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Sample records for kastel gomilica croatia

  1. Croatia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  4. Healthy migrant effect within Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic determinants and health status of within-country migrants in Croatia. Data from the Croatian Adult Health Survey from 2003 (N = 9,070) were used in the analysis. Migrants due to 1991-1995 war were excluded from the analysis and only those who indicated that the reason for their migration within Croatia was related to employment or other reasons were included. Prevalence of hypertension and increased body weight was calculated for each of the three migration-related groups (employment-related migrants, other reasons migrants and non-migrants). Migrants were on general younger than non-migrants (more than three quarters of migrant were under 50 years). Employment-related migrants had the lowest prevalence of measured hypertension, while other reasons migrants had the lowest prevalence of increased body weight. Non-migrants had the worse indices in almost every trait and age group that was analysed. The results support the healthy migrant hypothesis, even in case of migrants who migrated within Croatia. However, the results of this study show that health status of migrants may depend on the reasons for their migration, suggesting that future migration studies should record and take this into account.

  5. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme.

  6. United Nations Protection Force in Croatia, (UNPROFOR).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. WTC QUALITY INSPECTED % ■S3 USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR...of Serbs in Croatia. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I, Croatia joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and...UNITED NATIONS INVOLVEMENT The collapse of the former Yugoslavia in 1991 seemed to take the international community by surprise. The European

  7. Human hydatidosis in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Morović, M.

    1997-01-01

    Human echinococcosis remains a very serious public health problem worldwide, although a decline in incidence has been observed in some endemic areas during the last decades. However, in some non-endemic areas an increase in new cases and new foci of animal echinococcosis were registered during the same time. In Dalmatia, a well known endemic area of hydatidosis in the most Mediterranean part of Croatia, from the mid-1950s until present a decrease of incidence of over 70% has been registered. Age, sex and occupational category specific incidence as well as lethality rate have remained the same as before. Migrations from rural to urban regions seem to be the most important parameter in the changing epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Dalmatia. PMID:9363027

  8. ALIS evaluation tests in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Kido, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2009-05-01

    Tohoku University, Japan is developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. The Migration processing drastically increases the quality of the imaging of the buried objects.Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted several test sites. Tests in real mine fields in Croatia has been conducted between December 2007 and April 2008. Under different soil and environment conditions, ALIS worked well. Then ALIS evaluation test started in Cambodia in February 2009 and we could find discrimination capability of ALIS in test lanes, and we are planning to start evaluation test in real mine fields in Cambodia.

  9. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  10. History of venereology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo

    2009-01-01

    The term sexually transmitted infections has a wider meaning than the older venereal diseases. It is known that gonorrhea was present even in ancient times, whereas syphilis appeared in Europe at the end of the 15(th) century. Soon cases were observed along the coast in Zadar, Dubrovnik and Istria, and were treated by surgeons. The relatively late establishment of medical schools, along with wars and different governments, were some of the reasons why dermatovenereology as a specialty developed later in Croatia than in other European countries. Nevertheless, during the 19(th) century, many Croatian physicians and dermatovenereologists of the past century were interested in venereology. Among the most important personalities that worked at departments and dispensaries for venereal diseases were Cambieri, Kogoj, Bozić, Nonveiller, Orhel, and many others. They introduced new diagnostic technologies and treatments, and wrote about these diseases. Significant progress was achieved in larger towns where medical schools had been opened. Croatian venereologists also organized several international congresses on sexually transmitted diseases and became members of the respective international societies. Nowadays, the interest of dermatovenereologists has been shifting towards chlamydial infections, herpes genitalis, human papillomavirus genital infection and human immunodeficiency virus infection, and their presence among homosexuals.

  11. Trichinellosis in wolves from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Kusak, Josip; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Lucinger, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Huber, Duro; Gudan, Andrea; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves (Canis lupus) in a 17,468 km(2) area in Croatia. Muscle samples were collected from 67 wolves between 1996 and 2007 and analyzed by artificial digestion. Muscle larvae were detected in 21 wolves (31%) and genotyped by multiplex PCR. Trichinella britovi was the predominant species confirmed in 90% (19 wolves) while Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9% (2 wolves). The presence of the so called "domestic"Trichinella species was a surprise since, to date, only T. britovi had been reported in wild animals in this region. The larval burdens in infected animals ranged from 0.3 to 45.9 larvae per gram. The prevalence of infected animals varied by geographic region; infected animals were found in the region of Gorski Kotar (20%) which has very similar environment to the region of Lika, where almost all wolves were found infected. Interestingly, this is the first report of infected wolves in Dalmatia.

  12. Problems with drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vrhovac, B

    1997-01-01

    Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized.

  13. Peer Evaluation of Oral Presentations in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Mirjana Matea; Sirkovic, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore student engagement in peer evaluation activities related to giving scientific presentations in English (L2) and to investigate student attitudes towards this form of evaluation in the course Communication skills in Croatian (L1). The participants in this study were first-year students of engineering in Split, Croatia.…

  14. Spherical Model of Interests in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverko, Iva

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the validity of spherical model of interests in Croatia, three Croatian samples of primary school students (N = 437), secondary school students (N = 540) and university students (N = 630) were administered a translated version of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, [Tracey, T.J.G. (2002). Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of…

  15. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula.

  16. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26257567

  17. [Regional distribution of physicians in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Velibor; Bagat, Mario; Golem, Ante-Zvonimir

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show regional distribution of physicians in Croatia. Number of physicians members of the Croatian medical chamber and number of physicians in the system of mandatory health insurance were compared between the counties. In 2006 in Croatia there were 276 physicians per 100,000 inhabitants, i.e., 215 physicians per 100,000 inhabitants in the system of mandatory health insurance. The fewer number of physicians per 100,000 inhabitants in the system of mandatory health insurance, less then 150, were in Koprivnica-Krizevci County, Lika-Senj County and Vukovar-Srijem County, while the greatest number of physicians, more than 250 per 100,000 inhabitants, were in the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County, and Primorje-Gorski kotar County. There were significant differences in the number of physicians per 100,000 inhabitants between the counties (chi2 = 148.7, DF = 19, P < 0.001, chi2-test). Number of general practitioners (GPs) per 100,000 inhabitants in Croatia were 54.2, with range from 47.1 in Pozega-Slavonia County to 61.8 in Primorje-Gorski kotar County. Number of physician specialties in four basic specialties per 100,000 inhabitants in Croatian hospitals were for internal medicine 19.1, general surgery 11.0, gynecology and obstetrics 6.7 and pediatrics 7.8. There were significant differences in the number of physicians in four specialties (internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics and pediatrics) per 100,000 inhabitants between the counties (chi2 = 76.0, DF = 19, P < 0.001, chi2-test). Apart from the insufficient number of physicians in Croatia, an inadequate allocation of physicians in certain counties is also evident.

  18. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  19. Nurses in Croatia: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlić-Šumić, Marija; Šimunec, Dragica

    2008-01-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia there are 30 000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consist of secondary vocational education followed by two cycles of university education – baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined spheres of responsibility. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. The license for independent work for nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, since Croatian nurses with only vocational secondary school qualifications do not meet the requirements to be licensed. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessing of the job complexity index and the ratio of personal incomes. PMID:18581608

  20. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  1. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation.

  2. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous.

  3. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milicić-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovlić, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we

  4. Croatia founded a national body for ethics in science.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia

    2007-06-01

    The Committee for Ethics in Science and Higher Education (CESHE) was created in Croatia as a national body appointed by the Parliament. Thus Croatia became one of a handful of countries with national means of responding to allegations of scientific misconduct. The Committee's duties, with the help of the Ethics Code, include promotion of ethical norms and values in science and higher education. The CESHE will work on cases of possible research misconduct and alleged disregard for the ethical norms associated with research.

  5. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  6. Occupational Health Problems among Dentists in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vodanović, Marin; Sović, Slavica; Galić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the health status among dentists in Croatia regarding the symptoms of musculoskeletal, dermatological, sight, hearing and neurological disorders. Methods The anonymous online survey was conducted among 506 Croatian dentists. Results It was found that over 78.18% of the surveyed dentists experienced work related pain in upper back, 76.97% of them in lower back. Work-related skin problems were reported by 29.29% of dentists. Vision problems were reported by 46.87% and hearing problems by 19.03% of participants. Neurological disorders were reported by 15.76% of dentists. Conclusion This study is the first to report on the overall health status of Croatian dentists and, unfortunately, it showed undesirable results. Numerous health hazards, increased professional requirements and limited ergonomics in the work environment of Croatian dental practitioners cause various health disorders, and the prevalence of occupational diseases is very high. PMID:28275278

  7. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country--Croatia (DFARS Case 2013-D031) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to add Croatia as a new designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined...

  8. Diversity of currently circulating rabies virus strains in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lojkić, Ivana; Cac, Zeljko; Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Brstilo, Mate; Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad M

    2012-01-01

    Sylvatic rabies has been present in Croatia for more than three decades, with the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as the main reservoir. The present epidemic of sylvatic rabies in Croatia started already in 1977 and in the past ten years the disease has become enzootic in the entire country and thus represents a considerable veterinary and public health threat. A genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus isolates (RABV) from Croatia was performed using panel of 32 selected rabies-positive brain samples from domestic and wild animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Based on the comparison of 367-nucleotide sequences of a conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene (nucleotides 75-441), the phylogenetic analysis revealed a low genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV strains in Croatia. 18 RABV isolates mainly originating from Eastern Croatia clustered with the formerly established Eastern European (EE) lineage, and the rest (14) were identical with the West European (WE) group. Both phylogenetic groups seem to coincide in central regions on both sides along the Save River. A high sequence identity in the N gene of the RABV isolates from neighbouring countries was found.

  9. Reform of health insurance in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Turek, S

    1999-06-01

    After democratic changes in 1990 and the declaration of independence in 1991, Croatia inherited an archaic system of economy, similar to all the other post-communist countries, which had especially negative effects on the health system. Health services were divided into 113 independent offices with their own local rules; they could not truly support the health care system, which gradually stagnated, both organizationally and technologically. Such an administrative system devoured 17.5% of the total funds, and primary care used only 10.3% of this. Despite the costly hospital medicine the entire system was financed with US$300 per citizen. The system was functioning only because of professionalism and enthusiasm of well-educated medical personnel. Such health policy had a negative effect on all levels of the system, with long-term consequences. The new health insurance system instituted a standard of 1,700 insureds per family medicine team, reducing hospital capacities to 3.8 beds per 1,000 citizens for acute illnesses. Computerization of the system makes possible the transparency of accounting income and expenses. In a relatively short period, in spite of the war, and in a complex, socially and ethically delicate area, Croatian Health Insurance Institute has successfully carried out the rationalization and control of spending, without lowering the level of health care or negatively influencing the vital statistics data.

  10. Assessing primary care in Croatia: could it be moved forward?

    PubMed

    Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić; Kovačić, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that countries with strong primary care achieve better health outcomes at lower costs. Therefore, the effort of World Health Organization in promoting primary care as a basic principal of successful health care system is an ongoing process. Although Croatia was recognized as a country with primary care orientation due to the development of health centers and introduction of specialist training of general practitioners, it seems that many health care reforms aimed at better organization of health institutions and decreasing of health care costs did not result with higher primary care orientation. By application of the Primary Care Score instrument in 2014 (Croatia received 11.2 out of 20 possible points), and international comparison performed in 2002, it was concluded that among the eighteen OECD countries Croatia could be categorized as an "intermediate primary care country", obtaining the scores just a bit above the average.

  11. Neonatal birth weight variations between inland and littoral Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Rodin, Urelija; Matanić, Dubravka; Jovancevic, Milivoj

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neonatal birth weight (BW) differences between inland and littoral Croatia, to identify BW groups with most pronounced differences, and possible variations in the rate of BW > or = 4000 g between Sibenik area and the rest of littoral (counties with access to the Adriatic Sea) and inland Croatia. The study included data on 99.42% of 200,740 live births recorded in 37 Croatian maternity hospitals during the 2001-2005 period. Distribution of 500-g BW groups was analyzed irrespective of neonatal sex and gestational age. Differences were found between the inland and littoral parts of Croatia according to distribution of the BW groups of < 2500 g (5.4% vs. 4.4%), 2500-3999 g (84% vs. 80.2%) and > or = 4000 g (10.6% vs. 15.4%) (chi2 = 882; p < 0.001).The highest rate of BW > or = 4000 g was recorded in Sibenik-Knin County (5-year mean 18.32%) and was greater throughout the littoral as compared with inland Croatia (5-year mean 14.99% vs. 9.58%). A shift towards higher BWgroups recorded throughout littoral as compared with inland Croatia supports the hypothesis on variation in anthropologic characteristics in the respective populations to be pronounced as early as at birth. Study results confirmed fetal macrosomia not to be exclusively characteristic of Sibenik-Knin County, since the rate of neonatal BW > or =4000 g was significantly higher in the entire littoral as compared with inland Croatia.

  12. Medical Informatics in Croatia – a Historical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dezelic, Gjuro; Kern, Josipa; Petrovecki, Mladen; Ilakovac, Vesna; Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey of medical informatics (MI) in Croatia is presented from the beginnings in the late sixties of the 20th century to the present time. Described are MI projects, applications in clinical medicine and public health, start and development of MI research and education, beginnings of international cooperation, establishment of the Croatian Society for MI and its membership to EFMI and IMIA. The current status of computerization of the Croatian healthcare system is sketched as well as the present graduate and postgraduate study MI curricula. The information contained in the paper shows that MI in Croatia developed and still develops along with its advancement elsewhere. PMID:24648620

  13. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully.

  14. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  15. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  16. Motivation and Personality of Preservice Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Marusic, Iris; Ivanec, Tea Pavin; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2012-01-01

    The study presents results founded upon the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale validation and the relations between personality traits and motivation for teaching in Croatia. A sample of 374 first-year preservice teachers from three universities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the items comprising the Croatian…

  17. Academic Marginalism in Western Balkans: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajkovic, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on document analysis and in-depth, open-ended interviews with university leaders and government officials in a post-socialist and a recent European Union entrant country, Croatia. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the Croatian academic sector, as well as to unpack the top academic officials'…

  18. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for…

  19. Informed consent in Croatia. A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2014-07-01

    As Croatia makes the transition from one political system and type of economy to another, there are inevitable social and political changes that have a profound affect on the healthcare system. This article charts some of the progress of change with respect to patients' rights and informed consent.

  20. Learning Wellness: A Water Exercise Class in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…

  1. Spreading of West Nile virus infection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbić, Ljubo; Listeš, Eddy; Katić, Sanda; Stevanović, Vladimir; Madić, Josip; Starešina, Vilim; Labrović, Ankica; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2012-10-12

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with rapid global expansion. The virus circulation is confirmed in many countries of Mediterranean Basin and Southern and Central Europe. In our study detection of specific WNV antibodies was performed in horses and cattle sera samples collected from October 2010 to April 2011. Serum samples were randomly taken from different parts of Croatia and tested by IgG and IgM ELISA. Positive serological results were confirmed by virus neutralization assay (VN-assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results showed that WNV antibodies were present in 72 out of 2098 horse sera (3.43%) and 3 of 2695 cattle sera (0.11%). The highest seroprevalence was found in Eastern Croatia in counties next to Hungarian, Serbian and Bosnia and Herzegovinian state borders. In Adriatic part of Croatia positive animals were found only in the westernmost county, near Slovenian and Italian borders. Geographic distribution and number of positive horses indicated that WNV is highly present in Croatia and spreading from East to West. However, positive horses in westernmost part of country indicate possible second origin of spreading. Location of serological positive cattle supports the hypothesis that seropositive cattle could be indicators of high WNV activity in the respective geographic regions.

  2. Broad Strokes of Recovery: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta; Juros, Luka; Vizek-Vidovic, Vlasta

    2004-01-01

    For a long time after the proclamation of independence, Croatia suffered economic stagnation that negatively affected the development of science and higher education. However the turn of the millennium brought higher state investment in science and higher education, and all statistics now show a steady increase in the number of students and…

  3. Bone traumas in late antique populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3r to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar--located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, Strbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar--350 km to the west, is located deep in the territory of the Roman Empire. Numerous historical sources describe barbaric incursions, as well as large battles related to civil wars during the Late Antique period in continental Croatia. Conversely, there is no mention of similar events in the Zadar region. In accordance with these data our analysis tests the hypothesis that the inhabitants of continental Croatia were exposed to greater levels of violence than those living in Zadar. Analysis of bone traumas in the two series shows a similar, relatively high prevalence of long bone fractures in both samples, with a slightly higher frequency recorded in Zadar. Both series exhibit a high frequency of cranial injuries with, once again, higher frequencies recorded in the Zadar series. Additionally, two perimortem cranial fractures (one caused by a sword, the other by a blunt object) were observed in Zadar. Some of the recorded traumas in both samples resulted from accidents, but a number of injuries clearly resulted from intentional violence of lesser intensity. Further multidisciplinary research incorporating osteological, archaeological, and historical analyses is necessary to confirm the results obtained from these samples.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  5. Regional Geomagnetic Field Model for Croatia at 2009.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujić, Eugen; Brkić, Mario; Kovács, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic data of north, east, and vertical components at Croatian repeat stations and ground survey sites, as well as European geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations, were used to obtain a regional geomagnetic model over Croatia at 2009.5 epoch. Different models were derived, depending on input data, and three modelling techniques were used: Taylor Polynomial, Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis, and Spherical Harmonic Analysis. It was derived that the most accurate model over Croatia was the one when only Croatian data were used, and by using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis. Based on Croatian repeat stations' data in the interval 2007.5-2010.5, and a global Enhanced Magnetic Model, it was possible to estimate the crustal field at those sites. It was also done by taking into account the empirical adjustment for long-term external field variations. The higher crustal field values were found at those stations which are on or close to the Adriatic anomaly.

  6. Developing and Implementing an Effective National Security Strategy for Croatia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    documents. The final analysis identifies problems in the insufficient national security system and the lack of political want to efficiently deal with...national security system and the lack of political want to efficiently deal with national security issues. The essay ends with several...Croatia and abroad, and all the political parties used every available means including their lives to achieve all national goals which is obvious from

  7. Comparison of twinning rates for villages in Makarska region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Jadranka; Borić, Matija; Urlić, Natalija; Urlić, Lara

    2013-11-01

    A detailed database on the genealogy of the Makarska region in Croatia has been created. The twinning rate for three villages in the region (Podgora, Tučepi and Brela) were analysed over the period 1870 to 1940 and factors such as mother's age and birth order are discussed. Of the three villages, Podgora was identified as having the highest twinning rate and consequently records for Podgora were examined further to include almost 400 years of historical data (from 1621 to 1950).

  8. Achievements and Perspectives of the Adult Education in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapan, Anita

    Historical development of adult education in Croatia can be identified in seven phases: (1) the beginning of the 20th century and the period between the two World Wars; (2) World War II; (3) period from 1945 to the early 1950s; (4) early 1950s to 1965; (5) period between 1965 and 1980; (6) 1980s; and (7) period after the fall of the Berlin…

  9. SOME INDICATORS OF HEALTH CARE STATUS IN CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world.

  10. Climate Atlas of Croatia 1961-1990, 1971-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninovic, K.

    2009-09-01

    Following the recommendation of the World Meteorological Organisation, each member state National meteorological service is expected to develop a Climate Atlas. For the previous climate period (1931-1960) the area of Croatia was covered by the Climate Atlas of Yugoslavia, published in 1969, and the new Climate Atlas of Croatia 1961-1990, 1971-2000 is published recently. The Climate Atlas comprises maps of the spatial distribution of climatological elements, graphs of the annual course of climatological elements at ten chosen meteorological stations and a textual description of the relevant climate characteristics and their causes. It ends with tables of the mean 30-year monthly, seasonal and annual values of climatological elements at 20 stations representative of the climate diversity of Croatia. Because of the time variability of climatological parameters and the perceived warming in the last decade of the 20th century, the tables have been expanded to include the 1971-2000 climate period. The Atlas is intended to help experts engaged in the study of the effects of climate change to adapt their research and professional work to local climate conditions thus mitigating meteorological risks and contributing to environmental protection and to the social and economic development of the country.

  11. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  12. Analysis of the extraordinary 2011/2012 drought in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindrić, Ksenija; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Herceg-Bulić, Ivana; Mihajlović, Domagoj; Pasarić, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a meteorological analysis of the recent 2011/2012 extreme drought which seriously affected the territory of Croatia. The drought event is put in the historical context by examining its severity in terms of duration, intensity and magnitude. The drought climatology is analysed by employing the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months) for five stations with a secular dataset (1901-2012). The most intense droughts had occurred during the 1920s, 1940s, 1950s and 1990s, as well as in the beginning of the 2010s. The 2011/2012 drought is characterised by extremely long duration in the continental region, with the highest magnitudes since the beginning of the twentieth century. Spatio-temporal evolution of the event is analysed by employing the data from additional 23 stations all over Croatia. The drought had started in February 2011 being intensified later, mainly by the lack of rainfall in November 2011 and March 2012. This happened due to two intense blocking episodes over Europe which resulted in dry northern flows over Croatia. A possible impact of large-scale circulation patterns was also investigated, indicating that the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/Western Russian Teleconnection patterns maintained dry conditions in the period from November 2011 to March 2012.

  13. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia.

  14. Secular trends in monthly heating and cooling demands in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitan, Lidija; Sokol Jurković, Renata

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyzes long-term heating and cooling trends for five locations in Croatia from 1901 to 2008 to assist in the revision of Croatia's heating and cooling energy policy. Trends in monthly heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) were determined for three related temperature threshold values each and analyzed to provide insight into the influence of desired thermal comfort on the extent of changes in energy consumption. Monthly trends in the corresponding number of heating days (HD) and cooling days (CD) were also analyzed. A basic investigation of HDD, HD, CDD, and CD trends proved to be essential to the development of a complete description of important climate-related conditions that impact energy demands associated with heating and cooling. In a few cases, the dependence of the trends on the implemented temperature thresholds was rather pronounced and was reflected in great spatial and temporal variations in monthly trends. The statistical significance of the detected monthly trends illustrated a diverse range of possible impacts of climate changes on heating and cooling energy consumption both across and within three main climate regions in Croatia (continental, mountainous, and maritime). It is confirmed that the applied monthly scale for analyses is suitable for assessing heating and cooling practices.

  15. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, and Macedonia authorized... certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina...-sanctions Obligors”) organized and headquartered in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia,...

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Adult Education Institutional Network in Croatia and Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    The Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia both became independent states in 1991 after separating from the former Yugoslavia. Despite their common origin, Croatia and Slovenia have very different cultures and traditions, different systems of education, and very different systems of adult education. Most of the differences between the two…

  17. 78 FR 70480 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country-Croatia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Croatia as a new designated country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement... Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country--Croatia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Orders-- Commercial Items, and 52.213-4, Terms and Conditions--Simplified Acquisitions (Other...

  18. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  19. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  20. Three new species of eriophyoid mites from grass hosts in Croatia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of grass-feeding eriophyid mites are described from Croatia: Acaralox croatiae n. sp., inhabiting purple moorgrass, Molinia coerulea (L.) Moench; Aculodes festucae n. sp., inhabiting tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; and Aculodes sylvatici n. sp., inhabiting false brome, Br...

  1. Education in Countries in Transition Facing Globalization--A Case Study Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaus, Ivo; Slaus-Kokotovic, Andrea; Morovic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The status of the educational system of Croatia is presented and several human development indicators for Croatia are compared with those of other countries in transition. The role of education in facing globalisation and in assuring sustainable development is analysed. The aims of various levels of education: primary, secondary and higher…

  2. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context

    PubMed Central

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening. PMID:26327756

  4. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-08-28

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening.

  5. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  6. Autoimmune joint diseases in Late Medieval skeletal sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Rajić Sikanjić, Petra; Vlak, Dejana

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 25 skeletons from Late Medieval cemetery Uzdolje-Grablje near Knin, Croatia, revealed three cases of systematic pathological changes to joints. Observed pathological lesions were examined macroscopically and radiologically and compared to the available paleopathological standards in order to formulate a differential diagnosis. In all three cases observed changes were most consistent with autoimmune joint diseases including ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Based on published clinical studies, we suggest that the high prevalence of autoimmune diseases in our skeletal sample stems from the genetic basis of the autoimmunity, and that three individuals describe here are possibly closely related.

  7. Reproductive rights and the state in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Skrabalo, Marina; Subotic, Jelena

    2002-02-01

    The global reproductive rights movement arose in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a challenge to the population control paradigm that has dominated family planning policy for almost half a century. The essence of the challenge is to place women into the center of population discussions as subjects, not objects of policy, and to reorient family planning and health programs toward meeting the broad reproductive health needs of individuals, rather than the narrow population control objectives of states. Reproductive rights advocates argue that the use of family planning programs for developmentalist-oriented population control objectives is illegimate, and inevitably relegates women to the status of depersonalized policy "targets". The cases of Croatia and Serbia, the two dominant partners in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, offer interesting twists on these reproductive rights issues. In Croatia and Serbia, unlike in many nations, the governments are deliberately seeking to increase rather than decrease fertility levels. Moreover, the objective concerns identity politics, more so than development: the governments have encouraged increased fertility to safeguard the survival of their nations and to strengthen national power amidst threatening internal and external environments of ethnic conflict. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of pro-natalist fertility policy in Croatia and Serbia. We do so with a view to explaining why, despite similarities, the two have followed divergent paths. While reproductive rights violations have occurred in both nations, they have been markedly higher in Serbia than Croatia. To explain this divergence we look at a series of sociopolitical factors, including the space available for groups to mobilize in each political system; the degree of nationalistic extremism present in the discourse of central political leaders; and perceptions of threats and opportunities in external geopolitical environments. In conducting this

  8. Essential oil composition of Prasium majus from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Suste, Marko; Males, Zeljan; Pilepić, Kroata Hazler

    2012-07-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Prasium majus L., collected during two years in Croatia, were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-two compounds were identified, representing 90.3-91.8% of the total oils. The major constituents in both samples were fatty acids (particularly hexadecanoic acid and (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid), lower aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids (major ones oct-1-en-3-ol and (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal) and phenylpropane derivatives (e.g. eugenol). Beta-Caryophyllene was the most abundant terpene and (E)-beta-ionone was the major norisoprenoid.

  9. First report of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Mazzariol, Annarita; Plečko, Vanda; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Barl, Petra; Vraneš, Jasmina; Cornaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    In February 2011, a 78-year-old male patient was admitted to Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb with subdural haematoma. Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was isolated. PCR revealed the presence of bla(KPC), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) genes. Sequencing of bla(KPC) gene identified K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 beta-lactamase. The strain belonged to ST37 clone by multilocus sequence typing. Infection control efforts limited the spread of KPC-producing clone of K. pneumoniae in our hospital so far. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Croatia.

  10. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate

    PubMed Central

    VUČETIĆ, V.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop–weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb–Maksimir station covering the period 1949–2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years. Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO2 conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949–2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO2 concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes

  11. Incidence of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Croatia: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, Dragutin; Demarin, Vida; Dikanović, Marinko; Lusić, Ivo; Tuskan-Mohar, Lidija; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Mihaljević, Ivan; Kadojić, Mira; Bitunjac, Milan; Vranjes, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219.65, Split 195.82. Incidence rate of stroke for the Republic of Croatia is 251.39. The following incidence rates of TIA, expressed at population of 100,000, have been established: Zagreb 87.15, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 156.53, Rijeka 90.11, Split 59.10. Incidence rate of TIA for the Republic of Croatia is 100.55. In the continental part of Croatia (Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod) incidence rate of stroke is higher by 45%, while incidence rate of TIA is higher by 82% than in the coastal part of Croatia, probably due to different lifestyle and environmental factors. The study has shown relatively high incidence rates of acute CVD (stroke and TIA) in the Republic of Croatia, which proves that CVD are a great public health problem.

  12. Presentation of DMFT/dmft Index in Croatia and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Tomislav; Vukres, Vlasta Dečković; Rotim, Željko; Zore, Irina Filipović

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Dental caries is the most common oral disease affecting all age groups and a major cause of tooth loss. Although a decrease in the prevalence of dental caries has been marked across the globe, in many countries it has remained a major oral-health problem. Aim The objective of this paper was to show the trends in the DMFT/dmft index ​​in Croatia, compare it with European countries and present further courses of action oriented towards promotion of oral health and decrease in caries prevalence. Material and Methods The DMFT index databases have been generated based on online database searches for the period from 1985 to 2015. Results Croatia is one of European countries with a high DMFT index relating to 12-year old children (4.18). The experience of countries with a low DMFT index has shown that dental caries can be controlled through education and prevention activities, which eventually lead to diminished financial costs, at individual and national level, improving overall health and quality of life. Conclusion Tracking and monitoring of oral health i.e. dental caries need to be improved in terms of creation of data base systems on the prevalence of dental caries, determining multi-factorial causes of its occurrence and with respect to the implementation of national oral-health prevention programs. PMID:27688411

  13. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  14. Homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Cengija, Morana; Cuculic, Drazen; Petaros, Anja; Sosa, Ivan; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia from 1986-2009 relying on autopsy reports of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, Rijeka and police records. A total of 17 cases involving 19 victims were identified. The perpetrators were most often men (82%), living in a spousal relationship with the victim. In 76.5% cases, suicide was committed immediately after homicide, and the same mean (most often an illegal firearm) was used for both. After examining the belongings of those involved in homicide-suicides, two factors differentiated our study from others, i.e. more victims and perpetrators were from the lower socioeconomic class and explosives were used in two homicide-suicide (12%) cases. The greater frequency of explosive used in homicide-suicide events may be a result of factors associated with the recent war fought in Croatia. These data prove the influence of sociological, historical and also political factors on the characteristics of a rare event such as homicide-suicide.

