountainous region. Overland access to many remote villages has yet to be restored 5 months after the quake. To provide timely information to emergency relief organizations on the possible societal effects of earthquakes, the USGS has developed an alarm system, PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) that combines an estimate of ground shaking with a global population database. Maps of peak ground acceleration are generated in near real time using the methodology and software developed for ShakeMap (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/). To evaluate the seismic landslide susceptibility worldwide, we rely on the SRTM data to generate statistics (at 1-km spacing) on the distribution of topographic slope calculated from 3-arcsecond (90m) data. Because many small areas of no more than a few square kilometers lack SRTM data, statistical methods referencing other elevation data were used to create a globally complete dataset. These topographic data are then used in a simplified Newmark analysis that uses spatially uniform material strengths and neglects the effects of groundwater to estimate the relative susceptibility to both shallow and deep landslides from a given earthquake. We present an initial application from the Muzaffarabad region of Pakistan and discuss results in the context of field and aerial observations

  5. A Case Study of Educational Needs, Obstacles and Opportunities for Girls, Women and Teachers in Remote Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabot, Genevieve Walsh

    2009-01-01

    This case study assesses the educational needs of the teachers, students and women of a remote, isolated school community in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It also addresses the cultural, social and religious obstacles that girls, women and teachers face, while identifying appropriate recommendations for girls, women and teachers to improve their level…

  6. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  7. Seismology: Remote-controlled earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes cause other quakes near and far. Analyses of quakes in Pakistan and Chile suggest that such triggering can occur almost instantaneously, making triggered events hard to detect, and potentially enhancing the associated hazards.

  8. Impact of Insurgency on Education in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganie, Rayees Ahmad; Din, Towseef Mohi Ud

    2015-01-01

    Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India that has made education free to all its citizens at all levels. Nonetheless, literacy at 54% lags behind the all-India level of 65%. The discrepancy is slightly larger from women (42% compared to the national figure of 54%) and for men (66% compared with a national level of 76%). The census figures on…

  9. A Probabilistic Estimate of the Most Perceptible Earthquake Magnitudes in the NW Himalaya and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Vougiouka, G. E.

    2015-02-01

    NW Himalaya and its neighboring region (25°-40°N and 65°-85°E) is one of the most seismically hazardous regions in the Indian subcontinent, a region that has historically experienced large to great damaging earthquakes. In the present study, the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, are estimated for intensity I = VII, horizontal peak ground acceleration a = 300 cm/s2 and horizontal peak ground velocity v = 10 cm/s in 28 seismogenic zones using the two earthquake recurrence models of Kijko and Sellevoll (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 82(1):120-134 1992 ) and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extremes (GIII). Both methods deal with maximum magnitudes. The earthquake perceptibility is calculated by combining earthquake recurrence models with ground motion attenuation relations at a particular level of intensity, acceleration and velocity. The estimated results reveal that the values of M p for velocity v = 10 cm/s show higher estimates than corresponding values for intensity I = VII and acceleration a = 300 cm/s2. It is also observed that differences in perceptible magnitudes calculated by the Kijko-Sellevoll method and GIII statistics show significantly high values, up to 0.7, 0.6 and 1.7 for intensity, acceleration and velocity, respectively, revealing the importance of earthquake recurrence model selection. The estimated most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, in the present study vary from M W 5.1 to 7.7 in the entire zone of the study area. Results of perceptible magnitudes are also represented in the form of spatial maps in 28 seismogenic zones for the aforementioned threshold levels of intensity, acceleration and velocity, estimated from two recurrence models. The spatial maps show that the Quetta of Pakistan, the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya, the Caucasus mountain belt and the Himalayan frontal thrust belt (Kashmir-Kangra-Uttarkashi-Chamoli regions) exhibit higher values of the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes ( M

  10. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  11. Kashmir Dispute: Significance of Its Early Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    elections for the state’s Legislative Assembly were held in the wake of the accord between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Dr. Farooq Abdullah...majority population and geographical contiguity.25 Based on this formula i.e. Muslim majority factor as well as the geographical contiguity (all...day Indian Army was sent to Kashmir, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru sent the following telegram to his Pakistani counterpart.44 I should like

  12. Democratic Values and Support for Militant Politics: Evidence from a National Survey of Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-27

    Dalton 1994; Persson and Tabbellini 2009), better governance ( Almond and Verba 1963), and economic growth (Huntington 1984). Drawing on this tradition, a...the Pakistan Muslim League) are Kashmiri. Many products , such as cooking oil, are sold and marketed under the brand name “Kashmir.” The notion of...characterization of “Hindu” oppression is sustainable for many Pakistanis. 8 Azad is the adjective corresponding to the noun azadi. 10   a legitimate

  13. Relation between crustal deformation direction and aspect of slope failures triggered by 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H. P.; UNE, H.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies reported orientation bias of slope failures triggered by the main shock of 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake (Mw7.0, on 16 April 2016). They also reported that surface ruptures by the earthquake appeared along Hingagu fault and Futagawa fault. This study investigated the relation between crustal deformation direction and aspect of slope failures. In this study we used slope failures inventory that was interpreted by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience of Japan, using aerial photographs taken just after the earthquake by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Crustal deformation direction was estimated from InSAR image analysis from ascending and descending ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data, observed on 15 April 2016 (before the main shock) and 29 April 2016 (after the main shock) by JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency). In the northern from Hinagu fault, Futagawa fault, and NE direction of the extended line, slope failures affected by eastern direction of crustal deformation were notably identified and slope failures occurred 1.6 times more in eastern component than in western component of slope aspect. In the southern area from the faults and the line, slope failures affected by western direction of crustal deformation were notably identified and slope failures occurred 2.1 times more in western component than in eastern component of slope aspect. In the previous study, relation between crustal deformation direction and aspect of slope failures has already been reported, in the case of the 2005 Northern Pakistan (Kashmir) Earthquake; this study again noted the same relation.

  14. Emergency obstetrics care services in District Neelum, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Abdul; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Globally 529,000 women die annually due to pregnancy related problems and in Pakistan alone this toll is about 35,000 deaths per annum. This situation is even more critical in the rural remote areas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The whole phenomenon needs a contextual assessment to ascertain the geographical, financial and socio culturaI accessibility, and availability of EmOC services in order to generate fresh evidence for the decision makers and concerned stakeholders for improving these services. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire with the women delivered in the last 15 days, whereas the geographical accessibility and availability of EmOC services were assessed by visiting EmOC facilities in the district Neelum of AJK. Over a hundred women delivered in the last 15 days, participated in the study. Geographically, a central EmOC facility is far away and the terrain is hilly and dangerous. Women's social status, education, husband's employment and household income were found to have a significant association with the use of EmOC services. The health facilities audit showed that around 90% centres do not have a female medical officer appointed. Moreover, the state of the equipment, medicines and the basic utilities such as water, sanitation, and electricity are not satisfactory. Accessibility of EmOC services is poor in the district Neelum. Evidence on ground calls for organisational reforms at EmOC service delivery level as well as for long term planning in other sectors for improving socioeconomic and education status of the women in Azad Jammu & Kashmir.

  15. Surface slip and off-fault deformation patterns in the 2013 MW 7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake: Implications for controls on the distribution of near-surface coseismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, Robert; Hollingsworth, James; Dolan, James F.

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 398 fault offsets measured by visual analysis of WorldView high-resolution satellite imagery with deformation maps produced by COSI-Corr subpixel image correlation of Landsat-8 and SPOT5 imagery reveals significant complexity and distributed deformation along the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake. Average slip along the main trace of the fault was 4.2 m, with local maximum offsets up to 11.4 m. Comparison of slip measured from offset geomorphic features, which record localized slip along the main strand of the fault, to the total displacement across the entire width of the surface deformation zone from COSI-Corr reveals ˜45% off-fault deformation. While previous studies have shown that the structural maturity of the fault exerts a primary control on the total percentage of off-fault surface deformation, large along-strike variations in the percentage of strain localization observed in the 2013 rupture imply the influence of important secondary controls. One such possible secondary control is the type of near-surface material through which the rupture propagated. We therefore compared the percentage off-fault deformation to the type of material (bedrock, old alluvium, and young alluvium) at the surface and the distance of the fault to the nearest bedrock outcrop (a proxy for sediment thickness along this hybrid strike slip/reverse slip fault). We find significantly more off-fault deformation in younger and/or thicker sediments. Accounting for and predicting such off-fault deformation patterns has important implications for the interpretation of geologic slip rates, especially for their use in probabilistic seismic hazard assessments, the behavior of near-surface materials during coseismic deformation, and the future development of microzonation protocols for the built environment.

  16. Earthquakes, July-August 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during this reporting period. A magnitude 7.5 earthquake occurred in Kyrgyzstan on August 19 and a magnitude 7.0 quake struck the Ascension Island region on August 28. In southern California, aftershocks of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake on June 28, 1992, continued. One of these aftershocks caused damage and injuries, and at least one other aftershock caused additional damage. Earthquake-related fatalities were reportred in Kyrgzstan and Pakistan

  17. Medical rehabilitation of spinal cord injury following earthquakes in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings: implications for disaster research.

    PubMed

    Gosney, J E; Reinhardt, J D; von Groote, P M; Rathore, F A; Melvin, J L

    2013-08-01

    Narrative literature review. To (1) summarize epidemiological and scientific research on spinal cord injury (SCI) populations from three severe earthquakes (EQs) in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings; (2) summarize SCI rehabilitation services by local and foreign providers in response to these EQs and (3) provide implications including research gaps for a supporting global scientific research agenda. International. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify epidemiological studies reporting data on SCI survivors of the 2005 Kashmir EQ in Pakistan, the Sichuan EQ of 2008 in China and the 2010 Haiti EQ. A follow-up review on the SCI rehabilitation services provided by local and foreign providers in response to these EQs was also performed. Review of the scientific literature revealed the qualitative trends in focused EQ victim epidemiological data, including SCI classification and types of medical complications. Selected EQ country narratives showed that post-disaster SCI rehabilitation services were expanded by adapting local resources with international assistance to manage the significant numbers of SCI survivors. The resulting SCI research was limited. A global disaster research agenda for SCI in EQs in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings is needed to strengthen the evidence base for improvement of clinical management and outcomes for SCI EQ survivors. Expansion of this limited narrative review into a systematic review to identify additional research gaps is a proposed next step. Effective disaster setting data management and research collaborations of foreign and local SCI disability and rehabilitation stakeholders will be required for agenda implementation.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied.

  19. Delusions of Singularity: Aesthetics, Discomfort and Bewilderment in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    In Kashmir, where the act of performing a script-based play on a proscenium stage is still seen by many as a controversial gesture, "Cages" involved the devised creation of a site responsive and immersive performance that placed two spectators, literally, in the shoes of an(Other). The potential of these forms of spectatorship, as…

  20. Delusions of Singularity: Aesthetics, Discomfort and Bewilderment in Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    In Kashmir, where the act of performing a script-based play on a proscenium stage is still seen by many as a controversial gesture, "Cages" involved the devised creation of a site responsive and immersive performance that placed two spectators, literally, in the shoes of an(Other). The potential of these forms of spectatorship, as…

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural kashmir.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Imtiyaz, Bhat; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana

    2013-12-01

    Human fertility is determined by many factors such as customs, morals and habits of social groups with regard to marital obligation of life. Acceptance of family planning methods varies within and between societies and there are many factors which are responsible for such variation at community, family and individual level. Socioeconomic environment, culture and education are few of them that play a vital role. Jammu and Kashmir state in general and Kashmir valley in particular is a Muslim-dominated population with traditionally a conservative society. Apart from family customs and influence of the elders, religious background has always been behind the passive resistance, or at the best indifference towards contraception. This study makes an attempt to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural Kashmir. Community-based Cross-Sectional study. December 2006 to May 2008. 1900 currently married women in the age group of 15-49 years of age. Rural households. 1900 currently married women, aged 15-49 years, selected by multi-stage random sampling technique from three districts of Kashmir valley who were interviewed at home using a pretested oral questionnaire. The assessment of various socioeconomic and other variables made as per the available standard procedures and scales. Percentage, Chi square test and Bivariate analysis. Knowledge of the contraceptive methods was fairly good especially for terminal methods i.e. female sterilization (97.7 %). Main source of information on contraception was obtained from mass media (60.4 %). Contraceptive practice was significantly related to number of living children, literacy, socioeconomic status and type of family. What is needed is to promote and stress contraceptive methods and their advantages using mass media approach and to explore more and more participation of private sector.

  2. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed broad support—especially among the poorer segments of...R. Iannaccone and Eli Berman observe that: From Egypt and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed...radicalize their supporters, who thus develop an affinity for terrorism as means to achieve their objectives. We see this happening in Pakistan where

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; AfzalWani, Mohammed; Kirmani, Altaf R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher–i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like “salt-tea twice a day”, group-smoking of wet tobacco like “Jejeer”, winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of “Kangri” smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The

  4. Characterisation of patients treated at the Red Cross field hospital in Kashmir during the first three weeks of operation

    PubMed Central

    Helminen, M; Saarela, E; Salmela, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the characteristics of patients treated at a field hospital in the first month after a major earthquake. Methods Age, sex, diagnosis, and operations performed on patients admitted to the field hospital of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Pakistani Kashmir between 21 October and 10 November 2005 were recorded and the data analysed. Results During the three week period of this study, 316 patients were treated at the hospital; 246 were women and children (77.9%). Two thirds were hospitalised, over 90% because of the need for surgery or surgical consultation. Altogether 345 operations were performed on 157 patients. The majority of patients had infected wounds with or without fractures. Conclusions Most patients need medical evaluation in consequence of earthquake‐related trauma even weeks after the catastrophe, especially in areas difficult of access. PMID:16858109

  5. Beyond Kargil: The technology of peace in India-Pakistan border relations

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir-Kheli, S.; Biringer, K.L.

    2000-01-12

    The potential for cooperation between India and Pakistan is substantial. Topics as widely varying as national security, the environment and trade hold the potential for improved bilateral relations. This paper looks at a few areas in which monitoring technology could contribute to enhancing cooperative border agreements between the two nations. The goal of the paper is not to provide prescriptive solutions to regional problems, but to expand the number of options being considered for improving Indian-Pakistan relations. Many of the impediments to bilateral progress are a result of a history of conflict and mistrust. By utilizing technical monitoring and inspections, each side can begin to replace suspicion and doubt with knowledge and information useful in making informed political, economic and military decisions. At the same time, technical monitoring and inspections can build confidence through common interactions. India and Pakistan have pledged to resolve their disputes, including Kashmir, through dialogue. Implementation of that pledge is influenced by a number of factors, including changes in the political systems and the fortunes of the leadership. Events of the past year and a half have severely tested these two governments' ability to move forward along a constructive and positive path. Testing of new missile systems both preceded and followed testing of nuclear weapons in May 1998. Both countries disregarded subsequent international displeasure as they proceeded to openly declare their respective nuclear capability. Their brief engagement with each other in February 1999 and movement toward a rapprochement diluted international condemnation of their nuclear activity. Within a recent period of nine months however, progress in the dialogue has been stalled first by the Pakistani move in Kashmir in May 1999, then by the Indian election in the summer of 1999 and most recently by the military coup in Pakistan.

  6. Seismic Hazard Implications of a Vanished Punjab Mountain Rammed 100 km Beneath the Southeast End of the Kashmir Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Bali, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    An active normal fault parallel-to, and midway between, the Zanskar and Pir Pinjal ranges at the SE end of the Kashmir Valley (33.56N, 75.51E) raises the intriguing question of why a normal fault should exist in a region of prevailing Himalayan compression. We believe the normal fault is caused by a prominent bulge on the Indian plate. The fault is approximately 5 km long and has a surface scarp of approximately 4 m, tapering to zero to the WNW and ESE. Its recent origin is indicated by its offset of glacial moraines and stream channels with the subsequent formation of several poorly developed uphill-facing colluvial wedges, and a conspicuous 40 m x 60 m Alpine sag pond (Oldham, 1988). The fault dips steeply to the SW and its limited offset suggests that it was possibly formed in a single earthquake with Mw less than 6.0. The fault lies approximately 70 km northeast of a prominent salient in the Himalayan frontal thrusts west of the town of Jammu, and is one of several similar faults spaced roughly 5 km apart in a north-south line. The tensile surface stress implied by normal faulting is suggestive of north-south convex flexure of the region, possibly caused by the passage of a bulge on the Indian plate beneath SE Kashmir. We suggest that the Jammu salient and these normal faults record the passage of a mountain or range of mountains on the Indian plate beneath the divide separating the Chenab and Jhelum river drainages. The passage of the range is presumably responsible for the current location of the river divide and for the high passes that close the SE end of the Kashmir valley. Assuming that the crest of the range has passed 100 km beneath the Himalaya places the date of its initial collision with the frontal thrusts at 6 Mya. We anticipate that subduction of this range has resulted in significantly higher friction of the décollement here, influencing the style of Himalayan thrust faulting, and perhaps controlling the along-strike initiation or termination of

  7. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  8. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  9. Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In March and April 1968, the author was a guest of the U.S. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…

  10. Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadally, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

  11. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  12. IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503

  13. Women and Violence: A Study of Women's Empowerment and Its Challenges in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to highlight the violence against women's in Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir Woman are the most vulnerable and worst hit section of the society especially under situations of violence caused by militancy and armed conflict. They don't only suffer from intense humiliation and harassment but also undergo traumatic…

  14. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... landslide (usually triggered by an earthquake) displacing the ocean water. The hypocenter of an earthquake is the ... is the zone of earthquakes surrounding the Pacific Ocean — about 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur ...

  15. Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Sindh, and ‘TAN’ for Baluchistan. Bengal, latter to be called East Pakistan and then Bangladesh after securing its independence in 1971, was... Bangladesh . The loss of East Pakistan demonstrated the pitfall of using religion as a common unifying factor for a national identity. This is...creation of Bangladesh , Bhutto nationalized education but left the madrassas free of government control in order to consolidate support from the various

  16. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  17. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Laharwal, Masood Ahmed; Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Ramzan, Altaf Umer; Wani, Abrar Ahad; Malik, Nayil Khursheed; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Rizvi, Masooma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Background: Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anomalies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. Materials and Methods: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015. A detailed history of the mother was taken along with detailed clinical examination of neonate including measurement of head circumference and checking the status of fontanella, whether - lax/full/bulging/or tense, type of NTD. Investigations that were done included were X-ray skull: Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, X-ray spine: AP and lateral, ultrasonography abdomen, magnetic resonance imaging: Spine and brain. Results: The total number of babies with NTD's was 125 with an overall incidence of 0.503. District Kupwara was having the highest incidence (1.047) and district Srinagar the lowest incidence of NTD's (0.197). The majority of NTD's (116 cases, 92.8%) were found in the rural areas. Among the different types of NTD's, spina bifida had an incidence of 0.342 (85 cases, 68%), and anencephaly had an incidence of 0.113 (28 cases, 22.4%). There was a slight preponderance of females over males with NTD's. There were70 females (56%) and 55 males (44%) respectively with a male:female ratio of 0.8:1. Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs are very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal age and environmental factors for the development of an NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTDs in Kashmir Valley. PMID:27857789

  18. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Laharwal, Masood Ahmed; Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Ramzan, Altaf Umer; Wani, Abrar Ahad; Malik, Nayil Khursheed; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Rizvi, Masooma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. Methods: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015 to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anamolies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. A detailed history of the mother was taken along with detailed clinical examination of neonate including measurement of head circumference and checking the status of fontanella, whether lax/full/bulging/or tense, type of NTD. Investigations that were done included were X-ray skull: Anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral, X-ray spine: AP and lateral, ultrasonography abdomen, magnetic resonance imaging: Spine and brain. Results: The total number of babies with NTD's was 125 with an overall incidence of 0.503. Kupwara district was having the highest incidence (1.047) and Srinagar district the lowest incidence of NTD's (0.197). Majority of NTD's (116 cases, 92.8%) were found in the rural areas. Among the different types of NTD's, spina bifida had an incidence of 0.342 (85 cases, 68%) and anencephaly had an incidence of 0.113 (28 cases, 22.4%). There was a slight preponderance of females over males with NTD's. There were 70 females (56%) and 55 males (44%), respectively, with a male: female ratio of 0.8:1 Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs is very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal too young or advanced age, and environmental factors for the development of a NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTD in Kashmir Valley. PMID:27127700

  19. Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R

    2010-09-01

    The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers and their families in Kashmir. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively, case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Neurosurgery, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family interaction was established. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10 years [relative risk (RR) = 10.6; odds ratio (OR) = >10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = >25-40]. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 19 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 438 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71.7% (279 out of 389) were males and 28.3% (110 out of 389), including six members of three families, were females (one male child). All orchard-related 389 patients had high-grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide-exposed tumors was 12%. The higher or upper-normal levels of serum cholinesterase (AChE) were observed in 54.7% (213 out of 389) patients and decreased levels were found in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard-related patients (RR = 19.4; OR = >5; 95% CI = >1-10). Although serum AChE levels were a routine investigation in malignant brain tumors, this was not a routine in other neurological conditions (hospitalized controls). The familial gliomas have shown an emerging trend in the orchard residents of

  20. Clinical study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Gh Mohiuddin; Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Khursheed, Bilques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease of tropical and semitropical areas of the world. The cold and harsh winter conditions of the Kashmir Valley do not favor the survival and growth of the Leishmania parasite or its vector, the sand fly, and the disease was until now practically unheard of in the Kashmir Valley. Aims: There has been a recent rise in the number of cases of CL in the Kashmir Valley. Against this background, the present study was taken up to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and management outcomes of CL in the Kashmir Valley, where it represents a new phenomenon. Materials and Methods: Patients with direct smear-confirmed CL were evaluated. For each patient, we noted age, gender, geographical origin, stays in endemic areas, clinical aspects, number, site and size of lesions, treatment, and outcome. All the infected patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate. The dose, route of administration, adverse effects, and the clinical response in each patient was noted down. Results: Eighteen patients, 11 males (61.12%) and 7 females (38.88%) were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 60 years (mean age 29.8). The majority of our patients (16, 88.9%) belonged to two hilly areas, Uri and Karnah. Duration of the disease ranged from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 18 months (mean duration 4.6 months). Lesions in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) were located on the face including the lip and nose. The size of lesions varied from 4 to about 50 mm (average 2-3 cm). Most of our patients (13, 73.3%) had only a single lesion and a few (5, 26.7%) had two or three lesions. The clinical type of lesion in most of our patients (16, 88.9%) was noduloulcerative, only two (11.1%) had nodular (nonulcerative) lesions. Sixteen patients; all with facial lesions were treated with intravenous sodium stibogluconate. A complete response was seen in 14 (87%), without any major adverse effect. Two adult patients with

  1. ASTER Maps Continued Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-07

    On Sept. 3, 2010, when NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image strip over the Indus River in Pakistan, severe flooding was still causing a major humanitarian crisis in Pakistan. The city of Hyderabad is near the middle of the image.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  3. Pakistan Education Systems and the Radical Islamic Jihadist Ideology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    government and religious leaders continue to negotiate these measures. After the 8 October 2005 earthquake that devastated Pakistan, al -Qaida-linked...exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends.”19 An example, the Al Qaida Associated Movement--comprised of al Qaida and affiliated jihadists...jihadists, such as Osama Bin Laden and al -Qaida in general, believe that targeting and destroying the United States and the West is of primary

  4. The Extent of the Locked Zone in the Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya as observed from Microearthquake Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, H.; Priestley, K. F.; Mitra, S.; Wanchoo, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    We study the seismicity of the Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya extending from MFT in the West to the Zanskar in the East encompassing the western syntaxial bend, Pir Panjal region and partially Indus-Kohistan seismic zone (IKSZ) by using data from 1600+ micro-earthquakes. These earthquakes were recorded between mid 2013 to early 2016 by a seismic network of 20 broadband stations. The stations are in the form of 2D array centered in the Pir Panjal and was established through the UKIERI Thematic partnership between University of Cambridge and IISER Kolkata. The continuous broadband data was analyzed by Coalescence Microseismic Mapping (CMM) program which trigger, detect and locate earthquakes based on STA/LTA ratio. They were then manually scanned for false triggers, corrected for P and S picks and relocated. The local magnitude for each event was calculated by the principle of Wood-Anderson seismograph calibrated for Himalaya. The ML of these 1600+ earthquake lies between -1.0 and 3.5. From the relocation it is seen that the micro-earthquakes cluster at two places within the region. One at the Pir Panjal region between the Riasi Fault and the approximate 3.5 km elevation contour and the other at the adjoining regions of the Western syntaxis and IKSZ. On a cross-section along a NE-SW profile, it is seen that the micro-earthquake cluster to the south is shallow and is confined to a depth of 0-25 km and is probably associated with the adjustment within the Himalayan wedge or pre-existing fault planes. The micro-earthquakes almost become non-existent beyond an approximate NW-SE trending line through 33.5ºN and 75.5ºE and could be identified with the locking line. The cluster on the north lies at a depth of 25-50 and surprisingly has no shallow seismicity. This seismicity is related to the active IKSZ and approximately delineates a linear feature lying at a depth of 30-50 km. The two cluster could indicate two different tectonic regimes in the region.