  15. First molecular analysis of West Nile virus during the 2013 outbreak in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kurolt, Ivan C; Krajinović, Vladimir; Topić, Antea; Kuzman, Ilija; Baršić, Bruno; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-08-30

    This is the second subsequent year of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) outbreak in Croatia. Between July and October 2013, 22 patients presented with symptoms of WNND: all with meningitis and 18 additionally with encephalitis. In contrast to 2012, where six autochthonous infections were confirmed in eastern Croatia, the majority of this year's cases occurred in and around the city of Zagreb, where no West Nile virus infections have been observed before. Viral RNA was recovered from two patients and phylogenetic analyses revealed West Nile virus lineage 2. This represents the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the circulating West Nile virus strain in Croatia.

  16. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  17. Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    West, Bernadette; Abatemarco, Diane; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Zec, Vezna; Russo, Andrea; Milic, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international public health partnership formed in 2001 we assessed the impact of Project Northland in Croatia--an adolescent alcohol school-based prevention intervention implemented in Split--on students. The curriculum was implemented in 13 randomly selected schools with another 13 schools serving as controls. The evaluation included quantitative and qualitative methods, using pre/post-tests to compare intervention and controls and follow-up focus groups with parents and teachers. Quantitative data showed the intervention was more successful in changing attitudes in the first two years, but had less impact on older students. Qualitative data suggest benefits from the program overall. Given the intervention was successful in the earlier grades it should be initiated earlier to have a greater impact. Challenges and lessons learned are offered.

  18. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers.

  19. First Epigravettian ceramic figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500-15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000-27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic.

  20. Impact of heat waves on mortality in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat waves present an increased risk, but in very long heat waves the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.

  1. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    PubMed

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  2. [The influence of the economic recession on health care labor market in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor

    2010-01-01

    Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.

  3. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  4. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  5. Introduction of participatory conservation in Croatia, residents' perceptions: a case study from the Istrian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  6. The Quality of Gymnasium Education in the Banal Croatia in the Era of Neoabsolutism (1854-1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bošnjak, Arijana Kolak

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an attempt to increase the quality of education in the Banal Croatia by analysing the reports sent to the Ministry of Religion and Education in Vienna by secondary school supervisor for the Banal Croatia Anton Jarc as well as the existing scholarly literature. The mentioned attempt was based on a reform of the…

  7. First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500–15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000–27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic. PMID:22848495

  8. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  9. Mercury in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) organs in Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the concentrations of total mercury were analyzed in the pheasant organs (liver, kidney, brain and muscle) that live freely in an area that was exposed to elevated levels of mercury as a result of industrial activity (mercury contaminated natural gas production and processing which began in 1980). The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in pheasant organs in Podravina, Croatia were 0.0004-0.024, 0.0001-0.034, 0.0002-0.016 and 0.0001-0.025 μg/g for liver, kidney, brain, and muscle, respectively. Results of these studies confirms that in the study area in the observed period there was no significant mercury contamination which can be linked to anthropogenic activities (hydrocarbon production)‥ On the contrary, systematic measurements demonstrate a small but constant (barely noticeable) decline in mercury concentrations in pheasant's organs. Primarily, this is the result of the significant improvement in the technological process which involves the removal of mercury from the natural gas that was designed and implemented in 1993. However, due to the need for reliable control of mercury contaminated natural gas production and the importance for better understanding of long-term exposure to low levels of mercury, and assessment of their possible harmful effects on the environment, human and animal health, research will be continued.

  10. Bone porosity and longevity in early medieval Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Zekić Tomaš, Sandra; Anterić, Ivana; Bašić, Zeljana

    2014-03-01

    Porosity of the skull and skeletal remains, especially of the orbital roof, are one of the most frequent pathological findings on ancient human skeletal remains. There are several presumed causes of this condition and anthropologists consider skull porosities as a marker of physical and nutritional stress. A total of 115 graves were discovered at the early-medieval graveyard near Zadar (Croatia) that contained 128 partially preserved skeletons. Average estimated age at death was 37.2 ± 12.6 years for men, 31.9 ± 13.9 for women, and 5.3 ± 3.6 years for subadults. Pathological bone porosity was analysed. Cribra orbitalia was observed on 21 skulls (28.7%), signs of temporal porosity were noticed on six skulls and signs of subperiosteal bleeding on three skulls. Nineteen skulls had bone porosities in other areas. There was a significant difference (p = 0.039) in achieved age of adults with and without cribra orbitalia as those with cribra orbitalia lived on average 8.1 years longer. The bone porosity was probably caused by malnutrition that might have had a beneficial effect on longevity of adults, similar to effects of restricted food intake on extending lifespan through epigenetic signatures influencing gene expression.

  11. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. The newest findings on Red Lake (Dinaric karst of Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Ivo; Jukić, Branimir

    2014-05-01

    Red Lake in the Dinaric karst (Croatia) is of the deepest karst lakes in the world. Even so, through the history of Red Lake's research there were many controversies in the conclusions and the theories concerning its genesis, geomorphology and hydrology. This work has for a goal to present the newest research results won with the help of emerging technologies based on LiDAR and SoNAR methods. The measurements took place during September 2013. New generation of equipment developed to advance the geoscientific research has been deployed during the field work and the gathered data enabled the analysis which led to a new understanding of the lake's morphology. Some of the results confirmed already known and well documented features of Red Lake whereas others disputed widely accepted assumptions in the scientific community and general public. The objective of this paper is also groundwork for further research in the field of karst hydrology and a new insight on local and regional scale.

  13. Oral vaccination against swine erysipelas--field experiences in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C R; Bilkei, G

    2006-01-01

    In order to prove the effects of mass application of oral erysipelas vaccine via drinking water, in a farrow-to-finish production unit in Croatia, the growing-finishing animals were divided into 3 groups and treated as follows:--Group 1 (n=199) was vaccinated intramuscularly against swine erysipelas at 1 week and 3 weeks after arrival in the growing-finishing facility with a swine erysipelas bacterin.--Group 2 (n=199) were vaccinated at the same time with an avirulent culture of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae oral vaccine through drinking water.--Group 3 (n=200) was not vaccinated. Animals with clinical signs of swine erysipelas, chronic progressive arthritis at slaughter, mortality, average daily weight gain during the growing-finishing phase were evaluated. None of the pigs in the groups 1 and 2 showed clinical signs typical for acute swine erysipelas. Twenty-four of the pigs (12 %) in group 3 had pyrexia and skin lesions typical for swine erysipelas. Fifteen pigs in group 1, 13 pigs in group 2, and 63 pigs in group 3 had chronic progressive arthritis (group 1 and 2 vs. group 3: P < 0.01). No significant differences in mortality were recorded between the groups. Group 1 and 2 had higher (P < 0.05) average daily weight gains compared with the group 3.

  14. Translation of evidence-based tobacco use prevention programming in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skara, Silvana; Kovacic, Luka; Civljak, Marta; Voncina, Luka

    2008-09-01

    Croatia faces a major threat of smoking-related health burdens given the monumental changes this newly formed country has undergone in the past 15 years because of its postcommunist democratic and economic transitions and the destructive 1991-1995 war with Serbia. This article provides information on Croatia's general background, current smoking prevalence and attitudes, and current evidence-based smoking prevention efforts. Furthermore, various cultural and contextual conditions within Croatia that facilitate or impede smoking prevention research utilization are discussed. Finally, it is concluded that new research is needed that continues to build on comprehensive research-tested multicomponent prevention initiatives utilizing school-, family-, community-, and mass media-based delivery modalities, which specifically focus on the social influences of smoking.

  15. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  16. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling.

    PubMed

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  17. The analysis of tobacco consumption in Croatia--are we successfully facing the epidemic?

    PubMed

    Padjen, Ivan; Dabić, Marina; Glivetić, Tatjana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Biočina-Lukenda, Dolores; Lukenda, Josip

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to analyse several health and economically related indicators of tobacco consumption: smoking prevalence, standardized death rates (SDRs) from lung cancer and the proportion of GDP spent on tobacco in Croatia and other transitional countries--the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania, and Bulgaria. The overall smoking prevalence in Croatia decreased by 5.2% during 1994-2005, more among females (-9.9%) than males (-0.3%). There is no significant difference in the smoking prevalence between Croatia (27.4%) and other countries. However, 33.8% of Croatian males smoked during 2002-2005, more than in Romania and the Czech Republic, and less than in Hungary and Poland. The prevalence of female smoking (21.7%) in Croatia is similar to the female smoking prevalence in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, but male smoking is predominant in all countries. The proportion of smokers among youth is above 20% and it is the highest in the Czech Republic (29.7%), followed by Hungary (26.7%), Slovenia (24.9%), Croatia (24.1%), and Poland (21.5%). The proportion of smokers among girls is higher than among boys in Slovenia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Croatia, contrary to Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Poland where boys smoke slightly more. There is no significant difference between the prevalence of smoking among girls in Croatia and Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, and Slovakia. According to the SDR from lung cancer in males (70.3/100,000), Croatia is ranked high assuming the 3rd place, after Hungary (99.7) and Poland (72.0). With a SDR of 15.9/100,000 for females, Croatia is ranked slightly better--5th place. Tobacco consumption continues to be a major public health problem in transitional countries. Croatia conducted several campaigns and programmes in the past. However, results reveal that current anti-tobacco strategies are ineffective in reducing

  18. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  19. Epidemiological patterns of tuberculosis in Croatia in the period 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Jurcev-Savicević, Anamarija; Katalinić-Janković, Vera; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Simunović, Aleksandar; Vidić, Dordija; Gunjaca, Jerko; Obrovac, Mihaela

    2011-06-01

    The last comprehensive publication on tuberculosis in Croatia and the earliest impact of war, besides the yearly routine reports, was done in 1996 in Croatian. We were, therefore, interested to explore incidence trends and to highlight the early post-war tuberculosis epidemiological patterns in the next ten years period (1996-2005). A retrospective analysis of epidemiological data on all registered tuberculosis cases in Croatia searching the databases of 21 Croatian Public Health Institutes and the National Tuberculosis Registry was made. During the study period, the total tuberculosis incidence rates in Croatia dropped from 45 to 25.8/100 000 inhabitants. The average highest age-specific rates were recorded in the age group > or = 65 years being in decrease in all age groups. Paediatric cases (0-14 years) represented 4.5% of all cases. Tuberculosis cases among males were recorded in 64% cases, and 83.6% were indigenous population. Tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 67.7% cases. A low proportion of drug resistance (3.3%) was recorded. During 1985-2005, 56 tuberculosis cases among 242 AIDS cases were reported. Tuberculosis mortality showed a decreasing trend (p < 0.001). However, tuberculosis has still had the highest mortality rates among infectious diseases in Croatia. Despite the War chain of events and tuberculosis programmatic changes, tuberculosis incidence rates in Croatia have been decreasing but they are still far away from national target, incidence rate of 10/100 000 declared in 1998 and much higher than in European Union and Western Europe. Tuberculosis among children, resistance to tuberculosis drugs and HIV prevalence, significant problems in many European countries, have not caused problems in tuberculosis control in Croatia. This favourable epidemiological situation must be kept and improved through strengthened tuberculosis control measures.

  20. Dew and rain water collection in the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk, I.

    2009-06-01

    Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment but can exploit a free, clean (outside urban/industrial zones) and inexhaustible source of water. This study investigates the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. In addition, we evaluate the utility of transforming abandoned roof rain collectors ("impluviums") to collect dew water too. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 and October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m 2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud cover, windspeed and direction). Maximum yields were 0.41 mm in Zadar and 0.6 mm in Komiža. The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). Because of its physical setting, Komiža represents a poor location for dew collection. However, during the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide useful supplementary water, especially during the dry season. As an example, the 1300 m 2 impluvium at Pod\\vspilje near Komiža could provide, in addition to rain water, 14,000 L dew water per year.

  1. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  2. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  3. Trends in precipitation indices in Croatia, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić-Čapka, Marjana; Cindrić, Ksenija; Pasarić, Zoran

    2015-07-01

    Precipitation data from the period 1961-2010 and from a dense rain-gauge network over Croatia is analysed for spatial characteristics of trends in precipitation amounts and precipitation indices. Besides large spatial variability, the area is characterized by large temporal (seasonal) variability. Thus, analysis is performed on annual and seasonal scales over seven predefined subregions. Ten precipitation indices are selected to assess the intensity and frequency of extreme events as well as their contribution to annual and seasonal precipitation changes. The results reveal that the changes in annual and seasonal amounts are predominantly weak. A significant trend is detected only for annual amounts (negative) in the mountainous region and for summer (negative) in the mountainous littoral, mountainous region and central hinterland. A significant positive trend for autumn appears in eastern mainland. Negative trends in summer are associated with a decrease in frequency of moderate wet days, in maximal 1- and 5-day precipitation and in an increase in light precipitation. A negative annual trend is mainly caused by a decrease in frequency of very wet days and their contribution to the total precipitation. A positive autumn trend is associated with more very wet days and an increase of their contribution to the total precipitation as well as an increase in maximal 1- and 5-day precipitation. This study complements the existing analysis of five Croatian secular data series of extreme precipitation indices by involving the whole precipitation dataset since the mid-twentieth century and fills the gap present in the trend assessment of precipitation trends in Mediterranean and Europe.

  4. The Gap between the Knowledge and Current Practices--A Case of Tobacco Control Programs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Skara, Silvana; Oresković, Stipe

    2015-09-01

    Despite the availability of numerous evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programs, many countries are still not implementing these research-proven programs. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the extent to which evidence-based smoking control programs have been implemented in Croatia over the last two decades. Data from the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group, which are readily available worldwide, were used as criteria to evaluate whether effective, evidence-based programs have been implemented in Croatia. According to our findings, the most effective behavioral and pharmacological smoking cessation interventions have thus far been underutilized in Croatia. In addition, some interventions that have been continuously implemented in Croatia--such as using self-help materials, school-based programs and the celebration of World No Tobacco Day--have only small, short-term beneficial effects according to the Cochrane reviews. However, Croatia is a party to the World health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and therefore has effective national legislation on tobacco control. Croatia should develop and implement programs that integrate the existing high-quality empirical evidence on the effectiveness of various behavioral, pharmacological, and social interventions for smoking prevention and cessation. This programming should become a part of a continuous national strategy, and should be implemented throughout all of Croatia.

  5. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stipančić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Požgaj Šepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundžić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). Methods We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100 000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. Results The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100 000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100 000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100 000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.3% in southern Croatia. Conclusion Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors. PMID:22522992

  6. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  7. Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Croatia: species richness, distribution and relationship to surrounding countries.

    PubMed

    Ivković, Marija; Kúdela, Matuš; Kúdelová, Tatiana

    2016-05-05

    All records of blackflies (Simuliidae) from the territory of Croatia are summarized, including previously unpublished data. The blackfly fauna of Croatia consists of 28 species. Simulium (Nevermannia) angustitarse (Lundström), Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum (Rubtsov) complex, Simulium (Nevermannia) lundstromi (Enderlein), Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum Macquart complex, Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti) complex, Simulium paraequinum Puri and Simulium pseudequinum Séguy are reported for the first time from Croatia. Information related to the ecoregions, in which species were found and specific species traits are given. Genus Prosimulium Roubaud is represented by one species only. Genus Simulium Latreille is represented by 27 species in six subgenera, with subgenus Simulium Latreille s. str. being most species rich (13 species) and subgenera Boophthora Enderlein and  Trichodagmia Enderlein represented each by only one species. Compared to the neighboring countries, the Croatian species assemblage is most similar to the fauna of Slovenia and least similar to that of Italy. The relatively low number of species, presence of several species complexes and unclear identity of other species show that further research of blackflies in Croatia is needed.

  8. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  9. Hrvatska pred vratima privatne televizije (Croatia on the Threshold of Private Television).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkovic, Damir

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Croatian government bill on telecommunications permitting the founding of private radio/television stations. Notes that 10 TV stations have been operating (illegally). States that the greatest problem facing private television is monetary. Notes that foreign investment will not be attracted to Croatia because of small population, a…

  10. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  11. [General aspects of population reproduction in the Socialist Republic of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Wertheimer-baletic, A

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a social and historical review of population growth in Yugoslavia. Aspects of population growth unique to a Marxist society are identified. Using Croatia as an example of a region with a low birth rate, the author discusses fertility, mortality, and migration as they affect overall population growth. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  12. Reflections on a Visit to the Union of the Blind of Croatia, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt; Hanke, Peter

    The paper reports a visit to the Union of the Blind in Croatia, an organization serving the needs of 4,500 blind individuals in this part of Yugoslavia. Briefly considered are personnel, financial support, and services (such as braille and talking book production). A separate section describes the organization's library, recorded and braille…

  13. [History of gynecology and perinatology in Croatia. Midwifery. Clinics and hospitals in Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, A

    1999-03-01

    The development of obstetrics in Croatia and the formation of unique discipline of obstetrics and gynecology in Croatia in first ten years of 20th century are presented. The midwifery is mentioned in Croatia for the first time in Dubrovnik in 14th century. The "protomedicus" from Varazdin Johan Baptist Lalangue in 1777 has published the booklet "Brevis institutio de re obstetritia". First public school of midwifery was founded in Zadar on 1820 and the second one in Zagreb in 1877. In Zadar, Ante Kuzmanić, "magister obstetritiae et chirurgiae" published a short textbook "Sixty lessons from midwifery for midwifes", thereafter in 1908 Nikola Lalich "Book for midwifes". In Zagreb, Antun Lobmayer published in 1877 "The midwifery". Gynecology was developing in the second half of 19th century as a part of surgery. On break-time from 19th to 20th century rose the unique medical profession obstetrics and gynecology. In Croatia the unique discipline established Dr Franjo Durst, since he was in 1905 installed for the first head of Royal Country Maternity Hospital in Ilica street and thereafter in 1921 for the first head and university professor of Royal University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Petrova street. The evolution of gynecology and obstetrics, respective of perinatology, during last 30 years, in the Zagreb in departments of clinical hospitals "Clinical Hospital Center", "Sestre Milosrdnice", "Merkur" and "Sv. Duh" is presented.

  14. Introduction of Digital Storytelling in Preschool Education: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preradovic, Nives Mikelic; Lesin, Gordana; Boras, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Our case study from Croatia showed the benefits of digital storytelling in a preschool as a basis for the formal ICT education. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between children aged 6-7 who learned mathematics by traditional storytelling compared to those learning through digital storytelling. The experimental group that…

  15. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  16. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  17. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  18. Investigating Parents' Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikelic Preradovic, Nives; Lešin, Gordana; Šagud, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of parents in Croatia towards advantages and disadvantages of computer use in general as well as their children's computer use and to reveal parents' concerns and opinions about digital technology (DT) education in kindergarten. The paper reports on research findings from one of the large public…

  19. Young People in Croatia in Times of Crisis and Some Remarks about Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrnjaus, Kornelija; Vrcelj, Sofija; Zlokovic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the youth as a research phenomenon and present the current position of young people in the Croatian society. The authors exhibit interesting results of a recent study of youth in Croatia and present the results of their research conducted among Croatian students aiming to explore the attitudes of young people and…

  20. A Language Academy by Any Other Name(s): The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Keith; Peti-Stantic, Anita

    2011-01-01

    There are three main institutions in Croatia today that are actively engaged in language management activities on the national level: The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, The Council for the Norms of the Croatian Standard Language, and the Institute for the Croatian Language and Linguistics. Their efforts are focused on establishing the…

  1. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  2. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.

  3. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    PubMed

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping.

  4. Creating an Intercultural Learning Opportunity: Zagreb, Croatia and Plattsburgh, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountcastle, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 I embarked on a teaching experiment in which I joined an online SUNY-Plattsburgh class taking my Anthropology of Human Rights course with a conventional class at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where I was a visiting professor teaching the same course. My motivations were several, but prominent among them was to test the…

  5. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  6. Cultural Capital--A Shift in Perspective: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Data for Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzic, Saša; Gregurovic, Margareta; Košutic, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Using PISA 2009 data for Croatia, this paper addresses the relationship between socio-economic background, cultural capital and educational attainment. Following Bourdieu, we emphasized the importance of interpreting cultural capital effects as effects of family habitus. The results indicated that the material and the relational dimension of…

  7. Building a Team of Passionate Callers to Enrich Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojsic, Jasenka; Magzan, Masa

    2010-01-01

    This article is about a group of eight people joined by a common idea--a strong call to enrich education in Croatia so that it motivates leadership and empowers children. Through use of philosophy and methodology of Appreciative Inquiry, this informal group of people has gradually developed into the core team of a potential national movement.…

  8. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  9. Crveno jezero - the biggest sinkhole in Dinaric Karst (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2012-04-01

    fascinating and has been measured on a number of occasions. Valuable and interesting data about the lake depth, as presented by academician Milivoj Petrik in 1955, show that the lake is about 250 meters deep, which discouraged any attempts to dive to the bottom of the lake. During the 5th International Congress of Speleology held in Stuttgart in Germany, Croatian cavers and speleologists have tried to add the Red Lake to the list of deepest pits in the world, as its real depth amounted to 518 meters at the time. However, the response of the documentation committee was that the depth had not been duly documented, that no man has been at such depth etc., although in reality it is a real pit one half of which is filled with water. In late 1970's and early 1980's the speleodiving activities rapidly gathered momentum in all parts of the world and it is in this period that deepest dives were made at the source called Fontaine de Vaucluse. At that time, a special underwater vehicle, the so called "Speleonaut", attained (without crew) the depth of 315 meters. Similar vehicle called Hyball descended down to the depth of 165 meters in Hranicke propasti in Czech Republic. These speleological structures are therefore considered as sufficiently documented and, as such, they have been added to the list of the world's deepest water structures. In 1980's speleodiving has became an increasingly popular cave exploration method in Croatia. Thus, the decision was made to contact the world's best speleodivers and invite them to investigate the Red Lake. In 1981, during their stay in the USA, Dr. Mladen Garašić contacted Mr. Jochan Hassenmayer who was at that time the best speleodiver of the world. However, because of political climate that prevailed in that period, Mr. Hassenmayer finally decided not to come to our country. In an unfortunate turn of events, this diver was later affected with a permanent disability. In the course of 1989 and 1990, Dr. Garašić established contact with Mr. Sheck

  10. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja

    2015-04-01

    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  11. Modelling soil properties in a crop field located in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Millan, Mesic; Percin, Aleksandra; Zgorelec, Zeljka

    2016-04-01

    Development of tillage activities had negative effects on soil quality as destruction of soil horizons, compacting and aggregates destruction, increasing soil erosion and loss of organic matter. For a better management in order to mitigate the effects of intensive soil management in land degradation it is fundamental to map the spatial distribution of soil properties (Brevik et al., 2016). The understanding the distribution of the variables in space is very important for a sustainable management, in order to identify areas that need a potential intervention and decrease the economic losses (Galiati et al., 2016). The objective of this work is study the spatial distribution of some topsoil properties as clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand, coarse sand, penetration resistance, moisture and organic matter in a crop field located in Croatia. A grid with 275x25 (625 m2) was designed and a total of 48 samples were collected. Previous to data modelling, data normality was checked using the Shapiro wilk-test. As in previous cases (Pereira et al., 2015), data did not followed the normal distribution, even after a logarithmic (Log), square-root, and box cox transformation. Thus, for modeling proposes, we used the log transformed data, since was the closest to the normality. In order to identify groups among the variables we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), based on the correlation matrix. On average clay content was 15.47% (±3.23), fine silt 24.24% (±4.08), coarse silt 35.34% (±3.12), fine sand 20.93% (±4.68), coarse sand 4.02% (±1.69), penetration resistance 0.66 MPa (±0.28), organic matter 1.51% (±0.25) and soil moisture 32.04% (±3.27). The results showed that the PCA identified three factors explained at least one of the variables. The first factor had high positive loadings in soil clay, fine silt and organic matter and a high negative loading in fine sand. The second factor had high positive loadings in coarse sand and moisture and a high

  12. Karst and Caves in Post orogenetic carbonate breccias in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2009-04-01

    In Croatian karst area there are several places where post orogenetic carbonate breccias are present. Coarse carbonate clastics of Lika, Velebit, Mala Kapela and Hrvatsko Primorje were first considered and described as a facies of the Paleogene Promina beds. However, because of their indistinct relation or sporadically mutual connections as well as the great difference in composition, were the reasons for the introduction of the term «Jelar beds». Their genesis is later connected with significant tectonic disturbances (inverse faulting and overthrusting), followed by younger predominantly vertical faults. Promina beds found in Ravni Kotari and Mt. Promina area, as well as Jelar bed areas, are at all times in transgressive contact with older beds (carbonate clastics estimated to date from Palaeogene -Neogene). Karstification in these beds is very intensive. Additionally, spring of river Gacka (length of third sinking river in the World), is situated in Jelar beds area, and river Zrmanja is partly breaking through Promina beds. Jelar carbonate breccias is present in Northern and Southern Velebit mountain. Maybe their genesis is connected with glaciation too, but the most important is that these rocks are very soluble. In an area of approx. 25 km2 on North Velebit Mt. more than 400 caves were discovered and explored. The systems Lukina jama - Trojama (-1392 m), Slovacka jama (-1301 m) and Velebita - Dva javora (-1026 m) are the deepest caves in Croatia. Furthermore, significant depth was reached at Meduza (-679 m), Patkov gust (-553 m), Ledena jama (-536 m) and Jama Olimp (-531 m). Theses caves are really vertical and inner vertical step in Valeria (518 me) is the deepest in the World, and outer vertical step in Patkov Gust (553 me) is the second vertical entrance in the World. All these caves are located in post or carbonate Jelar breccias. In an area of approx 30 km2 on South Velebit Mt. There are more than 300 caves discovered and explored. Well known Cerova

  13. Usage of Alternative, Environmentally Acceptable Materials—Experience from Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišić, I.; Zagvozda, M.; Dimter, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concept of sustainability should be the main guiding principle in the construction industry today. It mandates conservation of natural resources and thus lower impact on the environment. In road construction, part of construction industry that consumes largest quantities of natural materials, sustainable building and maintenance of roads is possible trough application of secondary materials. Usage of industrial and construction waste presents energy, ecologically and financially effective alternative. Republic of Croatia, even as a new member of the European Union, still lags behind the well-established practices of the application of alternative materials in different European countries. The reasons for this can be found in the current legal and technical regulations for alternative materials. In this paper, the existing regulations for alternative materials and the impact they have on the application of these materials in practice in the region of eastern Croatia will be shown.

  14. Freshwater and brackish bryozoan species of Croatia (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata) and their genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Novosel, Maja; Koletić, Nikola

    2015-10-15

    Freshwater and brackish species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata class. Twelve species of bryozoans were recorded and morphologically determined at eight locations in the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin in Croatia. Twelve species of Bryozoa have been listed in the taxonomic index for Croatia (Conopeum seurati, Lophopus crystallinus Paludicella articulata, Cristatella mucedo, Fredericella sultana, Hyalinella punctata, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella emarginata, Plumatella fruticosa, Plumatella fungosa, Plumatella geimermassardi and Plumatella repens). For the purposes of gene identification of recorded species, molecular markers for nuclear 18S and 28S genes, ITS2 region and mitochondrial COI gene were amplified. Genetic identifications of morphologically determined bryozoan species were confirmed using highly similar sequences local alignment analysis. Proliferation of freshwater bryozoan species over long distances with the help of the vector animals was confirmed by defining haplotypes on the base of 18S, 28S and ITS2 sequences associated with the Black Sea-Mediterranean waterfowl flyway.