  5. Injuries from bear (Ursus thibetanus) attacks in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Dar, Gh Nabi; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmed; Mir, Bashir Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    Strict conservation of wildlife and encroachment into its habitat have led to an increase in the number of wild animal-inflicted injuries and fatalities in Kashmir. The aim of this study was to report injuries inflicted during bear attacks and discuss their management and sequelae. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics Government Medical College Srinagar, University of Kashmir, from January 2003 to June 2007. A total of 254 cases (186 males, 68 females) with history of bear attacks were recorded over a period of 54 months. Eighty percent of victims were attacked in the maize fields and apple orchards and 20% in the dense forests while collecting firewood or tending to the cattle. Lacerations of the head and neck and fractures of the upper limbs and facial and skull bones were the striking observations. Permanent facial disfigurement, hearing loss, loss of digits, residual neurodeficit, and persistent psychological morbidity were the long-term sequelae in most of the patients. Wild animal-inflicted injuries are a neglected part of trauma. There should be a high index of suspicion when treating these injuries, as serious underlying bone or soft-tissue damage can be overlooked. Management of these injuries involves all subspecialties of trauma to achieve the best functional outcome.

  6. Esophageal Cancer in Kashmir (India): An Enigma for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Mir, M. Muzaffar; Dar, Nazir Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    About 90% of esophageal cancers worldwide are Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC), mostly occurring in defined high-incidence areas of low and middle-resource countries. Historically, the highest incidences are reported in regions of Central Asia. One such region is Kashmir Valley in Northern India. In this review, we summarize a large body of epidemiological, toxicological and observational information on occurrence, dietary patterns and lifestyles to discuss factors that may be involved in the etiology of SCC in Kashmir Valley. To date, no single factor can be identified as the main cause of the excess incidence of SCC as compared to other regions of India. Three main components emerge as important factors: a societal component with poor, rural lifestyle and general deprivation, status in particular in vitamins and oligoelements; a lifestyle component with the use of copper utensil in cooking, the consumption of spicy, deep fried foodstuffs, and the drinking of hot salty tea; and an environmental component with exposure to high levels of dietary nitrosamines from diverse sources. Overall, these three components are similar to the general pattern of factors that have been involved in causing SCC in other high-incidence area in the so-called “esophageal cancer belt”, namely in central China (Cixian, Lixian) and in Northern Iran (Golestan). Further comparative studies between these regions are needed to identify the contributions of these various components. PMID:21475514

  7. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  8. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  9. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  10. Documenting historic and recent extreme floods in Kashmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Koul Tasaduq, Hussain; Alamgir Shabir, Hussain; Shah Mutayib, Bashir; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Kashmir has been frequently subjected to massive floods along its history. The recent extreme flood events which occurred during September 2014, March 2015 and September 2015 have revealed the high vulnerability of its population. Causes of recent extreme flood events have been attributed to the bowl shaped topography, intense land-use changes and unfavorable climatic change conditions at the onset of the monsoon as well as due to the occurrence of westerly disturbances. This reality implies new challenges to authorities and calls for the development of suitable adaptation strategies focusing on a minimization of the expected negative impacts on inhabitants during future extreme floods. In this context, long-term records can improve our understanding about the flood frequency as well as changes in climate - and land-use - linkages. In this communication, we present an extensive flood records from Kashmir by combining historical descriptions with tree-ring records from headwater catchments as well as with the existing flow gauge records. Historical sources include old records from archives of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department of flood events which have taken place at Jhelum River, but also old pictures and other documents about the river system, going back in time to the British period. At the headwater catchment, we additionally perform tree-ring analyses coupled with classical palaeohydraulic techniques to reconstruct the magnitude and occurrence of recent, yet ungauged extreme events. Both sources of data have been compared and merged with the existing flow records in order to provide a clearer picture about flood phenomena in this region. Historical archives corroborate the assumption that that Srinagar (the main city of Kashmir), as well as the surroundings crops land, have been frequently affected by floods. Although the oldest records are from the 19th century, dense annals including information about water levels are available after the 18th

  11. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    PubMed

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  12. Pakistan: Lifelong Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The article reports on progress towards lifelong literacy education in Pakistan, covering the project's introduction in 1972 and reviewing current activities in brief but concrete sketches of such topics as materials, operation of projects, and student drop-outs. Appendixes include a map and occupational breakdowns of teachers and students. (AJ)

  13. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R; Raina, T H

    2010-10-01

    The atmosphere of valley of Kashmir is ideal for fresh and dry fruit production. Millions of tons of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides (chemicals like chlorpyriphos, mancozeb, captan, dimethoate, phosalone, etc.) are being used by the orchard farmers to spray the plants, fruits and the leaves every year. The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers of Kashmir is alarming. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family contact was established. The serum cholinesterase activity was measured by kinetic/DGKC calorimetric method and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) samples were sent to the laboratory. The results are expressed in U/l which is U/l×1000. The laboratory at SKIMS, Srinagar, and Dr Lal PathLabs at New Delhi used a reference range for serum cholinesterase as 3167-6333 U/l. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard-farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10-20 years. About 31.9% (124 out of 389) of these from both sexes were younger than 40 years beginning exposure at an early age and had higher (<6334 U/l) serum cholinesterase (SCE) levels. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 119 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 338 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71

  15. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  16. Monitoring and descriptive analysis of radon in relation to seismic activity of Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Zeeshan; Mehmood, Tahir; Alam, Aftab; Awais, Muhammad; Iqbal, Talat

    2017-06-01

    Earthquakes are one of the major causes of natural disasters and its forecasting is challenging task. Some precursory phenomenon exists in theory in relation to earthquakes occurrence. The emission of radioactive gas named 'radon' before the earthquakes is a potential earthquake precursory candidate. The study aims to monitor and to analyze the radon in relation to seismic activity in Northern Pakistan. For this purpose RTM-2200 has been used to monitor the changes in radon concentration from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 in Northern Pakistan. Significant temporal variations has been observed in radon concentration. The bivariate analysis of radon with other variables manifests its positive relationship with air pressure and relative humidity and negative relationship with temperature. 2σ upper control limit on monthly basis are computed for detection of anomalous trends in the data. Overall increasing trend is detected in radon concentration. Five earthquakes from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 have been selected from earthquake catalogue, depending upon their magnitude and distance from monitoring station and out of which radon concentration can be associated with only two earthquakes correlated with tectonic effect of radon concentration. Both of events have same magnitude 5.5 and occurred on September 13 and October 14, 2014 respectively. Very large variations have been observed in radon for the last two months of the study period, which may be occurred due to some other geological and environmental changes, but are not related to the earthquake activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Country watch: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Toll, K; Agha, S

    1999-01-01

    In Pakistan, which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. A condom social marketing (CSM) program started by Population Services International (PSI) increased contraceptive use in urban areas and sold low-priced condoms. However, in 1991 the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales. Thus, in 1995 PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By 1996, the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually.

  18. Pakistan: Frontline State Again?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    leader Mohammed Ali Jinnah embarked on a new strategy against Indian Congress domination stating that Islam was in danger and the congress was...A. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY ............................. 4 II. A COLD W AR W ITHIN ...................................... 9 A. LEGACY OF PARTITION ...in the region, one absolute of Indo-Pak relations remains after the end of the cold war. Since the partition of India in 1947, Pakistan has been

  19. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  20. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 22, 1960. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the exploring expedition ... by wind or tides. Each year the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes . Most of ...

  1. Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Syed; Khan, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mental, physical and social health, are vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. Mental disorders affect people of all countries and societies, individuals at all ages, women and men, the rich and the poor, from urban and rural environments. Depression is more likely following particular classes of experience – those involving conflict, disruption, losses and experiences of humiliation or entrapment. Many people living amidst the rages of conflict suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Objective: To determine the characteristics of depression in the population in Kashmir where a low-intensity-conflict has been going on for the last seventeen years. Methods: The non-combatant civilian population was surveyed. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression in community populations. Results: Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression is 55.72%. The prevalence is highest (66.67%) in the 15 to 25 years age group, followed by 65.33% in the 26 to 35 years age group. The difference in the prevalence of depression among males and females is significant. Depression is much higher in rural areas (84.73%) as compared to urban areas (15.26%). In rural areas the prevalence of depression among females is higher (93.10 %) as compared to males (6.8%). Conclusion: Mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Effective evidence-based programs and policies are available to promote mental health, enhance resilience, reduce risk factors, increase protective factors, and prevent mental and behavioural disorders. Innovative community-based health programmes which are culturally and gender appropriate and reaches out to all segments of the population need to be developed. Substantial and sustainable improvements can

  2. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  3. Nowcasting Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Turcotte, D. L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gail, G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(nearthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(nearthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  4. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  5. Nowcasting earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gong, G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(n < n(t)) for the current count n(t) for the small earthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(n < n(t)). EPS is therefore the current level of hazard and assigns a number between 0% and 100% to every region so defined, thus providing a unique measure. Physically, the EPS corresponds to an estimate of the level of progress through the earthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  6. Profile of missile-induced cardiovascular injuries in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Abdul Gani; Lone, Gh Nabi; Hakeem, Zubair Ashraf; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Mohd Akbar; Singh, Shyam; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Missile cardiovascular injuries have taken an epidemic proportion in Kashmir valley since the eruption of militancy in 1990. Present study was undertaken to analyse the pattern, presentation and management of missile cardiovascular injuries. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-six patients with missile cardiovascular injuries since Jan 1996 to Oct 2008 were studied retrospectively. All patients of cardiovascular injuries due to causes other than missiles were excluded from the study. Results: All patients of missile cardiac injuries were treated by primary cardiorrhaphy. Right ventricle was the most commonly affected chamber. Left anterior thoracotomy was most common approach used. Most of the patients of missile vascular group were treated by reverse saphenous vein graft or end-to-end anastomosis. Most common complication was wound infection (20.83%) followed by graft occlusion (1.94%) in missile vascular group. Amputation rate was 4.66%. Amputation rate was higher in patients with delay of >6 hours and associated fractures. Conclusion: Missile cardiac injuries should be operated early without wasting time for investigations. Clinical status at arrival, time interval till management, nature of injury and associated injuries, tell upon the mortality. Missile vascular injury needs prompt resuscitation and revascularization at the earliest. Time interval till revascularization and associated fractures has a bearing on mortality and morbidity. PMID:21769201

  7. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  8. An endemic of scabies in Kahuta, Azad Kashmir. The study shows a lack of awareness of scabies; mass treatment is needed.

    PubMed

    Ali, Afaque

    2017-09-01

    The study was planned to find the awareness of scabies in the Forward Kahuta area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. For this, a questionnaire related to scabies was distributed among the patients at different walk-in clinics in the region from June 2015 to May 2016. Of the 234 participants, 97(41.5%) were males and 137(58.5%) were females. All of them reported with itching, but 120(51.3%) of the participants didn't even know that itching may be due to scabies which was found in 157(67%) patients, and of them, 106(67.52%) knew that scabies was curable and preventable. Scabies was found in common school students (n=39(24.84%), farmers (n=32(2.38%) and laborers (n=31(19.74%). Due to poor awareness, a multi-dimensional approach is suggested to spread the awareness of skin diseases like scabies in the population under study and mass treatment of scabies in the area is recommended.

  9. Psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, F

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric services in Pakistan have undergone considerable changes since independence 50 years ago. There has been an increased awareness of psychiatric illness on both public and professional levels and great emphasis has been laid on the education and training of medical and related professions in recent years. Although old traditional methods still prevail, it is becoming increasingly common to seek professional psychiatric advice. Like any developing country, however, much remains to be done especially on a government level in order to meet the basic mental health needs of the nation.

  10. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  11. Landslide Mapping and Modeling Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Statistical Analysis of District Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nimrah; Mushtaq, Saman

    2016-07-01

    Occurrence factors of Landslide hazard can be natural such as high slopes, geological conditions and lineaments, faults, rain, and river cutting. Man-made factors such as road cuttings, deforestation or development can also contribute to the landsliding. The focus of this study was to model those landslides susceptible prone to hazard areas which in turn can help for the development, urbanization and for setting up rules or regulations to save nature and environment of the area. The focal of the current research work was the Earthquake of October, 2005 also known as Kashmir Earthquake, the epicenter location of the earthquake 34°29'35″N 73°37'44″E at height of ~2000 from mean sea level and ~20 Km North-East from Muzaffarabad city, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, at the scale of 1:50000 Geological map of 43-F/11, tehsil Nauseri area. The techniques used in this research is based on theorem of Bayes's bivariat statistic (weight of evidence) which predicts the events geographically and on input layers and the relationship of event. A relationship between event of landslide and factors was studied and analyzed using this method. Subsequently a prediction of the occurrence of the spatial location of the landslide event was established successfully. The relationship of distribution of landslide and factors layers was calculated using the statistical methods which enabled to predict the landslides zones in different areas. The methodology applied proved that the success rate was 80% landslide occurred in 18% area and prediction rate was 70% of landslides occurred in 70% of area. The use satellite remote sensing data, and GIS with the integration of statistical method are definitely an effective tool for predicting the future landslide prone areas.

  12. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  13. Lessons from India’s Counterinsurgency Campaign in Jammu and Kashmir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    members of the JKLF being released as ransom .29 The JKLF formed in 1964 as the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front, adopting its current title...any insurgent demands. India seems to be trying to wear down the insurgents over the long term. There remains the question if New Delhi will allow

  14. Interventions for Promoting Gender Equity at Elementary Education Level in South Kashmir: An Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the interventions for promoting gender equity at elementary education level in South Kashmir. Descriptive survey method was used in this study to obtain pertinent and precise information. The sample of this study included 120 head teachers and 90 local community members selected by using purposive sampling…

  15. Assessment and Understanding of Gender Equity in Education in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the assessment and understanding of the gender equity in education in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, strategies and measures should be available to compensate for women's historical and social disadvantaged. The central government, state government,…

  16. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  17. Incidence and pattern of bear maul injuries in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Altaf; Wani, Adil Hafeez; Darzi, Mohammad Ashraf; Zaroo, M Inam; Iqbal, Shabir; Bashir, Shiekh Adil; Rashid, Shafaq; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Injuries due to mauling by bears are rarely reported in the literature. The high incidence of such injuries in Kashmir, India, which is a valley surrounded by dense forests and is a habitat of Asiatic Black bears, urged us to undertake such a study in our department. The study was conducted both retrospectively (January 1990-July 2005) and prospectively (August 2005-December 2007). A total of 417 cases were recorded and all the injuries were caused by black bears alone. Majority of the patients were young to middle-aged (96.8% of cases) and predominantly males (80.33%). The incidence was highest during July to November (76.82%), and most of the attacks (97%) occurred during daytime. Soft-tissue injury occurred in all 417 cases, bones were involved in 131 (31.41%) while the visceral organs were injured in four (12.94%) patients. The face (80.57%) was most common part of the body injured, followed by the head (54.67%), and all the patients had soft-tissue injury (100%). In spite of devastating injuries caused by bear maulings, the mortality rate was only 2.39%. Injuries due to mauling by black bear occur mainly between July and November. The young and middle-aged men have a higher tendency to be wounded. The face and head were the most commonly affected sites, while visceral injuries were rare. Mortality was low, and reconstruction of many of the injuries was challenging, often necessitating a staged procedure. Those living in villages close to black bear habitats may benefit from education related to the risk and severity of the attacks in the hope of reducing the number of injuries seen.

  18. A profile of child branding cases in Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Arsalaan F; Ahmed, Kaiser; Noor, Farida

    2017-07-01

    The article deals with child branding cases that were researched over a period of two years. Child branding practice is a common occurrence in the rural areas of the Kashmir valley where it is often practiced by faith healers [quacks] having no knowledge of underlying disease processes or the possible differentials of the same; leaving treatment protocols a distant possibility for the same. These illiterate so called healers possibly relieve the initial stigmata of the disease process that is pain by many procedures including burning the affected population with hot coals; embers; and various other pain inducing processes. In this way cutting a painful condition by stimulating another painful condition by possible intervention of body's "pain gating mechanisms" bring a somewhat temporary relief to the sufferer. This undiagnosed and mistreated underlying disease condition meanwhile continues to linger on with increasing severity often causing morbid relapses and ultimately resulting in a highly mortal course when the patient is actually brought for tertiary hospitalization. The present study aims to establish a pattern between child branding and its medical; social and economic correlations .Among these correlations the study will focus on disease related morbidity and mortality; role of community based faith healers ["quacks"]; poverty and illiteracy. The study will also reveal how bits and pieces of scientific information have been used to misdiagnose and mistreat a significant population belonging to pediatric age group. It will further try to evaluate the role of "pain gating" mechanisms as a means of pain relief and the partial success in motivating a significant population by these healers to be part of such practices. A positive outcome of this study is educating a significant part of affected population to shun such practices and follow proper treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  20. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, G. H.; Shah, Rouf Ahmad; Hussain, Aadil

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater samples ( n = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) which is an index to represent the total concentration of soluble salts in water was used to measure the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater ranging from 97 to 1385 μS/cm, except one well in Sopore. The average concentration of major ions was higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. In general, Ca2+ is the dominant cation and HCO the dominant anion. Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 were the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. High concentration of HCO3 and pH less than 8.8 clearly indicated that intense chemical weathering processes have taken place in the study area. The groundwater flow pattern in the area follows the local surface topography which not only modifies the hydrogeochemical facies but also controls their distribution. The groundwater in valley flows into four directions, i.e., SW-NE, NE-W, SE-NW and SE-NE directions. The results suggest that carbonate dissolution is the dominant source of major ions followed by silicate weathering and ion-exchange processes. The concentrations of all the major ions determined in the present study are within the permissible limits of WHO and BIS standards. The results of Total Hardness, SAR, Na%, Kelly Index, USDA classification, Magnesium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, and PI suggested that groundwater is good for drinking, livestock, and irrigation purposes.

  1. Khyber Pass, Afghanistan-Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-08

    The ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft imaged the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Afghanistan and Pakistan. Throughout its history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia.

  2. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-24

    further tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the...of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not

  3. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-26

    seek future civil nuclear assistance from Beijing, including potential provision of complete power reactors, especially in light of Washington’s...nuclear proliferation to North Korea, Iran, and Libya may complicate future Pakistan-U.S. relations. Security International Terrorism. After the...an apparent arms race between India and Pakistan to be among the most likely potential causes of the future use of nuclear weapons by states. In May

  4. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-06

    2008. 3 See http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr_03272008.html. 4 Talat Masood, “Managing Pakistan-U.S. Relations” (op-ed), Hindu ( Chennai ), June 25...Taleban Bring New Fear to Peshawar,” BBC News, November 13, 2008. Paramilitary commanders reported having secured most areas surrounding the city ...Pakistan.”40 34 “Pakistan’s Deal With the Devil,” Salon, July 8, 2008; “In City of

  5. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    and the ensuing enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.- led counterterrorism efforts. Top U.S. officials have praised Pakistan for its ongoing...military rule for more than half of its existence. In 1999, the elected government was ousted in a coup led by Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf...Bhutto. However, February 2008 parliamentary elections were relatively credible and seated a coalition led by Bhutto’s widower, Asif Zardari, and

  6. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral; Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  7. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  8. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  9. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  10. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  11. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  12. Undead earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, R. M. W.

    This short communication deals with the problem of fake earthquakes that keep returning into circulation. The particular events discussed are some very early earthquakes supposed to have occurred in the U.K., which all originate from a single enigmatic 18th century source.

  13. Survey report: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Pakistan suffers an unsuccessful population policy, with a resultant annual population growth of greater than 3%. Cultural and religious objections to family planning (FP) are recognized as the major obstacles to reducing fertility. Accordingly, a 1990-91 demographic and health survey was conducted to elicit information or fertility, family planning, marriage patterns, breastfeeding, and child health for planners and policymakers. The survey was jointly funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the government of Pakistan, and interviewed 6,494 ever-married women aged 15-49. The average total fertility rate for the 6-year period prior to the survey was 5.5 lifetime births/woman, less than the figure of greater than 6 found in previous surveys. Increasing age at 1st marriage and a slightly higher level of contraceptive use may be causal factors for the observed decline. Decreased fertility notwithstanding, contraceptive prevalence is low compared to other developing countries in Asia. 1 out of 5 Pakistani women report ever having used contraceptives, and no single method has ever been used by more than 7% of married women. 7% use condoms, 5% the pill, 3% female sterilization, and 3 the IUD and injections, with male sterilization virtually nonexistent, and only limited knowledge of barrier methods. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional methods, among married women was 12%, with higher coverage in cities, especially among educated women. 37% desire no additional children, and 18% wish to delay child birth for 2 years. Intervention strategy may include working to improve the status of women, fostering greater educational opportunities for women, changing traditional attitudes toward large families and son preference, providing sufficient FP services, and getting commitments for support and action from government and community leaders.

  14. Renal transplantation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N

    2002-01-01

    The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession.

  15. Ethnobotanical profiling of the medicinal flora of Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan: Empirical reflections on multinomial logit specifications.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Arshad, Muhammad; Saboor, Abdul; Page, Sue; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2017-05-01

    To report the indigenous people's uses of plants from a multidimensional perspective in a remote area where strong ethnobotanical cultural practices prevail. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the field during 2014-2016. Ethnobotanical data were gathered from 182 informants through oral interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. The distribution of plants was explored using both descriptive and graphical methods. Further, a Multinomial Logit Specification was applied to find out the probability of the occurrence of diverse utilization of plants in multipurpose domains. The study identified 202 plant species distributed among 71 families and 156 genera. Ethnobotanical data indicate that there are more medicinal (36.96%) uses of plants as compared to all other use categories. The output from the Multinomial Logit Specifications (MLS) model reveals that perennial and non-woody plants are exploited more for medicinal and food uses than annual and woody plants. In the context of ethnomedicinal uses, aerial plant parts particularly leaves are more extensively used for the preparation of herbal recipes as compared to underground parts. The results of the study emphasize the need to create awareness among the local communities about the conservation status of plant species in order to maintain a sustainable resource of plant-derived materials into the future. The novel econometric approach employed in this study adds a new insightful methodology to the existing body of literature in the field of ethnobotany. We strongly recommend conservation measures, alongside phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the useful plant species identified in this study in order to ensure their sustainable and effective utilization. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geology, geochemistry and Ar Ar geochronology of the Nangimali ruby deposit, Nanga Parbat Himalaya (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pêcher, A.; Giuliani, G.; Garnier, V.; Maluski, H.; Kausar, A. B.; Malik, R. H.; Muntaz, H. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Nangimali ruby deposit in the southern part of the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, has been investigated through field work, geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. It outcrops in the Shontar valley in a large north-vergent syncline consisting of high-grade metamorphic gneisses capped by a metasedimentary series dominated by marbles and amphibolites. The ore-body is stratiform. Ruby is found within 0.1-2 cm thick shear-veinlets and gash veins cutting dolomitic marbles and carbonate-bearing bands. The marbles of the Nangimali Formation display restricted ranges in δ18O (from 23.6 to 27.6‰ relative to SMOW) and in δ13C (from -1.9 to 2.6‰ relative to PDB). Fluid infiltration along the shear-zone in the marble has no effect on the isotopic signatures of the carbonates. Fluids are metamorphic and CO 2 is derived from the decarbonation of marbles. Mass-balance and geochemical analyses suggest that the mobilisation by the fluids of aluminium and chromium in the marbles is sufficient to enable the formation of ruby in the shear-zone. Rubies have been indirectly dated using a stepwise 40Ar- 39Ar laser heating technique on syngenetic phlogopites. The Miocene age records a Neogene cooling in the South of the Nanga Parbat massif and a minimum formation age for ruby of 16 Ma.

  17. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  18. Changing mechanical response during continental collision: Active examples from the foreland thrust belts of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dan M.; Lillie, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    We have used data from teleseismic, seismic reflection and field geologic studies, along with both geomechanical and gravity modeling to contrast the tectonics of four active orogenic wedges in Pakistan: the Kashmir Himalaya, the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau foldbelt, the Sulaiman Range and the Makran accretionary wedge. In Makran, oceanic crust is still being subducted, and a thick pile of sediments is being accreted and underplated. Undercompaction and excess pore pressures can explain the narrow cross-sectional taper and frontal aseismicity of this wedge. Beneath the Sulaiman wedge, continental crust is just starting to be underthrust. Indirect evidence suggests that fine-grained carbonate rocks found in abundance deep in the stratigraphic section may be deforming ductilely at the base of the Sulaiman wedge and provide a zone of ductile detachment. The collision has proceeded to a much more mature stage in the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau foldbelt and the Kashmir Himalaya. Isostatic response to underthrusting of continental crust has kept the sedimentary pile quite thin in both of these wedges, so in that respect the two foldbelts are similar. However, thick Eocambrian salt beneath the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau permits that foldbelt to be much wider in map view, with a thinner cross-sectional taper and a mixture of thrust vergence directions. A major normal fault in basement causes the Salt Range to rise in front of the mildly deformed molasse basin of the southern Potwar Plateau. Much of the diversity among these mountain belts can be understood in terms of differences in the maturity of the collision process in each area, the resulting thickness of the sedimentary pile encountered at the deformation front, and the presence or absence of large contrasts in strength between the various layers of the stratigraphic section and basement relief.

  19. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  20. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  1. Pakistan’s Search for Identity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    50Ibid., pp. 378-379. 51-Gustav F. Papanek , Pakistan: The Development Miracle, p. 12. ->^Lord Birdwood, A Continent Decides, pp. 95-97. "Fazal Muqeem...pp. 269- 403. (DS35 K3 1963) 46. Papanek , Gustav F. Pakistan: The Development Miracle. Washington: Embassy of Pakistan, Information Division

  2. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  3. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  4. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  5. Earthquake watch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.

    1976-01-01

     When the time comes that earthquakes can be predicted accurately, what shall we do with the knowledge? This was the theme of a November 1975 conference on earthquake warning and response held in San Francisco called by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Jack W. Carlson. Invited were officials of State and local governments from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, utah, Washington, and Wyoming and representatives of the news media. 

  6. Delimiting invasive Myriophyllum aquaticum in Kashmir Himalaya using a molecular phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Shah, M A; Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Reshi, Z A

    2014-09-12

    Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. (family Haloragaceae) is one of the most invasive and destructive South American aquatic plant species and is present in a wide range of geographic regions, including the Kashmir Himalaya. Confusion regarding the taxonomic delimitation of M. aquaticum in the Himalayan region impedes effective and targeted management. Hence, our goal was improve the identification of M. aquaticum for exclusive delimitation from other related species in the study region using a molecular phylogenetic approach. A maximum parsimony tree recovered from phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to authenticate the identification of M. aquaticum. The results of this study can be used for targeted management of this tropical invader into the temperate Kashmir Himalaya.

  7. Pakistan: A Nation at War with Itself

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    it would be in their own interest to accede to one of the two new states. From the beginning, Mohamed Ali Jinnah had campaigned in Kashmir for its...27 A. INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 27 B. PARTITION OF BRITISH INDIA...the thesis. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Maria Rasmussen; Dr. Mohammed Hafez; Col Mark Chakwin, USA; Dr. Wade Huntley; and Dr. Anshu

  8. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  9. Studies of VLF radio waves for sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) in Kashmir region

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, M. R.; Iqbal, Naseer; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2010-10-20

    It is recognized that the ionosphere may be sensitive to seismic effects, and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with seismicity would be useful for short term prediction of seismic events. To observe this effect, Indian Centre for Space Physics has installed an antenna and receiver system at Kashmir University to monitor the variation of the VLF signal transmitted from VTX. We present the preliminary results from this station.

  10. Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Spalgais, Sonam; Gothi, Dipti; Jaiswal, Anand; Gupta, Kumud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonoccupational anthracosis and silicosis has been reported from various parts of the world including Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India; however, anthracosilicosis has only been reported in industrial workers till date. Materials and Methods: Six cases from the Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir, India with similar clinico-radiological-pathological features, i.e., anthracosilicosis/anthracofibrosis have been analyzed. Of these, four were analyzed retrospectively and two prospectively. Result: All the patients were homemakers and resided in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India since birth with an age range of 42–62 years and an average age of 56 years. Their average duration of symptoms was 4 years. Spirometry showed small and/or large airway disease in 5/6 cases. On computed tomography (CT), 4/6 cases showed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. There were random or centrilobular nodules in all the six cases. Bronchoscopy in 5/6 cases showed multiple anthracotic pigments with narrowing and distortion of the bronchus (anthracofibrosis). Malignancy was suspected clinico-radiologically in four cases and pathologically in two cases. On histopathology, anthracosis was demonstrated in all and silicosis in three cases. Conclusion: Anthracosilicosis can occur due to environmental exposure. Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India is the only place across the globe with unique environmental features having the presence of both free silica and biomass fuel. The disease was observed predominantly in older women. Awareness would prevent unnecessary investigation for malignancy. Treatment with the bronchodilator is useful as it has evidence of airway disease. Finally, environmental measures and a proper study need to be undertaken for knowing the relative role of silica versus soot in causing the lung disease and preventing this irreversible condition. PMID:26957815

  11. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children of Conflict Region of Kashmir (India): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs due to traumatic events. The last two decades have seen various traumatic events in Kashmiri population, which has led to psychological impact on all population, especially children. PTSD is one of the psychiatric disorders occurring after witnessing of traumatic events. A review of literature regarding PTSD in children of Kashmir (India) has been done to assess the prevalence, causes, neurobiology, risk factors and psychiatric co morbidity associated with it. PMID:26894159

  12. Earthquake fault superhighways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

  13. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-11

    tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while

  14. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... A student doing an experiment in the rock physics lab. Earthquake Animations A trench dug across a ... Links Earthquake Photos Earthquake ABC Scientists doing field work and looking at their notes. Latest Earthquakes Children's ...

  15. Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Soil-transmitted helminths in relation to hemoglobin status among school children of the Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Wani, Showkat Ahmad; Ahmad, Fayaz; Zargar, Showkat A; Dar, Zubair Ahmad; Dar, Parvaiz Ahmad; Tak, Hidayatullah; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) remain a major threat to the health of children throughout the world, mostly in developing nations. The aim of the present study was to determine any relationship between STHs and hemoglobin status in school children of Kashmir Valley (India). Stool and blood samples were collected from 382 male and female school children in the age group of 5-15 yr from all 6 school districts of the Kashmir Valley. Finger-prick blood samples were used to collect the hemoglobin, which was then measured on-site by Sahli's acid hematin method; stool samples were processed using both simple smear and zinc sulphate concentration methods. Of the 382 children surveyed, 299 (78.27%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, or both. Children infected by STHs were found to have lower mean values of hemoglobin than uninfected children. The present study reveals that STHs are abundant among school children of Kashmir Valley, creating a negative effect on the hemoglobin values and indicating the necessity of implementing control measures.

  17. [Documentation of violence against civilians in a civil war. Examples from Kashmir].

    PubMed

    Petersen, H D; Larsen, M; Mannstaedt, M; Skytt, G L; Vedel, O M; Wandall, J H

    1998-07-13

    Physicians for Human Rights/Denmark visited Kashmir three times in 1993 and 1994. In Indian-held Kashmir we examined victims of torture and gunshots and we assessed similar evidence collected by local lawyers and doctors. In refugee camps for Indian Kashmiries we examined ten children, who were reported to have been tortured at the age of 5-14 years, and ten other children who allegedly had been ill-treated. Furthermore, 17 adults, who reported that they had been tortured, were examined. In nearly all cases there were physical findings in accordance with the histories of torture. In many cases, including those of the children, the findings were highly remarkable by their shape and localization. We interpret them as evidence of intentionally inflicted injuries. In the refugee camps we carried out a prevalence study of exposure to organized violence. Approximately 95% of all families had been exposed to violence; 35% reported that their children had been ill-treated. The physical findings indicate that intentional traumatization of civilians including children in Indian-held Kashmir takes place; the results of the prevalence study suggest that exposure to violence is widespread.

  18. Should Coulomb stress change calculations be used to forecast aftershocks and to influence earthquake probability estimates? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, T.

    2009-12-01

    After a large earthquake, our concern immediately moves to the likelihood that another large shock could be triggered, threatening an already weakened building stock. A key question is whether it is best to map out Coulomb stress change calculations shortly after mainshocks to potentially highlight the most likely aftershock locations, or whether it is more prudent to wait until the best information is available. It has been shown repeatedly that spatial aftershock patterns can be matched with Coulomb stress change calculations a year or more after mainshocks. However, with the onset of rapid source slip model determinations, the method has produced encouraging results like the M=8.7 earthquake that was forecast using stress change calculations from 2004 great Sumatra earthquake by McCloskey et al. [2005]. Here, I look back at two additional prospective calculations published shortly after the 2005 M=7.6 Kashmir and 2008 M=8.0 Wenchuan earthquakes. With the benefit of 1.5-4 years of additional seismicity, it is possible to assess the performance of rapid Coulomb stress change calculations. In the second part of the talk, within the context of the ongoing Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) assessments, uncertainties associated with time-dependent probability calculations are convolved with uncertainties inherent to Coulomb stress change calculations to assess the strength of signal necessary for a physics-based calculation to merit consideration into a formal earthquake forecast. Conclusions are as follows: (1) subsequent aftershock occurrence shows that prospective static stress change calculations both for Kashmir and Wenchuan examples failed to adequately predict the spatial post-mainshock earthquake distributions. (2) For a San Andreas fault example with relatively well-understood recurrence, a static stress change on the order of 30 to 40 times the annual stressing rate would be required to cause a significant (90%) perturbation to the

  19. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies.

  20. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M. Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant–microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL-1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9–5.39 μg mL-1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  1. Hydrodynamic modelling of extreme flood events in the Kashmir valley in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manoj; Parvaze, Sabah

    2017-04-01

    Floods are one of the most predominant, costly and deadly hazards of all natural vulnerabilities. Every year, floods exert a heavy toll on human life and property in many parts of the world. The prediction of river stages and discharge during flood extremes plays a vital role in planning structural and non-structural measures of flood management. The predictions are also valuable to prepare the flood inundation maps and river floodplain zoning. In the Kashmir Valley, floods occur mainly and very often in the Jhelum Basin mostly due to extreme precipitation events and rugged mountainous topography of the basin. These floods cause extreme damage to life and property in the valley from time to time. Excessive rainfall, particularly in higher sub-catchments causes the snow to melt resulting in excessive runoff downhill to the streams causing floods in the Kashmir Valley where Srinagar city is located. However, very few hydrological studies have been undertaken for the Jhelum Basin mainly due to non-availability of hydrological data due to very complex mountainous terrain. Therefore, the present study has been conducted to model the extreme flood events in the Jhelum Basin in Kashmir Valley. An integrated NAM and MIKE 11 HD model has been setup for Jhelum basin up to Ram Munshi Bagh gauging site and then four most extreme historical flood events in the time series has been analyzed separately including the most recent and most extreme flood event of 2014. In September 2014, the Kashmir Valley witnessed the most severe flood in the past 60 years due to catastrophic rainfall from 1st to 6th September wherein the valley received unprecedented rainfall of more than 650 mm in just 3 days breaking record of many decades. The MIKE 11 HD and NAM model has been calibrated using 21 years (1985-2005) data and validated using 9 years (2006-2014) data. The efficiency indices of the model for calibration and validation period is 0.749 and 0.792 respectively. The model simulated

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

  3. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  4. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  5. Deep earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

  6. Satellite image maps of Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Georeferenced Landsat satellite image maps of Pakistan are now being made available for purchase from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The first maps to be released are a series of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) color image maps compiled from Landsat scenes taken before 1979. The Pakistan image maps were originally developed by USGS as an aid for geologic and general terrain mapping in support of the Coal Resource Exploration and Development Program in Pakistan (COALREAP). COALREAP, a cooperative program between the USGS, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Geological Survey of Pakistan, was in effect from 1985 through 1994. The Pakistan MSS image maps (bands 1, 2, and 4) are available as a full-country mosaic of 72 Landsat scenes at a scale of 1:2,000,000, and in 7 regional sheets covering various portions of the entire country at a scale of 1:500,000. The scenes used to compile the maps were selected from imagery available at the Eros Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Where possible, preference was given to cloud-free and snow-free scenes that displayed similar stages of seasonal vegetation development. The data for the MSS scenes were resampled from the original 80-meter resolution to 50-meter picture elements (pixels) and digitally transformed to a geometrically corrected Lambert conformal conic projection. The cubic convolution algorithm was used during rotation and resampling. The 50-meter pixel size allows for such data to be imaged at a scale of 1:250,000 without degradation; for cost and convenience considerations, however, the maps were printed at 1:500,000 scale. The seven regional sheets have been named according to the main province or area covered. The 50-meter data were averaged to 150-meter pixels to generate the country image on a single sheet at 1:2,000,000 scale

  7. Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape Evolution in the NW Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-05-01

    The terrain between Main Mantle Thrust to Salt Range Thrust in the NW Himalayas has been characterized by surface and subsurface features with variable tectonic activity. These features show relatively variable tectonic activity, existence of blind faults and basement faulting. In the present study, we use seismological and remote sensing analysis backed by field observations to investigate the relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and landscape evolution. We use nonlinear analysis to understand the earthquake dynamics in relation to surface faults and blind faults. The fractal analysis of the seismicity in three subsurface features of the area is used to characterize the roughness of the faults' surface. We find a high fault surface roughness in the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). It is concluded that the area is in the process of being uplifted and landscape is evolving. This evolution is further investigated using a set of geomorphological analyses consisting of extracting a drainage network from digital elevation models (DEM). The extracted streams are analysed using to calculate geomorphic indices and relative uplift rates. These analyses were applied on Indus, Swat, Kabul, Kunhar, Kishanganga, Poonch, Jehlum, Swan and Kurram, Kabul Rivers and their associate tributaries. The analyses provide us with the spatial variation of relative uplift based upon specific streams. We found that the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif are subject to a relatively high uplift. It is observed that the neotectonic activities are linearizing the drainage network from meandering pattern. We analyse the complete drainage texture using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. The analysis of the fractal dimension (D) employing box counting methods is calculated with a moving window approach and the lower values of D demonstrate the effect of neotectonic activity. The locations with lower but similar D values are further differentiated using

  8. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  9. Panel Analyzes Pakistan's Internal Water Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although transboundary water issues between Pakistan and neighboring countries may be exciting and interesting, Pakistan's real water and security nexus is at the local level, according to Daanish Mustafa, coauthor of a new report, "Understanding Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus." Mustafa, a reader in politics and environment at King's College, London, U.K., was a panelist at a 30 May forum in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace, which published the report.

  10. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  11. Earthquake tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, R.F. )

    1991-02-01

    Earthquakes release a tremendous amount of energy into the subsurface in the form of seismic waves. The seismic wave energy of the San Francisco 1906 (M = 8.2) earthquake was equivalent to over 8 billion tons of TNT (3.3 {times} 10{sup 19} joules). Four basic wave types are propagated form seismic sources, two non-rotational and two rotational. As opposed to the non-rotational R and SH waves, the rotational compressional (RC) and rotational shear (RS) waves carry the bulk of the energy from a seismic source. RC wavefronts propagate in the subsurface and refract similarly to P waves, but are considerably slower. RC waves are critically refracted beneath the air surface interface at velocities less than the velocity of sound in air because they refract at the velocity of sound in air minus the retrograde particle velocity at the top of the wave. They propagate at tsunami waves in the open ocean, and produce loud sounds on land that are heard by humans and animals during earthquakes. The energy of the RS wave dwarfs that of the P, SH, and even the RC wave. The RS wave is the same as what is currently called the S wave in earthquake seismology, and produces both folding and strike-slip faulting at considerable distances from the epicenter. RC and RS waves, propagated during earthquakes from the Santa Ynez fault and a right-slip fault on trend with the Red Mountain fault, produced the Santa Ynez Mountains in California beginning in the middle Pliocene and continuing until the present.

  12. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  13. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  14. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-04

    of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will...index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial freedoms.155 Corruption is...Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have seen a failure to neutralize anti-Western

  15. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-23

    but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as...Pakistan’s economy as being “mostly unfree” and ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal ... policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither neutralized anti-Western militants and reduced religious

  16. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-18

    Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as will the current account deficit. The medium-term...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither

  17. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Niazi Qazi Hussain Ahmed Mln Fazlur Rehman Mln Sami-ul-Haq Allam Ahsan llali Zahir Armed Militias Apparently none Hizb-ul-Mujahiddin...special tribute to Bannett Jones, Christopher Jaffrelot, Rodney W. Jones, P.W. Singer, John M . Olin, Stephen Philip Cohen, Jessica Stern, Riffat... Hussain , Iftikhar H. Malik, Shahid Javed Burki, Moonis Ahmar, and Ishrat Husain. I am also thankful to the Pakistan Army for giving me an opportunity

  18. Somatoform disorders: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Fareed A; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin

    2006-02-01

    Somatoform disorders represent widespread and largely unsolved problems at the border between psychiatry and medicine. Patients with somatoform disorders often present difficult diagnostic and management problems. A series of three community-based epidemiological surveys of rural and urban populations in Pakistan found high prevalence of common mental disorders where the core presentations were somatic complaints. All the three epidemiological surveys used the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), which was developed from symptom reports by psychiatric patients in Pakistan; these enquired about somatic symptoms in the local language, taking into account local cultural idioms of distress. At a conservative estimate, 66% of women and 25% men suffered from anxiety and depressive disorders whereby the complaints predominantly were somatic in nature. People in rural non-Western cultures are not psychologically minded and do not have abstract language or concepts of emotional distress and therefore communicate their emotions somatically. In Pakistan somatoform disorders possess a prominent diagnostic dilemma. The cornerstone of the management is a comprehensive medical, psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation of the patient. Patients with multiple somatic complaints not only present formidable management problems but also often have severe functional impairments that may outweigh those of patients with other so-called severe mental illnesses. Since somatoform disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders to present in non-psychiatric settings, it is important that training about them begin at undergraduate level. It should also be incorporated in the training of a wide variety of non-psychiatric specialists, both medical and non-medical.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-11

    Foresees Possible Partition of Afghanistan [JANG 27 Apr] 2 Afghan Developments Said Impacting on Balochistan [AKHBAR-E-JEHAN 2 May] 4 Kashmir: EEC...Counteract the American Conspiracy, the Mujaheddin Should Create Unity in Their Ranks’"] [Text] Karachi, 26 April (PR) Alama Sayed Sajed Ali Naqvi, leader...that the United States was conspiring to partition Afghanistan along racial and linguistic lines because it did not want the nation, which defied the

  20. Understanding Counterinsurgency in Democratic Settings: Counterinsurgency Success and Failure in Kashmir and Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    220 Thapa, “Evolution of Maoism in Nepal,” 3. 221 Thapa and Sijapati, A Kingdom Under Siege, 20‒27. 222 Basu and Riaz, Paradise Lost ? State Failure...20Study%20of%20What%20Led%20to%20the%20Insurgency%20in%2 0Kashmir%20Valley.pdf. Basu, S., and A. Riaz. Paradise Lost ? State Failure in Nepal. Plymouth...energy, with many external support groups and Islamic governments beginning to believe the insurgency was lost .145 As Ganguly and Kapur claim, “It

  1. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  3. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant.