  15. Sellar Region Surgery in Croatia in the First Half of 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović Ferenčić, Stella; Gnjidić, Živko

    2006-01-01

    We reconstructed the historical development of surgical approaches to the pituitary gland, which were used in Croatia in the first half of the 20th century, on the basis of earliest clinical case reports and descriptions of initial surgical attempts. The first published case report on surgical treatment of acromegaly was described, as well as the review of 11 patients with pituitary disease admitted to the Ophthalmology Clinic in Zagreb in the period 1925-1927. The earliest 5 reports on pituitary surgery dating from 1925 were analyzed to reveal the circumstances that led to the development of transsphenoidal approach as a method of choice in Croatia, when this technique was becoming obsolete in other parts of the world. Frequent modifications of surgical approaches to sellar region have been shown a suitable historical-medical model for analysis of changes in surgical trends. PMID:16625698

  16. The rescue of Jewish physicians in the independent state of Croatia (NDH), 1941-1945.

    PubMed

    Gitman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Despite the murder of three-fourths of Croatia's Jews, Croatian doctors, representatives of the Ministry of Health, and other government figures saved 142 Jewish physicians by mobilizing them for a mission to alleviate endemic syphilis in Bosnia. Twenty-seven others were recruited into the Home Guard. Along with members of their families, these Jews were granted "Aryan rights." In 1942 some began defecting to the partisans; others followed after the capitulation of Italy in 1943. Many died in battle, succumbed to typhus, or were murdered by the Nazis, the Croatian fascist Ustae, or the Serbian nationalist etniks. But the story recounted below shows how much better they fared than the Jewish population generally: sixty-two percent survived, thanks to courageous efforts by Croatian civilians and officials. Their rescue demonstrates both that popular attitudes influenced events in Yugoslavia, and that common stereotypes of Croatia during the war should be reconsidered.

  17. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology among health care professionals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shields, J; Erdal, K; Skrinjaric, J; Majic, G

    1999-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptomatology was found in 22 of 25 health care professionals working in postwar Croatia. Assessment of exposure to war trauma and of the subjective impact of this exposure found the former more predictive of post-traumatic stress. Results suggest that the situations faced by health care professionals in war and postwar environments may be considered independent traumatic stressors, and that the symptomatology arising from such exposure may last for years. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  19. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  20. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations. Images PMID:1645081

  1. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  2. Awareness and Use of Evidence-based Medicine Databases and Cochrane Library Among Physicians in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Katarina; Mirić, Dino; Jurin, Ana; Vukojević, Katarina; Aljinović, Jure; Čarić, Ana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Poljičanin, Ana; Košta, Vana; Rako, Dalibora; Marušić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness and use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study with a telephone survey was performed among 573 physicians (88.6% response rate from 647 contacted physicians) from family practice and 4 major university hospital centers in Croatia. The main outcome measures were physicians' awareness of The Cochrane Collaboration, awareness and use of The Cochrane Library, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. Results Overall, 54% of respondents said they had access to EBM databases, but when asked which databases they used, they named mostly non-EBM databases. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 53% respondents, 30% heard of The Cochrane Collaboration, and 34% heard about The Cochrane Library. They obtained information about The Cochrane Library mostly from colleagues and research articles, whereas the information about EBM was gained mainly during continuous medical education. There were more respondents who thought The Cochrane Library could help them in practice (58%) than those who heard about The Cochrane Library (30%). Only 20% of the respondents heard about the initiative for the establishment of the Croatian branch of The Cochrane Collaboration. Family physicians had significantly lower level of awareness, knowledge, and use of EBM and The Cochrane Library than physicians from university hospitals. Conclusion There is low awareness about EBM and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia, which creates a need for educational interventions about EBM for the benefit of health care in Croatia. PMID:20401959

  3. The Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis B in Croatia: The Results of the Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kljajić, Zlatko; Petricević, Josko; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Pranić, Shelly; Mulić, Rosanda

    2015-09-01

    This study shows epidemiological characteristics and preventive measures implemented for the prevention and control of hepatitis B infections in Croatia. We analyzed the data from obligatory infectious disease reports and notifications of death due to infectious diseases, data on the hepatitis B infections in Croatia, and data collected by survey of the population. The average prevalence of the disease is 3.67 per 100,000 annually. All age groups are affected, but still a higher rate of the disease is found in the age groups from 15-19 and 20-29 years of age. Hepatitis B disease is 1.4 times more likely in men than in women. For the past 18 years, the average rate of mortality was 0.2%. The incidence of HbsAg-positive donors of blood is within the range of 0.65% in 1992 to 0.012% in 2011. The largest part of preventive measures implemented in Croatia against hepatitis B is predicted and required by legislation. The registrations of acute and chronic carriers of the virus are obligatory. High-risk groups have started being vaccinated since 1992. The obligatory vaccination of infants was introduced in the mandatory vaccination program in 2007. Routine testing of blood exclusively from voluntary donors for HbsAg presence is obligatory. The non-governmental organization "Help" created for intravenous drug users, along with the "Harm reduction" program implemented hepatitis B, C, and HIV/AIDS prevention program in 1995. In order to gain a better understanding of epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Croatia, the specifics of its dynamics in small communities are required since the research of Croatian public health officials and researchers have shown that hepatitis B is spread in different ways.

  4. The Activities of Students in Leisure Time in Sisak-Moslavina County (Republic of Croatia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðuranovic, Marina; Opic, Siniša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence of activities in leisure time of the young. A survey was conducted on 1062 students in 8 primary (n = 505; 47,6%) and high schools (n = 557; 52,4%) in Sisak-Moslavina County in the Republic of Croatia. The questionnaire of spending leisure time used was made up of 30 variables on a five-degree…

  5. Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrga, Ivana; Mitić, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlović, Dragoslav; Stjepanović, Barbara; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.

  6. Surgical scientific publication and the 1991-1995 war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Vanja; Udiljak, Nikola; Bartolić, Nina; Vargović, Martina; Kuduz, Robert; Boban, Natasa; Pećina, Marko; Polasek, Ozren

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical scientific publication in relation to the 1991-1995 war in Croatia, based on the articles indexed in Medline database that were published in 1980-2005 period. The number of articles was extracted from PubMed and analysed with trend analysis, which is preferred analytic approach over calculation of crude publication rates. The results indicate sporadic pre-war output, which was almost completely reduced by the onset of war. During wartime, a significant increasing trend in the number of published surgical articles that were related to warfare was detected (p = 0.003). During the post-war period a gradual shift towards surgical articles that were not related to warfare was detected, also marked by the significant increasing trend (p = 0.027). Both trends were significantly steeper than the overall Croatian biomedical output, suggesting that surgical scientific articles were being published more dynamically than in other biomedical areas in Croatia. The results suggest that war in Croatia has had a strong modifying effect on the surgical scientific output.

  7. Serological, Bacteriological, and Molecular Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Domestic Animals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Špičić, Silvio; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Račić, Ivana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the surveillance data on Brucella melitensis, B. suis, and B. ovis infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine in Croatia obtained in 2008 by serological, bacteriological, and molecular methods for diagnostics of brucellosis in domestic animals. Methods We serologically tested 42 785 cattle serums, 22 686 sheep and goat serums, and 28 520 swine serums using the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation test, and various immunosorbent assays. We also tested 10 173 ram blood samples for B. ovis infection using the complement fixation test. Bacteriological examination was conducted on 214 samples collected from 34 serologically positive animals. Different molecular methods were employed in the identification and typing of 20 isolates from the samples. Results B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 3 was confirmed with different identification methods in 2 flocks in 2 Croatian counties and B. suis bv. 2 in 3 herds in 3 counties. B. melitensis in cows was confirmed for the first time in Croatia. Infection with B. ovis was serologically confirmed in 202 rams in 12 counties. Conclusions In 2008, the size of the brucellosis-affected area in Croatia and the efficiency of detection and prevention of brucellosis in sheep, goats, and swine were satisfactory. Infection with B. melitensis in cattle was confirmed for the first time and possible links for infection in humans were detected. More efficient measures for suppression and control of ovine epididymitis are required and a new strategy may be necessary for complete eradication of this disease. PMID:20718085

  8. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  9. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries.

  10. Epizootiological survey of small mammals as Leptospira spp. reservoirs in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stritof Majetic, Zrinka; Galloway, Renee; Ruzic Sabljic, Eva; Milas, Zoran; Mojcec Perko, Vesna; Habus, Josipa; Margaletic, Josip; Pernar, Renata; Turk, Nenad

    2014-03-01

    In this survey we investigated a population of small mammals in Eastern Croatia in order to determine Leptospira carriage rates and identify circulating serovars. Out of 67 trapped animals, 20 (29.9%) isolates were obtained. Identification of isolates using microscopic agglutination test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing revealed that 10 (50.0%) isolates belong to serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok, 6 (30.0%) isolates to serogroup Australis, serovar Jalna, 2 (10.0%) isolates to serogroup Sejroe, serovar Saxkoebing, and 1 (5.0%) isolate to serogroup Grippotyphosa, serovar Grippotyphosa. One isolate from serogroup Bataviae was unable to be identified to the serovar level. Amplification of a 331-bp region of the locus LA0322 using real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that 12 (60.0%) isolates belong to L. kirschneri, 6 (30.0%) isolates to L. interrogans, and 2 (10.0%) isolates to L. borgpetersenii. Leptospira carriage rate was high (29.9%), which corresponds to a high incidence of human and domestic animal leptospirosis in Eastern Croatia. Furthermore, 90.0% of the isolates belong to serogroups Pomona, Australis and Sejroe which are also the most prevalent serogroups in humans in this area. These findings suggest that small mammals might be an important source of Leptospira spp. infection in Eastern Croatia.

  11. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans.

  12. Can Croatia Join Europe as Competitive Knowledge-based Society by 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Petrovečki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most important factors of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next four years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the “brain drain” into “brain gain” and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  13. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Ian Lipkin, W.

    2016-01-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. PMID:26711522

  14. Diversity of carbapenemases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia--the results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Zujić Atalić, V; Bedenić, B; Kocsis, E; Mazzariol, A; Sardelić, S; Barišić, M; Plečko, V; Bošnjak, Z; Mijač, M; Jajić, I; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Cornaglia, G

    2014-11-01

    Since the first carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated in 2008, Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to one or more carbapenems have emerged sporadically in different geographical regions in Croatia. These observations gave rise to a multicenter study on carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Croatia. Fifty-seven carbapenem-non-susceptible strains of Enterobacteriaceae were collected during 2011-2012 from four large hospital centres in Croatia. Overall, 36 strains produced VIM-1 β-lactamase, three produced NDM-1, and one produced KPC-2. A high degree of clonal relatedness was observed in Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains, in contrast to K. pneumoniae strains. BlaVIM genes were located within class1 integron which contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aacA4 ). The study found strong association between blaVIM and qnrB6 and between blaNDM and qnrA6 genes.

  15. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-03-07

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed.

  16. Analysis of 12 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnjac, Josip; Ozretić, Petar; Merkaš, Siniša; Ratko, Martina; Lozančić, Mateja; Rožić, Sara; Špoljarić, Daniel; Korolija, Marina; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2016-07-01

    Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit is a commercially available set that allows simultaneous PCR amplification of 12 X-STR markers belonging to four linkage groups (LG). To assess the forensic efficiency of these markers for the population of central Croatia and consequent applicability in routine forensic casework, DNA from 200 blood samples of unrelated donors (100 female and 100 male) was amplified by Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Statistical computations based on allele and haplotype frequencies for LG1 - LG4 were performed using Arlequin 3.5 software and on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. In female samples, all X-STR markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The most informative marker for central Croatia population was DXS10135 with polymorphism information content (PIC) 0.9296. The least polymorphic locus was DXS8378 (PIC=0.6363). Power of discrimination (PD) varied from 0.6968 to 0.9336 in male and from 0.8476 to 0.9916 in female samples. Combined PD exceeded 0.999999999 in both men and women. In male samples, linkage disequilibrium (LD) test revealed significant association (P=0.0000) of one marker pair in LG4 and two marker pairs in LG3. Portion of observed haplotypes in the number of possible haplotypes varied from 2.86% to 7.47% across all LGs. LG1 was the most informative with haplotype diversity (H) 0.9972. High PD of all analyzed markers exhibited for central Croatia population confirms suitability of Investigator® Argus X-12 for forensic pertinence. Moreover, results of this study will be included in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 12 X-STR loci, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of the forensic casework results.

  17. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  18. Survey of mammography practice in Croatia: equipment performance, image quality and dose.

    PubMed

    Faj, Dario; Posedel, Dario; Stimac, Damir; Ivezic, Zdravko; Kasabasic, Mladen; Ivkovic, Ana; Kubelka, Dragan; Ilakovac, Vesna; Brnic, Zoran; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj

    2008-01-01

    A national audit of mammography equipment performance, image quality and dose has been conducted in Croatia. Film-processing parameters, optical density (OD), average glandular dose (AGD) to the standard breast, viewing conditions and image quality were examined using TOR(MAM) test object. Average film gradient ranged from 2.6 to 3.7, with a mean of 3.1. Tube voltage used for imaging of the standard 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate phantom ranged from 24 to 34 kV, and OD ranged from 0.75 to 1.94 with a mean of 1.26. AGD to the standard breast ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 mGy with a mean of 1.1 mGy. Besides clinical conditions, the authors have imaged the standard phantom in the referent conditions with 28 kV and OD as close as possible to 1.5. Then, AGD ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 mGy with a mean of 1.3 mGy. Image viewing conditions were generally unsatisfying with ambient light up to 500 lx and most of the viewing boxes with luminance between 1000 and 2000 cd per m(2). TOR(MAM) scoring of images taken in clinical and referent conditions was done by local radiologists in local image viewing conditions and by the referent radiologist in good image viewing conditions. Importance of OD and image viewing conditions for diagnostic information were analysed. The survey showed that the main problem in Croatia is the lack of written quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Consequently, equipment performance, image quality and dose are unstable and activities to improve image quality or to reduce the dose are not evidence-based. This survey also had an educational purpose, introducing in Croatia the QC based on European Commission Guidelines.

  19. Flexible Removable Partial Denture Prosthesis: A Survey of Dentists’ Attitudes and Knowledge in Greece and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis; Kranjcic, Josip; Vojvodic, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate through a questionnaire the knowledge, attitudes and possible differences in the use of flexible RPDPs among dentists in Greece and Croatia. Material and Methods A questionnaire of 16 questions was originally created in English, translated into Greek and Croatian language following a two way translation and tested for apprehension, precision, clarity and homogeneity by a number of native English speaking Greek and Croatian dentists. Following the necessary corrections, the questionnaires replicated in two online surveys and their addresses with an informed consent were sent by emails to nearly 4000 dentists in each country to participate. Collected data were analyzed by chi-square tests at a= .05 level of significance. Results 378 dentists from Greece and 304 from Croatia participated in the study. 137(36.2%) dentists from Greece and 56(18.4%) from Croatia provided flexible RPDPs to their patients. Statistical analysis for all providers indicated no significant difference between genders (P>.05), significant differences between age groups (P<.01), years of practice (P<.05), specialization (P <.001), and instruction on flexible prostheses (P <.001). The analysis between the two countries showed differences for gender and age groups (P<.01) but no differences between experienced, specialized or instructed groups (P >.05). Conclusion The survey indicated differences between the two countries in the percentages of dentists using, selecting and providing RPDPs for their patients. Practitioners’ age, years in practice and instruction were associated with the provision of the prostheses, while comfort, esthetics and cost were the reasons for deciding to use the flexible RPDPs. Conclusion Although dentists are not educated in their schools about flexible RPDPs, almost a third of them offer this treatment to their patients. Long term success of these devices depends on clinical education, more experience and definitely more

  20. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and counselling on injury prevention for preschool children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.

  1. A Multifaceted Approach to Revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grgurić, Josip; Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Pavičić Bošnjak, Anita; Stanojević, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation. All maternity facilities were invited by UNICEF and the Ministry of Health to join the renewed BFHI. UNICEF materials were translated and training for trainers, assessors, coordinators, and hospital staff held. By June 2015, 30 of 32 (94%) maternity facilities, providing care to 89% of newborns, were Baby-Friendly. Nine maternity hospitals have been renovated and 2 new hospitals have been built. Exclusive breastfeeding rates have risen 16% at 0 to 2 months (from 51% in 2007 to 67% in 2014) and 14% at 3 to 5 months (from 32% in 2007 to 46% in 2014). Fourteen "Breastfeeding-Friendly" primary care practices have been designated, 166 breastfeeding support groups are in operation, criteria for Mother-Friendly care are being piloted in 2 maternity facilities, and "Ten Steps in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" are being introduced. The BFHI provides an excellent opportunity for revitalizing breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in all settings. Recognition and support of the BFHI by the Croatian government was crucial for implementing the BFHI, whereas the marketing practices of the breast milk substitutes industry are an ongoing challenge.

  2. Analysis of 12 X-STR loci in the population of south Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mršić, Gordan; Ozretić, Petar; Crnjac, Josip; Merkaš, Siniša; Račić, Ivana; Rožić, Sara; Sukser, Viktorija; Popović, Maja; Korolija, Marina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess forensic pertinence of 12 short tandem repeats (STRs) on X-chromosome in south Croatia population. Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit was used to co-amplify 12 STR loci belonging to four linkage groups (LGs) on X-chromosome in 99 male and 98 female DNA samples of unrelated donors. PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Population genetic and forensic parameters were calculated by the Arlequin and POPTREE2 software, and an on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all X-STR markers in female samples. Biallelic patterns at DXS10079 locus were detected in four male samples. Polymorphism information content for the most (DXS10135) and the least (DXS8378) informative markers was 0.9212 and 0.6347, respectively. In both male and female samples, combined power of discrimination exceeded 0.999999999. As confirmed by linkage disequilibrium test, significant association of marker pair DXS10074-DXS10079 (P = 0.0004) within LG2 and marker pair DXS10101-DXS10103 (P = 0.0003) within LG3 was found only in male samples. Number of observed haplotypes in our sample pool amounted 3.01, 7.53, 5 and 3.25% of the number of possible haplotypes for LG1, LG2, LG3 and LG4, respectively. According to haplotype diversity value of 0.9981, LG1 was the most informative. In comparison of south Croatia with 26 world populations, pair-wise [Formula: see text] values increase in parallel with geographical distance. Overall statistical assessment confirmed suitability of Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit for forensic casework in both identification and familial testing in the population of south Croatia.

  3. Molecular characterization of a collection of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from Croatia, June 2009 to January 2014.

    PubMed

    Bukovski, Suzana; Vacca, Paola; Anselmo, Anna; Knezovic, Ivica; Fazio, Cecilia; Neri, Arianna; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Fortunato, Antonella; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fillo, Silvia; Lista, Florigio; Stefanelli, Paola

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Croatia remained stable at approximately 1 case per 100 000 inhabitants, affecting mainly children aged ≤5 years. We report the molecular characterization of meningococci causing IMD occurring from June 2009 to January 2014 in Croatia. Genomic DNA from 50 clinical isolates was analysed for serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and allele type of the two outer membrane protein genes, porA and the iron-regulated fetA. Furthermore, 22 of them were characterized by using whole-genome sequencing to define the meningococcal vaccine four-component meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) antigen genes factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria heparin-binding antigen (nhba) and Neisseria adhesin A (nadA) and the antimicrobial target resistance genes for penicillin (penicillin binding protein 2, penA), ciprofloxacin (DNA gyrase subunit A, gyrA) and rifampicin (β-subunit of RNA polymerase, rpoB). The Etest was used to phenotypically determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated meningococci. The main serogroup/clonal complex combinations were MenB cc41/44, MenC/cc11, MenW/cc174 and MenY/cc23. PorA P1.7-2, FetA F5-5 and F1-5 were the most represented through the serogroups. Meningococci with decreased susceptibility to penicillin (38.9 %) and one strain resistant to ciprofloxacin were identified. Forty-two percent of MenB showed the presence of at least one of the 4CMenB vaccine antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA). Our findings highlight the genetic variability of meningococci causing IMD in Croatia, especially for the serogroup B. Molecular-based characterization of meningococci is crucial to enhance IMD surveillance and to better plan national immunization programmes.

  4. Soil temperature regime and vulnerability due to extreme soil temperatures in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja; Filić, Suzana; Smolić, Ante

    2016-10-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor within the climate system. Changes of trends in soil temperature and analysis of vulnerability due to heat stress can provide useful information on climate change. In this paper, the soil temperature regime was analyzed on seasonal and annual scales at depths of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 cm at 26 sites in Croatia. Trends of maximal, mean, and minimal soil temperatures were analyzed in the periods 1961-2010 and 1981-2010. Duration of extreme soil temperatures and vulnerability due to high or low soil temperatures in the recent standard period 1981-2010 was compared with the reference climate period 1961-1990. The results show a general warming in all seasons and depths for maximal and mean temperatures in both observed periods, while only at some locations for minimal soil temperature. Warming is more pronounced in the eastern and coastal parts of Croatia in the surface layers, especially in the spring and summer season in the second period. Significant trends of maximal, minimal, and mean soil temperature in both observed periods range from 2.3 to 6.6 °C/decade, from -1.0 to 1.3 °C/decade, and from 0.1 to 2.5 °C/decade, respectively. The highest vulnerability due to heat stress at 35 °C is noted in the upper soil layers of the coastal area in both observed periods. The mountainous and northwestern parts of Croatia at surface soil layers are the most vulnerable due to low soil temperature below 0 °C. Vulnerability due to high or low soil temperature decreases with depth.

  5. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF HEALTH TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Sanela; Hendija, Zvjezdana

    2016-03-01

    Health tourism can be generally divided into medical, health spa and wellness tourism. Health spa tourism services are provided in special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts, and include under medical supervision controlled use of natural healing factors and physical therapy in order to improve and preserve health. There are 13 special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia. Most of them are financed through the state budget and lesser by sale on the market. More than half of their accommodation capacity is offered for sale on the market while the rest is under contract with the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Domestic overnights are several times higher than foreign overnights. The aim of this study was to analyze business performance of special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia in relation to the sources of financing and the structure of service users. The assumption was that those who are more market-oriented achieve better business performance. In proving these assumptions, an empirical research was conducted and the assumptions were tested. A positive correlation was proven in tested indicators of business performance of the analyzed service providers of health-spa tourism with a higher amount of overnight stays realized through sales on the market in relation to total overnight stays, with a greater share of foreign overnights in total of overnights and with a higher share of realized revenue on the market out of total revenue. The results of the research show that special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts that are more market-oriented are more successful in their business performance. These findings are important for planning the health and tourism policies in countries like Croatia.

  6. Monitoring of nitrates in drinking water from agricultural and residential areas of Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Konjačić, Miljenko; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2013-11-01

    Nitrates are the most common chemical pollutant of groundwater in agricultural and suburban areas. Croatia must comply with the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) whose aim is to reduce water pollution by nitrates originating from agriculture and to prevent further pollution. Podravina and Prigorje are the areas with a relatively high degree of agricultural activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was, by monitoring nitrates, to determine the distribution of nitrates in two different areas, Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia), to determine sources of contamination as well as annual and seasonal trends. The nitrate concentrations were measured in 30 wells (N = 382 samples) in Prigorje and in 19 wells (N = 174 samples) in Podravina from 2002 to 2007. In Podravina, the nitrate content was 24.9 mg/l and 6% of the samples were above the maximum available value (MAV), and in Prigorje the content was 53.9 mg/l and 38% of the samples above MAV. The wells were classified as correct, occasionally incorrect and incorrect. In the group of occasionally incorrect and incorrect wells, the point sources were within 10 m of the well. There is no statistically significant difference over the years or seasons within the year, but the interaction between locations and years was significant. Nitrate concentrations' trend was not significant during the monitoring. These results are a prerequisite for the adjustment of Croatian standards to those of the EU and will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive and the Directives on Environmental Protection in Croatia and the EU.

  7. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  8. [Ophthalmological themes in baroqueiconography in north-west Croatia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dorn, V

    1978-09-01

    The northwest Croatia is distinguished through valuable master-pieces of exuberant baroque art. Cultural comprehensions and spirit of time are registered in numerous sacred and profane monuments of art. It is also understandable, that actualities of medicine are reflected in art, too. Small and big plastic-arts, pictures and frescoes are iconographic material of what ophthalmological themes we try to analyse to conceive knowledges about health and sick eyes in that time, about regional pathology and social aspects of eye diseases, also thus to get to learn ophthalmological problems of that time.

  9. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  10. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava–Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  11. Characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Rijeka, Croatia from 2013 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Stelcer, Eduard; Orlić, Ivica; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 daily aerosol samples were collected in Rijeka, Croatia during period from 6th August 2013 to 29th January 2015. In total, 259 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed by PIXE and PIGE techniques to give information on 21 elements from Na to Pb. Additionally, black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method. Results were statistically evaluated using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Eight major pollution sources: auto, smoke, secondary sulfates, heavy oil combustion, sea spray, road dust, industry iron and soil dust were identified together with their relative contributions in total PM2.5 pollution.

  12. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  13. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  14. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  15. Air pollution study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES and AAS analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Frontasyeva, Marina

    2013-07-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique was applied in a heavy-metal pollution study of Croatia in 2006 when this country participated in the European moss survey for the first time. This survey was repeated in 2010, and the results are presented in this study. For this purpose, 121 moss samples were collected during summer and autumn 2010. The content of 21 elements was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analyses was applied to show the association between the elements. Six factors (F1-F6) were determined, of which two are anthropogenic (F3 and F6), two are mixed geogenic-anthropogenic (F1 and F5), and two are geogenic factors (F2 and F4). Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information systems technology. Comparison of the median values of some of the anthropogenic elements-such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc-with those from the 2006 study shows that anthropogenic pollution has changed insignificantly during the last 5 years. The data obtained in the investigation in Norway are taken for comparison with pristine area, which indicates that Croatia is somewhat polluted but still, shows a more favourable picture when compared with two neighbouring countries.

  16. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  17. A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus in Croatia, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Vojnovic, Gordana; Babic-Erceg, Andrea; Tabain, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common etiological agent of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. The molecular epidemiology of HRSV in Croatia over four consecutive seasons (from 2006 to 2008) was investigated. A total of 72 HRSV samples were chosen from 696 screened cases in a pediatric clinic in Zagreb. Molecular characterization of HRSV revealed the predominance of HRSV group B viruses in the first two epidemic seasons and HRSV group A viruses in the next two seasons. According to the phylogenetic analysis, NA1 and BA9 were the predominant circulating HRSV genotypes detected during the study. Overall, 82.9% of all HRSV A strains belonged to the NA1 genotype. The HRSV B genotype BA9, detected in two consecutive seasons (2006 and 2007), was the predominant circulating HRSV B genotype, accounting for 80.6% of all HRSV B strains. This study provides data on the circulation pattern of HRSV genotypes in Croatia and their molecular characterization.

  18. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants.

  19. The methods of committing and alcohol intoxication of suicides in Southwestern Croatia from 1996 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Coklo, Miran; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Sosa, Ivan; Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Alcohol is the psychoactive substance most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that the level of alcohol intoxication and the choice of specific methods of committing suicide are related. Suicides in the Southwestern Croatia in a 10-year period, especially regarding the method of committing and alcohol intoxication, were analyzed. Ten various methods of committing suicide were recorded. The average blood alcohol concentration at the moment of suicide was 0.68 g/kg with male, and 0.29 g/kg with female victims. The highest blood alcohol levels at the moment of suicide were recorded with suicides by explosive device (with the average blood alcohol concentration of 1.71 g/kg). This especially drastic method of suicide was rare in Croatia in a period prior to the Croatian Independence War (1991-1995), but its incidence significantly increased during the war and in a post-war period. These victims were not chronic alcoholics, but the excessive alcohol consumption occurred as a result of psychiatric disorders as a consequence of war stress they suffered.

  20. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  1. Health care funding reforms in Croatia: a case of mistaken priorities.

    PubMed

    Voncina, Luka; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Mastilica, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an overview of funding mechanisms in Croatian health care and analyses them in terms of sustainability, efficiency and equity. The study presents an in depth investigation of problems facing funding health care in Croatia: high expenditure, inadequate financial resources, continuous deficits of the state insurance fund, lack of transparency in funding, an aging population, etc. Furthermore, the study provides a critical overview of reforms that have been implemented to counter those issues from 1990 to 2002. The study argues that the implemented reforms over relied on shifting health expenditure from public to private sources in addressing financial deficits in the system. The study argues that, instead, the reforms should have focused more on curbing rising expenditure in health care providers. Emphasis has been put on the extent to which the reforms affected the conceptual-social foundations of the system. Finally, the paper provides recommendations for policy makers in Croatia and presents an overview of Croatian experiences that might be of interest to researchers and policy makers internationally.

  2. A study of genetic variability of human parainfluenza virus type 1 in Croatia, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Košutić-Gulija, Tanja; Slovic, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2016-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology of human parainfluenza viruses type 1 (HPIV1) was investigated. Samples were collected from patients hospitalized in Croatia during the three consecutive epidemic seasons (2011-2014). Results indicated co-circulation of two major genetic clusters of HPIV1. Samples from the current study refer to clades II and III in a phylogenetic tree of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Additional phylogenetic trees of fusion (F) and phosphoprotein (P) genes confirmed the topology. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of entire P, F and HN genes demonstrated similar values: 0.0255, 0.0236 and 0.0237, respectively. However, amino acid diversity showed F protein to be the most conserved, while P protein was the most tolerant to mutations. Potential N- and O-glycosylation sites suggested that HPIV1 HN protein is abundantly glycosylated, and a specific N-glycosylation pattern could distinguish between clades II and III. Analysis of potential O-glycosylation sites in F protein indicated that samples from this study have two potential O-glycosylation sites, while publicly available sequences have five potential sites. This study provides data on the molecular characterization and epidemic pattern of HPIV1 in Croatia.