  4. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  5. Response to the commentary by Shah, A. A. (2015) and further evidence supporting the dextral strike-slip pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin along the central Kashmir fault (CKF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Sultan Bhat, M.; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    This research article provides added evidence in support of the already presented tectonic evolution model of the Kashmir basin by Alam et al. (2015), which states that the local dextral strike-slip structure, embedded with the southern forefront thrust system (MBT/MCT), resulted in the development of the NNW-SSE-oriented elliptical pull-apart sedimentary trough (Kashmir basin). Simultaneously, we respond to the argument of Shah (2015), wherein the author expresses his concern about the tectonic evolution model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). The commentator (Shah, 2015)-merely based on assumptions (1: perfectly planar geometry of the central Kashmir fault-CKF; 2: pure strike-slip along the CKF) and misinterpretations of the data (tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic)-makes extraneous criticism throughout the length of his commentary by referring copied text/figures. However, Alam et al. (2015) projected the CKF as noticeably curvilinear major exhibiting complex strike-slip tectonics (dextral, lateral, and vertical motion). Moreover, contradictory to the claim of Shah (2015), the tectonic, geologic, structural, seismic, geodetic, and geomorphic data is in complete agreement with the model proposed by Alam et al. (2015). Hence, in addition to complimentary evidence for the dextral strike-slip, pull-apart evolution of the Kashmir basin, a detailed response is provided to the commentary of Shah (2015).

  6. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their independence. However, in Pakistan the military became involved...and Pakistan. Both countries achieved their independence from Great Britain. They had culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous...countries had culturally similar militaries, and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their early years after independence. However, in

  7. Militancy in Pakistan: Rebottling the Genie

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Pakistan. Pakistan is very different today from what was envisioned by its founding father, Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.1 A culture of ruling...running the country affairs in accordance to Quran and Sunnah of prophet. 32 Ibid., 517. 33 Jacob N . Shapiro and C. Christine Fair

  8. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  9. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  10. ASTER Captures New Image of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-20

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this cloud-free image over the city of Sukkur, Pakistan, on Aug. 18, 2010. Sukkur, located in southeastern Pakistan Sindh Province, is visible as the grey, urbanized area in the lower left center of the image.

  11. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  12. A Review of Pakistan School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad Sabil; Kai, Yuan Tong

    2017-01-01

    It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to enhance adult literacy and quality education at primary level through provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years. The year 2015 was the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration [Education for All (EFA) commitment] including Pakistan but they fail…

  13. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  14. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  15. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naviwala, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan suffers from an extensive education crisis. Millions of Pakistani children do not attend school, and those that do must deal with absent teachers and poor learning environments, among other challenges. While this crisis is frequently discussed in Pakistan and beyond, it is often misunderstood. This new Wilson Center report, based on…

  16. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  17. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  18. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  19. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  20. Predictable earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, D.

    2002-12-01

    acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

  1. Descriptions of Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. from Kashmir Valley, India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kashmira dimorphicauda gen. n., sp. n. and Aphelenchoides hypotris sp. n. are described and illustrated from freshwater stream soil in Kashmir Valley, India. Kashmira gen. n. is characterized by having dimorphic tails: coinoid-spicate tail in female and subcylindroid with rounded, non-spicate tip wi...

  2. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…

  3. High incidence of oesophageal and gastric cancer in Kashmir in a population with special personal and dietary habits.

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Mahajan, R; Banday, M A

    1992-01-01

    Over a three year period (1 July 1986 to 30 June 1989) all newly diagnosed and histologically proved cases of oesophageal and gastric cancer were recorded prospectively. Some 1515 cases of oesophageal cancer (1050 men and 465 women) and 966 cases of gastric cancer (789 men and 177 women) were registered. Seven patients had simultaneous oesophageal and gastric cancer. Age standardised incidence rates for oesophageal cancer were: men 43.6/100,000 per year; women 27.9/100,000 per year. The rates for gastric cancer were: men 36.7/100,000 per year, women 9.9/100,000 per annum. These figures were three to six times higher than those recorded by cancer registries in Banglore, Madras, and Bombay. The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Islamabad (southern district of Kashmir) were 4.1 to 5.4 times higher in men and 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in women than those for Kupwara (northern district of Kashmir). The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs were different. The epidemiology of oesophageal cancer in Kashmir was similar to that found in the 'Asian oesophageal cancer belt'. At the same time Kashmir also had an unprecedented high incidence of gastric cancer. Kashmiries have special personal and dietary habits. Further studies are needed to define the relation between these habits and the occurrence of oesophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:1740265

  4. The Pakistan Himalaya: Tectonics at the NW corner of exposed Indian continental crust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Lithotectonic units in the Himalaya maintain structural continuity from Nepal to Zanskar where they are deformed across a broad, arc-parallel, anticlinorium that plunges northwest such that the Tethyan sequence on the north limb, although truncated by the Indus Suture zone and Ladakh batholith, appears to wrap around the nose of the fold to form the Kashmir Tethys on the south limb. From a wide syn-metamorphic thrust zone in Nepal, the MCT southwest of the Kashmir Tethys narrows to form a late- to post-metamorphic thrust that shallows with the plunge of the anticlinorium. Structural continuity is disrupted by middle Miocene to active transverse fault zones that form the western margins of the Nanga Parbat and Hazara syntaxes (the Raikot-Diamir and Jhelum-Balakot fault zones respectively). It is here that Lesser, Greater, and Tethys Himalayan units lose their identity as defined and understood in the Central Himalaya. Both transverse fault zones are east-side-up and associated with antiforms that bring Lower Proterozoic rock to the surface. The MCT is folded around the nose of the Hazara antiform where it steepens to include a complete Lower Proterozoic to Mesozoic rock sequence in its hanging wall block. The Pakistan Himalaya west of the syntaxis, including the Swat area, forms the NW corner of exposed Indian continental crust. Metamorphism and major deformation are associated with two opposing thrust systems that occurred nearly synchronously prior to and possibly during the metamorphic peak. The earliest is associated with underthrusting beneath southwestward advancing ophiolitic mélange of the Indus suture zone consistent with early fold vergence and stretching lineations in Swat, and with kinematic indicators east of the syntaxis in Zanskar. This was followed by underthusting beneath southeastward advancing Nawagai ophiolitic mélange consistent with kinematic indicators in the West Pakistan fold belt. Both mélange units are metamorphosed with Indian plate

  5. To serve or to leave: a question faced by public sector healthcare providers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Saleem; Rashida, Gul; Mankani, Neha

    2015-11-25

    The availability of properly trained and motivated providers is a prerequisite for provision of easily accessible healthcare. Pakistan has been listed by the World Health Organization in its World Health Report 2006 as one of 57 countries with a critical health workforce deficiency. This study examines the factors associated with the willingness of public sector healthcare providers to leave government service and recommends measures that can be adopted to attract and retain staff in the country's public healthcare system. A stratified, random sampling methodology was adopted to recruit a nationally representative sample of 1,296 public sector healthcare providers, including paramedics, medical doctors, and specialists. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview these providers. Logistic regressions measured the association with determinants of their willingness to leave the public health sector for better prospects elsewhere. A third of all healthcare providers who were interviewed were of the view that, provided the opportunity, they would leave government service. The odds of willingness to leave service were highest among providers from the region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.49-7.54) followed by the province of Balochistan (AOR = 4.21; 95% CI, 2.41-7.33), and the region of Gilgit Baltistan (AOR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.67-6.67). Providers who expressed dissatisfaction in the manner their performance was evaluated and those who were dissatisfied with the current salary, each had higher odds of considering leaving government service (AOR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.40 and AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.47-2.81, respectively). Providers who reported experiencing interference in their work by influential politicians of the area were more inclined to leave (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.98). This study clearly highlights the need to implement more focused strategies in the public healthcare system in Pakistan in

  6. Evaluation of relative tectonic perturbations of the Kashmir Basin, Northwest Himalaya, India: An integrated morphological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, R. K.; Dar, Javid Ahmad; Kothyari, Girish Ch.

    2017-10-01

    Geomorphic and morphotectonic evaluations of the Kashmir Basin have been carried by implicating different geomorphic indices such as stream-gradient index (SL), hypsometric integral (HI), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), valley floor height and width ratio (Vf), transverse topographic symmetry factor (T), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin shape (BS) and sinuosity index (SI) for the categorization of relative index of active tectonics (RIAT) through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) so as to decipher the role of neotectonics in geomorphologic evolution of the basin. The verified RIAT classes through field investigation and validation reveal the traverse of twenty-one active faults in the basin with demarcation of three RIAT classes viz., class-1 (inactive 20.07% of the area), class-2 (moderately active; 36.52% of the area) and class-3 (very active; 43.4% of the area). The observed values of RIAT distribution pattern are well corroborated with field observations. Ultimately, the overall geomorphic outputs and clustering of recent seismicity support the active tectonic control over the Kashmir basin, India.

  7. Trophic status and helminth infracommunities of fish populations in Kashmir Himalayan lakes.

    PubMed

    Shah, H B; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Shahnaz, S; Ahmad, F

    2014-09-01

    The present study considers the influence of the trophic status of three Kashmir Himalayan lakes on the patterns of helminth infracommunities in populations of three species of fish during 2006 to 2008. Data were collected from three lakes of differing trophic status in the Kashmir Himalayas, namely Anchar, a hyper(eu)trophic lake; Dal, a eutrophic lake; and Manasbal, a meso(eu)trophic lake. Three species of fish examined included the native fish Schizothorax niger Heckel and two exotic species--Carassius carassius (Linnaeus) and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. The analysis of data showed a clear habitat effect on the abundance pattern of helminth species, thus revealing lake-specific differences in parasite infracommunities of both S. niger and C. carassius. Helminth infracommunity richness was the highest in host populations from the Anchar lake compared to other two lakes. Low values in the Manasbal lake emphasize the low diversity of their helminth infracommunities. On the other hand, there was no observed pattern of community structure in the case of C. carpio in the three lake sites. However due to bias in sampling there was no distinct effect of fish body size on parasite infracommunity structure, although the present results do show that fish parasite data can be meaningful in diagnosing changes in the trophic condition of eutrophic lakes.

  8. First record of myxozoan parasites from fresh water fishes of Jammu and Kashmir and their pathogenecity.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z

    2017-02-20

    The present study was aimed to isolate myxozoan parasites infecting the native carp Schizothorax esocinus (Heckel) and pond reared carp Labeo rohita (Ham.) collected from fresh water ecosystems of Jammu and Kashmir from July 2013 to June 2014. Various organs such as eyes, gills, scales, fins, intestines, visceral organs and pericardial cavity of as many as 100 live specimens were examined. Results revealed that 14% of the examined L. rohita were infected with Myxobolus rocatlae (Ham.) and 6% of S. esocinus (Heckel) were infected with M. kashmirensis sp. nov. Clinical signs revealed mucous laden gills while the parasitological observation under stereozoom binocular microscope revealed multiple minute plasmodia on the gills. On rupturing these plasmodia with sharp needle 100-500 myxospores were liberated. The identification to species level was done on the basis of morphological and morphometric attributes of the myxospores. This is the first record of myxozoan parasites in fishes from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Histological observations of infected gills revealed plasmodia of two types (LV4 intralamellar vascular type) in M. rocatlae and (LV3 intralamellar vascular type) in M. kasmirensis causing necrosis, hyperplasia, hypertrophy and vacuolization of the epithelial and vascular endothelium.

  9. Structure of the Chamba nappe and position of the Main Central Thrust in Kashmir Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, V. C.

    1998-04-01

    The Chamba nappe, composed of an approximately 8 km thick sequence of Late Precambrian to Jurassic age rocks is located between the Higher Himalaya Crystallines (HHC) and the Lesser Himalayan (LH) formations of Panjal Imbricate Zone (PIZ) in the Kashmir Himalaya. To the south, the Panjal Thrust, demarcating the base, brings the Chamba nappe rocks over the Panjal Imbricate Zone. To the north, the Chamba nappe rocks lie over the metamorphic HHC along the south dipping Chenab Normal Fault (CNB). A pervasive stretching lineation defined by a mineral lineation, stretched pebbles and felspar phenocrysts plunges NE-NNE and occurs on the foliation/cleavage surface. This lineation is related to southward displacement of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe is folded by regional scale fold, viz. the Chamba, Tandi and Bharmor synclines and the Tisa anticline. These NW-SE trending folds structures were developed synchronously with southward thrusting of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe results from southwestward sliding of cover rocks from their basement (HHC) due to topographic uplift. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Kashmir Himalaya is different from that of the Kumaun and Nepal Himalaya. The MCT (Vaikrita Thrust) does not extend west of the Beas river, but it is exposed in the Rampur Window and the Kishtwar Window separating the HHC from the underlying LH rocks. Southward propagation of the MCT from the window zone, up-cutting the overlying HHC, is transferred to the Panjal Thrust which transports the Chamba nappe to the south over the Lesser Himalayan formations.

  10. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases.

  11. Degradation of chlorpyrifos residues in apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Malik; Sherwani, Asma; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Ahmed, Sheikh Bilal; Sofi, Javid Ahmad; Bano, Parveena

    2015-08-01

    The present studies were carried out to observe the dissipation pattern of chlorpyrifos on apple in Kashmir Valley. Persistence of chlorpyrifos in apple was studied following two applications rates of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 20 EC) at 200 g a.i. ha(-1) (single dose T 1) and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) (double dose T 2). The average initial deposit of chlorpyrifos was found to be 1.61 and 1.98 μg g(-1) for T 1 and T 2 application rates respectively on apple. The residues dissipated to 0.09 and 0.06 μg g(-1) after 15- and 30-day post treatment with half-life periods of 3.34 and 5.47 days in T 1 and T 2 application rates, respectively. The residues of chlorpyrifos dissipated to below limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.04 μg g(-1) after 30 day at T 1 application rate. A waiting period of 6 days must be observed for chlorpyrifos on apple at recommended application rate for the safety of consumers. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were found to be far less than maximum permissible intake (MPI) at 0 day in both the dosages suggesting chlorpyrifos on apple in Kashmir is unlikely to cause health risks.

  12. Transition in Dental Treatment Utilization in Jammu And Kashmir, India - A 10 Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Manu; Ishrat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization of health services is the actual attendance by the members of the public at health care facilities to receive care. Utilization, serves as an important tool for oral health policy decision-making. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively gauge and assess the utilization pattern of the dental treatments which was given in hospital for last 10 years. Materials and Methods: This retrospective infirmary based study was carried out at Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The yearly outpatient department (OPD) records for the utilization of specific dental treatment of a total of 103963 patients were assessed retrospectively from 2014 to 2003. Trend analysis was used to assess the trend of utilization of each speciality with best fitted linear trend lines. Results: The pattern of new patients has also shown a constant rise during the study period except for 2008 and 2009. The utilization of oral surgery speciality has shown a tremendous fall from 2003 to 2014 whereas the number of patients coming to periodontics and conservative dentistry has shown an increasing pattern. Conclusion: Utilization of oral health care has long been used as an indicator of oral health related behaviour of a population. In the present study it can be conclude that the outlook of the population under study has changed from blood and vulcanite dentistry outlook and is moving towards restorative dentistry. . PMID:28804675

  13. Edible wild plants of pastorals at high-altitude grasslands of Gurez Valley, Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Dad, Javaid M; Khan, Anisa B

    2011-01-01

    Alpine grasslands of Kashmir are a storehouse of numerous wild edible plants, besides serving as summer pastures for the flocks of various ethnic communities. Throughout these grasslands, pastorals, nomads, and other indigenous communities collect and use these plants in several different ways. This article reports the richness, distribution, use, mode of use, and frequency of use of edible wild plants by three ethnic communities viz. Bakerwals, Gujjars, and Puhloos (Kashmiri herdsmen) from three alpine grasslands of a hitherto unknown Gurez Valley, Kashmir. Twenty-six plants under 21 genera and 14 families are reported from the surveyed grasslands which are used as wild edibles. Our results indicated that for many species, the local names differed between the communities but yet the folklore uses were common. Further, the frequency of use also varied between the communities, with Bakerwals and Gujjars using the majority of the species while the semi-sedentary Puhloos use the least. We hypothesize that this difference in the use frequency between the communities is a function of differing working nature and the rapid advancement of contemporary societal ideas into their culture and hence necessitates the documentation of their traditional practices and knowledge at the earliest.

  14. Efficacy of ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Tramboo, S R; Shahardar, R A; Allaie, I M; Wani, Z A; Abbas, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole under field conditions against Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GIN) of cross bred merino sheep in Budgam area of Kashmir Valley. A total of 115 sheep having Egg per gram of faeces (EPG) greater than or equal to 150 (mean EPG 258.89) were selected. The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising of 30 animals each in three treatment groups (ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole) and twenty-five in fourth untreated infected control group. Faecal samples from the selected animals were collected on day '0' pre treatment and on days 8th and 14th post treatment. Based on Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), ivermectin was found to be 98.80 % effective against strongyles on 8th day post treatment, however an efficacy of 100 % was seen against strongyle worms on 14th day post treatment. 98.80 and 100 % efficacy was observed on day 8th post treatment against strongyles in case of closantel and fenbendazole respectively, however efficacy decreased to 97.60 and 98.8 % respectively on 14th day post treatment. There was no evidence of development of resistance by GIN of cross bred merino sheep in District Budgam of Kashmir Valley to ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole.

  15. Near real-time aftershock hazard maps for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Stress interaction modelling is routinely used to explain the spatial relationships between earthquakes and their aftershocks. On 28 October 2008 a M6.4 earthquake occurred near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border killing several hundred and causing widespread devastation. A second M6.4 event occurred 12 hours later 20km to the south east. By making some well supported assumptions concerning the source event and the geometry of any likely triggered event it was possible to map those areas most likely to experience further activity. Using Google earth, it would further have been possible to identify particular settlements in the source area which were particularly at risk and to publish their locations globally within about 3 hours of the first earthquake. Such actions could have significantly focused the initial emergency response management. We argue for routine prospective testing of such forecasts and dialogue between social and physical scientists and emergency response professionals around the practical application of these techniques.

  16. A cross-cultural analysis of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (India) medicinal plant use.

    PubMed

    Gairola, Sumeet; Sharma, Jyotsana; Bedi, Yashbir Singh

    2014-09-11

    Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is a predominantly Himalayan state in the north-western part of India. It has three geographically distinct divisions viz., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, which are immensely rich in their biological and cultural diversity. Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical system of the region. The main goal of the present article is to examine the use of ethnomedicinal plants in three divisions of J&K and to discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants in these divisions. The article also discusses the gaps in the current state of knowledge on ethnomedicinal plants of the region and gives recommendations for the future studies. Scientific literature on ethnomedicinal field studies conducted in J&K state of India available in the journals, edited books and other scientific databases viz., CAB international, DOAJ, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science direct, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science were searched. Only field based ethnomedicinal surveys from last four decades up to December 2013 reporting first hand information on the medicinal plants used to treat human health related ailments by indigenous communities of J&K were included in this study. Venn diagram was used to analyze the cross-cultural consensus on the use of ethnomedicinal plants in the three divisions of J&K. A total of 948 plant taxa (923 angiosperms, 12 gymnosperms and 13 pteridophytes) belonging to 129 families, 509 genera, 937 species and 11 varieties have so far been reported to have a traditional medicinal use by indigenous communities of J&K. Asteraceae (60 genera, 132 spp.) was the most frequently used family followed by Fabaceae (32 genera, 50 spp.) and Lamiaceae (27 genera, 55 spp.). 514, 415 and 397 medicinal plants were used in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh divisions, respectively. Sixty eight plant taxa were used in all the three divisions, whereas 95 plants were common between Ladakh and Jammu, 127 plants between Ladakh and Kashmir, and 216

  17. The India-Asia collision in north Pakistan: Insight from the U-Pb detrital zircon provenance of Cenozoic foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Qasim, Muhammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A. K.; Khan, Muhammad Asif; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Baral, Upendra; Yue, Yahui

    2016-12-01

    The northernmost exposures of sub-Himalayan Cenozoic strata in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial region of north Pakistan comprises the Paleocene-Eocene marine strata in the lower part and Oligocene-Miocene nonmarine strata in the upper part. This study provides the detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Cenozoic strata in this area. The strong resemblance of U-Pb age spectra of Paleocene Hangu, Lockhart and Patala formations with those of Himalayan strata indicate an Indian plate provenance. The first appearance of <100 Ma detrital zircon U-Pb ages within the lower most part of the Early Eocene Margalla Hill Limestone indicates a shift from an Indian to Asian provenance. Geologic mapping shows the existence of a disconformity between the lower and upper most part of the Patala Formation, which is interpreted to have been formed by the migration of a flexural forebulge through this region. We consider the upper most part of the Patala Formation to have been deposited within the distal foredeep of the foreland basin. The Indian to Asian provenance shift and the presence of a possible foreland basin forebulge provide strong evidence that India-Asia collision was underway in northern Pakistan at ca. 56-55 Ma.

  18. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions.