  3. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E virus in Domestic Animals and Wildlife in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Jelena; Černi, Silvija; Škorić, Dijana; Keros, Tomislav; Brnić, Dragan; Cvetnić, Željko; Jemeršić, Lorena

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis E is becoming a growing health concern in European countries as an increase of sporadic human cases of unknown origin has been recorded lately. Its causative agent, Hepatitis E virus (HEV), is known to have zoonotic potential and thus the role of domestic and wild animals in the chain of viral spread should be considered when investigating risk factors and the epidemiology of the disease. A comprehensive survey based on viral RNA detection was carried out in Croatia including blood, spleen and liver samples originating from 1816 different domestic and wild animals and digestive gland samples from 538 molluscs. A high HEV prevalence was detected in domestic pigs (24.5%) and wild boars (12.3%), whereas cattle, molluscs, ruminant and carnivore wildlife samples tested negative. Molecular characterization of both ORF1 and ORF2 genomic regions confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of the obtained sequences into genotype 3, previously reported in Europe. Furthermore, our results proved the presence of identical sequence variants in different samples, regardless of their origin, age or habitat of the host, suggesting transmission events between domestic swine, as well as between domestic swine and wild boars in the country. Moreover, a close genetic relationship of Croatian animal strains and known human HEV strains from GenBank opens the question of possible cross-species HEV transmission in Croatia, especially in the areas with an intensive swine production.

  4. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship.

  5. Assessing the quality of mental health promotion and prevention in Croatia: the case of Istria.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Josipa; Novak, Miranda; Hosman, Clemens; Domitrovich, Celene

    2015-12-20

    While the availability of mental health promotion and prevention programs worldwide is growing, there is divergence in their level of effectiveness that has led to increasing interest in the development of 'effect management' strategies. Mental health promotion and prevention science and practice has a relatively young history in Croatia, but major investments towards its development have been made over the last decade. This paper reports on a research project that took place within the Istrian Region. The long-term goal of the initiative is to establish quality assurance indicators for mental health promotion and prevention interventions. The current study involved adapting the Dutch Preffi 2.0 instrument for use in Croatia. The content of the Preffi reflects the literature regarding research-based effect predictors. An instrument allows users to assess whether programs have been designed and implemented in ways that maximize their ability to be effective. The Preffi scores can be used for improving a program and the quality with which it is implemented. The first aim of the study is to determine if independent researchers can use the Preffi reliably as a quality assessment instrument. The second aim is to use the Preffi to describe the quality of one cohort of mental health promotion and prevention programs. The study represents the first steps toward developing a strategy for quality assurance that strengthens community capacity for effective service delivery and that could inform other countries whose mental health promotion and prevention efforts are in early stages of development.

  6. Lead and cadmium content in human milk from the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Frkovic, A.; Kras, M.; Alebic-Juretic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Though occupational exposure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium) is well documented, harmful effects of environmental exposure to lower levels of these two metals is still under investigation. Most toxic metals are emitted by human activities and the atmosphere is the main transport route for these elements. According to some authors, 332 358 t of lead and 7570 t of cadmium were emitted in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 1983. The principle source of lead is traffic, e.g. leaded petrol, still widely used in Croatia, as well as coal combustion, iron and steal production. Volcanic activity, zinc production and waste incineration are the main sources of cadmium. Recent study indicates that traffic could also be the main source of cadmium found along busy streets. Chronic lead exposure at low levels is associated with adverse health effects especially in fetus and young children. This study examines lead and cadmium levels in breast milk from nursing women living in the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. English-Language Teaching in the Republic of Croatia, Yugoslavia: Some Recent Developments. ELT Documents (76/1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, P. B.

    English is now the leading foreign language in Croatia. Within the framework of a general reform of the Yugoslavian education system, between 1972 and 1975, a particular attempt has been made to reform the ELT program in the four-year secondary-school cycle. One important distinction to be made was that of the differing needs of students in the…

  8. Proceeding of the International Scientific Colloquium: MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (How to Teach and Learn Mathematics) (Osijek, Croatia, April 13, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the Organisational Committee of the international scientific colloquium Mathematics and Children is to encourage additional scientific research in the field of mathematics teaching in Croatia. The development of science and education is a part of a long-term Education Sector Development Plan 2005-2010. Following the example of…

  9. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  10. Anaesthesiology activities in Croatia from the first ether narcosis in Zadar in 1847 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    This is a short review of the historical development of anaesthesiology and intensive care in Croatia from its beginning to recent days (2008). Five months after the first public demonstration of ether anaesthesia in the USA, Ivan Bettini followed with the first ether anaesthesia in Zadar, on 13 March 1847. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the following doctors wrote about performing anaesthesia: Miroslav Čačković (in 1896), Dragutin Schwarz, Edo Šlajmer, Milan Crljenak, Antun Medanić, BoŽidar Lavrić, Simo Mučalov, Josip Vodenhal, Ante Drešćik, Radoslav Akerman, and Đurđa Klaić. The first endotracheal anaesthesia, was induced by Dr Risto Ivanovski at the military hospital in Zagreb in 1948. Croatian anaesthesiology started to develop in 1950 with the introduction of a one-year postgraduate course in Copenhagen, within the framework of a WHO programme, intended for underdeveloped and developing countries and overseen by the WHO Centre for Anaesthesiology. Croatian physicians attending this course were Andrija Longhino, Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser, Miroslav Hromadko, Mara Biondić, and Vlasta Lederer. The first specialists in anaesthesiology in Croatia were urđa Klaić, Ljubomir Ribarić, and Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser. In Zagreb, the first postgraduate courses in anaesthesiology were held in 1953, 1955, and 1957. In 2007, the anaesthesiology service in Croatia consisted of three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinics, three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Departments, 11 Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Units, 13 Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Services, and eight Anaesthesiology Units within Surgery Departments. It included 481 specialists in anaesthesiology and resuscitation and 172 general physicians specialising in anaesthesiology and resuscitation (totalling 653 in December 2007). This means that one specialist serviced 9,140 people, that is, 6,730 if we include GPs undergoing specialist training

  11. [Clinical and histopathological characteristics of biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Batinić, Danica; Sćukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Milosević, Danko; Subat-Dezulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marjan; Delmis, Jasna; Puretić, Zvonimir; Cvitkovic-Kuzmić, Andrea; Skitarelić, Natasa; Spajic, Marija; Nizić, Ljiljana; Vrljicak, Kristina; Matković, Maja; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Batinić, Danko; Grković, Lana; Borojević, Irena; Flajsman, Sanja; Kosuljandić-Vukić, Durdica; Marić, Semsa; Ljubanović, Danica

    2007-09-01

    There is little data on the spectrum of renal diseases in children in Croatia. The Croatian Society for Pediatric Nephrology has established the Registry of Biopsy-Proven Renal Diseases in an attempt to address this issue nationwide. Here we report preliminary results of a retrospective analysis of clinical and histopathological data of 565 children aged < or =17 years presenting to 9 hospitals in Croatia from 1991 to 2004, in whom kidney biopsy was performed. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (39.1%), followed by asymptomatic proteinuria/hematuria (22.0%) and acute nephritic syndrome (17.0%). All biopsies were analysed by light-, immunofluorescent and electron microscopy. The majority of children, 552 out of 565 (92.4%), had glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubulointerstitial nephritis was found in 16 (2.8%), congenital renal parenchyma anomalies in 14 (2.5%) and vascular disease in 11 (1.9%) cases. One (0.2%) child had sarcoidosis with nephrocalcinosis. The sample was non-diagnostic in 1 (0.2%) case. Among children with GN, primary GN accounted for 70.9%, secondary GN for 16.1% and hereditary GN for 13.0% cases. The most frequent primary GN forms were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (24.6%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MEPGN) (19.2%) and IgA nephropathy (18.1%). Acute GN in resolution was found in 11.1% and minimal changes GN in 6.8% of cases. Most children with secondary GN had nephritis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) (54.7%) and nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (40.5%), while among hereditary GN Alport syndrome was most common (80.9%). In the group of children with primary GN who presented with nephrotic syndrome, most common forms were FSGS (38.5%) and MEPGN (24.0%). Minimal changes GN accounted for only 10.9% of cases. IgA nephropathy, primary or related to HSP (20.0%), FSGS (16.1%), MEPGN (12.6%) and Alport syndrome (9.7%) were the most common biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatian

  12. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  13. Non-ionising radiation human exposure assessment near telecommunication devices in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Dina

    2006-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the regulatory acts in non-ionising radiation in the world, with a special emphasis on basic guidelines issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). ICNIRP Guidelines are implemented in many countries worldwide. Croatia has also implemented them indirectly through the European Recommendation 1999/519/EC. The Croatian regulatory acts include the Non-lonising Radiation Protection Act, Ordinance on Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Protection, and the Ordinance on Basic Requirements for Devices which produce Optical Radiation and Measures for Optical Radiation Protection. Dosimetry and densitometry are compliant with relevant international and European standards. The paper presents an example of densitometric human exposure assessment in complex indoor exposure conditions. In spite of a high number of indoor and outdoor sources and the "worst-case exposure assessment", the results are within the limits defined by the Croatian EMF Ordinance.

  14. Development of the competitive business in the context of environmental legislation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matesić, Mirjana; Kalambura, Sanja; Bacun, Dubravka

    2014-03-01

    Environmental protection has a key role in the context of crisis management. It is not just about development of the industry of environmental protection and implementation of new ways of management in innovative solutions in solving problems. Important area of improvement is also revision of environmental legislation aiming at simplification and reduction of costs of procedures for the business. This paper discusses problems of business sector in Croatia related to transposition of demanding environmental EU regulation, it suggests improvements such as simplification of special waste management systems, of environmental impact assessments processes, environmental permitting etc. The paper considers revision of environmental protection not by lowering environmental standards, but by introducing transparent and compromising models between business and environmental protection, based on sustainable development, with control mechanisms which don't impact functioning of business sector (and its competitiveness), therefore allowing successful protection of environment and its renewable and non-renewable resources.

  15. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of three selected Micromeria species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Štefan, Maja Bival; Alegro, Antun; Koszegi, Tamás; Petrik, József

    2011-02-10

    Antioxidant activities of three selected Micromeria species growing in Croatia (M. croatica, M. juliana and M. thymifolia) were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays, in comparison with plant polyphenolic constituents and reference antioxidants. All studied ethanolic extracts exhibited considerable activity to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, reducing power, iron chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity in the order: M. croatica > M. juliana > M. thymifolia. Total polyphenol (9.69-13.66%), phenolic acid (5.26-6.84%), flavonoid (0.01-0.09%) and tannin (3.07-6.48%) contents in dried plant samples were determined spectrophotometrically. A strong positive correlation between antioxidant activities and contents of phenolic acids and tannins was found, indicating their responsibility for effectiveness of tested plants. Our findings established Micromeria species as a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, especially the endemic M. croatica.

  16. [The Brill-Zinsser disease still occurs in Croatia: retrospective analysis of 25 hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Turcinov, Drago; Kuzman, Ilija; Puljiz, Ivan

    2002-10-01

    The article presents epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic characteristics of Brill-Zinsser disease (BZD). A total of 25 cases of BZD were retrospectively analyzed during the period from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 2000, and etiology was confirmed by rickettsial complement-fixation test (CFT). The majority of cases 15 (60%) quoted history of primary attack of epidemic typhus during or after the World War II. During the course of the disease in our patients different organic systems were involved. Aseptic meningitis was verified in 21 (84%) patients, rash in 17 (68%), liver lesion in 14 (56%), pneumonitis in 7 (28%), myopericarditis in 7 (28%) and 5 (20%) had renal lesion. Not a single clinical symptom or finding of disease has a diagnostic particularity. However, long term fever, headache, rash and aseptic meningitis, or information of infestation with lice in childhood, or a history of epidemic typhus should arouse a suspicion of this disease, which still occurs in Croatia.

  17. Mental health consequences in men exposed to sexual abuse during the war in Croatia and Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-02-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the statement of each victim was recorded. Victims were exposed to physical torture of their genitals, psycho-sexual torture and physical abuse. The most common symptoms of traumatic reactions were sleep disturbances, concentration difficulties, night-mares and flashbacks, feelings of hopelessness, and different physical stress symptoms such as constant headaches, profuse sweating, and tachycardia. In addition to rape and different methods of sexual abuse, most of the victims were heavily beaten. The conclusion is made that the number of sexually abused men during the war must have been much higher than reported.

  18. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  19. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujević, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers.

  20. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  1. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  2. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri).

  3. Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač-Andrić, Elvira; Sheta, Alaa; Faris, Hossam; Gajdošik, Martina Šrajer

    2016-07-01

    Ozone is one of the most significant secondary pollutants with numerous negative effects on human health and environment including plants and vegetation. Therefore, more effort is made recently by governments and associations to predict ozone concentrations which could help in establishing better plans and regulation for environment protection. In this study, we use two Artificial Neural Network based approaches (MPL and RBF) to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, one for urban and another one for rural area in the eastern part of Croatia. The evaluation of actual against the predicted ozone concentrations revealed that MLP and RBF models are very competitive for the training and testing data in the case of Kopački Rit area whereas in the case of Osijek city, MLP shows better evaluation results with 9% improvement in the correlation coefficient. Furthermore, subsequent feature selection process has improved the prediction power of RBF network.

  4. Self-help, mutual aid and chronic patients' clubs in Croatia, Yugoslavia: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Kulcar, Z

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the clubs for patients with hypertension which have operated effectively in parts of Croatia and Slovenia (Yugoslavia) for more than 15 years, with many thousands of patients enrolling voluntarily. Based on the principle of self-help, yet involving the regular participation of members of a patient's own primary health team, they increase compliance with long-term treatment regimens and improve the quality of life. Such programmes are capable of reducing the amount of time devoted by a medical practitioner while increasing the effectiveness of treatments. If they are to succeed, it is essential to ensure regular club meetings, social activities and encouragement to each individual member to find a role and to continue attending for as long as possible. A new life style and consequent benefits to health are obtained only through long membership. PMID:2041007

  5. Seawater quality along the Adriatic coast, Croatia, based on toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Fafandel, Maja

    2004-04-01

    The potential toxicity of organic extracts from 12 seawater samples from each of 24 sampling sites, collected during 1999-2001 along the Adriatic coast, Croatia, was analyzed with the Microtox toxicity bioassay. The results were consistent with the usefulness of Microtox for the detection of accidental toxic events. To determine the water quality of selected areas, cluster analysis for discrimination between groups with similar toxicity load and water quality index as a base for the ranking of sampling sites was introduced. Based on our experimental data, five classes of the quality index were defined, and so areas were ranked in five categories (excellent, good, fair, poor, and very poor) according to their potential toxic influence. The water quality of selected sites for the potential toxicity of organic extracts could be described as excellent at one sampling site, good at 15 sampling sites, and fair at eight sampling sites. Poor and very poor seawater quality was not detected.

  6. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  7. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susić, Mato; Brozović, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipović; Milenović, Aleksandar; Strinović, Davor; Brkić, Hrvoje; Pandurić, Dragana Gabrić

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits.

  8. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  9. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  10. Organization and functioning of primary healthcare for pre-school children in Croatia: a longitudinal study from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Josip; Prljević, Gordana; Menegoni, Martina; Bralić, Irena

    2014-12-01

    Primary health care for children in Croatia are mostly provided by primary pediatricians (PP) in the urban and by family doctors in rural areas. During past decades, as apart of health care reforms, primary pediatric care experiences several changes. This study was undertaken in order to investigate the trends in organizational structure and functioning of the PPs, based on routinely collected data from Croatian Health Service Yearbooks, 1995 to 2012. The results have consistently shown a shortage of PPs in Croatia. The shortage obviously affects the average number of children per PP; number increased from 994 in 1995, to 1556 children in 2010, which was far above the standard. The shortage of PPs is also related to the high number of visits (30 to 40) per PP and per working day. The obtained results clearly show only the trends, therefore further research is needed for a full understanding of the PHC for pre-school children.

  11. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Vego, Goran Kucar-Dragicevic, Savka Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-15

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia.

  12. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects.

  13. An outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis associated with raw goat milk and cheese consumption, Croatia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Markovinović, Leo; Kosanović Ličina, M L; Tešić, V; Vojvodić, D; Vladušić Lucić, I; Kniewald, T; Vukas, T; Kutleša, M; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to emphasize the risk of acquiring TBE by the consumption of raw milk and dairy products. In April-May 2015, we registered the first outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis in Croatia in seven members out of ten exposed persons who consumed raw goat milk or cheese from the same supplier. Infection was confirmed by TBEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all patients. None had been vaccinated nor had observed a tick bite.

  14. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  15. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  17. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja; Sikora, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different symbiotic

  18. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  19. Construction of the bridge in the cavern in the Vrata tunnel (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Sasa Kovacevic, Meho; Juric-Kacunic, Danijela

    2010-05-01

    In the Dinaric karst system in Croatia some 11500 speleological objects have been explored so far, more than 1000 of which were discovered during construction works. Such speleological objects without natural entrance on the terrain surface (which are called "caverns") have been discovered on the construction sites of the highways. Over the past twenty years they have been systematically investigated and treated. A special kind of remediation was conducted in the cavern's large hall of the "Vrata" tunnel on the Zagreb - Rijeka highway. Due to size, shape, cavern's position and hydrogeological parameters (fissured and karstified aquifers) within the karst system it was necessary to design and construct a 58 m bridge over the cavern. In addition, the cavern's vault had to be reinforced and stabilized, as the overburden was very thin. The beam-and -stringer grid with special anchors was used. The cavern's rehabilitation in the "Vrata" tunnel was a unique undertaking, and the bridge (without piers) is the cavern's longest bridge in the world. A speleological object of large dimensions was discovered in the "Vrata"tunnel's right tube on the Rijeka-Zagreb highway. Speleological, geotechnical, engineering geological and hydrogeological investigation works were carried out for the purpose of preservation the speleological object (cavern). On the basis of classification results of rock masses and conducted numerical analyses the support system for the cavern's vault stabilization was selected. The support system's elements include the beam-and-stringer grid constructed on the terrain's surface above the cavern, tendons and geotechnical anchors. To ensure stability of the speleological object, and to conduct the backward numerical analyses the measurement of vertical deformations from the terrain's surface along the rock's mass by means of sliding micrometers was undertaken. Backward numerical analyses combined with geotechnical measurements enable safer and more rational

  20. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus–polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different

  1. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals.

  2. Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radović, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D

    2012-07-01

    Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests.

  3. Mastoid trepanation in a deceased from medieval Croatia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boljunčić, Jadranka; Hat, Josip

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare case of infratentorial mastoid trepanation, by drilling, from medieval Croatia. An artificial ante-mortal opening was found in a male skeleton from the 11th century cemetery Zvonimirovo. It was placed roughly at the intersection of the Frankfurt's plane and the midline of the right mastoid. The right posterior parietal of the deceased also exhibited a callus-like formation consistent with the linear cranial fracture. Our aim was to investigate by computed tomography (CT) a possible presence of otopathology--a chronic middle ear infection--MEI/mastoiditis or cholesteatoma. On the other hand, both standard radiography and CT were employed in a cranial fracture diagnostic agreement. The generated CT scans confirmed the presence of an artificial hole running into a well defined trepanne canal connected with the antrum. The presence of otopathology was not established. The radiography and CT substantiated the presence of a linear posterior parietal discontinuity--without displacement, in front of the right lambdoid suture. From the medical point of view, it would be unusual to perform infratentorial--mastoid trepanation for reasons of treating supratentorial trauma, i.e. possible posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma (PTASDH). However, since there was a lack of CT evidence of osteolysis in ME, there is a possibility of medieval trepanation procedure performed for reasons of posttraumatic treat- ment. To our best knowledge, usually, ancient trepanations described in Croatian bioarchaeology and all over the world are supratentorial and do not always reveal such sophisticated surgical techniques.

  4. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni pulsotypes isolated from humans and poultry in Split and Dalmatia County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Ana; Carev, Merica; Tripković, Ingrid; Srečec, Siniša; Siško-Kraljević, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry is considered to be an important source of human infection with Campylobacter. In the period from 2008 to 2010, 50 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from human faeces were analysed and compared with 61 isolates from poultry by pulsed field gel electrophoresis using SmaI and KpnI. Based on the analysis of SmaI macrorestriction profiles, 86 isolates (77.5 %) were assigned to 15 S clusters: 31 (62 %) from humans and 55 from poultry (90.2 %). Altogether 21 isolates (19 %) exhibited macrorestriction profiles common to both humans and poultry after restriction with SmaI and KpnI. A total of five identical pulsotypes were isolated from both poultry and patients and one of them appeared in eight different locations in the time interval of one year. These results indicate that poultry could be an important source of Campylobacter infection in Split and Dalmatia County which is the biggest County in Croatia and the most important tourist destination.

  5. Urinary analysis reveals high deoxynivalenol exposure in pregnant women from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sarkanj, Bojan; Warth, Benedikt; Uhlig, Silvio; Abia, Wilfred A; Sulyok, Michael; Klapec, Tomislav; Krska, Rudolf; Banjari, Ines

    2013-12-01

    In this pilot survey the levels of various mycotoxin biomarkers were determined in third trimester pregnant women from eastern Croatia. First void urine samples were collected and analysed using a "dilute and shoot" LC-ESI-MS/MS multi biomarker method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites: deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide and deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide were detected in 97.5% of the studied samples, partly at exceptionally high levels, while ochratoxin A was found in 10% of the samples. DON exposure was primarily reflected by the presence of deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide with a mean concentration of 120 μg L(-1), while free DON was detected with a mean concentration of 18.3 μg L(-1). Several highly contaminated urine samples contained a third DON conjugate, tentatively identified as deoxynivalenol-7-glucuronide by MS/MS scans. The levels of urinary DON and its metabolites measured in this study are the highest ever reported, and 48% of subjects were estimated to exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (1 μg kg(-1) b.w.).

  6. [Medical elements in the Parish Church of Saint George in Lovran (Croatia)].

    PubMed

    Eterovic, Igor; Doricic, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For some reason, the sacral heritage of Lovran and its surroundings has escaped the eye of medical historians, until now. seeing that the Parish Church of st George in Lovran holds a central position in this heritage, the authors provide an analysis of medical elements in the church. The analysis has focused on three aspects. The first aspect are medical elements, especially the anthropological features of characters depicted on the frescoes, which belong to the earliest and most representative of the whole region. The second are Glagolithic inscriptions relevant for the history of medicine and health culture. The third is the iconography of patron saints against a variety of diseases (featured on paintings, altars or sculptures), paying particular attention to relevant medical imagery of st George as the church's patron saint. relying on a well developed method for analysing medical elements in the sacral heritage of Croatia and abroad, the authors seek to fill the gaps in this medical historical mosaic by investigating the parish church of Lovran.

  7. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  8. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity.

  9. Terrestrial Biodiversity Analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): A Complementary Approach Using Diversity and Rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaska, Sven D.; Nikolić, Toni; Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Kušan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Gužvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  10. Physicians’ interpersonal relationships and professional standing seen through the eyes of the general public in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ćurković, Marko; Milošević, Milan; Borovečki, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionalism, as a cornerstone of medicine’s social contract with society, demands physicians adhere to high professional standards while placing public interest ahead of self-interest. This study’s objective was to investigate perceptions of the basic elements of medical professionalism related to physicians’ interpersonal relationships and their professional standing in the view of the broader public. Methods A field survey was conducted using an independently created questionnaire on a nationally representative three-stage probabilistic sample of 1,008 Croatian citizens. By including weights, the sample became nationally representative in terms of sex, age, education, and regional representation. The survey was carried out from April 17 to May 13, 2012. Results The Croatian public recognizes the importance of collaboration among physicians, but their everyday experiences tell a different story, in which almost half of the respondents evaluated physicians’ collaboration as being mediocre, poor, or nonexistent. The perception of physicians’ priorities and their primary interests, where every sixth respondent believes physicians always or almost always puts their own interest in front of that of the patients, as well as the perception of their inadequate adherence to professional standards, is indicative of a disillusioned stance of the public toward the medical profession in Croatia. Conclusion This research offered insight into findings that can have a profound and long-lasting effect on a health care delivery process if they are not further analyzed and rectified. PMID:25210442

  11. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  12. Characteristics of hepatitis C infection in injecting drug users in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Sonicki, Zdenko; Zekanović, Drazen

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine additional risk factors that could increase the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDU). The study included 327 heroin addicts registered in Zadar County, Croatia. The participants were divided into two groups according to their HCV status. HCV-positive and HCV-negative study participants were compared. HCV-positive group started injecting heroin at earlier age (median 18.5 years) than HCV-negative group (median 20.0 years) (p = 0.032) and had been injecting heroin for a significantly longer period (median 5 years vs. median 4 years, respectively; p < 0.001). IDUs in HCV-positive group shared their injecting equipment significantly more often than IDUs in HCV-negative group (p < 0.001; chi2 = 32.7). The main reasons for starting drugs were curiosity, psychological reasons (depression and/or neurosis), and peer or partner pressure in HCV-positive group, and fun, curiosity, and peer pressure in HCV-negative group (p = 0.051; chi2 = 23.6). Earlier onset of heroin use, longer heroin use, sharing injection equipment, curiosity, and psychological problems as reasons for starting drugs were associated with higher prevalence of HCV infection among injecting heroin users in Zadar County.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly.

  14. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling.

  15. Fog water collection with SFC on the mountain Velebit (Croatia) during the period 2000-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileta, M.; Likso, T.

    2010-07-01

    Zavižan (1594 m above sea level) is the highest mountain station in Croatia and it is equipped with SFC (standard fog collector). It is situated on Velebit Mountain which is the boundary between maritime and continental climate. The methodology used was described in Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) and is based on the use of the standard fog collector (SFC) of 1 m ² of polypropylene mesh. Fog water collection with SFC started in the summer 2000. With the annual mean temperature of 5. 1° C the year 2000 was the warmest year in the available measurements (1953-2009). A significant increase in annual temperature was observed during the whole period 2000-2009. Among ten the warmest years on Zavižan, five were observed in this century (2000, 2007, 2008, 2002 and 2009). The paper discusses the daily fog water amounts collected during the different long periods in the warm parts of the examined period 2000-2009. Fog water collected in days without precipitation are analysed separately. Also a number of days with fog in the monitoring period have been analysed with respect to the 1961-1990 reference period. Maximum one day value of 27.8 l /m² was recorded in October 2003, while the highest daily rate in days without rain was 19.0 l/m² in October 2002. Synoptic situation for days with maximum one day-value in 2009 has been analysed.

  16. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  17. Job satisfaction among medical doctors in one of the countries in transition: experience from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mrduljas-Dujić, Natasa; Kuzmanić, Marion; Kardum, Goran; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to explore and compare the job satisfaction between family physicians and hospital specialists in Split, Croatia. The survey was carried out in 2005 and 2006. A validated questionnaire was composed of two parts: 92 statements and questions about job satisfaction in the form of a Lickert scale (range 1-5) and eight questions concerning demographic issues. The questionnaire was completed and returned by 165 hospital specialists from the University Hospital and by 131 family physicians from the Split County. Response rate for family physicians was 39.81% and 41.46% for hospital specialists. Hospital doctors were divided in two groups: internal and surgical. There were no significant differences between family physicians and hospital specialists in total job satisfaction (F = 1.02; p = 0.41). Family physicians were more satisfied with their workplace conditions than internal medicine specialists (19.37 +/- 4.23 vs. 17.37 +/- 4.59; F = 5.93; p = 0.003), and less satisfied with the possibilities for postgraduate training than surgeons (5.27 +/- 1.90 vs. 6.59 +/- 2.07; F = 9.26; p < 0.001). Global job satisfaction was rather low but does not differ between the three medical groups. Disparities were observed in some segments (opportunity for further training and academic advancement, vacation, and salary). The reason for the family physician's relative satisfaction may be due to stable working conditions, independence in organizing work schedules and personal responsibility.