  19. Identification of Deep Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    develop a ground truth dataset of earthquakes at both normal crustal depths and earthquakes from subduction zones , below the overlying crust. Many...deep earthquakes (depths between about 50 and 300 km). These deep earthquakes are known to occur in the Asia-India continental collision zone ...and/or NIL, as these stations are within a few hundred km of the zone where deep earthquakes are known to occur. To date we have selected about 300

  20. Multi-scenario analysis: a new hybrid approach to inform earthquake disaster risk planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tom; Rosser, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Current earthquake risk assessments take one of two approaches: deterministic (scenario) or probabilistic, but both have notable limitations. Deterministic approaches are limited by a focus on a single scenario, as the results of the analysis are only relevant to the scenario selected, which is unlikely to represent the earthquake that occurs next, nor its impacts. Alternatively, probabilistic approaches are sensitive to the completeness of evidence of past earthquakes, which is inadequate in most seismically-active parts of the world. Consequently, earthquake risk assessments have failed to inform planning prior to major earthquakes such as the 2005 Kashmir and 2008 Wenchuan disasters. This study presents a new hybrid approach for earthquake risk assessments that maintains the high detail of deterministic approaches but considers numerous scenarios simultaneously, similar to probabilistic approaches. The aim of such an approach is to identify impacts that recur in multiple scenarios, or impacts that occur irrespective of the given scenario. Such recurring impacts can be considered the most likely consequences to occur in the next earthquake, despite the precise details of the next earthquake remaining unknown. To demonstrate this, we apply the method to Nepal, one of the most seismically at-risk nations in the world. We model 30 different potential earthquake scenarios throughout the country with magnitude ranges 8.6 to 7.0 for three different times of day (night-time, mid-week day-time, weekend day-time) for a total of 90 different scenarios. By combining the results from each scenario for individual districts, we are able to assess which districts are most at risk of losses in the next earthquake. By focussing on fatalities as a percentage of total population, we rank each district by its: (a) median modelled fatalities; (b) percentage of scenarios with >0 fatalities; (c) inter-quartile range of modelled fatalities; and (d) maximum modelled fatalities. Combining

  1. Occupational Dermatoses among Cottage Industry Workers of Kashmir Valley in North India

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saniya; Hassan, Iffat; Rasool, Farhan; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Sheikh, Gousia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cottage industry is usually a small-scale industry operated from home by family members using their own equipment. Kashmir has a unique cottage industry of its own which deals with production of many handicrafts, which may lead to a peculiar pattern of skin diseases in these artisans. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of skin disorders in the cottage industry workers of Kashmir valley, with primary focus on the occupation-related dermatoses and to identify the most common cutaneous manifestation in these workers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 1062 cottage industry workers engaged in different crafts were screened. A detailed history taking and examination was carried out in each worker and the diagnosis was made on clinical grounds. Wherever deemed necessary, relevant investigations were done to establish the nature of the disease. Results: A total of 1062 workers were evaluated for the presence of skin disorders. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.5. The mean age of the study group was 30.3 years ± 10.79 years, with maximum number of workers (164) belonging to the crewel embroidery industry. The mean duration of work was 6.4 ± 2.08 hours/day. A total of 953 workers (89.7%) had cutaneous manifestations, with callosities being the most common finding seen in 371 workers (35%), followed by cumulative insult dermatitis seen in 201 workers (19%). Conclusion: Cottage industry of Kashmir valley is a unique occupational group where a high percentage of workers had cutaneous manifestations related to their occupation, with callosities being the most common finding. Information and better knowledge regarding these dermatoses are important in devising strategies to improve the health scenario of these workers. Simple measures such as proper use of instruments, use of protective gloves, guarded use of chemicals, and hand washing may be very beneficial in reducing the burden of health problems in

  2. Dental Caries Status of Institutionalized Orphan Children from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar, TL; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit; Batra, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been well documented that the absence of family support influences the general and oral health of the children. Factors that lead to the development of disease at a given point in time are likely to have their roots in a complex chain of environmental events that may have begun years before. A number of studies have examined the relationship between dental caries and material deprivation and found a positive association between them. Though orphans contribute to 2% of world’s population, literature regarding their oral health status is very scarce. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the dental caries status of institutionalized orphan children from Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and methods A total of 1,664 children that included 1,201 boys and 463 girls from registered orphanages in the state of Jammu and Kashmir were included in the study. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the start of the study; decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft)/ decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) indices were used to assess the caries status of primary and permanent dentition. Multiple choice, close-ended questionnaires were administered to assess the oral hygiene habits, knowledge, and dietary behavior of orphan children prior to examination. The study subjects were divided into three groups according to the age of ≤ 6, 7 to 11, and ≥12 years. Results Results showed that caries prevalence in primary dentition was higher in subjects’ ≤6 years of age where the prevalence was 50.9%; in subjects 7 to 11 years of age, the prevalence was 25.2%. Caries prevalence in permanent dentition within the age group 7 to 11 was 69.1%, while in subjects’ ≥12 years, the prevalence was 66.2%. Use of toothbrush was the most prevalent method of cleaning the teeth in both the genders, while toothpaste was reported to be the most prevalent material to be

  3. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  4. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  5. NASA AIRS Detects Extent of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-19

    This image from NASA Aqua spacecraft shows how surface emissivity -- how efficiently Earth surface radiates heat -- changed in several regions of Pakistan over a 32-day period between July 11 pre-flood and August 12 post-flood.

  6. NASA MISR Tracks Massive Flooding in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-18

    In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and parts of Baluchistan. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on August 11, 2010.

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    to "hear no evil", "see no evil" and "speak no Factories boss Maj. Gen. Mahmood Ali Durrani, an evil" are secretly decided in advance by mutual...nuclear technology, especially to the Middle East..." [Text] Whether the recent meeting between Pakistan’s Federal Minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali , who...Nisar Ali , On his part, gave Mr Warren Christopher every obtain Russian cyrogenic [as published] rocket engines assurance that Pakistan was opposed

  8. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and burnout in Pakistani earthquake recovery workers.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Razik, Saiqa; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-01-30

    Past research has shown a substantial prevalence of emotional disorders in professionals involved in rescue and/or relief operations following natural disasters, including earthquakes. However, no published study to date has investigated whether disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction workers involved in later phases of the earthquake response are also affected by emotional problems. A nearly complete sample of earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction workers (N=267) involved in the response to the 2005 earthquake in Northern Pakistan filled in a set of self-report questionnaires assessing emotional problems and predictor variables approximately 24 months after the earthquake. Most participants had experienced the disaster themselves and suffered from a number of stressors during and shortly after the acute earthquake phase. A substantial subgroup of participants reported clinically relevant levels of emotional disorders, especially earthquake-related posttraumatic stress disorder (42.6%), as well as depression and anxiety (approx. 20%). Levels of burnout were low. Symptom levels of posttraumatic stress disorder were associated with the severity of the earthquake experience, past traumas, work-related stressors, low social support, and female gender. The results document a high prevalence of emotional problems in earthquake rehabilitation and recovery workers.

  9. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  10. Perianal giant condyloma acuminata [buschke lowenstein tumour] - first case report from the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Chowdri, Nisar A; Gagloo, Mushtaq A; Parray, Fazal Q; Sheikh, Zahoor A; Rouf, A; Wani, A

    2007-10-01

    Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant condyloma acuminata is a rare entity with only less then 50 cases reported in English literature so far. No such case has been reported from the Kashmir valley. They are considered as intermediate lesions between simple condyloma acuminata and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. A 57-year-old heterosexual male presented with a giant perianal condyloma. The lesion was surgically excised completely. Postoperatively patient was put on topical 5-FU ointment. Patient is recurrence free 6 months after surgery. The giant condyloma acuminate is an aggressive tumour with propensity for recurrance and malignant transformation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. One such rare case is discussed with review of literature.

  11. Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).

    PubMed

    Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

  12. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and salmonellae in calves and lambs in Kashmir absence, prevalence and antibiogram.

    PubMed

    Wani, S A; Hussain, I; Beg, S A; Rather, M A; Kabli, Z A; Mir, M A; Nishikawa, Y

    2013-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction assays and culture were used to investigate 728 faecal samples from 404 calves (286 diarrhoeic, 118 healthy) and 324 lambs (230 diarrhoeic, 94 healthy) in Kashmir, India, for the presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and salmonellae. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were also investigated. In total, 23 ETEC isolates were obtained from the diarrhoeic calves and 12 from diarrhoeic lambs. Most (74%) of the isolates from calves harboured the gene encoding heat-labile enterotoxin I, whereas 75% of the isolates from lambs possessed only the gene encoding for heat-stable enterotoxin a. The ETEC isolates belonged to 20 serogroups, among which serogroups O15 (five isolates) and O8 (four isolates) were the most frequent. Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis was identified in three samples from diarrhoeic lambs. The ETEC isolates and the salmonellae showed multidrug resistance. No EAEC or DAEC was detected in any of the samples.

  13. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  14. Trace fossil evidence for late Permian shallow water condition in Guryul ravine, Kashmir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcha, Suraj; Horacek, Micha; Krystyn, Leopold; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-04-01

    The present study is focused on the Late Permian (Changhsingian) succession, present in the Guryul ravine, Kashmir Basin. The basin has a complete Cambro-Triassic sequence and thus contains a unique position in the geology of Himalaya. The Guryul Ravine Permian mainly comprises of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments deposited in a shallow-shelf or ramp setting. The present assemblage of Ichnofossils is the first significant report of trace fossils in the Guryul ravine since early reports in the 1970s. The Ichnofossils reported from this section include: Diplichnites, Dimorphichnus, Monomorphichnus, Planolites, Skolithos along with burrow, scratch marks and annelid worm traces?. The ichnofossils are mainly preserved in medium grain sandstone-mudstone facies. The Ichnofossils are widely distributed throughout the section and are mostly belonging to arthropods and annelid origin, showing behavioral activity, mainly dwelling and feeding, and evidence the dominant presence of deposit feeders. The vertical to slightly inclined biogenic structures are commonly recognized from semi-consolidated substrate which are characteristic features of the near shore/foreshore marine environment, with moderate to high energy conditions. The topmost layer of silty shale contains trace fossils like Skolithos and poorly preserved burrows. The burrow material filled is same as that of host rock. The studied Zewan C and D sequence represents the early to late part of the Changhsingian stage, from 40 to 5 m below the top of Zewan D member with bioturbation still evident in some limestone layers till 2 metres above. No trace fossils could be recognized in the topmost 3 m beds of Zewan D due to their gliding related amalgamated structure. The widespread distribution of traces and their in situ nature will be useful for interpretation of the paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Permian in the Guryul ravine of Kashmir.

  15. Assessment of landslide hazards induced by extreme rainfall event in Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Asthana, AKL; Priyanka, Rao Singh; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Gupta, Anil K.; Bhakuni, SS

    2017-05-01

    In the Indian Himalayan region (IHR), landslide-driven hazards have intensified over the past several decades primarily caused by the occurrence of heavy and extreme rainfall. However, little attention has been given to determining the cause of events triggered during pre- and post-Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) seasons. In the present research, detailed geological, meteorological, and remote sensing investigations have been carried out on an extreme rainfall landslide event that occurred in Sadal village, Udhampur district, Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya, during September 2014. Toward the receding phase of the ISM (i.e., in the month of September 2014), an unusual rainfall event of 488.2 mm rainfall in 24 h took place in Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya in contrast to the normal rainfall occurrence. Geological investigations suggest that a planar weakness in the affected region is caused by bedding planes that consist of an alternate sequence of hard, compact sandstone and weak claystone. During this extreme rainfall event, the Sadal village was completely buried under the rock slides, as failure occurred along the planar weakness that dips toward the valley slope. Rainfall data analysis from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) for the preceding years homogeneous time series (July-September) indicates that the years 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2014 (i.e., closely spaced and clustering heavy rainfall events) received heavy rainfalls during the withdrawal of the ISM; whereas the heaviest rainfall was received in the years 2003 and 2013 at the onset of the ISM in the study region. This suggests that no characteristic cyclicity exists for extreme rainfall events. However, we observe that either toward the onset of the ISM or its retreat, the extreme rainfall facilitates landslides, rockfall, and slope failures in northwestern Himalaya. The spatiotemporal distribution of landslides caused by extreme rainfall events suggests its confinement toward the windward side of the

  16. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle.

  17. Micromorphological investigations of the Late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences of the Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Chandra, Rakesh; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Kowser, Nazia

    2015-11-01

    The loess-paleosol sequences of the Karewa Group preserve a valuable repository of the Late Quaternary climatic changes and the landscape evolution history of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley in their lithological and pedogenic records. Three representative loess-paleosol sections at Shankerpora (SP), Khan Sahib (KS) and Pattan (PT) localities were chosen for detailed lithostratigraphic fieldwork and micromorphological observations of thin sections. Lithostratigraphic analysis revealed lateral and vertical variation in thickness and number of paleosol profiles from south-west to north-west of the Karewa Basin suggesting the availability of land-surface for periodic loess deposition. The SP section is marked by 6 (SP-S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S12), KS section by 3 (KS-S2, S4, S5) and PT section by 2 (PT-S1, S3) thick mature paleosol profiles. Theses paleosols have well developed 'Ah' and 'Btk' horizons representing prolonged land-surface stability when pedogenic processes outpace loess deposition. On the other hand comparatively thin to thick paleosol profiles represent weak to moderate pedogenic maturity indicating short stratigraphic breaks with rapid loess deposition. Micromorphological observations of thin sections suggested that clay illuviation and CaCO3 accumulation have operated within the paleosol profiles. CaCO3 features are often associated with clay coatings suggesting decalcification of carbonates followed by clay illuviation. Pedogenic CaCO3 probably resulted from the precipitation of the soil solution near the average depth of wetting front. The pedogenic CaCO3, illuvial clay, mottles, iron manganese features, pedal microstructure and blocky aggregates reveal variation in the pedogenic maturity among and within the loess-paleosol sections. The morphological (both micro- and macro-morphological) attributes of loess-paleosols suggest variation of climatic conditions during the Late Quaternary period in the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley, India.

  18. Pattern of high voltage electrical injuries in the Kashmir valley: a 10-year single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Kasana, R.A.; Baba, P.U.F.; Wani, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective was to study the clinical profile of high voltage electrical injuries in Kashmir, and various prevention and safety measures to bring down the incidence of such injuries in the future. All patients (176) with high voltage electrical injuries reporting to our centre from January 2001 to December 2010 were included in the study. The most common age group was 20-40 years, with mean age of 29.77 ± 8.98 years. Incidence was higher among the rural population (68.75%) than in urban areas (31.25%), and in the winter months. Electricians comprised 47.16% of victims. The most common mode of injury was touching a live wire directly or indirectly, and was seen in 63.64% of victims. Average total body surface burned was 15.27 ± 10.15 percent. Right upper limb was most commonly involved (64.20% of patients). Compartment syndrome was seen in 40.34% of patients, and fasciotomies on all the affected limbs saved around half of them. An average of 3.91 surgical procedures per patient were performed. Around one-third of the victims required major amputations. Reconstructive procedures were required in 49.43% of patients. Average hospital stay was 26.81 days. Average mortality rate was 2.27%. High voltage electrical injuries are not uncommon in the Kashmir Valley, and electrical workers are at higher risk. The incidence of high voltage injuries would not be so high if the workers were properly trained, hazards of high-tension lines were explained and the use of safety equipment was made mandatory. PMID:28289358

  19. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River.

  20. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-15

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns.

  2. Development of Automated Assignment Model for Sailors in Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Haider, Clifton Karachi, Pakistan 7. library, PNEC , PNS JAUHAR 1 Habib Rehmatullah Road Karachi, Pakistan 8. LCDR Sukhdev 1 Staff Officer Maintenance Fleet Operation Command 32100 Naval Base Lumut Malaysia 78

  3. AN INDEX OF THE AVAILABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, USED IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine and its distribution in Jammu and Kashmir has been categorized systematically here. The paper deals with 246 medicinal plants and has to off-set an index which is not there so far. Out of 246 medicinal plants 12 plants are considered to be controversial. Substitutes, Adulterants of these plants which are being used in various parts of India were also recorded separately in this study. PMID:22557549

  4. Earthquake friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory friction slip experiments on rocks provide firm evidence that the static friction coefficient μ has values ∼0.7. This would imply large amounts of heat produced by seismically active faults, but no heat flow anomaly is observed, and mineralogic evidence of frictional heating is virtually absent. This stands for lower μ values ∼0.2, as also required by the observed orientation of faults with respect to the maximum compressive stress. We show that accounting for the thermal and mechanical energy balance of the system removes this inconsistence, implying a multi-stage strain release process. The first stage consists of a small and slow aseismic slip at high friction on pre-existent stress concentrators within the fault volume but angled with the main fault as Riedel cracks. This introduces a second stage dominated by frictional temperature increase inducing local pressurization of pore fluids around the slip patches, which is in turn followed by a third stage in which thermal diffusion extends the frictionally heated zones making them coalesce into a connected pressurized region oriented as the fault plane. Then, the system enters a state of equivalent low static friction in which it can undergo the fast elastic radiation slip prescribed by dislocation earthquake models.

  5. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  6. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  7. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  8. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  9. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  10. The size of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.

    1980-01-01

    How we should measure the size of an earthquake has been historically a very important, as well as a very difficult, seismological problem. For example, figure 1 shows the loss of life caused by earthquakes in recent times and clearly demonstrates that 1976 was the worst year for earthquake casualties in the 20th century. However, the damage caused by an earthquake is due not only to its physical size but also to other factors such as where and when it occurs; thus, figure 1 is not necessarily an accurate measure of the "size" of earthquakes in 1976. the point is that the physical process underlying an earthquake is highly complex; we therefore cannot express every detail of an earthquake by a simple straightforward parameter. Indeed, it would be very convenient if we could find a single number that represents the overall physical size of an earthquake. This was in fact the concept behind the Richter magnitude scale introduced in 1935. 

  11. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  12. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331(T), was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160(T) with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297(T) with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331(T) with S. brevispora KACC 21093(T) and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498(T) were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C16: 0, summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331(T) (=KCTC 39537(T) = CPCC 204147(T)).

  13. Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    When British India was divided, Pakistan inherited 18 percent of the subcontinent’s population, but only 10 percent of its industrial base and 6...Daily Times (Pakistan), July 6, 2004. 56 Naveed Miraj, “250 Tribesmen to be Freed in Wana, Shakai,” The News (Pakistan), November 11, 2004. 22

  14. Can We Predict Earthquakes?

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-09-09

    The only thing we know for sure about earthquakes is that one will happen again very soon. Earthquakes pose a vital yet puzzling set of research questions that have confounded scientists for decades, but new ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes — and when.

  15. Can We Predict Earthquakes?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-08-31

    The only thing we know for sure about earthquakes is that one will happen again very soon. Earthquakes pose a vital yet puzzling set of research questions that have confounded scientists for decades, but new ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes — and when.

  16. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  17. Earthquakes, October 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    October was an active month seismically, although there were no damaging earthquakes in the United States. Several States experienced earthquakes that were felt sharply. There were four major earthquakes in other parts of the world, including a magntidue 7.4 in the Philippine Islands that killed on person. 

  18. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  19. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  20. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  1. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  2. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  3. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  4. Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.

    Prospects for earthquake prediction and forecasting, and even their definitions, are actively debated. Here, "forecasting" means estimating the future earthquake rate as a function of location, time, and magnitude. Forecasting becomes "prediction" when we identify special conditions that make the immediate probability much higher than usual and high enough to justify exceptional action. Proposed precursors run from aeronomy to zoology, but no identified phenomenon consistently precedes earthquakes. The reported prediction of the 1975 Haicheng, China earthquake is often proclaimed as the most successful, but the success is questionable. An earthquake predicted to occur near Parkfield, California in 1988±5 years has not happened. Why is prediction so hard? Earthquakes start in a tiny volume deep within an opaque medium; we do not know their boundary conditions, initial conditions, or material properties well; and earthquake precursors, if any, hide amongst unrelated anomalies. Earthquakes cluster in space and time, and following a quake earthquake probability spikes. Aftershocks illustrate this clustering, and later earthquakes may even surpass earlier ones in size. However, the main shock in a cluster usually comes first and causes the most damage. Specific models help reveal the physics and allow intelligent disaster response. Modeling stresses from past earthquakes may improve forecasts, but this approach has not yet been validated prospectively. Reliable prediction of individual quakes is not realistic in the foreseeable future, but probabilistic forecasting provides valuable information for reducing risk. Recent studies are also leading to exciting discoveries about earthquakes.

  5. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  6. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  7. Anesthetic practice in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mark J; Gwertzman, Alan; Finley, Timothy; Morey, Timothy E

    2010-12-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 M(L) earthquake devastated Haiti, the most impoverished nation in the Western hemisphere with extremely limited health care resources. We traveled to Milot, Haiti situated north of Port-au-Prince, to care for injured patients at Hôpital Sacré Coeur, an undamaged hospital with 74 beds and 2 operating rooms. The massive influx of patients brought by helicopter from the earthquake zone transformed the hospital to >400 beds and 6 operating rooms. As with the 2005 Kashmir and 2008 China earthquake, most victims suffered from extremity injuries, encompassing crush injuries, lacerations, fractures, and amputations with associated dehydration and anemia. Preoperative evaluation was limited by language issues requiring a translator and included basic questions of fasting status, allergies, and coexisting conditions. Goals included adequate depth of anesthesia, while avoiding apnea/airway manipulation. These goals led to frequent use of midazolam and ketamine or regional anesthesia. Although many medications were present under various names and concentrations, the absence of a central gas supply proved troublesome. Postoperative care was limited to an 8-bed postanesthesia care unit/intensive care unit caring for patients with tetanus, diabetic ketoacidosis, pulmonary aspiration, acute renal failure due to crush, extreme anemia, sepsis, and other illnesses. Other important aspects of this journey included the professionalism of the health care personnel who prioritized patient care, adaptation to limited laboratory and radiological services, and provision of living arrangements. Although challenging from many perspectives, the experience was emotionally enriching and recalls the fundamental reasons why we selected medicine and anesthesiology as a profession.

  8. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  9. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  10. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  11. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  12. The United States in Pakistan: Toward a More Unified Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-25

    Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan and Afghanistan. (Viking Press, 2012). 14 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to...39 ―America and Pakistan: Sorry Story,‖ The Economist, December 22, 2011. 40 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan...pomed-notes-cap-8-12-09.pdf 43 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2012, 90-93. 44 K. Alan Kronstadt

  13. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  14. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  15. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  16. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  17. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  18. Increased prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in females in mountainous valley of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Haamid; Farooq, Rabia; Bhat, Mohammad Hayat; Majid, Sabhiya

    2013-03-01

    Iodine-rich diet is necessary for proper thyroid gland function. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with serious complications. Substantial numbers of patients have risk of SCH getting converted into primary hypothyroidism. The objectives of the present study are to survey dietary iodine intake pattern in ethnic population of Kashmir and to study the prevalence of SCH. A retrospective, cross-sectional referral hospital study was conducted. Sample size comprised of 2550 patients who were referred to Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical college, Srinagar diagnostic laboratory from OPD and IPD of associated SMHS hospital. Assessment of thyroid function over a period of one year from March 2010 to March 2011 in the serum has been performed by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay method on ECLIA 2010 fully automatic analyzer. Interview cum questionnaire methods were used to record the patient history and dietary iodine intake pattern. Iodine status of these patients was assessed by measuring urinary iodine excretion. Total patients were 2550 comprising of 44.6% males and 56.4% females. Subjects with elevated and normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the serum were 30.51 and 69.4% respectively. About 550 patients (21.56%) had subclinical hypothyroidism which includes both males and females. Prevalence of SCH was more in females (81.8%) than in males (18.2%). Most of the patients presenting with SCH were in the age group of 20-65 years. The percentage of SCH amongst the study sample patients was 21.56%, which is much higher as compared to other parts of the world. The highest percentage of SCH was found in females (81.8%) as compared to males (18.2%). On the basis of the present study, we suggest that routine screening of selected populations, especially women between 20 and 65 years of age, may be advocated. Further community level awareness programs need to be organized wherein people in mountainous valley of Kashmir are motivated to

  19. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Psychiatric Inpatients: A Hospital Based Study from Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Margoob, Mushtaq Ahmad; Shoib, Sheikh; Shafat, Mahak; Chandel, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Over the last fifty years there has been dramatic change in the human environment, behaviours and way-of-life. These changes have resulted in escalating rates of metabolic syndrome not only in general population but also among people with mental illness. Various factors, like the lack of exercise, use of psychotropic medications and inadequate medical care leads to the increased risk of metabolic changes among people with mental illness. Hence, there is a greater need to evaluate metabolic syndrome in this population. To find the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric inpatients in Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir region of North India. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Kashmir, India. A total of 213 in-patients with a primary psychiatric diagnosis as per The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD 10) Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders criteria were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome. A modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was used. All the intergroup comparisons for parametric data were done by Student's t-test, whereas non-parametric data were analysed by Chi-square tests. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.74%. The prevalence was higher in females (43.3%) than males (28.5%) (p<0.05) and it increased with age, with the highest prevalence in the age group >50 years (p<0.05). Among the diagnostic subgroups, the prevalence was highest among patients with unipolar depression (45.0%), while it was lesser in patients with bipolar disorders (37.88%) and psychotic disorders (30.95%). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher (63.64%) among patients taking second generation antipsychotics (p<0.05). Our study shows that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent

  20. Rapid Assessment of Earthquakes with Radar and Optical Geodetic Imaging and Finite Fault Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Yun, S.; Li, Z.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake responders need to know where the earthquake has caused damage and what is the likely intensity of damage. The earliest information comes from global and regional seismic networks, which provide the magnitude and locations of the main earthquake hypocenter and moment tensor centroid and also the locations of aftershocks. Location accuracy depends on the availability of seismic data close to the earthquake source. Finite fault models of the earthquake slip can be derived from analysis of seismic waveforms alone, but the results can have large errors in the location of the fault ruptures and spatial distribution of slip, which are critical for estimating the distribution of shaking and damage. Geodetic measurements of ground displacements with GPS, LiDAR, or radar and optical imagery provide key spatial constraints on the location of the fault ruptures and distribution of slip. Here we describe the analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and sub-pixel correlation (or pixel offset tracking) of radar and optical imagery to measure ground coseismic displacements for recent large earthquakes, and lessons learned for rapid assessment of future events. These geodetic imaging techniques have been applied to the 2010 Leogane, Haiti; 2010 Maule, Chile; 2010 Baja California, Mexico; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2007 Tocopilla, Chile; 2007 Pisco, Peru; 2005 Kashmir; and 2003 Bam, Iran earthquakes, using data from ESA Envisat ASAR, JAXA ALOS PALSAR, NASA Terra ASTER and CNES SPOT5 satellite instruments and the NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne system. For these events, the geodetic data provided unique information on the location of the fault or faults that ruptured and the distribution of slip that was not available from the seismic data and allowed the creation of accurate finite fault source models. In many of these cases, the fault ruptures were on previously unknown faults or faults not believed to be at high risk of earthquakes, so the area and degree of

  1. Prototype operational earthquake prediction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1986-01-01

    An objective if the U.S. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 is to introduce into all regions of the country that are subject to large and moderate earthquakes, systems for predicting earthquakes and assessing earthquake risk. In 1985, the USGS developed for the Secretary of the Interior a program for implementation of a prototype operational earthquake prediction system in southern California.