  18. Film and television in Croatia today: production, new technologies and the relationship with visual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Vidacković, Zlatko

    2013-03-01

    This paper seeks to explain some of the most important recent production and technological changes that have affected the relationship between television and film, especially in Croatia, from the aspect of the development of visual anthropology. In the production segment, special attention was given to the role of Croatian television stations in the production of movies, "splitting" the movies into mini-series, interrupting movies with commercial breaks, and to television movies turned into feature films. This paper tries to perceive and define the structure of methodical processes of visual anthropology (reactive process). The development of photographic and film technology and the events which led to the rapid development of visual culture also point to the inseparable duality of observing visual anthropology within reactive and proactive processes, which are indirectly closely related to the technical aspects of these processes. Defining the technical aspect of visual anthropology as such "service" necessarily interferes with the author's approach in the domain of the script and direction related procedures during pre-production, on the field and during post-production of the movie. The author's approach is important because in dependence on it, the desired spectrum of information "output", susceptible to subsequent scientific analysis, is achieved. Lastly, another important segment is the "distributive-technological process" because, regardless of the approach to the anthropologically relevant phenomenon which is being dealt with in an audio-visual piece of work, it is essential that the work be presented and viewed adequately.

  19. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48-77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded.

  20. Multiple co-infections of rodents with hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-05-01

    Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found.

  1. The MECP2 gene mutation screening in Rett syndrome patients from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Tanja; Knezević, Jelena; Barisić, Ingeborg; Resić, Biserka; Culić, Vida; Pavelić, Jasminka

    2006-12-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder almost exclusively affecting females and is usually sporadic. Mutations in MECP2 gene have been found in more than 80% of females with typical features of RTT. In this study, we analyzed 15 sporadic cases of RTT. In 7 of 15 patients (47%), we detected pathogenic mutations in the coding parts of MECP2 fourth exon. We found two missense (T158M, R133C), two nonsense (R168X, R270X), two frameshift mutations (P217fs and a double deletion of 28-bp at 1132-1159 and 10-bp at 1167-1176), and one in-frame deletion (L383_E392del10). To our knowledge, the last two mutations have not been reported yet. We also detected one previously described polymorphism (S194S). In conclusion, these results show that the fourth exon should be the first one analyzed because it harbors most of the known mutations. Moreover, mutation-negative cases should be further analyzed for gross rearrangements. This is the first study of its kind in Croatia and it enabled us to give the patients an early confirmation of RTT diagnosis.

  2. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  3. Terrestrial biodiversity analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): a complementary approach using diversity and rarity.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Sven D; Nikolić, Toni; Serić Jelaska, Lucija; Kusan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Guzvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  4. Nutritional quality of meals in nursing homes and meals on wheels for elderly persons in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barić, Irena Colić; Satalić, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of meals provided for elderly residents and non-residents of nursing homes in Croatia. Menus of 44 all-day meals provided for residents from 4 nursing homes and 34 meals on wheels provided for non-residents of low socioeconomic status were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used to determine socioeconomic status and attitude of residents (n = 89) and non-residents (n = 80) regarding meals offered. An average energy value of all-day meals and meals on wheels was 96.7 and 39.8% RDA respectively. All-day meals provide adequate amounts of the micronutrients examined (phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C) with exception of calcium. Fat provided 35% and 36% of energy for all-day meals and meals on wheels respectively. The body mass index (BMI) under 18.5 kg/m2 had 1.7% residents and 4.0% non-residents. BMI higher than 24.9 kg/m2 were observed in 50% and 47% of residents and non-residents respectively. Gender differences were observed for meal preferences offered to both residents and non-residents. The meals provided adequate amounts of energy and the micronutrients examined. However, a decrease in the energy fraction of fat and decrease in protein content would be advisable.

  5. Study of nitrogen pollution in Croatia by moss biomonitoring and Kjeldahl method.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Vučković, Ivana; Glad, Marin

    2014-01-01

    During the summer and autumn of 2006 moss samples were collected from 98 sampling sites evenly distributed all over the territory of Croatia. Moss sampling was repeated in 2010 when additional sampling sites were added and a total of 121 samples were collected. Kjeldahl method was used to determine the nitrogen content in the samples. Descriptive statistics and distribution maps were prepared. Data obtained from these two surveys were compared, and additional comparison was done with data obtained from similar studies in neighbouring countries and Finland as a clean area. The median value of N content in the samples collected in 2006 is 1.60% and varies from 0.79% to 3.16%. The content of N in samples collected in 2010 ranges between 0.71% and 2.93% with the median value of 1.49%. High contents of N (2.32% - 3.17%) were found in the regions of Slavonia, Podravina, Posavina and cities Zagreb and Sisak as a result of agricultural activities, industry and traffic.

  6. Secular trend of earlier onset and decelerated development of third molars: evidence from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Anja; Legovic, Mario; Mady Maricic, Barbara; Pavlic, Andrej; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the secular trend on development of third molars in 30 years period in Littoral region of Croatia. A total of 1103 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged from 6 to 18 years were analysed. First group comprised 531 panoramic radiographs (258 girls) taken from year period 1977 till 1979 and second group 572 radiographs (325 girls) taken from year period 2007 till 2009. Demirjian's method was used to determine the developmental stage of third molars. A secular trend in 30 years period was observed as earlier onset of third molars development in boys (6 months on average maxillary and 11 months mandibular) and girls (6 months for maxillary and 4 months for mandibular). Now-a-days, an increase in mineralisation for one Demirjian stage occurs at a slower pace of 5.2 months in boys and 3.4 in girls in maxilla and 2.3 or 2 months in mandible for boys and girls, respectively. The study showed a secular trend present as earlier onset but decelerated development of third molars in both genders and both jaws.

  7. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  8. An overview of mosquitoes and emerging arboviral infections in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Ana; Benic, Nikola; Krajcar, Darko; Kosanovic-Licina, Mirjana Lana; Tesic, Vanja; Merdic, Enrih; Vrucina, Ivana; Savic, Vladimir; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana

    2016-12-30

    Mosquito control in the Zagreb area has been conducted for many years, whereas the fauna has only been investigated in the last 20 years. So far 30 mosquito species have been detected in the city area. Culex pipiens form molestus is the dominant mosquito species in indoor breeding sites. In forested areas and areas exposed to flooding, the active period is early spring and the dominant species are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus geniculatus and Aedes vexans. The eudominant mosquito species found in the artificial breeding sites are Culex pipiens and the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Invasive Ae. albopictus, present in the Zagreb area since 2004, has expanded to a larger area of the city during the last three years. The recent emergence of the human West Nile virus and Usutu virus neuroinvasive disease in Zagreb and its surroundings highlighted the role of mosquitoes as vectors of emerging arboviruses. The paper focuses on mosquito species and arboviral infections detected in humans and animals in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

  9. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus.

  10. Regional turbidites and turbiditic environments developed during Neogene and Quaternary in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav

    2016-06-01

    The Croatian Neogene and Quaternary depositional sequences preserve a record of several different depositional environments with turbidite successions. These are turbiditic systems developed during the Late Miocene in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System and during the Pliocene and Pleistocene in the northern Adriatic Sea. The shape, salinity and depths of depositional areas were significantly different in these two depressional areas, but both were fed mostly with Alpine detritus. Neogene turbidites with lacustrine pelitic sedimentation formed thick heterogeneous sequences of sandstones and marls (totalling several hundreds to some thousands of metres in thickness in different depressional parts) of Upper Miocene age in Northern Croatia. By contrast, Pliocene and especially Pleistocene turbidites of the northern Adriatic were deposited in a marine environment where the total thickness of sand and clay sequences can reach up to several thousand metres. In both cases, individual sandy or sandstone turbiditic sequences (events) can reach several tens of metres in thickness. These turbidite clastic sediments are important hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  11. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    PubMed

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  12. Getting some insight into the home care nursing service in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Diana; Nižetić, Vlatka Topolovec; Razum, Zeljko; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Croatia, as the other Western societies are facing with the increasing share of the population over 65 years and consequently with more care-dependant people. Community living and care, including home care, is stimulating not just because of efficiency of care but also because of the peopleis preferences that home is a place of emotional and physical associations, memories and comfort. The aim of the study was to see if there is lack or surplus of Home care nursing services within the health care system. Data from the Croatian Health Insurance Fond Data base were analysed. The results of this research indicated that the number of inhabitants per one home nurse and physiotherapist contracted by the Croatian Health Insurance Fond was below the defined Standard. The average number of inhabitants per one home care nurse contracted by the CHIF for 2013 was 3373.9 compared to 3500 defined by the Standard. There was found also the huge regional differences in their distributions. The average number of contracted home physiotherapists for the same year was 9805.2 in comparison to the Standard, which was setup at the level of 15000 inhabitants per one physiotherapist.

  13. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  14. PAH content, toxicity and genotoxicity of coastal marine sediments from the Rovinj area, Northern Adriatic, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Fafandel, Maja; Hamer, Bojan; Kralj-Bilen, Blanka

    2006-08-01

    Surface marine sediments collected from 8 sampling sites within the Rovinj coastal area, Northern Adriatic, Croatia, were used for determining priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic/genotoxic potential of sediment organic extracts. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 32 microg/kg (protected area) to 13.2 mg/kg dry weight (harbor) and showed clear differences between pristine, urban industrial and harbor areas. PAHs distribution revealed their pyrogenic origin with some biogenic influence in harbor. At all sampling sites sediment extracts showed toxic potential that was consistent with the sediment type. No correlation between toxicity measured by Microtox assay and concentrations of individual or total PAHs was found. Noncytotoxic dose of sediment extracts showed no genotoxic potential in bacterial umu-test. DNA damage is positively related to total PAHs at 4 sampling sites (S-1, S-2, S-3, S-6), but the highest DNA damage was not observed at the site with the highest total sediment PAH content (S-5).

  15. Lower limb entheseal morphology in the Neandertal Krapina population (Croatia, 130,000 BP).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2011-06-01

    Although the Neandertal locomotor system has been shown to differ from Homo sapiens, characteristics of Neandertal entheses, the skeletal attachments for muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint capsules, have never been specifically investigated. Here, we analyse lower limb entheses of the Krapina Neandertal bones (Croatia, 130,000 BP) with the aim of determining how they compare with modern humans, using a standard developed by our research group for describing modern human entheseal variability. The entheses examined are those of the gluteus maximus, iliopsoas and vastus medialis on the femur, the quadriceps tendon on the patella, and soleus on the tibia. For the entheses showing a different morphological pattern from H. sapiens, we discuss the possibility of recognising genetic versus environmental causes. Our results indicate that only the gluteus maximus enthesis (the gluteal tuberosity), falls out of the modern human range of variation. It displays morphological features that could imply histological differences from modern humans, in particular the presence of fibrocartilage. In both H. sapiens and the Krapina Neandertals, the morphological pattern of this enthesis is the same in adult and immature femurs. These results can be interpreted in light of genetic differences between the two hominins. The possibility of functional adaptations to higher levels of mechanical load during life in the Neandertals seems less likely. The particular morphology and large dimensions of the Krapina enthesis, and perhaps its fibrocartilaginous nature, could have been selected for in association with other pelvic and lower limb characteristics, even if genetic drift cannot be ruled out.

  16. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

    2014-10-01

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. PSP toxins profile in ascidian Microcosmus vulgaris (Heller, 1877) after human poisoning in Croatia (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Roje-Busatto, Romana; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.

  18. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  19. Analysis of dust samples from urban and rural occupational environments in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica; Mustac, Marko; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2005-12-01

    This study estimated the exposure to dust mites in various occupational environments in Croatia. In total, 29 occupational dust samples were collected: 10 from urban areas (offices, archive of an insurance company, tobacco, paper-recycling, fish-processing and textile plants, animal unit for experimental rats, winery), nine from rural areas (barley, hay, animal food and flour warehouses, tailor's shops, wood processing plant, swine confinement house, grocer's storeroom), and 10 samples from cabins of five fishing boats (five floor and five bed samples). Mites were microscopically identified, and the levels of Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 allergens measured using the DUSTSCREEN test (Heska AG, Switzerland). Microscopy showed no mites in urban areas. Pyroglyphid mites (D. pteronyssinus) were found in all bed samples from fishing boats. Non-pyroglyphid mites were found in samples taken from barley, hay and animal food warehouses, the swine confinement house, grocer's storeroom, and fishing boats. Pyroglyphid mite allergens were detected in eight of 10 dust samples from the fishing boats. Median levels of Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 in cabin bed samples were 10 microg g(-1), 0.2 microg g(-1), and 3.5 microg g(-1), respectively. Our findings on fishing boats suggests that pyroglyphid mites could be considered work-related allergens for fishermen. The results of this study confirmed non-pyroglyphid mites as occupational risk factors in various rural environments.

  20. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction.

  1. Growth of Cobitis narentana Karaman, 1928 in the Neretva River, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Davor; Mrakovcić, Milorad; Schneider, Daniela; Mustafić, Perica; Caleta, Marko; Radić, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Age and growth of Cobitis narentana were examined in the delta of Neretva River in Croatia. Maximum observed length was 100.4 mm for females and 63.5 for males. Five age classes were determined, from 0+ to 4+. For both females (61.0%) and males (53.8%), the greatest proportion of specimens were in the 1+ age category. Growth was faster in males in the first year of life, while females grew at a faster rate than males after the first year. The Fulton condition factor was determined (CF=0.588 for males and CF=0.618 for females). The length-weight relationship was determined for females (W=8xl0(-5)L2.9325) and males (W=2x l0(-5)L2.6431). The parameter b was calculated as less than b=3.0, thus establishing that growth in both males and females was allometric. Growth rate was determined using the von Bertalanffy growth rate curves for females (Lt=101.1[ 1-e(-0.5(t-0.94)]; r2=0.99) and for males (Lt=65.3[1-e(-0.54(t-2.27)]; r2=0.97). The resulting growth rate coefficient (K) was found to be slightly higher in males (0.54) than in females (0.5).

  2. Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n., a new species from the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group from Croatia (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) with molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes on the group

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Szivák, Ildikó; Pauls, Steffen U.; Bálint, Miklós; Delić, Antun; Vučković, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new autumnal caddisfly species Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n. from 8 localities in the Banovina region of Croatia. We also present molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes (emergence, sex ratio and seasonal dynamics) on the new species and discuss the distribution of Chaetopteryx species in general and the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group in particular. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi was separated from the clade containing the other subspecies of Chaetopteryx rugulosa. Thus the subspecies Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi is here raised to species level, Chaetopteryx schmidi, as it was described originally. We further present distribution data on rare species in the genus Chaetopteryx in Croatia. PMID:23950680

  3. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  4. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities.

  5. The effects of water diversion and climate change on hydrological alteration and temperature regime of karst rivers in central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zganec, Krešimir

    2012-09-01

    Karst rivers in Croatia have been heavily dammed in the past. However, long-term impacts of dams, water diversion and climate change on karst rivers in Croatia have rarely been examined. This study analyzes long-term trends of hydrological and temperature conditions, prior to closure of new large dam, in five connected karst rivers of central Croatia: the sinking rivers Gornja Dobra and Zagorska Mrežnica that have underground connections with the Gojačka Dobra, Tounjčica and Mrežnica Rivers. It was established that hydrological conditions of these rivers have been greatly changed after the Gojak HPP, located at spring of Gojačka Dobra, became operational in 1959. Water diversion from the reservoirs on Zagorska Mrežnica and Gornja Dobra to the Gojak HPP has increased mean annual discharge (52-106%), causing great subdaily fluctuations and overall modification of natural flow regime along the whole course of Gojačka Dobra. By cutting the connection between Zagorska Mrežnica and Tounjčica, water diversion has caused a reduction of mean annual discharges of the Tounjčica (-60%) and Mrežnica (-29%) Rivers. Analyses of long-term trends in water temperature over the last 50 years have revealed significant positive trends in average annual temperature at three gauging stations on three rivers with increase of 0.17, 0.44 and 0.48°C per decade and climate change as the primary cause. The highest significant increasing trend was established at the lower course of Mrežnica where discharge was reduced by water diversion. Mitigation measures for the improvement of hydrological conditions of affected rivers and underground systems are proposed and discussed.

  6. New member of the family Niphargidae from Croatia, Niphargus radzai, sp. n. (contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda 273).

    PubMed

    Karaman, Gordan S

    2014-06-05

    One new species of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Niphargidae) from the subterranean waters (springs) above Ravno Vrdovo in Dinara Mountain, Croatia, is described. Niphargus radzai sp. n. belongs to the artificial group within Niphargus with elevated number of setae along outer margin of dactylus in gnathopods 1 and 2 and dactylus of some or all pereopods provided with additional spines along inner margin. The differences between N. radzai and some other similar members of this group of taxa are discussed.

  7. The cranial analysis of eight skulls from collective grave of the Early Bronze Age Vucedol site (East Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Hincak, Zdravka; Cavalli, Fabio; Durman, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    The collective grave of the Vucedol culture signed as "grave 3/1985" with skeletons of eight persons, represents the most important burial of this culture on the eponimic site in East Croatia, with several indications of human sacrifice. Anthropological and radiological analysis were performed on crania remains of the individuals, specifically on the skulls of one male and seven females. Nondestructive methods embraced craniometrical analysis, analysis of cranial non-metric traits and multivariate distance analysis, with a help of radiological methods, to detect every distinct anatomical characteristic of the skulls. All methods used in this work tried to present similarities and a possible homogeneity of the analysed individuals.

  8. Phylogenetic characterisation of feline immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected cats in Croatia indicates additional heterogeneity of subtype B in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perharić, Matko; Biđin, Marina; Starešina, Vilim; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Štritof, Zrinka; Hađina, Suzana; Habuš, Josipa; Stevanović, Vladimir; Mojčec-Perko, Vesna; Kovač, Snježana; Martinković, Krešimir; Barbić, Ljubo

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed on 29 domestic cats with a variety of clinical signs, possibly related to FIV infection. Blood samples were tested by a rapid immunochromatographic (ICA) procedure for detection of FIV antibodies. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a portion of the proviral gag gene. All 11 positive PCR products were sequenced and compared with previously reported FIV sequences. Croatian proviral isolates that could be amplified were clustered within subtype B, and additional heterogeneity was confirmed by the formation of three separate clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of circulating strains in Croatia and in southeast Europe is necessary to improve diagnostic methods and selection of the appropriate vaccinal strains.

  9. Brijuni Conference (10th), Imaging in Space and Time. Held in Brijuni, Croatia on 28 August-1 September 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Biermann, Germany T . Ebbesen S. D. Bosanac, Croatia G. Pichler E. Copeland, UK T . Ebbesen, France W. Klemperer, USA H. Kroto, UK U. Landman, USA Local...12.00 W. Klemperer: Molecular Imaging and Interstellar Chemistry 12.00-12.20 discussion LUNCH AND BEACH DISCUSSIONS Chairman: T . Zivkovi6 17.30-18.10 K...10.40-11.00 discussion 11.00-11.20 coffee break 11.20-12.00 T . Ebbesen: Optical diffraction of subwavelength apertures 12.00-12.20 discussion PICNIC

  10. Selenium in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Croatia: Relation to cadmium and mercury.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Kovačić, Jelena; Orct, Tatjana; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2014-01-01

    Muscle (n = 111), liver (n = 111), and kidney cortex (n = 101) samples from brown bears (Ursus arctos) were collected in the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons in Croatia and analysed for selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (Hg). The aim was to assess the levels of these elements according to age, sex, and season of collection, and to investigate possible Se/Cd and Se/Hg interactions. Median Se concentrations were 0.139 μg/g in muscle, 0.409 μg/g in liver and 1.75 μg/g wet mass in kidney cortex. Median Cd and Hg were 0.0078 and 0.0018 μg/g in muscle, 1.09 and 0.031 μg/g in liver, and 16.5 and 0.206 μg/g wet mass in the renal cortex, respectively. Se/Cd molar ratios were less than 1 in the kidney cortex, and close to or above 1 in liver and muscle, respectively. Toxic Cd and Hg correlated with Se in all of the studied tissues. Sex differences were found for all three elements (except Se in liver), with females having higher tissue concentration than males. Only Cd showed age-dependence. Bear samples collected in fall had higher Se in muscles, and Hg in muscles and liver compared to samples collected in spring. Element concentrations in brown bear tissues were within the range of previously reported studies. Bear meat is considered a rich source of Se, safe for consumption with regard to its Cd and Hg content. According to the molar ratio and correlation results, we assume that Se binding is not the primary detoxification pathway for Cd and Hg in brown bears.

  11. Influence of heredity and environment on peak bone density: a review of studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Colić Barić, Irena; Keser, Irena; Rumbak, Ivana; Šatalić, Zvonimir

    2012-01-01

    One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.

  12. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. Materials and methods EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Results Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Conclusion Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  13. Spatial distribution of soil chemical properties in an organic farm in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C

    2017-04-15

    Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) are some of the most important indicators of soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, especially in agricultural areas, with implications for crop production. The aim of this work was to study the spatial variability of pH, EC, OM, AP and AK using kriging and co-kriging methods in the Rasa River Valley (Croatia). As co-variates for each variable we considered the distance from the sea (DFS), distance from the river channels (DFC), pH, EC, OM, AP and AK. Only the variables with a significant correlation with the predictor were used as predictor variables. The results showed that soils of the study area had high pH, EC, OM and AK values and a low concentration of AP. The spatial variability was high for EC and low for pH levels. pH, EC, OM and AK had significant positive correlations. All these variables had significant negative correlations with AP. The exponential model was the best to model OM, AK and AP. Spherical and Gaussian models were the most accurate to model pH and EC. Spatial dependence was high for soil AK, EC and pH, and moderate for soil OM and AP. The incorporation of auxiliary variables increased the precision of the estimations. CoK_DFS was the best method to predict soil EC and AP, while Cok_EC, was better to estimate soil pH and Cok_pH and Cok_OM predicted soil OM and AK with the best accuracy. The maps produced with the best predictors showed that pH, EC, OM and AK had high levels in the northern and eastern parts of the study area. The opposite trend was identified in relation to the AP spatial pattern.

  14. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia – does it still exist?

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10 001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. Results The median MDSS score was 11 out of 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). Conclusion This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. PMID:27815932

  15. A molecular epidemiological study of human respiratory syncytial virus in Croatia, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Slovic, Anamarija; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Galinović, Gordana Mlinarić; Forcic, Dubravko

    2016-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes common respiratory tract infections in infants, young children and the elderly. The diversity of HRSV strains circulating in Croatia was investigated throughout a period of four consecutive years from March 2011-March 2014. The analysis was based on sequences from the second hypervariable region of the G gene. A predominance of HRSV group A was observed in the first three years of the study, while group B became slightly predominant during the first few months of 2014. Overall, 76% of viruses belonged to group A including the genotypes NA1, ON1 and GA5. NA1 was by far the most common genotype within group A in 2011-2013; however, only ON1 and a few GA5 viruses were detected in the first three months of 2014. The majority of group B strains were of genotype BA9 (97%), and a few BA10 genotypes were detected. BA9 had the highest substitution rate of all the detected genotypes, followed by ON1. Multiple analyses showed that HRSV group A strains were more diverse than group B strains. Gly at residue 232 (previously described to be specific for ON1) was also detected in three NA1 strains, which were phylogenetically placed on separate branches within the NA1 genotype. For all genotypes, the diversity was higher at the amino acid level than at the nucleotide level, although positive selection of mutations was shown for only a few sites using four different methods of codon-based analysis of selective pressure. More codons were predicted to be negatively selected. The complexity of the HRSV pools present during each epidemic peak was determined and compared to previous epidemiological data. In addition to presenting genetic versatility of HRSV in this geographic region, the collected sequences provide data for further geographical and temporal comparative analyses of HRSV and its evolutionary pathways.

  16. Long-term investigations of post-Chernobyl radiocaesium in fallout and air in North Croatia.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Sega, Kresimir; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The long-term behaviour of (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and fallout has been studied in the city of Zagreb for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2006) as a part of an extended monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Annual mean (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and annual total deposition fluxes (wet plus dry) decreased from 2.8 x 10(-4) Bq m(-3) in September 1986 to 3.0 x 10(-6) Bq m(-3) in last quarter of 2006 and from 6,410 Bq m(-2) year(-1) in 1986 to 2 Bq m(-2) year(-1) in 2006 respectively. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve the ecological half-lives of (137)Cs in air and fallout were estimated with respective values of 0.46 and 0.54 years for immediate post-Chernobyl period, increasing to 5.52 and 3.97 years afterwards. Using the data on (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and fallout total caesium deposition velocity of (3.34 +/- 3.13) x 10(-2) ms(-1) was estimated with median value being 2.13 x 10(-2) ms(-1). Such relatively high (137)Cs deposition velocities compared with pre-Chernobyl ones, are characteristic for the post-Chernobyl period and, according to Stokes' settling law, indicate that the diameters of aerosol particles associated with (137)Cs originated from the Chernobyl accident are pretty large, i.e. >1 microm. (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in fallout and in air has been found to be similar to the theoretically predicted values, initial value being about 0.5 and decreasing according to differential radioactive decay. The similar ratio has been observed in most of the other environmental samples.

  17. Population-based study of genetic variation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have mostly focused on large-scale population samples, but examination of rare variations in isolated populations may provide additional insights into the disease pathogenesis. Methods As a first step in the genetic analysis of ASD in Croatia, we characterized genetic variation in a sample of 103 subjects with ASD and 203 control individuals, who were genotyped using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip. We analyzed the genetic diversity of the Croatian population and its relationship to other populations, the degree of relatedness via Runs of Homozygosity (ROHs), and the distribution of large (>500 Kb) copy number variations. Results Combining the Croatian cohort with several previously published populations in the FastME analysis (an alternative to Neighbor Joining) revealed that Croatian subjects cluster, as expected, with Southern Europeans; in addition, individuals from the same geographic region within Europe cluster together. Whereas Croatian subjects could be separated from a sample of healthy control subjects of European origin from North America, Croatian ASD cases and controls are well mixed. A comparison of runs of homozygosity indicated that the number and the median length of regions of homozygosity are higher for ASD subjects than for controls (p = 6 × 10-3). Furthermore, analysis of copy number variants found a higher frequency of large chromosomal rearrangements (>2 Mb) in ASD cases (5/103) than in ethnically matched control subjects (1/197, p = 0.019). Conclusions Our findings illustrate the remarkable utility of high-density genotype data for subjects from a limited geographic area in dissecting genetic heterogeneity with respect to population and disease related variation. PMID:20858243

  18. Study Protocol on Cognitive Performance in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands: The Normacog Brief Battery

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Lea; Bojanić, Lana; Tsvetanova, Desislava D.; Buabang, Eike K.; de Bles, Nienke J.; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Dijkzeul, Annet; Del Pino, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    The Normacog Brief Battery (NBB) provides a comprehensive overview of an individual’s cognitive functioning within a short amount of time. It was originally developed for the Spanish population in Spain. However, there is a considerable need for brief batteries in clinical neuropsychological assessment, especially in eastern European countries. Cultural background and other individual characteristics—such as age, level of education, and sex—are shown to influence both cognition and patients’ performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to develop understanding of how and why culture impacts on cognitive testing and determine which sociodemographic variables affect cognitive performance. The current study aims to translate, adapt, and standardize the NBB in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands, and to analyze the effect of sex, age, and education level on cognitive performance between these three countries. This brief battery assesses eleven cognitive domains, including those most currently relevant in cognition such as premorbid intelligence, attention, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The translation and adaptation of the battery for different cultures will be done using the back-translation process. After exclusion criteria, the current study will include a total sample of 300 participants (≥18 years old). The samples of 100 participants per country will be balanced through the consideration of their age and level of education. Effects of the sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, and sex) on cognitive performance are expected. Furthermore, this relationship is expected to differ across countries. A multivariate hierarchical linear regression will be used and exploratory analysis will be carried out to investigate further effects. The results will be particularly valuable for future research and assessment in cognitive performance. The growing demand for accurate and fast neuropsychological

  19. Overview of the first HyMeX special observation period over Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivančan-Picek, Branka; Tudor, Martina; Horvath, Kristian; Stanešić, Antonio; Ivatek-Šahdan, Stjepan

    2016-12-01

    The HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) is intended to improve the capabilities of predicting high-impact weather events. Within its framework, the aim of the first special observation period (SOP1), 5 September to 6 November 2012, was to study heavy precipitation events and flash floods. Here, we present high-impact weather events over Croatia that occurred during SOP1. Particular attention is given to eight intense observation periods (IOPs), during which high precipitation occurred over the eastern Adriatic and Dinaric Alps. During the entire SOP1, the operational model forecasts generally well represented medium intensity precipitation, but heavy precipitation was frequently underestimated by the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing and was overestimated at a higher resolution (2 km grid spacing). During IOP2, intensive rainfall occurred over a wider area around the city of Rijeka in the northern Adriatic. The short-range maximum rainfall totals were the largest ever recorded at the Rijeka station since the beginning of measurements in 1958. The rainfall amounts measured in intervals of 20, 30 and 40 min were exceptional, with return periods that exceeded a thousand, a few hundred and one hundred years, respectively. The operational precipitation forecast using the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing provided guidance regarding the event but underestimated the rainfall intensity. An evaluation of numerical sensitivity experiments suggested that the forecast was slightly enhanced by improving the initial conditions through variational data assimilation. The operational non-hydrostatic run at a 2 km grid spacing using a configuration with the ALARO physics package further improved the forecast. This article highlights the need for an intensive observation period in the future over the Adriatic region to validate the simulated mechanisms and improve numerical weather predictions via data assimilation and model improvements in descriptions

  20. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija

    2016-03-01

    In the Eastern Croatia impressive loess-paleosol successions up to 30 m thick are exposed. In the Zmajevac I section three paleosols are intercalated in loess while in the Zmajevac, Erdut and Šarengrad sections there are four paleosols are intercalated in loess. IRSL age estimates of 17.8 ± 1.9 and 217 ± 22 ka. In all investigated sections, alluvial sediments are intercalated in the loess deposits, indicating periods of fluvial activity. Strongly abraded typical aeolian spherical grains characterized by pitted well-rounded surface that was developed during transportation have original crystal surface almost destroyed. Surface of quartz grains preserves micro textures characteristic for all transport medias that it has been exposed to. However, muscovite grain surface enable successful distinguishing if the last transport was by wind or by aquatic media. Characteristic of all horizons with muscovite as a dominant mineral is recent settling of organisms. Beside the Danube, Drava and Sava River flood plains, part of the analyzed sediments also originates from regional Tertiary sediments which are rich in granite (as a muscovite-bearing rock), indicating the local influence. Enrichment of pyroxenes in the Šarengrad section points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone as its source of origin eroded by the Sava River southern tributaries. Šarengrad section is the southernmost among the analyzed sections and the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin. Thus, beside the Alpine region, the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia. Warming periods are not represented just by paleosols, but also with laminated alluvial sediments.

  1. New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ahern, James C M; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja; Janković, Ivor; Smith, Fred H

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with excavations during the 1970s, Vindija Cave (Croatia) has yielded significant Middle and Upper Paleolithic fossil and archaeological finds. We report on seven recently identified hominid fossils, a newly associated partial hominid cranial vault from level G(3), nine possible bone retouchers, and a revised interpretation of the Mousterian artifact assemblage from the site. This new information reinforces our knowledge of the complex biocultural phenomena revealed in unit G and earlier deposits at Vindija. Six of the new hominid fossils derive from stratigraphic units G and I, while one lacks exact provenience. All specimens preserving diagnostic anatomy are from Neandertals. One of the postcranial remains, a radius fragment which exhibits Neandertal-like anatomy, comes from level G(1)and is congruent with the previously established association of Neandertals with an early Upper Paleolithic industry at the site. The partial cranial vault represents the most complete Neandertal from Vindija. The possible retouchers derive from unit G. Our analysis of these artifacts suggests that both percussion and pressure techniques may have been used by Neandertals in the final stage of tool production (retouching). This paper also presents a revision of the artifact analysis for late Mousterian level G(3). We separated raw materials into two main groups due to the differing ways that the materials fracture and the differing morphology of the debitage. The use of raw material in level G(3)is different from earlier Middle Paleolithic levels at Vindija. This indicates that the G(3)late Neandertals were making choices regarding source material somewhat more like the Upper Paleolithic people at the site. When interpreted within a larger regional framework, the Vindija archaeological and hominid fossil remains demonstrate a complex, mosaic pattern of biocultural change in the Late Pleistocene of south-central Europe.

  2. Epidemiology of dermatomycosis in the eastern Croatia--today and yesterday.

    PubMed

    Barisić-Drusko, Vladimira; Rucević, Ivana; Biljan, Darko; Jukić, Zlatica

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to compare the distribution of dermatomycosis species in Eastern Croatia between two different periods: first period from 1997-2001 year, and second period from 1986-88 year. The outpatients from Department of Dermatovenerology University Hospital "Osijek" with confirmed diagnosis infection. Tinea, were selected on the basis o age, gender, localization and dermatomycosis species. During the first period (1997-2001) among 75,691 outpatients Tinea infection was confirmed in 558 (0.73%), while in the second period among 47,832 outpatients there were 126 (0.26%) cases with Tinea, what showed significant increase of fungal infections among population this region. According the age and gender in both periods predominant population were under of the age 16(40.14%: 41.26%), and female population was predominant (58.60% and 57.14%) in comparison to males (41.39% and 42.85%). The most frequent localization of lesions in period I were cutis glabrae (47.31%), palms and soles (31.36%), capitis (17.38%) and unguis (9.31%) and isolated species were as followed: Trichophyton (39.06%), Microsporum (31.72%) and Candida (28.13%) species. In period II the most frequent localization were palms and soles (40.47%), cutis glabrae (36.50%), capitis (12.69%) and unguis (10.31%). The isolated species in this period were: Trichophyton (80.15%), Candida (12.69%) and Microsporum (4.76%) species. From the data collected during two different periods we can observe 1) increase of fungal infection generally in our region; 2) significant changes in causative species (increase of Microsporum and Candida species infection, but Trichophyton spp still remain the first causative agent); and 3) changes in the localization of lesions.

  3. PATHS in Croatia: A school-based randomised-controlled trial of a social and emotional learning curriculum.

    PubMed

    Novak, Miranda; Mihić, Josipa; Bašić, Josipa; Nix, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the first rigorous evaluation of a social-emotional learning curriculum, PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Kusché & Greenberg, 1994), in elementary schools in Croatia. This study randomly assigned 29 schools to receive the universal preventive intervention or continue with usual practices. Within those schools, this study included 57 classrooms and 568 children. Teachers rated nine child behaviours in the middle of first grade (pre-intervention) and near the end of second grade (post-intervention). Hierarchical linear models, nesting children within classrooms, revealed few changes in behaviour across the sample as a whole or among higher risk children. However, there were changes on eight of the nine behaviours for lower risk children. The findings are considered in the context of the classroom culture and teachers' preparation and readiness to implement a social-emotional learning curriculum in Croatia. This study highlights the need to supplement universal preventive interventions with selective preventive interventions that can provide more intensive and targeted skill practice for higher risk children. This study also highlights the nuanced effects of a universal preventive intervention in helping different children in different ways.

  4. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  5. Repeat HIV Testing at Voluntary Testing and Counseling Centers in Croatia: Successful HIV Prevention or Failure to Modify Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595

  6. HIV risks and HIV prevention among female sex workers in two largest urban settings in Croatia, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Landripet, Ivan; Božić, Jasmina; Božičević, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Harm reduction-based HIV prevention has been in place among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia for more than a decade. However, little is known about how well the existing programs meet the needs of FSWs in an environment where sex work remains criminalized and highly stigmatized. This study aims to assess changes in FSWs' vulnerability to HIV infection in the 2008-2014 period. Using convenience samples of FSWs in Croatia's two largest urban settings, behavioral data were collected in 2007-2008 and 2014. Outreach workers interviewed 154 FSWs in the first wave of the survey and 158 in the second. The period under observation was characterized by a stable prevalence of most HIV-relevant risk behaviors and experiences. Significant changes in client-based victimization and HIV knowledge were observed only among FSWs in the capital city. Substantial and mostly sustained levels of sexual and nonsexual victimization call for more research into the limits of the current behavior-based harm reduction approach to HIV prevention in the country.

  7. A five-year follow-up study of the general public awareness and perception of epilepsy in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bagić, Dragan; Mastilica, Miroslav; Bagić, Anto

    2012-10-01

    Public reception of epilepsy in Croatia was re-assessed in 2009, 5 years after an initial survey, by interviewing 1000 randomly selected adults. Ninety-two percent (-5.0%) of the respondents had heard about epilepsy, 47% (-7.9%) knew someone with epilepsy, and 38.6% (-6.0%) had witnessed a seizure. Interviewees were quite ready to accept a person with epilepsy. Almost 8% (+1.1%) would object if their child played with a child with epilepsy, and 77.8% (+1.8%) believed that a child with epilepsy could succeed as well as a child without epilepsy. Although 45.9% (-6.6%) would approach a person having a seizure and help, 36.1% (+3.0%) would also call "911." Citizens of Croatia re-declared a high tolerance toward people with epilepsy and positive attitude toward children with epilepsy. Experiential factors remained strong predictors of more positive attitudes. A more prominent role of patients and implementation of social marketing in addressing a large persisting degree of prejudice and stigmatization worldwide are warranted.

  8. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  9. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  10. The story of the Croatian village of Rude after fifty years of compulsory salt iodination in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Dabelić, Nina; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Nõthig-Hus, Dunja; Lukinac, Ljerka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2008-12-01

    The village of Rude is situated near Zagreb, the capital of Croatia in the last Alpine valley on Balkan. In the past, the village was well-known area of severe iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). In 1952', distinguished Croatian endocrinologist Professor Josip Matovinović carried out detailed village survey. Goiter prevalence in school-age children was 85.0% (with 2.3% of cretins in the village). In 1953, the first regulation on compulsory salt iodination with 10 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in former Yugoslavia. Ten years later a dramatic decrease in goiter prevalence was recorded in all endangered areas of the country and no new cretins appeared. However, at the beginning of 1990' mild to moderate iodine deficiency still persisted in Croatia. In 1991, the village of Rude survey demonstrated goiter prevalence in school-age children of 35.0% and median of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) of 7.4 microg/dL. In 1996, the new obligatory regulation with 25 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in Croatia. The study aim was to monitor IDD status in the village after the new law on compulsory salt iodination. Measurements of UIE and thyroid volumes (Tvol) by ultrasound were performed in 7-11-y-old schoolchildren living in the village of Rude. Medians of UIE and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Tvol in boys and girls were calculated. The study included 84 children in 1997, 132 in 2000, 72 in 2002, 85 in 2003 and 46 in 2004 for UIE measurement. Thyroid volumes were measured in 1999 (43 boys and 26 girls) and in 2005 (22 boys and 26 girls). Data were compared with the new WHO/ICCIDD reference values. Medians of UIE in schoolchildren from the village of Rude demonstrated rising values in microg/dL: 11.4 in 1997, 14.3 in 2000, 17.3 in 2002, 15.4 in 2003 and 19.0 in 2004. Significant decrease in BSA-adjusted Tvol was recorded from 1999-2005 in boys and girls from the village of Rude and in 2005 Tvol were within the normal range according to the new international reference

  11. Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E in Selected Population Groups in Croatia: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, T; Vilibic, M; Kolaric, B; Jemersic, L; Kucinar, J; Barbic, L; Bagaric, A; Stevanovic, V; Tabain, I; Sviben, M; Jukic, V; Mlinaric-Galinovic, G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E has become an emerging infection in many European countries. We analysed the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in selected population groups in Croatia. Overall HEV IgG seropositivity was 5.6%, while 1.9% participants showed IgM antibodies suggestive of recent infection. No IgM-positive sample was positive for HEV RNA. HEV IgG antibodies were most prevalent in alcohol abusers (8.9%) and war veterans (8.6%), compared with 6.1% among injecting drug users and 2.7% in healthcare professionals. No individual with high-risk sexual behaviour tested HEV seropositive. HEV IgG positivity increased significantly with age from 1.8% to 2.3% in individuals younger than 40 years to 11.3% in individuals older than 50 years (P = 0.023). The mean age of HEV-positive participants was significantly higher than that of HEV-negative participants (50.9 ± 11.8 years versus 41.2 ± 11.8 years, P = 0.008). Seroprevalence rates were significantly higher in residents of suburban and rural areas compared with residents of urban areas (14.5% versus 2.5%, P = 0.003). Additionally, an increasing prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was observed from 1.8% in participants living in families with two household members to 12.1% in those living with more than four members (P = 0.046). Gender, marital status, educational level, sexual orientation, source of drinking water, history of blood transfusions, surgical procedures, tattooing and travelling were not associated with HEV seroprevalence. Logistic regression showed that living in suburban/rural areas was the main risk factor for HEV seropositivity (OR = 6.67; 95%CI = 1.89-25.0; AOR = 7.14, 95%CI = 1.89-25.0).

  12. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  13. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Pećina-Slaus, Nives; Brkić, Hrvoje; Balicević, Drinko; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Pećina, Tatjana Cicvara

    2007-08-24

    From 1996 to the present, the remains of 61 individuals killed during the 1991 War in Croatia were recovered from both dried out and functioning wells. Positive identification was established in 60.7% or 37/61 cases. Remains recovered from the same geographical region but from non-well settings were identified in 77.4% or 1256/1623 cases. The purpose of this paper is to report on the taphonomic, demographic and trauma characteristics of remains recovered from wells and identify factors responsible for the discrepancy in the identification ratios. The age and sex distributions in the well and non-well series were similar, as were the frequencies of recovered personal documents, jewelry and other artifacts. The taphonomic features of the remains were, however, significantly different. Preservation of remains was considerably better in non-well settings (1400/1623 or 86.3% compared to 40/61 or 65.5% in wells). Congruently, commingling of remains was more frequent in wells (26/61 or 42.6% compared to 77/1623 or 4.7% in non-well settings). In bodies recovered from non-well settings the preservation, state and commingling of the remains were strongly correlated with positive identification. None of these features were correlated with the identification of bodies from wells. Instead, identification of remains from wells was significantly affected by the presence or absence of water in the well. As both series have similar frequencies, and identical rankings of identification factors, the reason for the discrepancy in the identification ratios lies in the fact that by themselves, these factors were rarely sufficient for positive identification. In both series the majority of identifications (51.4% in the well, and 58.1% in the non-well series) were established through a combination of biological and non-biological features. The significantly lower identification ratio in the well series resulted from the difficult recovery conditions in wells with significant amounts of

  14. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  15. Distribution of trace metals in anchialine caves of Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Mlakar, Marina

    2011-11-01

    This study presents results of the first comprehensive research on ecotoxic trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) in aquatic anchialine ecosystems. Data show the influence of hydrological and geological characteristics on trace metals in highly stratified anchialine water columns. Distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in two anchialine water bodies, Bjejajka Cave and Lenga Pit in the Mljet National park, Croatia were investigated seasonally from 2006 to 2010. Behaviour and concentrations of dissolved and total trace metals in stratified water columns and metal contents in sediment, carbonate rocks and soil of the anchialine environment were evaluated. Trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in both anchialine water columns were significantly elevated compared to adjacent seawater. Zn and Cu concentrations were the highest in the Lenga Pit water column and sediment. Elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cu in Bjejajka Cave were mainly terrigenous. Significantly elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 0.3 μg L -1) were found in the water column of Bjejajka cave, almost two orders of magnitude higher compared to nearby surface seawater. Laboratory analysis revealed that bat guano was the major source of cadmium in Bjejajka Cave. Cadmium levels in Lenga Pit, which lacks accumulations of bat guano, were 20-fold lower. Moreover, low metal amounts in carbonate rocks in both caves, combined with mineral leaching experiments, revealed that carbonates play a minor role as a source of metals in both water columns. We observed two types of vertical distribution pattern of cadmium in the stratified anchialine Bjejajka Cave water column. At lower salinities, non-conservative behaviour was characterized by strong desorption and enrichment of dissolved phase while, at salinities above 20, Cd behaved conservatively and its dissolved concentration decreased. Conservative behaviour of Cu, Pb, Zn and DOC was observed throughout the water column. After heavy rains, Cd

  16. Relations between of the Pleistocene glaciations and karstification processes on Velebit Mt. (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocic, Neven

    2014-05-01

    Velebit is the Dinaric karst mountain. It is located in Croatia and extends to a length of 145 km along the northern part of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The highest peak is 1757 m high. It is mostly made of well karstified carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite and carbonate clastic rocks). Glaciation of this region has long attracted researchers. Studies have shown that a large part of the area was affected by the Pleistocene glaciation. These results have prompted questions about the impact of glaciation on the development of karst, especially underground karst formations - caves in this area. This work explores the impact of Pleistocene glaciations on karst development in the northern and central Velebit. Special emphasis is given to the research on the impact of glaciation on the development and morphology of caves, which is analyzed in few examples. The main methods used are geomorphological mapping and speleological research. Also, some sedimentological methods were used and 14C dating of the flowstone crust was provided. Studies on some sites are already well advanced while in some localities are only just begun. In the area of Jezera (Lakes in Croatian, northern part of the mountain) we noticed that the moraine material affects the appearance of the small occasional streams with cutting small torrents and surface erosion processes. In areas where the moraine cover is thinner or missing rekarstification of bedrock is visible, and occasional short streams sinking at contact zone of the moraine material and bedrock. In glacial valley Lomska duliba is the Ledena jama (Ice cave), 536 meters deep characterized by ice accumulation thicker than 50 m. During this study we have been mapped moraine forms along the valley and found that the same material plugs parts of the pit which led to its further dynamics. Great influence on the development of glaciation surface and underground karst forms was studied in Štirovača (middle Velebit area). Here is the 351

  17. Anthropological analysis of neolithic and Early Bronze Age skeletons--a classical and molecular approach (East Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Hincak, Zdravka; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Mihelić, Damir

    2007-12-01

    Theories about the first Indo-European migration are numerous. Significant contribution in attempt to resolve these theories is given by analysing skeletal material from two biggest prehistoric archaeological sites from N-E Croatia. Eight skeletons of Starcevo culture from sites "Nama" and "Hotel" at Vinkovci (6100-5500 BC) and seven skeletons of Vucedol culture from the site Vineyard Streim at Vucedol near Vukovar (3000-2500 BC) were analysed. Methods of classical anthropological analysis tried to distinguish the differences among members of both populations, while the methods of molecular genetics were used in defining possible genetic structure of both ancient populations. Established differences speak on the behalf of the theory of Maria Gimbutas about the first Indo-European migration with a cattle breeding population from the east around 3500 BC.

  18. Holistic anthropological research of Hvar Islanders, Croatia--from parish registries to DNA studies in 33 years.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Pavao; Janićijević, Branka; Jovanović, Veljko; Milicić, Jasna; Narancić, Nina Smolej; Sujoldzić, Anita; Szirovicza, Lajos; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Lauc, Tomislav; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Pericić, Marijana; Rudan, Diana; Rudan, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of interactions between hereditary, environmental and cultural factors in determining human phenotypes is often underestimated in biomedical research. In this paper, we present 33 years of holistic anthropological research that was being conducted since 1971 in the island of Hvar, Croatia. During this period, detailed characterization of migrations, demography, isonymy, linguistic differences, anthropometric traits (head and body dimensions), physiological (cardio-respiratory) properties, quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphic traits, radiogrammetric metacarpal bone dimensions and genetic traits (classical antigens, HLA diversity, DNA short tandem repeat -STR, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms) was performed. The analysis of this large collection of data using both model-bound and model-free approaches showed that the complexity underlying human biological traits may be considerably greater than generally assumed, which has important implications for design of future studies into genetic determinants of complex traits.

  19. Sources, trends and ecotoxicological risks of PAH pollution in surface sediments from the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the levels, sources and historical trends (2007-2012) of PAH pollution in surface sediments in the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) have been assessed. In addition, ecotoxicological risks have been estimated by evaluating the PAH dataset against Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The results indicate that PAH in surface sediments are of pyrolitic origin with no clear positive or negative trend in PAH concentration over the investigated period. Evaluations against SQG and mSQGq indicate that surface sediments at all sampling sites have a low to medium ecotoxicological risk. In order to improve trend analysis and characterization of PAH pollution in surface sediments in this region an increase in spatial resolution of sampling points is recommended.

  20. Modelling of maturation, expulsion and accumulation of bacterial methane within Ravneš Member (Pliocene age), Croatia onshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial methane is a dominant hydrocarbon component in the Northern Croatia's Adriatic offshore proven hydrocarbon reservoirs. As onshore reserves are declining the potential of shallow gas accumulation, analogue to the Adriatic ones, are being tested. A part of the Lonja Formation (Pliocene Pleistocene and Holocene), the Ravneš Member (Early Pliocene age) is analysed for its maturation and expulsion regarding bacterial methane as potential source and reservoir rocks, especially as it is thermally immature. Two approaches were used for the initial lithology modelling processes - the convergent interpolation and sequential Gaussian simulation. Possibility for trapping and forming of accumulations was also modelled. Results show that selected member has a large source rock potential for bacterial methane with a total volume of 411.53 × 109 m3 for the Convergent interpolation model and 520.56 × 109 m3 for the sequential Gaussian simulation model of expulsed bacterial methane

  1. The fouling of fish farm cage nets as bioindicator of aquaculture pollution in the Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Sliskovic, Merica; Jelic-Mrcelic, Gorana; Antolic, Boris; Anicic, Ivica

    2011-02-01

    A fouling assemblage (including density, species richness and diversity, and biomass) growing on netting of fish farm cages was investigated in Stracinska Bay--Location 1 and Peles Bay--Location 2 (Croatia) in order to test the efficiency of fouling as a bioindicator of organic pollution. A total number of 40 algal taxa in Location 1 and total number of 22 algal taxa in Location 2 were identified, with a dominance of opportunistic species (ESG II). We found domination of algal species over animal species and absolute dominance of Rhodophyta which are typical fouler in the Adriatic Sea. Low diversity and species richness with increase in value of the R/P index (occasionally higher than 6) were recorded in Location 2, indicating a certain impact of nutrient enrichment from fish culture facilities on a fouling community structure.

  2. Primary healthcare information system--the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare sector in Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Koncar, Miroslav; Gvozdanović, Darko

    2006-01-01

    At no time in the history of medicine has the growth in knowledge and technologies been so profound [Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2001. ISBN 0-309-07280-8]. However, healthcare delivery systems today are not able to keep up with the pace. Studies have shown that it takes an average of about 17 years for new knowledge generated by randomized trials to be incorporated into practice [B. Andrew, S. Boren, Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement, in: Yearbook of Medical Informatics, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 2000, pp. 65-70]. It is safe to say that today healthcare systems "have the data, but not information". In order to provide highest quality patient care, Republic of Croatia has started the process of introducing enterprise information systems to support business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: to provide efficient healthcare related data management in support of decision-making processes; and to support continuous process of healthcare resources spending optimization. The first initiated project refers to Primary Healthcare Information System (PHCIS) that provides domain of primary care with state-of-the-art enterprise information system that connects General Practitioners, Pediatricians and Gynecologists offices with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Public Health Institute. In the years to come, PHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of healthcare (e.g. hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories) into single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of PHCIS, explains challenges that were faced in designing and implementing the system, and elaborates PHCIS role as the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare provisioning in Republic of Croatia.

  3. Test and evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI dual sensor systems at Benkovac test site in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Furuta, K.; Pavković, Nikola

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental design and the evaluation result of a trial that were carried out from 1 February to 9 March 2006 using real PMA-1A and PMA-2 landmines at the Benkovac test site in Croatia. The objective of the Croatia- Japan joint trial is to evaluate dual sensor systems, which use both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductive (EMI) sensors. A comparative trial was also carried out by Croatian deminers using an existing EMI sensor, i.e., a metal detector (MD). The trial aims at evaluating differences in performance between dual sensors and MDs, especially in terms of discrimination of landmines from metal fragments and extension of detectable range in the depth direction. Devices evaluated here are 4 prototypes of anti-personnel landmine detection systems developed under a project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the supervising authority of which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The prototypes provide operators with subsurface images, and final decision whether a shadow in the image is a real landmine or not is left to the operator. This is similar to the way that medical doctors find cancer by reading CT images. Since operators' pre-knowledge of locations of buried targets significantly influences the test result, three test lanes, which have 3 different kinds of soils, have been designed to be suitable for blind tests. The result showed that the dual sensor systems have a potential to discriminate landmines from metal fragments and that probability of detection for small targets in mineralized soils can be improved by using GPR.

  4. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of dew and rain water in the Dalmatian coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Lekouch, I.; Muselli, M.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, I.; Sojat, V.

    2010-07-01

    The possibility to use dew water as a supplementary source of water is evaluated in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. The relative contributions of dew and rain water and their chemical quality is estimated. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 to October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data. Maximum yields were 0.41 mm (Zadar) and 0.6 mm (Komiža). The mean yearly cumulative yields were 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). During the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. The chemical properties of dew water versus rain water were analyzed during three years (2004 - 2006) in Zadar. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-,NO3-), major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195.5 microS cm-1 (dew) and EC = 178.1 microS cm-1 (rain). The ratio (SO42- + NO3-) / (Ca2+ + Mg2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably NO2-,HCOO- and CH3COO- non-measured ions), with Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na+ as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable

  7. Results from stable isotope investigations of river waters in Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, H.; Frančišković-Bilinski, S.; Rank, D.; Stadler, P.; Bilinski, H.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation (GNIP), revealing an approximate vertical d O-18 gradient of -0,30‰ per 100 m, as reported by Vreča et al. (2006). In addition, this stable isotope data for the GNIP station Zavižan predominantly indicates precipitation from the Adriatic coast, in contrary to the GNIP station Zagreb, the precipitation of which is more influenced by continental air masses. Due to the lack of local precipitation isotope data in the Kupa drainage basin it is not possible to directly analyse the modification of the isotopic signature and its temporal variation in river waters. To sum up, the isotopic composition of river waters in the Kupa Basin is controlled by two factors: the mean altitude of the recharge areas, and differences in the isotope composition of air moisture of more maritime or more continental influence. Along with use for hydrological investigations, the presented isotope data set can serve as a base line of isotope data for assessing future climate impacts within the Kupa Basin, such as temperature changes and change of precipitation distribution. Vreča, P., Bronić, I. K., Horvatinčić, N., Baresić, J. (2006): Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and marine stations.- Journal of Hydrology, 330, 457-469.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  9. Folnegović & Folnevogić-Smalc's "Schizophrenia in Croatia: inter-regional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence".

    PubMed

    Cooper, B; Eagles, J M

    1994-01-01

    "STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations."

  10. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Humski, Andrea; Njari, Bela; Ostović, Mario; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Summary In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. In 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multilocus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs) of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the first time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia. PMID:28115906

  11. Laboratory testing of extravascular body fluids in Croatia: a survey of the Working group for extravascular body fluids of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Vogrinc, Zeljka; Kocijan, Irena; Culej, Jelena; Aralica, Merica; Jokic, Anja; Antoncic, Dragana; Bozovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that extravascular body fluid (EBF) analysis in Croatia is not harmonized and aimed to investigate preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures used in EBF analysis in order to identify key aspects that should be addressed in future harmonization attempts. Materials and methods An anonymous online survey created to explore laboratory testing of EBF was sent to secondary, tertiary and private health care Medical Biochemistry Laboratories (MBLs) in Croatia. Statements were designed to address preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal (ascites), pericardial, seminal, synovial, amniotic fluid and sweat. Participants were asked to declare the strength of agreement with proposed statements using a Likert scale. Mean scores for corresponding separate statements divided according to health care setting were calculated and compared. Results The survey response rate was 0.64 (58 / 90). None of the participating private MBLs declared to analyse EBF. We report a mean score of 3.45 obtained for all statements evaluated. Deviations from desirable procedures were demonstrated in all EBF testing phases. Minor differences in procedures used for EBF analysis comparing secondary and tertiary health care MBLs were found. The lowest scores were obtained for statements regarding quality control procedures in EBF analysis, participation in proficiency testing programmes and provision of interpretative comments on EBF’s test reports. Conclusions Although good laboratory EBF practice is present in Croatia, procedures for EBF analysis should be further harmonized to improve the quality of EBF testing and patient safety. PMID:27812307

  12. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  13. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future

  14. Variability of the needle essential oils of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS from different populations in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Bojović, Srđan; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2013-01-01

    The essential-oil compositions of one Croatian and three Serbian populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS have been determined by GC/MS analysis. In total, 147 compounds were identified, representing 97.3-98.3% of the oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes, which are characteristic components for the species of the section Juniperus. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, with a summed-up average content of 49.45%. Statistical methods were used to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the newly described J. deltoides populations from Serbia and Croatia. Only reports on several specimens from this species have been reported so far, and there are no studies that treat population diversity. Cluster analysis of the oil contents of 21 terpenes showed high correlation with the geographical distribution of the populations, separating the Croatian from the Serbian populations. The comparison of the essential-oil compositions obtained in the present study with literature data, showed the separation of J. deltoides and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from the western Mediterranean region.

  15. Prostitutes and criminals: beginnings of eugenics in Croatia in the works of Fran Gundrum from Oriovac (1856-1919)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum’s ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum’s theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum’s project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement. PMID:22522997

  16. Prostitutes and criminals: beginnings of eugenics in Croatia in the works of Fran Gundrum from Oriovac (1856-1919).

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2012-04-01

    Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum's ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum's theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum's project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement.

  17. A six decades long follow-up on body size in adolescents from Zagreb, Croatia (1951-2010).

    PubMed

    Zajc Petranović, Matea; Tomas, Željka; Smolej Narančić, Nina; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Veček, Andrea; Miličić, Jasna

    2014-03-01

    Most studies analysing the influence of socioeconomic deterioration on body size focus on the impact of food shortages and diseases on the growth in early childhood. To evaluate how socioeconomic conditions influence the growth during the adolescence, we tracked the body size of 15-19 year-olds over the last sixty years covering the socialist period (1951-1990), the war (1991-1995) and the transition to capitalistic economy. This study of Zagreb, Croatia, adolescent population provides information on the secular trend in height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) and examines their relation with Real Gross Domestic Product. From 1951 to 2010 the girls' height approximately increased by 6.2cm and weight by 6.8kg, while the boys' height increased by 12.2cm and weight by 17.3kg. Prior to 1991 mean BMI in girls was higher than in boys, but from 1991 on, the interrelation between the sexes has been opposite, possibly mirroring the cultural trends that started in mid-1970s and reflecting higher sensitivity of boys to the socioeconomic changes. In conclusion, the secular trend in body size over the investigated period reflects the positive economic trends interrupted by the war. The recent increase in BMI corresponds to the country's economic recovery and indicates the "nutrition transition".