  2. Missing great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) greater than 8.8 and six earthquakes larger than Mw 8.5, since 2004, has raised interest in the long-term global rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on the analysis of earthquakes since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era in seismology. Before this time, the catalog is less complete and magnitude estimates are more uncertain. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes before 1900, and the catalog of historical events is being used increasingly to improve hazard assessment. Here I consider the catalog of historical earthquakes and show that approximately half of all Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes are likely missing or underestimated in the 19th century. I further present a reconsideration of the felt effects of the 8 February 1843, Lesser Antilles earthquake, including a first thorough assessment of felt reports from the United States, and show it is an example of a known historical earthquake that was significantly larger than initially estimated. The results suggest that incorporation of best available catalogs of historical earthquakes will likely lead to a significant underestimation of seismic hazard and/or the maximum possible magnitude in many regions, including parts of the Caribbean.

  3. First record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from Dal lake in Kashmir Himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Irfan ur Rauf; Dar, Gowhar Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of Schizothorax niger a snow trout in Dal Lake, Kashmir, India during the period October 2013 and March 2015. Thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. During the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of infection was found to be 16.66%. This is the first record of the protozoan fauna of the schizothoracines from Kashmir valley, India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin.

  5. Population Dynamics, Distribution, and Species Diversity of Fruit Flies on Cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, S. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Ahangar, R. A.; Bhat, H. A.; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  6. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  7. Morphometric variation and molecular characterization of snow trout species from Kashmir valley, India.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Amir; Bisht, Balwant Singh; Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Kumar, Rohit

    2016-11-01

    There is a significant taxonomic ambiguity among snow trout species due to their morphometric similarities. In view of this, a morphometric and molecular study was conducted on five different species of genus Schizothorax that have been reported from Kashmir valley. Morphometric data analyzed using multivariate statistics (Principal component analysis and cluster analysis) indicated the significant grouping of species to individual clusters. Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene analysis revealed 0.2%-4.5% genetic divergence among the five species. This study confirms that utility of cytochrome oxidase I in species delineation along with morphometric data. Phylogenetic tree obtained using Neighbor-Joining method revealed that all the five species represented distinct species group. The Schizothorax genus formed two distinct clades; one containing S. niger, S. curvifrons and S. plagiostomus, while other clade containing S. esocinus and S. labiatus. This phlogeny trend was also supported by cluster analysis of morphometric characters. The phylogenetic analysis with other published COI sequences revealed distinct nature of these five species. The study may aid in the taxonomic identification of snow trout species in India. This may further increase the knowledge of the ichthyologists in planning conservation and management strategies for these important fish species along with their natural habitat.

  8. Analyzing snowfall variability over two locations in Kashmir, India in the context of warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anoop Kumar; Rafiq, Mohammd

    2017-09-01

    Present study focuses on examination snowfall variability over Gulmarg and Pahalgam of Kashmir Valley in India during past 31 years (1980-2010). Trends in temperature over the study area is also explored. Minimum and maximum temperature shows increasing trends which is consistent with increase in black carbon column mass density. Increase in black carbon mass density is attributed to urbanization over study area. Trends of minimum temperature is statistically significant. It is reported that snowfall over the Pahalgam shows decreasing trend except for the month of February and January. Pahalgam shows a significant decreasing trend in snowfall of about 48 mm per decade during March. Pahalgam and Gulmarg show seasonal decreasing trends of snowfall of about 15 mm and 1.8 mm per decade, respectively. These decreasing trends in snowfall are consistent with decadal increasing trends of about 1.2 °C and 0.8 °C in minimum temperature over Pahalgam and Gulmarg, respectively. Seasonal snowfall over both the regions shows decreasing trend (insignificant). Results reported in this study show a decrease of about 24.16% ± 9.86% per degree increase in minimum temperature over Pahalgam. Changing characteristics of snowfall in the context of anthropogenic warming present major challenges to the tourism and socioeconomic aspects over the Valley.

  9. Antimicrobial investigation of selected soil actinomycetes isolated from unexplored regions of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shakeel-U-Rehman; Hussain, Aehtesham; Mushtaq, Saleem; Rather, Muzafar Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Ahmad, Zahoor; Khan, Inshad Ali; Bhat, Khursheed Ahmad; Hassan, Qazi Parvaiz

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial potential of soil actinomycetes of Kashmir Himalayas. The secondary metabolites of actinomycetes are the prominent source of antibiotics. A total of 121 morphologically different actinomycete strains were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. The ethyl acetate extract of fermented broth an actinomycete strain, identified as Streptomyces pratensis exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 with MIC 0.25 μg/ml and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain H37Rv with MIC 0.062 μg/ml. The strain S. pratensis IIIM06 was grown on large scale and their broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was subjected to various chromatography techniques which led to the isolation of four compounds whose structures were established as actinomycin C1, actinomycin C2, actinomycin C3 and actiphenol on the basis of spectral data analysis. Actinomycin C1, C2 and C3 exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus as well as M. tuberculosis. The isolated indigenous actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity and the study reveals that IIIM06 is a promising strain and could be of great potential for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The recent deglaciation of Kolahoi valley in Kashmir Himalaya, India in response to the changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Abdullah, Tariq

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the retreat of Kolahoi glacier was mapped from the satellite observations and historical maps supplemented by the extensive field observations to understand the recent deglaciation of the Kolahoi valley, Kashmir Himalaya, India. The glacier has retreated by 2.85 km during the last 157 years from 1857 to 2014 with an average retreat of about 18.2 m year-1; however, the glacier snout has shown higher recession during the last decade. The geomorphological evidence reveals glaciation of the Kolahoi valley during the Quaternary. These evidences include glacial till at Pahalgam and Aru besides terminal and lateral moraines at Lidderwat, Satlanjan and Kolahoi Gunj in the Kolahoi valley. The glacier has shrunk by 2.81 km2 during the last 51 years (1962-2013) losing an ice volume of 0.30 km3. The observed glacier changes were correlated with the climate data from PMIP3-CMIP5 models. The temperatures are predicted to increase almost ten times more than that observed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The future temperature is predicted to rise between 0.18 °C and 0.61 °C per decade under RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively. The projected rise in the temperature, if realized, will have an adverse effect on the glaciers and would, in all likelihood, adversely affect the water availability for various sectors in the region.

  11. Epidemiology of Cancers in Kashmir, India: An Analysis of Hospital Data

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S. M. Salim; Qurieshi, Uruj; Ain, Quratul; Jan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. The aim of the present study was to measure the pattern of different cancers in Kashmir, India, a cancer belt with peculiar cancer profile. A hospital based cancer registry was started by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, in January 2006, wherein information was collected from cancer patients who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Data has been analysed for a period extending from January 2006 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis has been done by using statistical software. A total of 1598 cancer patients were admitted during this period. Overall male to female ratio was 1.33 : 1. Stomach cancer was the most commonly reported cancer (25.2%), followed by colorectal cancer (16.4%) and lung cancer (13.2%) among males. For females, colorectal cancer (16.8%), breast cancer (16.1%), and stomach cancer (10.4%) were the most frequently reported cancers in order of frequency. Tobacco related cancers contributed to more than three-fourths of cancers among men and more than half of cancers for women. There is an urgent need to set up a population based cancer registration system to understand the profile of cancers specific to this geographic region. PMID:27478644

  12. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively.

  13. Dynamics of bacterial class Bacilli in the deepest valley lake of Kashmir-the Manasbal Lake.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Sana; Kamili, Azra N; Shah, Manzoor A; Bandh, Suhaib A; Dar, Rubiya

    2017-03-01

    In recognition of the importance of bacteria as ecological indicators of the aquatic systems a comprehensive and systematic analysis was carried out on Manasbal Lake, the deepest spring fed valley lake of Kashmir. The main objective envisaged was to analyze bacterial community composition (BCC) and for this purpose systematic and regular sampling of waters from ten different sampling stations, predetermined in the Lake according to differences in degree of human interference and also as zones of special ecological interests were selected. The isolated species were identified according to Bergey's Manual specification by examining their micro and macro morphological characteristics and biochemical characteristics on different culture media. Further confirmation was done by sequencing the 16s rRNA gene by using universal bacterial primers 27F and 1429R. From all the sampling stations the class Bacilli showed a maximum relative abundance with a contribution of 16 bacterial species. The whole process resulted in the identification of Bacillus aerius, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus ginsengisoli, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus thermocopriae, Bacillus thuringiensis, Brevibacillus agri strain, Lysinibacillus boronitolerans, Lysinibacillus pakistanensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

  14. Albian ammonites from northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Fatmi, Ali N.

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of rich Albian ammonite faunas in what is now northern Pakistan has been known for more than 80 years, but there has been no comprehensive account of the assemblages present. A total of 36 taxa are described below. The middle part of the Lumshiwal Formation yields Upper Aptian ammonites south of the Samana Range. Elsewhere, it yields Douvilleiceras leightonense Casey, 1962, of the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella regularis Zone and the Sonneratia perinflata and S. kitchini Subzones of the Sonneratia chalensis Zone of the northwest European sequence. The top one to two metres of the Lumshiwal yields an abundant fauna of rolled and phosphatised ammonites that includes elements from much of the Albian. Of these, Prolyelliceras gevreyi (Jacob, 1907) first appears in the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella tardefurcata Zone. The commonest ammonite is Douvilleiceras mammillatum (Schlotheim, 1813) sensu lato, which ranges from the perinflata Subzone of the chalensis Zone to the Otohoplites bulliensis Subzone of the O. auritiformis Zone of the Lower Albian. The presence of Lyelliceras pseudolyelli (Parona and Bonarelli, 1897) indicates the uppermost, pseudolyelli Subzone of the auritiformis Zone. The presence of Lyelliceras lyelli (d'Orbigny, 1841) indicates the basal Middle Albian lyelli Subzone of the Hoplites dentatus Zone. There is no evidence for the higher parts of the Middle Albian. Dipoloceras (Rhytidoceras ) sp. indicates the presence of lower Upper Albian, possibly the pricei Zone. There is evidence, in the form of specifically indeterminate Mortoniceras (Mortoniceras) sp., of a level within the inflatum to fallax Zone inteval from a single locality, but no evidence of the succeeding parts of the upper Upper Albian. The base of the Kawagarth Formation that succeeds the Lumshiwal yields lower Upper Albian Mortoniceras (M.) geometricum Spath, 1932 of the Mortoniceras pricei Zone, northwest of Darmasand in the Samana range.

  15. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-05-07

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna.

  16. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  17. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  18. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  19. Population Bulletin. Pakistan: A Demographic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of Pakistan as a nation and reviews a number of demographic variables. Major topics discussed are population growth and shifts, urbanization, and labor characteristics and problems. Based on this information and projections, the report concludes with a discussion of the failure of family planning programs and…

  20. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2009/0707_counterinsurgency_cohen.aspx; “Haider Ali Hussein Mullik, “Lions and Jackals ,” Foreign Affairs (online), July 15, 2009, at http...www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65200/haider-ali-hussein-mullick/lions-and- jackals . 165 “Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,” International Crisis Group

  1. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  2. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  3. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  4. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  5. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  6. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) Haplotypes are Associated with Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Manzoor A.; Srivastava, Priya; Zargar, Showkat A.; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and progression of several types of cancers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A > G, rs3765524C > T, and rs7922612C > T) of PLCE1 in gastric cancer patients from Kashmir Valley. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in 108 GC cases and 195 healthy controls from Kashmir Valley. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and logistic regression models. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The frequency of PLCE1 A2274223C3765524T7922612, G2274223C3765524T7922612, and G2274223T3765524C7922612 haplotypes were higher in patients compared with controls, conferred high risk for GC [odds ratio (OR) =6.29; P = 0.001; Pcorr = 0.003], (OR = 3.23; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), and (OR = 5.14; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), respectively. Smoking and salted tea are independent risk factors for GC, but we did not find any significant modulation of cancer risk by PLCE1 variants with smoking or excessive consumption of salted tea. Conclusion: These results suggest that variation in PLCE1 may be associated with GC risk in Kashmir Valley. PMID:25434319

  7. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  8. Earthquakes, November-December 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Other parts of the world suffered fatalities and significant damage from earthquakes. In Iran, an earthquake killed one person, injured many, and destroyed a number of homes. Earthquake fatalities also occurred in the Azores and in Algeria. 

  9. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  10. Distribution of ABO and Rh D blood groups in the population of Poonch District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Khan, M N; Khaliq, I; Bakhsh, A; Akhtar, M S; Amin-ud-Din, M

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) D blood groups in the population of Poonch district in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The blood group phenotypes were detected by the classic slide method. The ABO blood group system in the total sample showed the same trend of prevalence as for the general Indian subcontinent (B > or = O > A > AB). The same trend was found among males, but among females the order of prevalence was different (O B > A > AB). However, the allelic frequencies in both sexes were in the order of O > B > A. The Rh positive and negative distribution trend in both sexes was also similar.

  11. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome associated with patent ductus arteriosus: First case report from Kashmir Valley of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Ali, Imran; Ahangar, A. G.; Wani, Mohd Maqbool; Ahmed, Sanjeed; Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed; Seth, Sulaiman; Mudasir, Syed

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by a triad of anemia, diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness is caused by a deficiency of a thiamine transporter protein. The disorder is rare and has not been reported from our community which has high background of consanguinity. We report a six years old girl who presented with diabetes mellitus which remitted after thiamine replacement. The girl in addition had sensorineural deafness, reinopathy, atrial septal defect and megaloblastic anemia which responded to high doses of thymine. This is the first case reported from Kashmir valley and third from India. The presentation and management in such cases is discussed. PMID:22837935

  12. Identification of Kashmir bee virus in France using a new RT-PCR method which distinguishes closely related viruses.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Philippe; Carletto, Jerome; Siede, Reinhold; Schurr, Frank; Thiéry, Richard; Ribière, Magali

    2014-03-01

    A new RT-PCR protocol has been developed, avoiding potential misdiagnosis of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) linked to the use of KBV primers designed originally. The PCR assay validation was realised taking into account the analytical specificity and the PCR detection limit. KBV was detected in a bee sample collected in France from an apparently healthy apiary in 2012. The specificity of the primers was confirmed by sequencing the PCR product. This French sequence clustered into the KBV genotype by phylogenetic analysis, while previous French sequence isolates collected in 2002 belong to the IAPV genotype. These data represent the first detection of KBV in France.

  13. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome associated with patent ductus arteriosus: First case report from Kashmir Valley of the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Ali, Imran; Ahangar, A G; Wani, Mohd Maqbool; Ahmed, Sanjeed; Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed; Seth, Sulaiman; Mudasir, Syed

    2012-07-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by a triad of anemia, diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness is caused by a deficiency of a thiamine transporter protein. The disorder is rare and has not been reported from our community which has high background of consanguinity. We report a six years old girl who presented with diabetes mellitus which remitted after thiamine replacement. The girl in addition had sensorineural deafness, reinopathy, atrial septal defect and megaloblastic anemia which responded to high doses of thymine. This is the first case reported from Kashmir valley and third from India. The presentation and management in such cases is discussed.

  14. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  15. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  16. Earthquakes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Plafker, George

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake risk is high in much of the southern half of Alaska, but it is not the same everywhere. This map shows the overall geologic setting in Alaska that produces earthquakes. The Pacific plate (darker blue) is sliding northwestward past southeastern Alaska and then dives beneath the North American plate (light blue, green, and brown) in southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Most earthquakes are produced where these two plates come into contact and slide past each other. Major earthquakes also occur throughout much of interior Alaska as a result of collision of a piece of crust with the southern margin.

  17. Earthquakes of the Holocene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Areas in which significant new data and insights have been obtained are: 1) fault slip rates; 2) earthquake recurrence models; 3) fault segmentation; 4) dating past earthquakes; 5) paleoseismicity in the E and central US; 6) folds and earthquakes, and 7) future earthquake behavior. Summarizes important trends in each of these research areas based on information published between June 1982 and June 1986 and preprints of papers in press. The bibliography for this period contains mainly referred publications in journals and books.-from Author

  18. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  19. Dengue fever virus in Pakistan: effects of seasonal pattern and temperature change on distribution of vector and virus.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Nazish; Javed, Sundus; Nabgha-E-Amen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Tahir, Faheem; Bokhari, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever is regarded as one of the most prominent emerging arboviral infections in Pakistan since its first epidemic almost 2 decades ago. Interplay between potential vectors, susceptible host, and lax environmental conditions may promote the infection, leading to an epidemic. These factors may indeed have played a major role in the spread of the disease in the country, which was limited to Karachi till 2006. With recent natural disasters such as the earthquake in 2005 and flooding in 2010, 2011 and 2012, numbers of vector-borne diseases and outbreaks including dengue fever are on the rise in Pakistan. Therefore, it is a major concern for health sector workers and of utmost importance to have some understanding of the factors affecting disease outbreak for better risk assessment in the region. In the following report we review the climatic as well as host- and vector-associated factors involved in the outbreak of dengue epidemics in Pakistan and highlight high-risk zones in the country. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  1. Exploring the China-Pakistan Relationship. Roundtable Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Mumbai Terror Strikes: Pro-Pakistan Bias? South Asia Analysis Group, Paper No. 2972, December 8, 2008. (Rajan is the Director of the Chennai Centre...for Chinese Studies in Chennai , India.) that China should support Pakistan in such a case.s Other views in China appear more harshly critical of India...its northern end, the Chinese city of Kashgar with key points in northern Pakistan (see figure 2). The highway remains a critical connection between

  2. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep managed under traditional husbandry system in Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2008-11-25

    The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) nematodes in different age groups, sexes and breeds (genotypes) of sheep through necropsy and faecal analysis over a period of 2 years in Kashmir valley, India. A total of 1533 sheep were examined [faecal examination: 1035 (year 1: 561, year 2: 474); necropsy: 498 (year 1: 232, year 2: 266)]. Out of these, 945 (61.64%) were found infected [faecal examination: 697 (67.34%, year 1: 390 (69.51%), year 2: 307 (46.99%); necropsy: 248 (49.79%, year 1: 123 (53.01%), year 2: 125 (64.69%)] with GIT nematodes. The over all prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in year 1 was 64.76 and 58.37% in year 2 (P=0.04). The parasites in decreasing order of prevalence (%) in sheep were Haemonchus contortus (59.6); Ostertagia circumcincta (38.0); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (37.7); Chabertia ovina (37.7); Trichostrongylus spp. (33.9); Nematodirus spathiger (29.4); Oesophagostomum columbianum (28.4); Trichuris ovis (23.5) and Marshallagia marshalli (22.1). Season, sex, age, and genotype were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in the present study. The maximum nematode infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P=0.0005). Local Kashmiri breed was less infected as compared to other genotypes (P>0.05). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P>/=0.05). Prevalence was higher in rams (males) than eves (females) (P>0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to the existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT nematodes of small ruminants and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT nematodiasis of sheep reared under the temperate agro-climatic conditions.

  3. Climatic correlations in the stable isotope records of silver fir ( Abies pindrow) trees from Kashmir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Gopalan, K.

    1986-08-01

    A high degree of coherence in the annual stable isotopic records along different radial directions of a silver fir tree and between two members of this species from the Kashmir Valley has recently been reported by us. Since such a common pattern of isotopic variability is most likely due to the climatic fluctuations in the site, we have compared the mean δD, δ 13C and δ 18O records of these trees with instrumentally measured climatic parameters recorded in a nearby weather station to identify the climatic parameters predominantly influencing the isotopic record. A multiple regression analysis of the two records for the period 1903-1932 yields the following: (1) δD is most sensitive to the amount of growing season precipitation, followed by mean maximum temperature. Tree cellulose shows an amount effect analogous to precipitation samples. The temperature coefficient for δD is in good agreement with earlier estimates based on spatial correlations. (2) δ 13C is significantly related to humidity and cloud amount. The signs of the regression coefficients are consistent with the recent model of Francey and Farquhar for 13C/ 12C fractionation in C 3 plants. (3) δ 18O of cellulose appears to be controlled significantly by relative humidity. 18O shows less overall correlation with climatic parameters than δD and δ 13C. (4) δD of carbon bound hydrogen and δ 18O of tree cellulose are linearly related with a slope of7.9 ± 0.3, suggesting evaporative enrichment in leaf water.

  4. Causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Andleeb; Sufi, Aalia Rasool; Nabi, Mushood; Rather, Muddasar Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Cataract surgery is aimed at restoring sight to near normal vision. This study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, is an attempt to determine the causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir. One hundred patients who underwent cataract surgery with an unaided visual acuity of <6/9 at 16 weeks postoperatively were included in the study. Postoperative follow-up examinations were conducted until the 16th week. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded to determine the cause of subnormal vision. Of 100 patients, 40 underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 30 underwent small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and 30 underwent phacoemulsification. Seventy-five percent of the patients who underwent ECCE had postoperative astigmatism with a mean astigmatism of 2.2 ± 0.81 diopters at 16 weeks, with the majority having with-the-rule astigmatism. In the SICS group, 17 (56.6 %) patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.75 ± 0.40 diopters, with the majority (82.3 %) having against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. In the phacoemulsification group, 13 (43.3 %) of the patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.48 ± 0.23 diopters with the majority having ATR astigmatism. Other causes of subnormal vision were pseudophakic ametropia, posterior capsular opacity and intraoperative complications like posterior capsular rent and vitreous loss. Postoperative astigmatism was the major cause of subnormal vision with greater astigmatism seen in the ECCE group. Therefore, procedures like smaller incision sutureless surgery and careful biometry are advocated to improve visual outcome and patient satisfaction.