  18. Mercury in Eisenia fetida and soil in the vicinity of a natural gas treatment plant in northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnić, Andreja Prevendar; Zgorelec, Željka; Šuran, Jelena; Jurasović, Jasna; Špirić, Zdravko; Levak, Stefani; Bašić, Ferdo; Kisić, Ivica; Srebočan, Emil

    2016-01-28

    In the last two decades (1990-2012), as part of a mercury monitoring programme, earthworms and soils have been collected from four locations in the vicinity of a natural gas production and treatment plant near the village of Molve, Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of mercury in the collected samples, monitor its changes over a longer period of time and determine the bioaccumulation of total mercury in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the soil. Total mercury concentrations in earthworms from the surroundings of four boreholes (Molve 9-12) ranged within 0.195-1.050, 0.129-1.0, 0.229-1.236 and 0.223-0.799 μg g(-1) dry weight, while total mercury concentrations in different soil types at the same locations within 0.055-0.350, 0.035-0.250, 0.031-0.240 and 0.071-0.475 μg Hg g(-1) of soil. The calculated mercury bioaccumulation factor ranged between 0.9 and 17.5. Mercury levels in soil and earthworms, as a tool for soil pollution assessment, suggested low mercury exposure and risks for human health in the monitored area.

  19. The town of Cabar, Croatia, a high risk area for multiple sclerosis--analytic epidemiology of dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Perković, Olivio; Jurjević, Ante; Rudez, Josip; Antoncić, Igor; Bralić, Marina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelization disease of central nervous system of unidentified causes. Analytic epidemiological research of 19 patients, clinically approved cases of MS and 25 controls, autochthonic inhabitants of town of Cabar, Croatia, the high-risk zone for the disease, was made. The research plan included case-control investigation--the "door to door" questionnaire--about nutrition habits. An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for all the factors which were more frequently found in the patients than in the controls, and vice versa. The variables that were connected with significant risk for MS in the town of Cabar included: alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), animal fats/dried meat products consumption (p = 0.007), nitrate salting (p = 0.03), strong spices (p = 0.007), mixed bread (p = 0.002), oat and oat products consumption (p = 0.0075). No connection was found with regular consumption of vegetables and fruit (p = 0.009), blue fresh fish (p = 0.028), other fresh fish (p = 0.03), freshwater fish (p = 0.002), canned fish (p = 0.004), dormouse meat (p = 0.007), air-dried meat products (p = 0.004) and using the water from water supply (p = 0.011). In the town of Cabar nutritional customs, primarily food rich in animal fats, alcohol-abuse, and oat consumption could have an influence on MS pathogenesis in genetically inclined individuals.

  20. Patterns of internet use and mental health of high school students in Istria County, Croatia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bezinović, Petar; Roviš, Darko; Rončević, Nena; Bilajac, Lovorka

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine associations between different forms of internet use and a number of psychological variables related to mental health in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of students (N = 1539) from all high schools in the region of Istria in Croatia (14-19 years). The associations between four factors of internet use and nine mental health indicators were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Results The four canonical functions suggested a significant association between different types of internet use and specific indicators of mental health (P < 0.001). Problematic internet use, more typical among boys, was associated with general aggressive behavior and substance abuse (P < 0.001). Experiences of harassment, more typical among girls, were associated with health complaints, symptoms of depression, loneliness, and fear of negative evaluation (P < 0.001). Using the internet for communication and entertainment was associated with better relationships with peers (P < 0.001), while use of the internet for academic purposes was associated with conscientiousness (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that different patterns of internet use are significantly associated with specific sets of positive and negative mental health indicators. The data support the assumption that internet use can have both positive and adverse effects on the mental health of youth. PMID:26088855

  1. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  2. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama – Trojama Cave in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama—Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes “Metriocnemini” and “Orthocladiini”. Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe “Metriocnemini”. Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  3. Survey of T-2/HT-2 toxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vasilj, Višnja; Kudumija, Nina; Petrović, Danijela; Vilušić, Milica; Škrivanko, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of T-2/HT-2 toxins in different unprocessed cereals (n=201), as well as in marketed cereal-based products (n=58), feed components (n=191) and feedstuffs (n=91) coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The number of positive samples of unprocessed cereals for food production (>LOD) ranged from 30.4% in barley to 68.8% in oat whereas for feed components ranged from 26.9% in wheat to 86.1% in oat. The maximal values found in unprocessed oat and oat-based feed components were 304.2μg/kg and 521.0μg/kg, respectively. As for final products, the highest T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in oat flakes (89.4μg/kg) and calf feed (129.3μg/kg). Despite of the increased T-2/HT-2 concentrations found in some of the samples, the obtained values were unanimously lower than the indicative levels given as recommendations above which further investigations should be necessary performed.

  4. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  5. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmolc/kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmolc/kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmolc/kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  6. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmol c /kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmol c /kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmol c /kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  7. The study on air pollution with nickel and vanadium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Bačeva, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    Moss samples were collected from 121 sampling sites all over Croatia during the summer and autumn of 2010. They were totally digested by using microwave digestion system and analysed by using atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Descriptive statistics and maps of distribution were made. The data obtained in this study were compared with those from the study in 2006 and additionally with the data obtained in the similar studies in neighbouring countries and Norway as pristine area. The median value of nickel is 3.16 mg kg(-1) and the content varies from 1.04 to 14.66 mg kg(-1). The content of vanadium ranges between 0.23 and 37.26 mg kg(-1) with the median value of 2.55 mg kg(-1). High contents of these elements are found in the vicinity of Rijeka, Zagreb and Sisak as a result of their emission from oil refinery, thermal power plant and industrial processes.

  8. Motivation and Career Perceptions of Dental Students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Material and Methods Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. Results A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. Conclussion The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process. PMID:27847393

  9. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  10. Association of trait and specific hopes: cross sectional study on students and workers of health professions in Split, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Domagoj; Marušić, Matko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hope (hoping) is most commonly assessed as a dispositional trait and associated with quality of life, self-care agency and non-attempts of suicide. However, little research has been conducted on hoping for specific events. Materials and Methods. We distributed a survey consisting of Integrative Hope Scale (IHS) and visual analogue scales on which respondents could declare their levels (intensity) of hope for specific events, to all first year health students enrolled at the University Department of Health Studies, Split, Croatia in 2011/2012, as well as to working health professionals attending a nursing conference in April 2012. Results. A total of 161 (89.4%) students and 88 (89.8%) working health professionals returned the completed questionnaires. We found high trait hope scores of students and working health professionals (Md = 111, 95% CI [109–113] vs. Md = 115, 95% CI [112–119]; U = 5,353, P = 0.065), and weak to moderate correlations of trait and specific hopes (r = 0.18–0.48, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient). Students and workers reported 31 different things they hoped for most in life, of which the most prevalent were being healthy and happy. There was very little agreement between participants’ reported influence of the four factors compromising the trait hope (self-confidence, ambition, optimism, and social support) on their specific hopes. Conclusions. Our findings, while strengthening the validity of hope as a trait, indicate that specific hopes of individuals are moderated by factors not captured by the IHS trait scale. Further research should explore specific hoping in detail, as well as the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing specific or generalized hoping. PMID:26819851

  11. Post-Roman sea-level changes on Pag Island (Adriatic Sea): Dating Croatia's "enigmatic" coastal notch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Flaux, Clément; Vacchi, Matteo; Miko, Slobodan; Dumas, Vincent; Boetto, Giulia; Radic Rossi, Irena

    2014-09-01

    The presence of a regional-wide notch (45 to 115 cm below present biological mean sea level [BMSL]) along the Adriatic coast of Croatia, at a string of sites between Zadar and Rijeka, provides evidence for a rapid but poorly constrained subsidence event(s) after Roman times. For more than a century, this geomorphological tidal level indicator has attracted rich scientific debate but many unresolved questions remain. In this paper, we present new results from Caska Bay (Pag Island) looking at notch morphology and Holocene salt-marsh stratigraphy to constrain the chronology of this crustal deformation on Pag Island. The typical salt-marsh stratigraphy comprises low to high salt-marsh muds interjected by an unconformable marine layer (which lies between - 50 and - 100 cm BMSL) consistent with an abrupt transgression. The palaeoecological record shows an abrupt shift in assemblages across the salt-marsh mud-sand sediment contact translating abrupt coastal changes. Geochronological data constrain this event to around 1000 to 1200 cal. AD. The altitude of the layer is coeval with the submerged notch attested on limestone cliffs around the bay. The U-shape of the notch profile, coupled with the sharp palaecological contacts and submerged Roman pier, implies that sea-level rise was episodic and not gradual as suggested by regional numerical models. Together, our findings shed new light on the chronology of the "enigmatic" Croatian notch on the island of Pag, and highlight the need to couple geomorphological studies of rocky coasts with high-resolution sediment records.

  12. A comparison of interpolation methods on the basis of data obtained from a bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiljeg, A.; Lozić, S.; Šiljeg, S.

    2015-08-01

    The bathymetric survey of Lake Vrana included a wide range of activities that were performed in several different stages, in accordance with the standards set by the International Hydrographic Organization. The survey was conducted using an integrated measuring system which consisted of three main parts: a single-beam sonar HydroStar 4300 and GPS devices; a Ashtech ProMark 500 base, and a Thales Z-Max® rover. A total of 12 851 points were gathered. In order to find continuous surfaces necessary for analysing the morphology of the bed of Lake Vrana, it was necessary to approximate values in certain areas that were not directly measured, by using an appropriate interpolation method. The main aims of this research were as follows: (a) to compare the efficiency of 14 different interpolation methods and discover the most appropriate interpolators for the development of a raster model; (b) to calculate the surface area and volume of Lake Vrana, and (c) to compare the differences in calculations between separate raster models. The best deterministic method of interpolation was multiquadric RBF (radio basis function), and the best geostatistical method was ordinary cokriging. The root mean square error in both methods measured less than 0.3 m. The quality of the interpolation methods was analysed in two phases. The first phase used only points gathered by bathymetric measurement, while the second phase also included points gathered by photogrammetric restitution. The first bathymetric map of Lake Vrana in Croatia was produced, as well as scenarios of minimum and maximum water levels. The calculation also included the percentage of flooded areas and cadastre plots in the case of a 2 m increase in the water level. The research presented new scientific and methodological data related to the bathymetric features, surface area and volume of Lake Vrana.

  13. The Empirical Comparison of Coordinate Transformation Models and Distortion Modeling Methods Based on a Case Study of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgic, M.; Varga, M.; Bašić, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several coordinate transformation models enable performing of the coordinate transformations between the historical astro-geodetic datums, which were utilized before the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technologies were developed, and datums related to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), which today are most often used to determine the position. The decision on the most appropriate coordinate transformation model is influenced by many factors, such as: required accuracy, available computational resources, possibility of the model application regarding the size and shape of the territory, coordinate distortion that very often exist in historical astro-geodetic datums, etc. This study is based on the geodetic data of the Republic of Croatia in both, historical and ITRS-related datum. It investigates different transformation models, including conformal Molodensky 3 parameters (p) and 5p (standard and abridged) transformation models, 7p transformation models (Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas model), Affine transformation models (8p, 9p, 12p), and Multiple Regression Equation approach. Besides, it investigates the 7p, 8p, 9p, and 12p transformation models extended with distortion modeling, and the grid based only transformation model (NTv2 model). Furthermore, several distortion modeling methods were used to produce various models of distortion shifts in different resolutions. Thereafter, their performance and the performance of the transformation models was evaluated using summary statistics derived from the remained positional residuals that were computed for the independent control spatial data set. Lastly, the most appropriate method(s) of distortion modeling and most appropriate coordinate transformation model(s) were defined regarding the required accuracy for the Croatian case.

  14. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends. PMID:27327498

  15. Development of genetics in the world and in Croatia--forty years of the Croatian Society of Human Genetics of the Croatian Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Zergollern-Ĉupak, Ljiljana; Barišić, Ingeborg; Moronin Pohovski, Leona

    2014-09-01

    Resulting from several basic scientific disciplines, genetics has made impressive progress in the last century by discoveries of the heredity rules and genome structure, and by identification of the genes that determine the occurrence and characteristics of human diseases. In Croatia, the development of genetics began in the middle of the past century by the pioneering work of clinicians and basic scientists, which resulted in significant development of this scientific discipline that has quickly found its practical application in clinical genetics-cytogenetics, molecular genetics and prenatal diagnosis. The rapid advancement of technology and knowledge of genetics in recent decades has led to the development of genomics and related disciplines, entering the revolutionary new era of personalized medicine. Currently, much more data can be collected than interpreted. The data of electronic medical records, genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, meta- bolomics and microbiomics should be integrated and interpreted at the level of individual genome. Extensive use of new information will open a range of ethical issues that we must face timely. It is expected that in the forthcoming years, we will be able to learn more about genetics than what we have learned throughout the history of medicine. We must be prepared to welcome this new knowledge, reflecting on the positive and negative aspects of the latest achievements in the field ofgenetics. We hope that the experts dealing with human genetics in Croatia will successfully continue their work to enable practical application of the latest achievements in genetics, expanding our understanding of the concept of health and disease.

  16. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in Croatia in 2010-2011: a season with predominant circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Kurečić Filipović, S; Gjenero-Margan, I; Kissling, E; Kaić, B; Cvitković, A

    2015-09-01

    This is a retrospective study using the test-negative case-control method to estimate seasonal 2010-2011 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Croatia. Of patients consulting a physician for influenza-like illness (ILI) and for whom a swab was taken, we compared RT-PCR influenza-positive and RT-PCR influenza-negative patients. We used a structured questionnaire and physicians' records to obtain information on vaccination status and potential confounders. We conducted a complete case analysis using logistic regression to measure adjusted VE overall, against A(H1N1)pdm09 and in age groups. Out of 785 interviewed patients, 495 eligible patients were included in the study, after applying exclusion criteria [217 cases, of which 92·6% were A(H1N1)pdm09 positive, 278 controls]. Crude VE was 31·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) -40·9 to 67·1] and adjusted VE was 20·7% (95% CI -71·4 to 63·3), with higher VE in youngest and oldest age groups. Results from this first VE study in Croatia suggest a low to moderate VE for the 2010-2011 season. Studies year on year are needed with a greater sample size to provide more precise estimates, and also by age group and risk groups for vaccination.

  17. The secular trend in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the region of Osijek, Eastern Croatia in the period 1988-2000--a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, D; Barac, B; Trkanjec, Z; Kadojić, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the possible environmental influences in the observed peculiar rising and falling oscillations in the numbers of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in Eastern Croatia (region of Osijek) during the last thirteen-years' period (1988-2000). In this period 1,222 HS were registered and treated. A constant increase in the incidence of HS was observed, from 60 (in 1988) to 139 (in 1998), with an average annual proportion of 16.5% of all stroke cases. A sharp increase in proportion of HS in total stroke incidence was recorded during the war in Croatia (1991-1995), with a peak incidence of 27.4% in 1993. Typical hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was the most common (57.1%), atypical ICH occurred in 26.4%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 16.5%. Analysis of the annual number of hypertensive-ICH and SAH disclosed peculiar rising and falling oscillations. These variations were in correlation with heavy living conditions. During the war-period the SAH incidence sharply rose. Immediately after the war it suddenly decreased. The authors named this phenomenon a "pool depletion", supposing the relatively stable proportion of the bearers of aneurysms in population. The observed variations seem to be the consequence of the war stress and other negative psychosocial and economic factors in post-war period, which increases the risk for SAH and typical hypertensive-ICH through complex pathophysiological mechanisms.

  18. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P < 0.05). Using the same approach we did not find evidence for a negative impact of wolves on the prey populations, both wild ungulates and livestock. We encourage strict protection of wolf in Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  19. Current practice in laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. 
Survey of the Working group for laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Andrea Tešija; Đerek, Lovorka; Kozmar, Ana; Drvar, Vedrana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the trend of increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, laboratories are faced with exponential growth of the requests for tests relating the diagnosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, the lack of laboratory personnel experienced in this specific discipline of laboratory diagnostic, as well as an unawareness of a method limitation often results in confusion for clinicians. The aim was to gain insight into number and type of Croatian laboratories that perform humoral diagnostics with the final goal to improve and harmonize laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. Materials and methods In order to get insight into current laboratory practice two questionnaires, consisting of 42 questions in total, were created. Surveys were conducted using SurveyMonkey application and were sent to 88 medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia for the first survey. Out of 33 laboratories that declared to perform diagnostic from the scope, 19 were selected for the second survey based on the tests they pleaded to perform. The survey comprised questions regarding autoantibody hallmarks of systemic autoimmune diseases while regarding organ-specific autoimmune diseases was limited to diseases of liver, gastrointestinal and nervous system. Results Response rate was high with 80 / 88 (91%) laboratories which answered the first questionnaire, and 19 / 19 (1.0) for the second questionnaire. Obtained results of surveys indicate high heterogeneity in the performance of autoantibody testing among laboratories in Croatia. Conclusions Results indicate the need of creating recommendations and algorithms in order to harmonize the approach to laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. PMID:27812306

  20. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question

  1. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  2. Postal censorship of Bosnian public health institutions during the Second World War: The Independent State of Croatia versus Dr. Stanko Sielski.

    PubMed

    Papalas, John A; Tahirović, Husref

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to present evidence of censorship during World War II by the Independent State of Croatia of one of its public health officials, Dr. Stanko Sielski who was a physician trained in epidemiology and public health. During World War II, he directed the Institute for Combating Endemic Syphilis in the Bosnian town Banja Luka. The staff under his direction consisted solely of Jewish physicians. We analyzed two groups of envelopes either sent by or to Dr. Stanko Sielski during the War and found evidence of censorship only in communications with a Jewish physician dated towards the end of the War. Dr. Stanko Sielski would be posthumously recognized for his efforts to shield his Jewish colleagues.

  3. Are the residents of former Yugoslavia still exposed to elevated PCB levels due to the Balkan wars? Part 1: Air sampling in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jirí; Kostrhounová, Romana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) spilled into the environment as a result of damaged industrial and military targets, natural resources, and infrastructure during the Balkan wars still pose a problem several years later. The aim of this project was to investigate an extent to which the residents of former Yugoslavia are exposed to elevated levels of POPs as a consequence of the wars. The atmospheric as well as the soil levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina during five high volume air sampling campaigns in 2003 and 2004. A considerable contamination of several sites was detected (PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged between 67 pg m(-3) and 40 ng m(-3) for the sum of 7 indicator congeners) and the levels are reported in this article.

  4. Comparison of occurrence of upper urinary tract carcinomas in the region with endemic villages and non-endemic nephropathy region in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belicza, Mladen; Demirović, Alma; Tomić, Karla; Lenicek, Tanja; Pavić, Ivana; Jakovina, Krunoslav; Vukelić, Mato; Jakovina, Tratincica; Misić, Maja; Kruslin, Bozo

    2008-12-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease of a still unknown etiology, associated with an increased frequency of urothelial carcinoma, particularly of the upper urinary tract (UUT). The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of UUT carcinomas between Brodsko-Posavska Region (BPR) which is the region with endemic villages and the non-endemic region of Zagreb (ZG) in two six-year periods with a 20 year period separating the two, pointing out a possible difference in occurrence regarding war in Croatia (1991-1995). Comparing BPR and ZG regions we found a more then 5 times higher frequency of UUT carcinomas in BPR in the first period and more than 4.5 times higher frequency in the second period. Women in BPR were more frequently affected with UUT carcinomas.

  5. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  6. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  7. Taxonomic value of morphological and morphometrical characters in the immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2014-08-28

    The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae. 

  8. Analysis of monthly, winter, and annual temperatures in Zagreb, Croatia, from 1864 to 2010: the 7.7-year cycle and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Ogrin, Darko

    2016-02-01

    Long instrumental records of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation are very useful for studying regional climate in the past, present, and future. They can also be useful for understanding the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation processes on the regional climate. This paper investigates the monthly, winter, and annual temperature time series obtained from the instrumental records in Zagreb, Croatia, for the period 1864-2010. Using wavelet analysis, the dominant modes of variability in these temperature series are identified, and the time intervals over which these modes may persist are delineated. The results reveal that all three temperature records exhibit low-frequency variability with a dominant periodicity at around 7.7 years. The 7.7-year cycle has also been observed in the temperature data recorded at several other stations in Europe, especially in Northern and Western Europe, and may be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and/or solar/geomagnetic activity.

  9. Using hydrochemical data and modelling to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and quality in an alluvial aquifer of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Tamara; Brkić, Željka; Larva, Ozren

    2013-08-01

    The Zagreb alluvial aquifer system is located in the southwest of the Pannonian Basin in the Sava Valley in Croatia. It is composed of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and is highly utilised, primarily as a water supply for the more than one million inhabitants of the capital city of Croatia. To determine the origin and dynamics of the groundwater and to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and the interactions between the groundwater and surface water, extensive hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations have been completed. The groundwater levels monitored in nested observation wells and the lithological profile indicate that the aquifer is a single hydrogeologic unit, but the geochemical characteristics of the aquifer indicate stratification. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals has an important role in groundwater chemistry, especially in the area where old meanders of the Sava River existed. Groundwater quality was observed to be better in the deeper parts of the aquifer than in the shallower parts. Furthermore, deterioration of the groundwater quality was observed in the area under the influence of the landfill. The stable isotopic composition of all sampled waters indicates meteoric origin. NETPATH-WIN was used to calculate the mixing proportions between initial waters (water from the Sava River and groundwater from "regional" flow) in the final water (groundwater sampled from observation wells). According to the results, the mixing proportions of "regional" flow and the river water depend on hydrological conditions, the duration of certain hydrological conditions and the vicinity of the Sava River. Moreover, although the aquifer system behaves as a single hydrogeologic unit from a hydraulic point of view, it still clearly demonstrates geochemical stratification, which could be a decisive factor in future utilisation strategies for the aquifer system.

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure and subdivision of local Balkan pig breeds in Austria, Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and its practical value in conservation programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present the Croatian Turopolje pig population comprises about 157 breeding animals. In Austria, 324 Turopolje pigs originating from six Croatian founder animals are registered. Multiple bottlenecks have occurred in this population, one major one rather recently and several more older and moderate ones. In addition, it has been subdivided into three subpopulations, one in Austria and two in Croatia, with restricted gene flow. These specificities explain the delicate situation of this endangered Croatian lard-type pig breed. Methods In order to identify candidate breeding animals or gene pools for future conservation breeding programs, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of this breed using microsatellite data from 197 individuals belonging to five different breeds. Results The genetic diversity of the Turopolje pig is dramatically low with observed heterozygosities values ranging from 0.38 to 0.57. Split into three populations since 1994, two genetic clusters could be identified: one highly conserved Croatian gene pool in Turopoljski Lug and the"Posavina" gene pool mainly present in the Austrian population. The second Croatian subpopulation in Lonjsko Polje in the Posavina region shows a constant gene flow from the Turopoljski Lug animals. Conclusions One practical conclusion is that it is necessary to develop a "Posavina" boar line to preserve the "Posavina" gene pool and constitute a corresponding population in Croatia. Animals of the highly inbred herd in Turopoljski Lug should not be crossed with animals of other populations since they represent a specific phenotype-genotype combination. However to increase the genetic diversity of this herd, a program to optimize its sex ratio should be carried out, as was done in the Austrian population where the level of heterozygosity has remained moderate despite its heavy bottleneck in 1994. PMID:22376364

  11. The rock magnetic characteristics of last glacial cycle loess from the island of Susak (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Duchoslav, Maguerita; Rolf, Christian; Wacha, Lara; Frechen, Manfred; Galovic, Lidija

    2010-05-01

    Loess is by far the most important terrestrial archive that provides detailed palaeoclimatic information for the whole Quaternary. Loess covers wide areas in Asia and Southeast Europe where continental and sub-continental climates predominate. In Mediterranean climate settings, however, loess deposits are almost absent and the few existing sites provide invaluable palaeoclimatic information. Heller & Liu (1984) were the first who used magnetic susceptibility variations in Chinese loess to correlate the loess deposits to marine records. The susceptibility variations in the loess-palaeosol couplets resemble the pattern of the global ice volume record with higher values in palaeosols (interglacials) and lower values in loess (glacials). In most parts of the Eurasian loess belt, the intensity of pedogenesis leads to enhancement of magnetic minerals in soils. However, in other parts of the world under different climatic conditions, even depletion of the magnetic fraction could be observed. Furthermore, the wind strength during dust transport and loess deposition also seems to control the magnetic mineralogy. With stronger winds, minerals with higher density such as iron oxides are enriched during aeolian transport. Here we report on first results from a detailed rock magnetic investigation of a loess sequence from the Adriatic coast of Croatia. The Pjeskokop site is located on the island of Susak in the northern Dalmatian archipelago. On Susak, aeolian sands, sandy loess and loess have been deposited on Cretaceous marine limestones and form an up to 20 metres thick Pleistocene sediment blanket (Cremaschi 1990). At the Pjeskokop site, non-oriented samples were collected with narrow spacing (~2 cm) from a more than 11 metres high section. All samples were subjected to standard rock laboratory procedures. Detailed petrographical and grain size studies on parallel samples are in progress. A strongly rubified pedo-complex forms the base of the sequence. Weakly developed

  12. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  13. [Quality of health care, accreditation, and health technology assessment in Croatia: role of agency for quality and accreditation in health].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Renato; Huić, Mirjana; Mestrović, Josipa

    2010-12-01

    standards, and providing other services in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring, according to the Act. Formal activities of the Agency in the field of HTA actually began in summer 2009. In the field of quality and accreditation, the plan and program of healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring was finished and published in October 2010; preparation of the healthcare quality standards as well as the accreditation standards is still in process, with the aim to start accreditation process at 10 hospitals in 2011. Education in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement and promotion has been established as a continuous process from the beginning. The Agency is member of the International Society for Quality in Health Care (ISQua) and participates in the work of the European Accreditation Network (EAN). In the field of HTA, the Agency has established international collaboration and support, which resulted in its appointment and participation in the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Joint Action Project as a EUnetHTA Partner, as well as its membership in the international society, HTAi. TAIEX project has been approved as a two-day workshop in December 2010. The Croatian HTA Guidelines have been issued with the aim to start the HTA process and reports that should serve as recommendations, as a support to policy-makers at the national level, in particular the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and Croatian Institute of Health Insurance, in making evidence-informed decisions on the strategic planning, investment, management and implementation of technologies in health care, on funding (reimbursement) and coverage of health technologies, and at hospital level on the request from hospital directors and policy teams. In conclusion, establishment of all these measures in Croatia is by no means an easy and quick process, however, we do believe that it is feasible

  14. Freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the open sea: the Mljet Lakes (Croatia, Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincic, Urska; Bezak, Nejc; Zagar, Dusan; Makovec, Tihomir; Lucic, Davor; Onofri, Vladimir; Malacic, Vlado

    2016-04-01

    Two karstic seawater lakes (Veliko - Big and Malo - Small Lake) located in the National Park Mljet on the Mljet Island in Croatia were investigated in this study. The Small and the Big Lake cover 0.25 and 1.45 km2, respectively. The two lakes are connected to each other and to the sea by narrow channels. The connecting channel between the Big Lake and the sea is 12 m wide and 3 m deep. The connection to the Small Lake leads through another artificial channel (2.7 m wide and 0.8 m deep). The average salinity of the Big and the Small lake is 37.75 and 36.9, respectively, and the average salinity of the open sea is 38.5. While previous studies have been conducted due to the lakes' unique ecosystem and the karstic characteristics of the area, the main aim of this study was to determine the freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the nearby sea. Several measurement campaigns were performed between 2008 and 2015 when meteorological parameters as well as salinity, water temperature and water velocities in both lakes and the channels were observed. A perpetual year was determined using available meteorological data. The contribution of the surface runoff to both lakes was modelled using the hydrological rainfall-runoff HEC-HMS model. Curve number parameter was estimated using the CLC Corine Land cover and geomorphological maps. Evaporation from the lake was calculated using the Verburg, Kondo and Coare equations. We found that the annual evaporation approximately equals the annual rainfall to the lake surface (cca. 550-600 mm). From the hydrological model and the difference between precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface we calculated the annual net excess of freshwater between 0.5 106 and 0.7 106 m3. The average salinity in both lakes is lower than the salinity in the sea; therefore, we hypothesize that the excess water should be discharged either through the channel between the Big Lake and the open sea or through underwater karstic sink

  15. Ombla Spring, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanović, P.

    1996-03-01

    Ombla Spring is located on the Adriatic coast near the town of Dubrovnik. The spring discharges at sea level. To eliminate the influence of the tide, a small dam was constructed 50 m downstream of the spring outlet. The spring water overflows the dam crest at an elevation of 2.40 m. Since 1897 the springwater has been used for the water supply for Dubrovnik.