  5. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Manhas, R K; Magotra, Rani

    2012-05-07

    The triangle of relationship between human beings, animals and plants has existed for ages, and has given rise to intense-relationships and consequently rich traditions of ethnoveterinary knowledge throughout the world. The predominantly rural population and the strong agricultural base have provided unique situation for rich ethnoveterinary practices in the study area. The present study was conducted in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir between 2007 and 2009 to provide list of the important plants of the region for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and to prepare inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for the future generations. Direct interview of 78 informants was conducted and the information gathered was analyzed for two quantitative methods viz. informant consensus factor (ICF) and use-value (UV). The characteristics of ethnoveterinary plants and practices were also documented. A total of 72 plants were used to cure 33 common ailments of milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Fabaceae (7 species) was the most represented family, along with Poaceae (6 species). Leaves (27.2%) were the most frequently used plant parts, herbs (48.6%) the most frequently used life-form and wild flora (58.3%) the most used source for the ethnoveterinary practices. The highest ICF was reported for urological disorders (0.95) and lowest for nutritional diseases (0.80). The values of ICF were generally on the higher side which shows that the informants share the knowledge about the ailment among themselves. The important ethnoveterinary plant species on the basis of use-values were: Brassica campestris, Saccharun officinarum, Emblica officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi, Asparagus adscendens, Musa paradisica, Oryza sativa, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Tamarindus indica. High diversity of ethnoveterinary plants were found to cure the common milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Further phytochemical and pharmacological

  6. Purification and characterization of a cold active alkaline protease from Stenotrophomonas sp., isolated from Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Saba, Iram; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Rather, Shabir A; Dar, Refaz A; Qadri, Qurrat A; Ahmad, Nasier; Johri, Sarojini; Taneja, Subash C; Shawl, Sami

    2012-03-01

    A Psychrotolerant alkaline protease producing bacterium IIIM-ST045 was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Thajiwas glacier of Kashmir, India and identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. on the basis of its biochemical properties and 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. The strain could grow well within a temperature range of 4-37°C however, showed optimum growth at 15°C. The strain was found to over-produce proteases when it was grown in media containing lactose as carbon source (157.50 U mg(-1)). The maximum specific enzyme activity (398 U mg(-1)) was obtained using soya oil as nitrogen source, however, the inorganic nitrogen sources urea, ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate showed the lowest production of 38.9, 62.2 and 57.9 U mg(-1). The enzyme was purified to 18.45 folds and the molecular weight of the partially purified protease was estimated to be ~55 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The protease activity increased as the increase in enzyme concentration while as the optimum enzyme activity was found when casein (1% w/v) was used as substrate. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 6.5 to 12.0 showing optimum activity at pH 10.0. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 15°C. Proteolytic activity reduced gradually with higher temperatures with a decrease of 56% at 40°C. The purified enzyme was checked for the removal of protein containing tea stains using a silk cloth within a temperature range of 10-60°C. The best washing efficiency results obtained at low temperatures indicate that the enzyme may be used for cold washing purposes of delicate fabrics that otherwise are vulnerable to high temperatures.

  7. Hookah smoking, nass chewing, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Dar, N A; Bhat, G A; Shah, I A; Iqbal, B; Kakhdoomi, M A; Nisar, I; Rafiq, R; Iqbal, S T; Bhat, A B; Nabi, S; Shah, S A; Shafi, R; Masood, A; Lone, M M; Zargar, S A; Najar, M S; Islami, F; Boffetta, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), there is little information about the association between other smoking and smokeless tobacco products, including hookah and nass, and ESCC risk. We conducted a case–control study in Kashmir Valley, India, where hookah smoking, nass chewing, and ESCC are common, to investigate the association of hookah smoking, nass use, and several other habits with ESCC. Methods: We recruited 702 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1663 hospital-based controls, individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence from September 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Ever-hookah smoking (OR=1.85; 95% CI, 1.41–2.44) and nass chewing (OR=2.88; 95% CI, 2.06–4.04) were associated with ESCC risk. These associations were consistent across different measures of use, including intensity, duration, and cumulative amount of use, and after excluding ever users of the other product and cigarette smokers. Our results also suggest an increased risk of ESCC associated with ever-gutka chewing and -bidi smoking. However, the latter associations were based on small number of participants. Conclusion: This study shows that hookah and nass use are associated with ESCC risk. As prevalence of hookah use seems to be increasing among young people worldwide, these results may have relevance not only for the regions in which hookah use has been a traditional habit, but also for other regions, including western countries. PMID:23033008

  8. A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective on the Hydrodynamic Response of the 2014 Kashmir Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, H.; Goyal, A.

    2016-12-01

    In September-2014, the Jammu and Kashmir state of India received unprecedented rains due to strong interaction of the western disturbances with the retreating monsoon. Consequently, several districts were ravaged by the catastrophic floods and subsequent landslides. On 5th September-2014, the Jhelum River in Srinagar breached the danger level by over 1.34 m. The flood discharge was also recorded to be around 2.8 times the normal discharge. The current study examined the hydrodynamic response of the catchment to this rainstorm event. Moreover, the flood progression and recession was analyzed from the remote sensing imageries in pre-flood and post-flood scenarios. Also, the spatio-temporal extent of the inundated and inundation prone areas was mapped using GIS. It was concluded that the deluge was triggered by record rainfall coupled with choked stormwater drains, and reduced carrying capacity of the channel due to excessive silt, encroached floodplains and unplanned urbanization. Past research on the present study area has reported shrinkage and degradation of wetlands and water bodies due to sedimentation and deforestation. Further, even when this region is susceptible to flashfloods historically, and the meteorology data hints towards increasing trend in temperature and rainfall, there is no flood forecasting station in this state. Understandably, it is incumbent on the government to plan for such natural calamities and their consequences. Thus, it is the need of the hour to rehabilitate the water bodies and storm drains, and build a robust network of hydro-meteorology stations. Also, it becomes imperative to scientifically demarcate the river margins as they not only come handy in groundwater recharge, natural silting-desilting and flood mitigation during annual cycles of lows flows and floods, but also support a delicate ecological balance being a medium of land-water interface.

  9. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region.

  10. Opportunistic fungi in lake water and fungal infections in associated human population in Dal Lake, Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Ganai, Bashir A; Lone, Bashir A

    2016-04-01

    Natural habitats of opportunistic fungal pathogens are outside of the host; therefore, it is critically important to understand their ecology and routes of transmission. In this study, we investigated the presence of human pathogenic opportunistic fungi in lake water and incidence of fungal infections in associated population in Kashmir, India. Six hundred forty water samples were taken on seasonal basis from a wide network of sampling stations of the lake for an extended period of two years for screening their occurrence. The samples were inoculated onto rose bengal agar, malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and other specified culture media supplemented with Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin followed by incubation at 37 °C. All the samples were positive for fungi, which were later identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region aided by classical morphological culture techniques and physiological profiling. The whole process led to the isolation of sixteen species of opportunistic fungal pathogens belonging to genus Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillium, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Mucor in decreasing order of prevalence. Furthermore, 20% population (n = 384) of Dal inhabitants was examined for possible fungal infections and it was observed that only 8.07% individuals were positive for fungal infections with 4.68% skin infection cases, 2.34% onychomycosis cases and 1.04% candidiasis cases. Scrapings from onychomycosis and candidiasis patients showed the presence of Aversicolor and Calbicans respectively, resembling exactly the strains isolated from the lake water. However, the skin infection was because of a dermatophyte not isolated for the lake water. Higher prevalence of infection (6.77%) was seen in people using lake water followed by a positive prevalence of 1.30% using tap water. The results of present study suggest that the lake inhabitants are at a greater risk of getting life threatening fungal diseases which may lead to

  11. The Pattern of Psoriatic Arthritis in Kashmir: A 6-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Shagufta; Nisa, Nuzhatun; Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, clinical presentation, and patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) vary in different parts of the world. The scenario of PsA in west is different from that of Asia. Moreover, the oligoarticular type which was considered most prevalent earlier has been replaced by polyarticular type. Aim: The study was to the clinical profile of psoriasis patients associated with PsA in Kashmir valley of India. Materials and Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective, hospital-based study involving 150 successive patients of PsA over a span of 6 years. Severity of the skin and nail involvement was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), respectively. PsA was diagnosed by classification criteria for PsA. The number and pattern of swollen and tender joints was counted and classified by Moll and Wright's classification criteria. Results: Plaque-type psoriasis was the most common clinical type, observed in 122 (81.33%) patients followed by erythrodermic psoriasis in 10 (6.66%) patients and pustular psoriasis in eight (5.33%) patients. PsA occurred between 30 and 40 years of age in 105 (70%) patients. The cutaneous involvement occurred before joint involvement in 113 (75.33%), while they occurred simultaneously in 30 (20%) cases and the PsA preceded the skin involvement in seven (4.66%) cases. Symmetrical polyarthritis was the commonest clinical presentation and was seen in 90 (60%) patients. Nail involvement due to psoriasis was present in 120 (80%) patients. Commonest nail change found was pitting and seen in 60 (40%) patients. Conclusion: The clinical pattern of PsA varies in different parts of the world. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of PsA in a given area is necessary for the successful management of this disease. PMID:26417558

  12. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  13. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  14. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  15. Earthquake history of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The strongest and most widely felt earthquake in Oklahoma occured on April 9, 1952. The intensity VII (Modified Mercalli Scale) tremor was felt over 362,000 sqaure kilometres. A second intensity VII earthquake, felt over a very small area, occurred in October 1956. In addition, 15 other shocks, intensity V or VI, have originated within Oklahoma. 

  16. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  17. Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

  18. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article.

  19. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  20. Earthquake history of Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Since its admission into the Union in 1817, Mississippi has had only four earthquakes of intensity V or greater within its borders. Although the number of earthquakes known to have been centered within Mississippi's boundaries is small, the State has been affected by numerous shocks located in neighboring States. In 1811 and 1812, a series of great earthquakes near the New Madrid Missouri area was felt in Mississippi as far south as the gulf coast. The New Madrid series caused the banks of the Mississippi River to cave in as far as Vicksburg, mroe than 300 miles from the epicentral region. As a result of this great earthquake series, the northwest corner of Mississippi is in seismic risk zone 3, the highest risk zone. Expect for the new Madrid series, effects in Mississippi from earthquakes located outside of the State have been less than intensity V. 

  1. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  2. Role of the VDR Bsm I and Apa I polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal cancer in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Sabha; Kadla, Showkat A; Rasool, Vamiq; Qazi, Falak; Khan, Tanzeela; Shah, Nisar A; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study aiming to evaluate the relationship between Bsm I and Apa I restriction fragment gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) was carried out in Kashmir, including a total of 368 subjects (180 cases and 188 controls). DNA samples extracted from the blood of the subjects were analyzed for 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) Apa I and Bsm I polymorphisms using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). A statistically significant 2.7-fold increased risk was observed in individuals found homozygous for the presence of the 'b' allele, in comparison to subjects homozygous for the 'B' allele (odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-4.86 (Bsm I)), and a statistically insignificant 2-fold increased risk was found among individuals with the 'aa' genotype, as compared to subjects with the 'AA' genotype (OR 2.017, 95% CI 0.86-4.7). Our study also yielded statistically significant results when the Apa I polymorphism was stratified by age (≤ 50 years) and dwelling area (rural area), and the Bsm I polymorphism by gender (male gender), suggesting a possible role of Apa I and Bsm I polymorphisms in the etiology of CRC in Kashmir. We conclude that Apa I and Bsm I single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) might be associated with susceptibility to CRC among Kashmiris. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Block-and-fault dynamics modelling of the Himalayan frontal arc: Implications for seismic cycle, slip deficit, and great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    A numerical block-and-fault dynamics model (BAFD) of the Himalayan frontal arc, India is developed to understand the long-term patterns of strain accumulation and occurrences of great earthquakes in the Himalaya. The morphostructural scheme outlines twelve major crustal blocks, and external driving motions are prescribed using GPS data. The BAFD model reproduces essential features of the geodynamics and seismicity of the Himalayan frontal arc. The locations of the large synthetic earthquakes and their maximum magnitudes are consistent with the information available from the instrumental and historical earthquake catalogues. We model the evolution of the slip deficit and seismic cycles for different sections across the Himalaya frontal arc. The modelled seismic cycles are found to be varying from 700 to 2100 years and are in good agreement with the return periods estimates from the recent paleoseismological studies. We notice that the accumulation of the slip deficit depends not only on the rate of shortening, rheology and structure but also on the dynamics of the confining crustal blocks. Further, we observe that tectonic motions of the Shillong plateau and Assam basin microplates play a significant role in controlling the seismicity patterns of the Bhutan block, which resulted in the decreased seismic activity, and increased rate of aseismic displacement. Thus, we infer that the regional seismicity patterns are a consequence of dynamics of the entire regional fault-and-block system rather than dynamics of individual fault. Our BAFD modelling predicts the maximum earthquake hazard associated with future large/great earthquakes for the central Himalayan gap region, which lies between the 1905 Kangra and the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptures, but relatively less hazard in Kashmir and Assam.

  4. Indian Independence and the Question of Pakistan. [Student Text and] Teacher Resource Book. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    This document includes a student text and a teacher resource book. The student booklet provides an overview of the history of the Indian subcontinent, focuses on key events leading up to partition, and explores the origins of the conflict in Kashmir. It notes that to understand the conflict in Kashmir, people must examine the period of British…

  5. Earthquakes; January-February 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In the United States, a number of earthquakes occurred, but only minor damage was reported. Arkansas experienced a swarm of earthquakes beginning on January 12. Canada experienced one of its strongest earthquakes in a number of years on January 9; this earthquake caused slight damage in Maine. 

  6. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  7. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for... architecture , DoD cloud 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for adopting cloud computing in the Pakistan Navy

  8. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  9. Security Decision-Making in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    towards the other direction; for me, homosexuality is such a big crime against humanity that chopping off hands for stealing -95- in Pakistan, I do not...consider to be against humanity. You consider such things [liberalization of laws con- cerning homosexuality ] to be a step forward, we consider it to be...must be cured first. The sooner we realize this, the better. 3 Virtually the sane argument was made by a distinguished retired corps commander

  10. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  11. Pakistan’s Domestic Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-19

    two parliamentary seats in the 1993 and 1997 elections). Notable Leaders of Pakistan Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1947-1948 Prime Minister...Nation) Muhammed Ali Jinnah and his lieutenant, Liaquat Ali Khan, the PML was weakened upon their premature deaths in 1948 and 1951 ( Jinnah by natural...Liaquat Ali Khan 1947-1951 President Iskandar Ali Mirza 1955-1958 President-General Mohammed Ayub Khan 1958-1969 President-General Mohammed Yahya Khan

  12. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  13. US-Pakistan Relations: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    of British India under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah . Jinnah is considered the father of Pakistan and set in motion many...political platforms that became the foundation for Pakistan’s society. Jinnah was influenced by both his life experiences and the challenges he overcame. A...Muslim from Karachi, Jinnah had received most of his higher education in law from London. As a barrister, he soon became the leading lawyer of

  14. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots.

  15. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

    Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

    The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Pakistan lags behind in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, C

    1998-12-05

    This article focuses on Pakistan's slowness in shifting values to improve the health of women from birth until death. Girls experience 66% higher death as children aged under 4 years than boys. Large segments of Pakistani society still value males and consider daughters to be a "shameful burden." The lessons learned from the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development reveal that Pakistan will suffer socioeconomic decline by ignoring the need to change traditional male and religious attitudes. Pakistan was criticized for neglecting preventive health care and education and for spending less on social welfare than smaller neighbors, such as Bhutan and Nepal. 1 in 38 women dies during childbirth or pregnancy; the regional average is 1/230. Literacy is 26% for women and 50% for men. Almost 25% of children are born underweight. Infant mortality is 95/1000 live births; child mortality is 136/1000 live births. 45% of the population still do not have access to any form of health service. The health budget is largely spent on curative treatment instead of IEC campaigns which are potentially more effective over the long term. Field workers experience mistrust and constraints from religious leaders and matriarchs in their efforts to spread use of contraception among younger women. There are beginning to be signs of change at the grassroots level.

  17. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mohammad A; Khanani, Mohammad R; Warraich, Haider J; Hayat, Abbas; Ali, Syed H

    2008-06-01

    Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed.

  18. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  19. Regulated compensated donation in Pakistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Adibul Hasan S; Naqvi, Anwar S A; Zafar, Naqi M; Ahmed, Ejaz

    2009-04-01

    Paid living unrelated kidney donor transplantation has flourished in Pakistan and Iran. This review discusses the dynamics and consequences of organ trade in Pakistan and of a regulated paid donor model in Iran on transplant activities in these countries. In 2007, over 2500 renal transplants were performed in Pakistan, where more than 70% were from socioeconomic disadvantaged kidney vendors. More than half of recipients were foreigners who paid US$20,000-30,000. Recipients of vendor kidneys had poor outcome and high infectious complications. Regulated paid donor kidney transplant in Iran number around 1500 per year and constitute 70% of the total transplants. Graft survival rates are similar to those for living related donors. The donors are paid US$1200 and additional monies are negotiated between the recipient-donor pair. This model claims to have abolished waiting lists, although many poor patients wait for deceased donors. In both countries, recipients are relatively rich and vendors are the poor of the society who sell kidneys for quick money or to repay debts. Paid donation, regulated or commercial, leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor and benefits the rich. This situation has forestalled deceased donor program and hence other solid-organ transplants. The way forward is to promote deceased donors by making transplant available to all who need it.

  20. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  1. Pakistan--U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-28

    Islamic rule. These figures often root their ideas in the writings of Mohammed Ali Jinnah , Pakistan’s founding father and proponent of a moderate and...e-Taiba and Jaish-e- Muhammad (both blamed for terrorist violence in Kashmir and India).19 The Islamabad government also instituted sweeping police... Muhammad .20 American military successes in Afghanistan in the final months of 2001 apparently ended the existence of Al Qaeda as a coherent entity in

  2. Revisiting the 27th of November 1945 (MW=8.2) earthquake and assessment of future mega thrust in Makran subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.; Atakan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Makran subduction zone (MSZ) is an 800 km zone of convergence in the southeastern Iran and southern Pakistan, where Arabian oceanic crust subducts beneath Eurasian plate with a rate of 19×2 mmyr-1. Despite the present low rate of interplate seismicity in the MSZ, two major earthquakes in 1945/11/27 (Mw=8.2) and 1947/08/05 (Mw=7.3) hit the eastern coast of Makran. The 1945 earthquake followed by widespread damage not only due to the earthquake but also due to accompanied tsunami. Currently central Makran, to the west of the rupture zone of the 1945 earthquake, experiences a few thrust earthquake in the outer-rise, but more normal earthquakes at intermediate depths. The 1991/12/07 and the 1992/01/30 thrust earthquakes with P-axis perpendicular to the trench and the two most recent major extensional earthquakes at intermediate depths, the 2011/01/18 (Mw=7.3) and the 2013/04/16 (Mw=7.8), in central Makran, manifest compressional stress build up in the slab interface and huge extensional regime at intermediate depths due to interplate locking. In this research, we collected the analog seismograms of the two interplate earthquakes of the 1945/11/27 and the 1947/08/05 and found the slip distribution, extent of the causative faults, source time function and spatiotemporal seismic moment release using body-waveform inversion. To assess the rupture area of the future interplate earthquake, we found slip distribution of the intermediate depth normal earthquakes (Mw>5.9) since 1983. Our results suggest that central Makran is in its final stages of the earthquake cycle. The future interplate earthquake most likely ruptures an area between Chabahar in Iran and Gwader in Pakistan. Assuming that the 2011/01/18 (Mw=7.3) signals patches of interplate coupling, which have not been ruptured during the 1945 and the 1947 earthquakes, the extent of future earthquake may even expand further to the east and generate an earthquake larger than what the MSZ experienced in 1945.

  3. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  4. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  5. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  6. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  7. Earthquake history of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

     The western part of the State was shaken strongly by the New Madrid, Mo., earthquakes of 1811-12 and by earthquakes in 1843 and 1895. The area has also experienced minor shocks. Additional activity has occurred in the eastern part of the State, near the North Carolina border. Forty shocks of intensity V (Modified Mercalli scale) or greater have been cataloged as occurring within the State. Many other earthquakes centered in bordering States have affected points in Tennessee. The following summary covers only hose shocks of intensity VI or greater. 

  8. Region Hit by Large Pakistan Quake as Shown by NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On September 24 at 11:29 GMT, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake struck in south-central Pakistan at a relatively shallow depth of 20 kilometers. The earthquake occurred as the result of oblique strike-slip motion, consistent with rupture within the Eurasian tectonic plate. Tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi as well as Karachi in Pakistan. Even though the immediate area to the epicenter is sparsely populated, the majority of houses are of mud brick construction and damage is expected to be extensive. The perspective view, looking to the east, shows the location of the epicenter in Pakistan's Makran fold belt. The image is centered near 27 degrees north latitude, 65.5 degrees east longitude, and was acquired December 13, 2012. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on Terra. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. More information

  9. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  10. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  11. Evaluation Study of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Umbreen

    2011-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) was globally and locally an innovation, particularly in third world. The objective of this study was to investigate an impact evaluation of ECE initiated recently in Pakistan. The data of impact evaluation were drawn from three ECE Centers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Total samples of 65…

  12. What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Asian markets . 40 Ibid, 52-53. 41 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and...complex challenges in this volatile region, an observer must not only analyze Pakistan but also their historical relationship with Afghanistan to...analyze Pakistan but its relationship with Afghanistan to understand Pakistani motivations and concerns within this volatile region of the world

  13. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  14. Empowerment of Women through Distance Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to highlight the gender disparities of Pakistan as well as at regional and international level. The study, measured the comparative outcome of formal and non-formal system of education in Pakistan. To achieve the desired goal, documentary analysis was considered appropriate. The number of schools and enrollment…

  15. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  16. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended…

  17. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of…

  18. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  19. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of…

  20. Assessment Drives Student Learning: Evidence for Summative Assessment from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Rashida; Zahoor, Mahrukh; Zahoor, Mahwish

    2017-01-01

    Research studies from various parts of the world indicate that university students find research methodology courses among the most difficult subjects to grasp. Students in Pakistan display similar attitudes towards learning of research. Those of us who teach research at the institutions of higher learning in Pakistan continuously hear students…

  1. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  2. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  3. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  4. A Study of Students' Attitude Towards Virtual Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2007-01-01

    Virtual education paradigm has been developing as a form of distance education to provide education across the boundaries of a nation and/or country. It imparts education through information and communication technologies. In Pakistan the Virtual University of Pakistan imparts it. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the students'…

  5. Promoting Primary Education for Girls in Pakistan. CDIE Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This report details a field study to evaluate the efforts of Pakistan's Primary Education Development Program (PED) to improve the access, equity, and quality of primary education in Pakistan, especially for rural girls. A 3-week visit was conducted in 1997 by a team from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Center for…

  6. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  7. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  8. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  9. Problematizing High School Certificate Exam in Pakistan: A Washback Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Raana

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the Higher-Secondary School Certificate (HSC) exam in Pakistan that has been in place in its present form for more than thirty years. The author recounts her experience as a teacher of English in a representative high school in Pakistan and, reflecting on the impact of high school public exam, she argues that the…

  10. Prevalence of caprine GI helminths in temperate areas of Jammu & Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bihaqi, S J; Allaie, I M; Banday, M A A; Wani, Z A; Shahardar, R A

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence study on GastroIntestinal (GI) helminths of goats was carried out at Govt. Farms of twin districts of Bandipora and Ganderbal and locally reared goats of district Baramulla of the Kashmir Valley over a period of one year from December 2011 to November 2012. A total of 1016 faecal samples were examined which revealed overall prevalence of GI helminths to be 74.70%, with platyhelminths and nemathelminths in 14.76 and 70.07% animals, respectively. The helminths recorded in the present study were Fasciola spp. (2.75%), Dicrocoelium spp. (3.44%), paramphistomes (3.05%), Moniezia spp. (9.44%), strongyle worms including Nematodirus spp. (68.30%), Strongyloides spp. (5.90%) and Trichuris spp. (4.29%). On coprocultural examination Haemonchus spp. (71.05%) was found to be the most predominant strongyle worm followed by Trichostrongylus spp. (12.86%), Chabertia spp. (8.47%) and Ostertagia spp. (7.62%). Seasonal prevalence of GI helminths was observed highest in summer (78.03%) followed by spring (75.39%), winter (74.90%) and autumn (70.47%), the difference being statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of platyhelminths was found to be non-significantly higher in winter (20.00%) followed by spring (15.07%), summer (12.54%) and autumn (11.41%). Nemathelminths were recorded highest in summer (75.68%) followed by spring (71.82%), autumn (68.50%) and winter (64.31%). EPG ranged from 0 to 1500 and an average EPG count was found to be 312.7 ± 17.76. EPG was found to be highest in summer (453.80 ± 45.25) followed by spring (313.2 ± 28.76), autumn (256.1 ± 17.48) and winter (190.2 ± 32.0).Overall prevalence of GI helminths was found more in adult goats (77.85%) compared to young ones (67.42%), the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05). Similarly, it was found to be higher in females (75.89%) as compared to males (66.12%) and the variation being statistically non-significant (P > 0.05).

  11. Late Permian Tsunamites in Guryul Ravine (Kashmir, India) - revisited and rejected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krystyn, Leopold; Horacek, Micha; Brandner, Rainer; Parcha, Suraj

    2014-05-01

    Recent claims for tsunami-related event beds induced by the Siberian Trap basalts in this section (Brookfield et al., 2013) have to be questioned. Identical storm generated carbonate beds occur not only during a short interval close to the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary but through a major part of the late Permian (Changhsingian) succession there - as low as 26 m below the so-called tsunami beds. Moreover, during our recent study in a closely neighbouring place called Mandakpal (less than 10 km to the southeast), no signs of tsunamites have been detected in time-correlative finegrained sediments. Based on sedimentary and trace fossil evidence we interpret the late Permian of Guryul as relatively shallow, neritic and delta-influenced. The so-called tsunamites are shelly-enriched discontinuous carbonate lenses fed downslope through local channels. Judging from the distinct facies change from the storm related "tsunamites" to thinly bedded mud turbidites above, the sudden deepening may be explained by local and still rift-related tectonics along the NIM (North-Indian Gondwana Margin) which led to episodic seismic induced sediment redeposition in the area of Guryul. Synsedimentary tectonic activity with tilting and eventual Horst and Graben structure building along the large NIM is indicated by margin inversion during the P-T boundary interval leading to sedimentary breaks and 20 times thinner, condensed limestone deposits far offshore from Guryul in Spiti (Krystyn et al., 2004) and Tibet (Orchard et al., 1994). Thus, local seismic activity seems to be a far more logic explanation of the Guryul "tsunamites" than the eruption of the Siberian Traps more than 6000 km away. References Brookfield, M. E., Algeo, T. J., Hannigan, R., Williams, J and Bhat, G. M., 2013: Shaken and Stirred: Seismites and Tsunamites at the Permian-Triassic boundary, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, India. Palaios, v. 28, 568-582. Krystyn, L., Balini, M. and Nicora, A., 2004: Lower and Middle Triassic

  12. Molecular characterization of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Reyaz, A L; Gunapriya, L; Indra Arulselvi, P

    2017-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. In the present study, new indigenous B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. For this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider webs were collected from ten districts of Kashmir valley (India). Of 1447 bacterial strains screened, 68 Bt strains were identified with 4 types of crystalline inclusions. Crystal morphology ranking among the Bt strains was spherical (69.11%) > spore attached (8.82%) > rod (5.88%) = bipyramidal (5.88%) > spherical plus rod (4.41%) > spherical plus bipyramidal (2.94%) = cuboidal (2.94%). SDS-PAGE investigation of the spore-crystal mixture demonstrated Bt strains contained proteins of various molecular weights ranging from 150 to 28 kDa. Insecticidal activity of the 68 indigenous Bt strains against Spodoptera litura neonates showed that Bt strain SWK1 strain had the highest mortality. Lepidopteron active genes (cry1, cry2Ab, cry2Ab) were present in six Bt strains. Further, analysis of a full-length cry2A gene (~1.9 kb) by PCR-RFLP in strain SWK1 revealed that it was a new cry2A gene in Bt strain SWK1 and was named as cry2Al1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ149819.1) using the Bt toxin nomenclature ( http://www.btnomenclature.info ). Insect bioassays with neonate larvae of S. litura and H. armigera showed that the purified Cry2Al1 is toxic to S. litura with LC50 2.448 µg/ml and H. armigera with LC50 3.374 µg/ml, respectively. However, it did not produce any mortality in third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae/pupae insects (100 µg/ml) at 28 ± 2 °C and 75 to 85% relative humidity under a photoperiod of 14L:10D.

  13. Spatio-temporal patterns and factors controlling the hydrogeochemistry of the river Jhelum basin, Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mir, Riyaz Ahmad; Jeelani, Gh; Dar, Farooq Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    River Jhelum is a major source of water for growing population and irrigation in the Kashmir Himalaya. The region is trending towards water scarcity as well as quality deterioration stage due to its highly unregulated development. The existence of few literature on various aspects of the basin prompts us to study the spatio-temporal variability of its physicochemical parameters and thereby to understand the regulating hydrogeochemical mechanisms based on 50 samples collected during high flow (June 2008) and low flow (January 2009) periods. The water chemistry exhibited significant spatial variability reflecting the mixing processes in the basin. The seasonal effect does change the concentration of ions significantly with modest variability in the order of ionic abundance. The Ca(2+) ion among cations and HCO3 (-) ion among anions dominate the ionic budget and correlates significantly with the diverse lithology of the basin. Three major water types, i.e., Ca-Mg-HCO3 (72 %), Ca-HCO3 (12 %), and Mg-Ca-HCO3 (16 %), suggest that the chemical composition of water is dominantly controlled by carbonate lithology, besides a significant contribution from silicates. However, at certain sites, the biological processes and anthropogenic activities play a major role. Relatively, the lower ionic concentration during high flow period (summer season) suggested the significant influence of higher discharge via dilution effect. The higher discharge due to higher rainfall and snow melting in response to rising temperature in this period leads to strong flushing of human and agricultural wastes into the river. The factor analysis also reflected the dominant control of varied lithology and anthropogenic sources on the water quality based on the four significant factors explaining collectively about 70-81 % of the total data variance. A two-member chloride mixing model used to estimate the discharge contribution of tributaries to the main river channel showed reliable results. It may

  14. A Pragmatic LDI Operational Network Model for Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Roshan; Mirza, Zahir Abbas

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes some common components of contemporary designs for the Long Distance & International (LDI) License in Pakistan and identifies critical aspects needed to implement a commercial LDI network in any developing country like Pakistan. An extensive study is carried out to evaluate various methods through which a carrier can receive and transmit voice traffic and identify their respective merits and demerits. Deficiencies which can harm the growth of telecom market in Pakistan and which require redress by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) are highlighted. A pragmatic model is proposed which takes into consideration, the constraints of Pakistan Telecommunication market. The paper concludes that the proposed model be incorporated with specific suggestions and economic justifications.

  15. Nucleotide sequencing and DNA polymorphism studies of BMP 15 gene in Corriedale and local Kashmir valley sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Shabir, M; Ganai, T A S

    2012-05-10

    The families of TGF-β proteins are the most important growth factors in the ovary for growth and differentiation of early ovarian follicles. Three related oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, namely GDF9, BMP15 and BMPR-IB have been shown to be essential for follicular growth and ovulation. The objective of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in intronic portion of BMP 15 gene in Corriedale and local Kashmir valley sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 85 ewes and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified phenol chloroform method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, respectively. A fragment with the size of 356 bp was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of specific primers. The amplified PCR products were digested with Mph11031 restriction enzyme. In the presence of mutation at this locus, the Mph11031 enzyme cannot recognize the restriction site. However, here in the absence of mutations, the enzyme recognizes one restriction site and divides the amplified fragment into two fragments of 152 and 204 bp. The 356 bp fragment was also analyzed for polymorphism by SSCP technique. The results indicated two different banding patterns AA and AB for this fragment. Later on two different allelic forms A and B were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The 356 bp nucleotide sequence was subjected to alignment analysis and it was observed that sequence similarity of this fragment with that of other sheep and Jining grey goat was more than 97.8%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both designated A and B alleles as well as published sequence of sheep form a common cluster indicating their evolutionary closeness. The origin of Jining grey goat was located some distance away from the sheep. The overall frequencies of AA and AB genotypes were 0.79 and 0.21. The breed wise frequencies were 0.78 and 0.22 in Corriedale

  16. Earthquake history of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Only one earthquake of intensity V on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MM) or greater has occurred within Wisconsin during historic times. Some shocks originating in Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and Canada have been felt. 

  17. Nonlinear processes in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Frohlich, C.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

  18. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  19. The New Madrid earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Two interpreted 1811-12 epicenters generally agree well with zones of seismicity defined by modern, small earthquakes. Bounds on accelerations are placed at the limits of sand blows, generated by the 1811-12 earthquakes in the St. Francis Basin. Conclusions show how the topstratum thickness, sand size of the substratum, and thickness of alluvium affected the distribution of sand blows in the St. Francis Basin.

  20. Prospective testing based on joint pre-earthquake signal observations: Case studies for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    2014-05-01

    We present results from our prospective testing of rock deformation measurements (Neumann & Kalenda 2010) in combination with atmospheric pre-earthquake signals (thermal radiation data from several polar orbit satellites) observed during 2013 and related to the major seismic events of M7+. We designed an atmospheric pre-earthquake signals approach according to the theoretical concept of LAIC - Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling (Pulinets & Ouzounov, 2011), operating between the crust and the atmosphere/ ionosphere. The basis of the joint analysis of different pre-earthquake signals follows the Dobrovolsky (1997) formula for the estimation of the earthquake preparation zone and the LAIC physical concept. The non-linear process of preparation of the strongest earthquakes influences the global stress field, which leads to the global response and coupling within the Earth geo-space-lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere and affects multi-parameter observations from the ground and space. In 2013 about 19 major earthquakes (M≥7) occurred at 16 independent localities. Six of them had been jointly alerted and studied in advance. The satellite monitoring and deformometry measurements could forecast (prospectively) four of them: M7.7 Jan 5, Alaska; M7.9 Feb 6, Santa Cruz; M7.8 April 16, Iran-Pakistan and M7.7 Sept 24, Pakistan. The largest event for 2013 the M8.3 in the Okhotsk Sea was alerted in advance using both the methods but the estimated location from the satellite measurement was outside the real epicenter (unsuccessful forecast). The M7.7 event in the Scotia Sea was alerted only by the deformometry measurement (only as a direction towards Chile from Europe), because the area was not part of the satellite monitoring regions. The primary outcome from the 2013 test shows two major results: (1) Real-time tests have showed the presence of anomalies in the rocks deformation measurements and the following atmospheric pre-earthquake signals associated with the tested M

  1. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  2. Earthquake prediction, societal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aki, Keiiti

    1995-07-01

    "If I were a brilliant scientist, I would be working on earthquake prediction." This is a statement from a Los Angeles radio talk show I heard just after the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Five weeks later, at a monthly meeting of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), where more than two hundred scientists and engineers gathered to exchange notes on the earthquake, a distinguished French geologist who works on earthquake faults in China envied me for working now in southern California. This place is like northeastern China 20 years ago, when high seismicity and research activities led to the successful prediction of the Haicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 with magnitude 7.3. A difficult question still haunting us [Aki, 1989] is whether the Haicheng prediction was founded on the physical reality of precursory phenomena or on the wishful thinking of observers subjected to the political pressure which encouraged precursor reporting. It is, however, true that a successful life-saving prediction like the Haicheng prediction can only be carried out by the coordinated efforts of decision makers and physical scientists.

  3. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  4. Review of the idiocerine leafhoppers of Pakistan (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Imran; Webb, M D

    2014-09-05

    The Idiocerinae of Pakistan are reviewed and a new species, Tasnimocerus sindhensis sp. nov. (Pakistan: Tandojam), is described and illustrated from Pakistan. Two new junior synonyms of Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) are recognized: Idioscopus karachiensis Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. and I. freytagi Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. Idioscopus nagpurensis (Pruthi) is newly recorded from Pakistan. A checklist of Idiocerinae from Pakistan is also provided together with a key to genera and species. 

  5. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  6. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  7. Treatment of mange infection in a weaner flock of sheep with ivermectin at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Baba, M Ashraf; Shah, Maroof; Mushtaq, Iram; Sakina, Abeen; Wani, Shamim

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei mange occured in a weaner flock that comprised of 74 animals including 31 male and 43 female at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley. All the animals in the flock were affected. Animals were very weak and emaciated skin lesions were confined to the lips, nostrils, ears, face, and were characterized by pruritus, erythema, papule formation, alopecia and scab formation. Microscopic examination of skin scraping revealed S. scabiei mange infestation. The affected animals were treated with ivermectin at 1 ml/50 kg b.wt. S/C, as single dose along with supportive therapy. 7th day post treatment scrapping examinations revealed absence of mites or their eggs in these scrapings.

  8. Unusual case of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus and acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer from Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Lone, Rubina; Syed, Khurshid; Abdul, Rashid; Sheikh, Sajjad Ahmed; Shah, Faisal

    2009-01-01

    Acanthamoeba species can cause a chronic, progressive, ulcerative keratitis of the eye, which is not responsive to the usual antimicrobial treatment and is frequently mistaken for stromal herpes keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis continues to be a burgeoning and unsolved problem. Although soft contact lens wear is reported as the major risk factor in other parts of the world, reports from India suggest that acanthamoeba keratitis is more common among non-contact lens wearers. An unusual case of coinfection with Acanthamoeba and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as causes of corneal keratitis in a contact lens wearer from Kashmir, India, is reported. Recent findings have shown that MRSA uses amoebae to spread, sidestepping hospital and other protection measures. Cysts of the isolated Acanthamoeba tolerated an incubation temperature of 40°C, indicating a pathogenic species. This case highlights the importance of culture methods in the diagnosis of corneal infection and the choice of treatment regimen.

  9. Prevalence of primary headache disorders in school-going children in Kashmir Valley (North-west India)

    PubMed Central

    Malik, A. Hameed; Shah, Parvaiz A.; Yaseen, Yawar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A prospective prevalence study of primary headache disorders in school going children (8–18 years) in Srinagar district of Kashmir valley was conducted. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of a randomized sample of 5000 school going children in the age group of 8–18 years from various educational institutions of Srinagar city. A self-administered pretested questionnaire was filled by the participants and the diagnosis established by following the International Headache Society criteria (IHS) 2004. Results: The overall prevalence of primary headache disorders was found to be 664/1000. The prevalence of tension-type headache and migraine was found to be 50.99% and 26.98%, respectively. The prevalence revealed an upward trend with increasing age with preponderance for female sex. PMID:23024557

  10. Earthquakes; January-March 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The year 1976 started out quite active, seismically. Four major earthquakes occurred in different parts of the world during the first 3 months of the year. Three earthquakes rattled the western rim of the Pacific Ocean from the Kuril Islands to the Kermadec Islands. The fourth major earthquake struck Guatemala, killing thousands of people, injuring many, and leaving thousands homeless. Earthquakes in Kentucky and Arkansas caused little damage but were felt in several States. Arizona experienced a sharp earthquake in the Chico Valley, which caused very little damage. Other States experienced earthquakes, but none caused damage. 

  11. Late Quaternary loess-like paleosols and pedocomplexes, geochemistry, provenance and source area weathering, Manasbal, Kashmir Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeesh, C.; Achyuthan, Hema; Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Lone, Aasif

    2017-05-01

    The late Quaternary loess and loess-like deposits in Kashmir Valley are natural archives that have preserved paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental records of the region. We present a loess-like paleosol located along the margin of the Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal, which was studied in detail for understanding the pedological processes and reconstructing the late Quaternary soil formation. In this paper we present loess-like paleosol formation of a nearly 10.6 m thick sequence exposed along the margin of Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal District, Srinagar, Kashmir. Geochemical and textural data of this loess-like sedimentary sequence fluctuate reflecting the varied depositional processes operating in the valley, differential intensity of weathering, and processes of pedogenesis. Weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration, chemical index of weathering, and plagioclase index of alteration reveal weak to moderate weathering of the parent material. Provenance discrimination diagrams of the present study disclose that the Manasbal loess-like paleosol sediments are derived from the mixed source rocks suggesting a variety of provenance with variable geological settings, which apparently have undergone weak to moderate recycling processes. The Manasbal paleosol horizons have been dated by the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method to the marine isotope stages mid-MIS-3 (41.7 ± 8.0 ka) and late-MIS-2 (14.6 ± 3.8 ka). During the MIS-3 period, the climate was wetter, forming a strong AhBtk paleosol as inferred from the geochemical data. A steady increase in the CaCO3 content and C/N ratio in the paleosols from 6.50 m (MIS-3) indicates arid and drier climatic conditions. The area around Manasbal Lake incised because of climate change and neotectonic activity since post-14 ka.

  12. Cancer trends in Kashmir; common types, site incidence and demographic profiles: National Cancer Registry 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Wani, M A; Jan, F A; Khan, N A; Pandita, K K; Khurshid, R; Khan, S H

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of cancer incidence in population is required for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and resource allocation. This will also guide in the formation of facilities for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up for these patients. The demographic trend of cancer will help to identify common types and etiological factors. Efforts at clinical, research and administrative levels are needed to overcome this problem. Present retro prospective study was conducted in regional cancer center of a tertiary care hospital. After permission from ethics committee, a retro prospective study of 1 year duration was undertaken to study the profile of cancer patients and to compare it with other cancer registries in India. Pearson's Chi-square test and simple linear regression were used. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version-16 (University of Bristol information services (www.bristol.ac.uk/is/learning/resources) was used. The overall incidence of cancer in Kashmir is on the increase and common sites of cancer are esophagus and gastroesophageal (GE) junction, lung, stomach, colorectal, lymphomas, skin, laryngopharynx, acute leukemias, prostate and brain in males.In females common sites are breast, esophagus and GE junction, ovary, colorectal, stomach, lung, gallbladder, lymphomas, acute leukemias and brain. Cancers of esophagus, stomach and lungs have a high incidence both in men and women in Kashmir. Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to these cancers may improve our understanding of risk factors held responsible for causation of these malignancies in this region. This will help in the allocation of available resources for prevention and treatment strategies.

  13. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  14. Conflict Bear Translocation: Investigating Population Genetics and Fate of Bear Translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth ‘conflict bears’ from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. PMID:26267280

  15. Seasonal impact on the prevalence of coccidian infection in broiler chicks across poultry farms in the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The information on the epidemiology and control of coccidian parasites of broilers in Kashmir valley is based on the reports available from other regions of the world. With this background, the present study was conducted to investigate the seasonal prevalence of the disease in the temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. A standard protocol for sampling was followed according to which five birds per 10,000 is sufficient to diagnose coccidiosis. Microscopic examination (under 10× and 40× objective lens) was used to reveal the presence of coccidial oocysts. Different species of genus Eimeria were identified on the basis of their predilection site, morphology and size. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in autumn 45.12 ± 2.55 (September 47.5 %, October 42.42 % and November 45.46 %) followed by summer 30.84 ± 6.86, spring 23.81 ± 2.81 and winter 20.29 ± 6.40. In summer, prevalence of disease was low but afterwards prevalence of disease rose up from August to October. In spite of high relative humidity in winter, disease showed low prevalence rate. Over all prevalence for the whole year was 29.87 %. Among species Eimeria tenella was the most dominant parasite showing highest prevalence of 18.13 %. Variation in incidence of coccidiosis with respect to seasons showed a strong correlation and data was found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The results obtained would be quite useful to devise appropriate and effective control strategies and prophylactic programs for coccidiosis in poultry unique to this climatic zone and other parts of the world with similar climatic and poultry production systems.

  16. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  17. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

    1996-01-01

    This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies.

  18. Stressors affecting nursing students in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Watson, R; Rehman, S; Ali, P A

    2017-08-08

    To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Health sector reform in Pakistan: future directions.

    PubMed

    Islam, A

    2002-04-01

    The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems--structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of functional specificity and accessibility. Faced with a precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistan's room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited. Although the recently announced Devolution Plan provides a window of opportunity, it must go beyond and introduce far-reaching changes in the health and social sectors. Regionalization of health care services in an integrated manner with functional specificity for each level of care is an essential step. Integration of current vertical programs within the framework of a need-based comprehensive primary health care system is another necessary step. Most importantly, fostering a public-private partnership to share the cost of basic primary health care and public health services must be an integral part of any reform. Pakistan must also make the health care system more gender sensitive through appropriate training programs for the service providers along with wide community participation in decision-making processes. Relevant WHO/World Bank/UNDP developed tools could be extremely useful in this respect. The article is based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University. It also draws from the experiences of health sector reform carried out in other countries, particularly those in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose is to inform and hopefully influence, public policy as the country moves towards devolution.

  20. Leprosy in Pakistan: LEPRA elective study.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, S

    1998-06-01

    As part of the curriculum, medical students at the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals (UMDS), London, are encouraged to spend an elective period of 8 weeks in their final year anywhere in the world, studying any field of medicine they are interested in. Having lived in Tanzania for 10 years, I have had contact with people suffering from leprosy and my interest in leprosy continued after I moved to Europe to continue my education. I therefore decided to use my elective to gain hands-on experience with the disease so that I could understand and appreciate the impact of leprosy in developing countries such as Pakistan.