  16. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia.

  17. Multiple introduction of Asian H5N1 avian influenza virus in Croatia by wild birds during 2005-2006 and isolation of the virus from apparently healthy black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Savić, Vladimir; Labrović, Ankica; Zelenika, Tajana Amsel; Balenović, Mirta; Separović, Sanja; Jurinović, Luka

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the introduction and spread of avian influenza A (H5N1) subtype in Croatia. Seventeen isolates were identified during the period from October 2005 to March 2006, all originating from wild birds. The full-length nucleotide sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of seven representative isolates revealed that three distinct genetic strains involved in the outbreaks, implicating at least three independent introductions of the virus into Croatia during a relatively short period of time. All three genetic strains belonged to clade 2.2 (Qinghai-like viruses) and each strain displayed significant similarity to concurrent H5N1 viruses from other European countries. The dominant strain of the virus was present in all four affected areas and in all three bird species (mute swan, mallard, and black-headed gull), indicating cross-species transmission of the virus. Two other genetic strains were found, together with the dominant strain, only in a marsh at the Adriatic coast during late February and early March 2006, which could be associated with frozen water surfaces in the continental part of Croatia as well as in Eastern Europe in early 2006 and the movement of birds toward warmer areas. This is also the first isolation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype from apparently healthy black-headed gulls.

  18. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grzunov Letinić, Judita; Matek Sarić, Marijana; Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Varnai, Veda Marija; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Orct, Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant and lactating women and infants are vulnerable population groups for adverse effects of toxic metals due to their high nutritional needs and the resultant increased gastrointestinal absorption of both, essential and toxic elements. Although breastfeeding is recommended for infants worldwide, as human milk is the best source of nutrients and other required bioactive factors, it is also a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic substances including toxic metals and thus a source of infant exposure. The aim of this research was to assess health risks in breastfeeding women in the coastal area of the Republic of Croatia and their infants (N=107) due to maternal exposure to Cd and Pb via cigarette smoking, and Hg via seafood and dental amalgam fillings, and their interaction with essential elements. Biological markers of exposure were the concentrations of main toxic metals Pb, Cd and Hg in maternal blood and three types of breast milk throughout lactation stages. Biological markers of effects were the levels of essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal serum and breast milk. With regard to cigarette smoking as a source of exposure to Cd and Pb, there were effects of smoking on Cd concentration in blood and correlations between the smoking index and Cd concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.593; P<0.001) and mature milk (ρ=0.271; P=0.011) and Pb concentration in transitional milk (ρ=0.280; P=0.042). Regarding fish, we found correlations between weekly consumption frequency and total Hg concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.292; P=0.003) and mature milk (ρ=0.303; P=0.003). The number of dental amalgam fillings correlated with total Hg concentrations in colostrum (ρ=0.489; P=0.005) and transitional milk (ρ=0.309; P=0.018). As for the essential element status, only Se levels in maternal serum decreased by 10% in persons who continued smoking during pregnancy compared to non-smokers. In conclusion, the levels of main toxic metals Cd, Pb and Hg and

  19. Cross-sectional Biomonitoring of Metals in Adult Populations in Post-war Eastern Croatia: Differences Between Areas of Moderate and Heavy Combat

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Matijana; Miškulin, Maja; Puntarić, Dinko; Gmajnić, Rudika; Milas, Josip; Sipos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in metal and metalloid exposure between residents of areas in eastern Croatia exposed to heavy fighting during the war in Croatia and residents of areas exposed to moderate fighting. Methods Concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn), reported to be associated with military operations, were determined in hair, serum, and urine samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. A total of 127 and 46 participants from areas of heavy and moderate fighting, respectively, were included. Results Compared with participants from areas exposed to moderate fighting, participants from areas exposed to heavy fighting had significantly higher serum concentrations of Al (87.61 vs 42.75 μg/L, P = 0.007), As (5.05 ± 1.79 vs 4.16 ± 1.55 μg/L, P = 0.003), Ba (7.12 vs 6.01 μg/L, P = 0.044), and V (17.98 vs 16.84 μg/L, P = 0.008); significantly higher urine concentrations of As (43.90 vs 11.51 μg/L, P < 0.001) and Cd (0.67 vs 0.50 μg/L, P = 0.031); and significantly higher hair concentrations of Al (12.61 vs 7.33 μg/L, P < 0.001), As (0.32 vs 0.05 μg/L, P < 0.001), Cd (0.03 vs 0.02 μg/L, P = 0.002), Fe (22.58 vs 12.68 μg/L, P = 0.001), Pb (1.04 vs 0.69 μg/L, P = 0.006), and V (0.07 vs 0.03 μg/L, P < 0.001). Conclusion Differences between populations from eastern Croatian areas exposed to heavy and populations exposed to moderate fighting point to the need for extensive monitoring of metal and metalloid exposure, emphasizing the role of biomonitoring through ecologic and preventive activities. PMID:20960595

  20. Discovering the 60 years old secret: identification of the World War II mass grave victims from the island of Daksa near Dubrovnik, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Igor; Ljubković, Jelena; Sutlović, Davorka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To describe the organization, field work, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis conducted to identify the victims from a World War II mass grave found on the Dalmatian island of Daksa near Dubrovnik (Croatia) in 2009. Methods Excavation of the site was performed according to standard archeological procedures. Basic anthropological examination was made to determine the minimum number of victims, sex, age at death, and height. The bones with pathological and traumatic changes were identified. DNA was extracted from powdered bones and relatives’ blood samples. Y-chromosome and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) were used to establish the relationship of the remains with the putative family members. Results The remains were found to belong to at least 53 distinctive victims. All were male, mostly with gunshot wounds to the head. DNA analysis and cross-matching of the samples with relatives resulted in 14 positive identifications using the Y-chromosomal STRs and 4 positive identifications using the autosomal STRs. Conclusions This study showed that even in cases of more than 50-year-old, highly degraded human remains from mass graves, Y-chromosomal and autosomal STRs analysis can contribute to identification of the victims. PMID:21674828

  1. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnica, V.; Škarić, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Fazinić, S.; Jakšić, M.; Mudronja, D.; Pavličić, M.; Peranić, I.; Schreiner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as μ-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment.

  2. Assessment of possible human exposure to ochratoxin A in Croatia due to the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Vulić, Ana; Vahčić, Nada; Hengl, Brigita; Gross-Bošković, Andrea; Jurković, Martina; Kudumija, Nina; Pleadin, Jelka

    2016-09-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by the fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Data indicate a frequent OTA contamination of cereals and cereal products, and consequently also the contamination of meat and meat products. The aim of this study was to determine a possible level of meat product consumers' exposure to OTA through the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products available on the Croatian market. Data showed the weekly OTA intake of 90% of male dry-cured ham consumers to be a maximum of 51.9 ng kg(-1) b.w., i.e., far below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 120 ng kg(-1) b.w. weekly set out by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). OTA intake coming from the consumption of other meat products under study is lower and ranges from 0.1 to 42.1 ng kg(-1) b.w. weekly, dependent on the study. The study demonstrated that meat products in Croatia do not constitute a notable source of OTA in the human diet, so that the human health risk coming from the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products is negligible.

  3. Mercury in hares organs (Lepus europaeus Pallas) in the vicinity of the mercury-contaminated natural gas treatment plant in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades (1990-2008), as part of a comprehensive monitoring of the eco-system, hares were collected in the vicinity of the mercury contaminated natural gas production and treatment plant Molve, Croatia. Their organs (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) were analyzed for total mercury concentration by cold vapor AAS. The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in hares organs were 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.045, 0.022-0.126 and 0.0006-0.015 μg/g for muscle, liver, kidney and brain, respectively. The results of mercury measurements in hares organs during the period of last twenty years demonstrate a small but constant decline in concentration values. Comparing the results obtained in this study with results published in available data and literature on mercury concentration in hare's tissue it can be concluded that area investigated in this research belongs to low mercury contaminated region. Nevertheless, further eco-monitoring and mercury measurements in various hares organs are valuable and necessary and will be continued.

  4. Survey of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead in kidney of cattle, horse, sheep and pigs from rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dokić, Maja; Sedak, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Trace element (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) concentrations were determined in the kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs from rural areas of Croatia. Arsenic concentrations in kidney tissues ranged from 0.013 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in As kidney levels were observed among species. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in horses and ranged 0.029-47.4 and 0.009-0.13 mg kg(-1), respectively. The European Union maximum levels for Cd in kidney were exceeded by 92.3% of horses, 14% of cattle and 16% of sheep. The highest mean Cu levels were found in sheep and horse (8.53 and 8.45 mg kg(-1)). Mean Hg concentrations in kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs were 0.051, 0.011, 0.034 and 0.094 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the highest levels of Pb were found in cattle (1.71 mg kg(-1)). Significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations between animal species were observed.

  5. Are the 1/3-Octave Band 63- and 125-Hz Noise Levels Predictive of Vessel Activity? The Case in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Gospić, Nikolina Rako

    2016-01-01

    A 3-years sea ambient-noise (SAN) monitoring was carried out in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago (Croatia), where a bottlenose dolphin population is threatened by unregulated nautical tourism. A total of 540 5-min SAN samples were collected and analyzed in an Indicator 11.2.1 (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) perspective. The 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 63 and 125 Hz (re 1 μPa.rms) proved to be predictive of local predominant ship type over time. However, the noisiest band level was centered on 200 Hz. We therefore suggest measuring a wider frequency band than those requested in Indicator 11.2.1.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ecotoxicological characterization of seawater, sediment, and mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Gulf of Rijeka, the Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Fafandel, Maja; Piskur, Vanda

    2007-04-01

    The pattern of spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater, sediment, and mussels, potential toxicity of different matrices, and mussel anoxic survival from six sampling sites of the Gulf of Rijeka, the Adriatic Sea, Croatia was examined. The total concentrations of 10 PAHs vary from below detection limit to 305 ng/L in seawater, from 213 to 695 microg/kg dry weight in sediment and from 49.2 to 134 ng/g wet weight in mussel tissue. Combustion is the principal source of PAH contamination in seawater and sediment samples. Sediment samples are distinguished from the majority of seawater and mussel samples by the presence of high molecular weight PAHs, whereas mussels from majority of sampling sites tend to accumulate PAHs of lower molecular weight. The PAH dynamic between different matrices is complex and site specific. Toxicity of seawater and sediment organic extract is correlated with PAH content, indicating that PAHs are the predominant toxic compounds. There is no correlation between toxicity of mussel biological fluids and toxicity of seawater and sediment, or between toxicity of mussel biological fluid and PAH content in mussel, seawater, or sediment. There is a positive correlation between potential toxicity of mussel biological fluids and reduction of anoxic survival time. Mussel anoxic survival is influenced by the presence of complex mixture of toxic contaminants, not only PAHs. The relationship between PAH contents in different marine matrices and their ability to affect mussels revealed specific interactions between an organism and complex mixture of toxic contaminants present in the marine environment.

  7. A new museum within the Croatian academy of sciences and arts and the first of its kind in Croatia: the Croatian museum of medicine and pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Brkić Midžić, Silvija

    2016-12-01

    One decade has passed since the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts initiated the foundation of the Croatian Museum of Medicine and Pharmacy, providing it with the location of 300m in Gundulićeva Street 24 in Zagreb. The foundation of the Museum was the Collection of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy which was in safekeeping of the Division for the History of Medical Sciences of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb for more than fifty years. It was put together by combining the materials from two collections: the pharmaceutical-historical collection in Zagreb, which subsequently became the collection of the Institute for the History of Pharmacy, and the one of the Croatian Medical History Museum, which was established in 1944 within the Croatian Medical Association. During the 1960s, the Division for the History of Medical Sciences of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts took over the materials from both museums. Croatian Museum of Medicine and Pharmacy was officially established by the decision of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia issued on 7 July 2014. The mission of the Museum is documentation and promotion of Croatian biomedical sciences and practice based on material and immaterial heritage; as well as continued cooperation with Croatian medical and pharmaceutical institutions and companies. Since the establishment of the Museum, many donations have contributed to the enrichment of its holdings. The concept of arranging the standing museum holdings is being prepared, and plans exist to apply for financing the project for Museum premises. The principal strategic goal of the Croatian Museum of Medicine and Pharmacy is to open the Museum to the public by the year 2020.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and

  9. Microcrystals of Th-rich monazite (La) with a negative Ce anomaly in metadiorite and their role for documenting Cretaceous metamorphism in the Slavonian Mountains (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starijaš Mayer, Biljana; Krenn, Erwin; Finger, Fritz

    2014-04-01

    Microcrystals (1-15 μm) of unusual monazite (La) with 41-47 mol% cheralite [ThCa(PO4)2] component and a strong negative Ce anomaly are described from a metadiorite from the SW Slavonian Mountains, Psunj, Croatia. The dioritic host rock still shows a relictic igneous fabric on macroscopic scale. However, metamorphic reaction textures can be recognized in thin section. These include partial recrystallization of igneous plagioclase to albite coupled with the formation of epidote. Furthermore, partial replacement of igneous hornblende by a fine-grained orthoamphibole-chamosite-epidote paragenesis can be observed and replacement of ilmenite by titanite. The compositions of the metamorphic minerals indicate upper greenschist facies conditions (460-500 °C according to two-feldspar geothermometry) under a high oxygen fugacity. Microstructures show that the monazite crystals belong to the metamorphic paragenesis and formed at the expense of magmatic allanite. Their negative Ce anomalies reflect the oxidizing conditions of metamorphism. Application of the xenotime in monazite solvus geothermometer provides unrealistically high temperatures of ~500-660 °C which disagree with the greenschist facies metamorphic paragenesis. We interpret that the presence of cheralite has a profound effect on the nature of the monazite-xenotime solvus curve and hence the existing calibrations of this geothermometer may be generally unsuitable for cheralite-rich monazite. An important geological result is that the Th-U-total Pb ages of the monazite grains are uniformingly Upper Cretaceous. Our data thus suggest that the imprint of the Alpine orogeny on the Slavonian Mountains was stronger than presumed until now.

  10. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Brcic, L; Blagaic, A B; Zoricic, I; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Keller, N; Sipos, K; Jakir, A; Udovicic, M; Tonkic, A; Kokic, N; Turkovic, B; Mise, S; Anic, T

    2006-12-01

    Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL 10, PLD 116, PLD 14736, Pliva, Croatia)) has a particular cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotective activity. The cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotection researches largely neglect that stomach distension could per se jeopardize the mucosal integrity, with constantly stretched mucosa and blood vessels, and sphincters more prone for reflux induction. After absolute alcohol instillation in fully distended rat stomach, gastric, esophageal and duodenal lesions occur. Throughout next 3 min, left gastric artery blood vessels clearly disappear at the serosal site, indicative for loss of vessels both integrity and function. Contrary, constant vessels presentation could predict the beneficial effect of applied agent. After pentadecapeptide BPC 157 instillation into the stomach the vessels presentation remains constant, and lesions of stomach, esophagus, and duodenum are inhibited. Standards (atropine, ranitidine, omeprazole) could only slightly improve the vessels presentation compared to control values, and they have only a partial effect on the lesions. In this review we emphasize BPC 157 unusual stability, and some of its important effects: effectiveness against various lesions in gastrointestinal tract, on nitric oxide (NO)-system, and NO-agents effects, on somatosensory neurons, salivary glands function, recovery of AMP-ADP-ATP system, endothelium protection, effect on endothelin, and on angiogenesis promotion. It also antagonizes other alcohol effects, including acute and chronic intoxication. Given peripherally, it counteracts the consequence of central dopamine system disturbances (receptor blockade), and induces serotonin release in substantia nigra. Therapeutic potential of BPC 157 as a cytoprotective agent is also seen in its capability to heal various wounds. Given directly into the stomach, BPC 157 instantly recovers disturbed lower esophageal

  11. Landscape response to recent tectonic deformation in the SW Pannonian Basin: Evidence from DEM-based morphometric analysis of the Bilogora Mt. area, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoš, Bojan; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Tomljenović, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Bilogora Mt. area is a transpressional structure located in the NE of Croatia, linked with the tectonic evolution of the Drava Depression. The structure formed during Pliocene and Quaternary from the inversion of NW-striking Drava Depression Boundary Fault, which originated as a normal fault and was reactivated as a dextral strike-slip fault. During Pliocene and Quaternary time, Bilogora Mt. area underwent more than 400 m of differential uplift, while still ongoing tectonic deformation is documented by historical and instrumental seismicity (3.5 ≤ ML ≤ 5.6). In this geomorphic study, the recent deformation in the Bilogora Mt. area, although obscured by landscape evolution variables, was assessed using DEM-based landscape morphometry and a set of morphometric indexes. Local relief and slope angle variability distributions were combined with morphometric indexes computed at the scale of the drainage basin. We analyzed hypsometric curves with the hypsometric integral (HI), basin asymmetry (AF) and parameters of longitudinal stream profiles (Cf, Cmax, Δl/L, θ, and ksn). Analyzed morphometric parameters were combined into a cumulative index of relative tectonic activity (RTA). This index summarizes drainage basin response to the possible recent tectonic activity. Results suggest that most of the tectonic activity is probably located along the NE front of the Bilogora Mt. area, in its NW and central part. This activity could be likely related to recent tectonic activity along the Kalnik Mt. Fault zone and Drava Depression Boundary Fault zones, respectively. A subordinate area characterized by recent tectonic activity could be suggested within the southernmost part of the study area. Quaternary activity in this area is probably related to NE-striking faults in vicinity of the town Daruvar that continue towards the northeast into the study area. Though methodology presented here represents a good identification tool of possible ongoing deformation, this study will be

  12. Microstructural, geothermobarometric and geochronological constraints on the complex Alpine collisional history recorded on the low-grade "Psunj Complex" metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (NE Croatia) cropping out on the SW edge of the Pannonian Basin belong to the Bihor nappe system of Tisia Mega-Unit i.e. of the lithospheric fragment broken off from the southern margin of the European plate. The present-day position of this Unit resulted from complex regional-scale Mesozoic and Cenozoic movements during the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system geodynamic evolution. Usually, the metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. are interpreted as a part of igneous-metamorphic complex belonging to metamorphic belt formed during or even prior to the Variscan orogeny. Until recently, the Alpine metamorphic evolution was considered insignificant and often neglected or described just in general terms due to considerable lack of geothermobarometric, phase equilibrium, fossil and/or geochronological age constraints. The chlorite schists are widely distributed lithology in the area, comprising simple peak metamorphic mineral assemblage chlorite + plagioclase (albite) + muscovite + quartz ± garnet and are associated to the local complex called Psunj complex (PsC). Metamorphic conditions for non-garnetiferous chlorite schists are obtained with chlorite (Al(IV)) thermometry and white mica barometry are 300 °C and 2.4±0.6 kbar. The chlorite schists are thrusted over (~ to the NE) microtectonically similar chloritoid-bearing schists that reached peak P-T values of 3.5-4 kbar and 340-380 °C. At least two distinct penetrative low-grade metamorphic foliations recorded in the chlorite schists are accompanied by existence of different populations of small (~3.5 µm) low-Th monazites, giving an average age 99±15 Ma. Histogram of obtained ages shows two peaks at 120 and 80 Ma while age modelling recognized two peaks at 113±20 and 82±23 Ma. First Alpine (113±20 Ma) event represents a rare record of late Early Cretaceous thermal event that affected Bihor nappe system. The age contradicts common opinion that Bihor nappe

  13. Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupančič, Primož; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi, are described on the basis of morphological comparisons of isolated geographical populations of fishes identified earlier as Telestes metohiensis. A lectotype is designated for Telestes metohiensis, whose range is shown to include waters of Gatačko, Cerničko, and Nevesinjsko poljes in Eastern Herzegovina. Telestes dabar from Dabarsko Polje (Eastern Herzegovina) and Telestes miloradi from Konavosko Polje (south Croatia) share with Telestes metohiensis the following combination of characters that distinguish them from the rest of the genus Telestes: pharyngeal teeth in one row, usually 5–4; preoperculo-mandibular canal not communicating with the infraorbital canal; mouth subterminal, the tip of the mouth cleft on or below the level of the ventral margin of the eye; postcleithrum minute or absent; ventral portion of the trunk with a dark stripe on a pale background; and dorsal portion of trunk uniformly dark and bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe. Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi are distinguishable from Telestes metohiensis in usually having 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. usually 7½), 9 or 10 gill rakers (vs. 7–10, usually 8), and the dark stripe on the ventral portion of the trunk below the main pigmented area of the back narrow and usually not reaching posteriorly to the caudal peduncle (vs. dark stripe wide and extending posteriorly to the caudal peduncle). Telestes dabar is distinguished from Telestes miloradi by having scales on most of the body situated close to one another and overlapping in a region behind the pectoral girdle and usually on the caudal peduncle (vs. overlapping scales on most of the body); the lateral line usually incomplete and interrupted, with 24–69, usually 54–65, total scales (vs. lateral line usually complete, with 55–67 total scales); scales above and below the lateral line slightly smaller than lateral-line scales (vs. of about equal size

  14. Geochemistry and geodynamics of a Late Cretaceous bimodal volcanic association from the southern part of the Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Northern Croatia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pamic, J.; Belak, M.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.; McKee, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present petrological and geochemical information on a bimodal basaltrhyolite suite associated with A-type granites of Late Cretaceous age from the South Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Croatia). Basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites, associated in some places with ignimbrites, occur in volcanic bodies that are interlayered with pyroclastic and fossiliferous Upper Cretaceus sedimentary rocks. The petrology and geochemistry of the basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites are constrained by microprobe analyses, major and trace element analyses including REE, and radiogenic and stable isotope data. Basalts that are mostly transformed into metabasalts (mainly spilites), are alkalic to subalkalic and their geochemical signatures, particularly trace element and REE patterns, are similar to recent back-arc basalts. Alkali-feldspar rhyolites have similar geochemical features to the associated cogenetic A-type granites, as shown by their large variation of Na2O and K2O (total 8-9%), very low MgO and CaO, and very high Zr contents ranging between 710 and 149ppm. Geochemical data indicate an amphibole lherzolite source within a metasomatized upper mantle wedge, with the influence of upper mantle diapir with MORB signatures and continental crust contamination. Sr incorporated in the primary basalt melt had an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7039 indicating an upper mantle origin, whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the alkalifeldspar rhyolites and associated A-type granites is 0.7073 indicating an apparent continental crust origin. However, some other geochemical data favour the idea that they might have mainly originated by fractionation of primary mafic melt coupled with contamination of continental crust. Only one rhyolite sample appears to be the product of melting of continental crust. Geological and geodynamic data indicate that the basalt-rhyolite association was probably related to Alpine subduction processes in the Dinaridic Tethys which can be correlated with

  15. Isotopic characterization of cave environments at varying altitudes on the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) - Implications for future speleothem-based studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surić, Maša; Lončarić, Robert; Lončar, Nina; Buzjak, Nenad; Bajo, Petra; Drysdale, Russell N.

    2017-02-01

    An important step in the implementation of paleoclimate reconstructions from speleothems (cave carbonate deposits) is to evaluate the sensitivity of the host cave environment to regional climate. Accordingly, we studied three caves at different altitudes (74 m, 570 m and 1250 m a.s.l.) along a transect from the Dalmatian islands to Velebit Mountain peaks in coastal Croatia to characterize their environments in terms of each cave's suitability to host speleothems that would be capable of yielding robust paleoclimate reconstructions. We conducted cave microclimate (2-years) and dripwater (1-year) monitoring and analysed the isotopic composition of precipitation, cave dripwater and modern spelean calcite. As for the water isotopic imprints, the isotopic values of meteoric waters reaching the two lower-altitude caves, in spite of an altitude difference of 500 m, lie on local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) of similar slope and intercept (δ2H = 6.61 × δ18O + 4.92 and δ2H = 6.69 × δ18O + 6.86). Their slopes lower than that of GMWL indicate enhanced evaporation during the warm season. As expected, the LMWL of the highest cave region (δ2H = 7.83 × δ18O + 14.45) resembles the slope of the GMWL, but the values of deuterium excess obtained for all three caves (between 15.2‰ and 16.6‰) match that of western Mediterranean-sourced waters (∼15‰). Monthly d-excess values suggest Atlantic-sourced air masses can reach the sites throughout the year but never dominate the rainfall composition. The altitude effect was noted both in precipitation and in dripwater isotopic composition, but with notably different Δδ18O/100 m gradients (-0.33‰ and -0.11‰, respectively). Stable isotope variations of the dripwaters in all caves were attenuated in relation to the rainwater, even those of the drip sites with fracture-flow behaviour. Based on stable cave microclimate conditions, relatively steady discharges, and modern calcite apparently precipitated at or close to isotopic

  16. No difference in the intention to engage others in academic transgression among medical students from neighboring countries: a cross-national study on medical students from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Đogaš, Varja; Donev, Doncho M.; Kukolja-Taradi, Sunčana; Đogaš, Zoran; Ilakovac, Vesna; Novak, Anita; Jerončić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Aim To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia. Methods Five medical schools were surveyed in 2011, with ≥87% of the targeted population sampled and a response rate of ≥76%. Students’ intention to engage a family member, friend, colleague, or a stranger in academic transgression was measured using a previously validated the Intention to Engage Others in Academic Transgression (IEOAT) questionnaire and compared with their intention to ask others for a non-academic, material favor. Data on students’ motivation measured by Work Preference Inventory scale, and general data were also collected. Multiple linear regression models of the intention to engage others in a particular behavior were developed. Results The most important determinants of the intention to engage others in academic transgression were psychological factors, such as intention to ask others for a material favor, or students’ motivation (median determinant’s β of 0.18, P ≤ 0.045 for all), whereas social and cultural factors associated with the country of origin were either weak (median β of 0.07, P ≤ 0.031) or not relevant. A significant proportion of students were aware of the ethical violations in academic transgressions (P ≤ 0.004 for all transgressions), but a large proportion of students also perceived academic cheating as a collective effort and were likely to engage people randomly (P ≤ 0.001 for all, but the most severe transgression). This collective effort was more pronounced for academic than non-academic behavior. Conclusion Culture differences among neighboring Southern-European countries were not an important determinant of the intention to engage others in academic cheating. PMID:27586553

  17. Analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Croatia – survival, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and impact of physician’s experience on cardiac arrest management: a single center observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lukić, Anita; Lulić, Ileana; Lulić, Dinka; Ognjanović, Zoran; Cerovečki, Davorin; Telebar, Siniša; Mašić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the initial rhythm, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rate, and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in Varaždin County (Croatia), and to investigate whether physician’s inexperience in emergency medical services (EMS) has an impact on resuscitation management. Methods We reviewed clinical records and Revised Utstein cardiac arrest forms of all out-of-hospital resuscitations performed by EMS Varaždin (EMSVz), Croatia, from 2007-2013. To analyze the impact of physician’s inexperience in EMS (<1 year in EMS) on resuscitation management, we assessed physician’s turnover in EMSVz, as well as OHCA survival, airway management, and adherence to resuscitation guidelines in regard to physician’s EMS experience. Results Of 276 patients (median age 68 years, interquartile range [IQR] 16; 198 male; 37% ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia, bystander CPR rate 25%), 80 were transferred to hospital and 39 were discharged (median survival after discharge 23 months, IQR 46 months). During the 7-year study period, 29 newly graduated physicians inexperienced in EMS started to work in EMSVz (performing 77 resuscitations), while 48% of them stayed for less than one year. Airway management depended on physician’s EMS experience (P = 0.018): inexperienced physicians performed bag-valve-mask ventilation (BMV) more than the experienced, with no impact on survival rate. Physician’s EMS experience did not influence adherence to resuscitation guidelines (P = 0.668), survival to hospital discharge (P = 0.791), or survival time (P = 0.405). Conclusion OHCA survival rate of EMSVz resuscitations was higher than in Europe, but bystander CPR needs to be improved. Compared to experienced physicians, inexperienced physicians preferred BMV over intubation, but with similar adherence to resuscitation guidelines and survival after OHCA. PMID:28051284

  18. Policies and practices in haemostasis testing among laboratories in Croatia: a survey on behalf of a Working Group for Laboratory Coagulation of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bronić, Ana; Herak, Desiree Coen; Margetić, Sandra; Milić, Marija

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this survey was to assess current policies and practice in haemostasis testing among both hospital and outpatient laboratories in Republic of Croatia. Materials and methods A questionnaire with seventy questions divided into nine sections was created in May 2015. Participants were asked about their practice related to test request form, sample collection, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time assays, other individual haemostasis assays, point-of-care testing (POCT), reporting of coagulation tests results and quality assurance of procedures, the personnel and other laboratory resources, as well as on issues related to education and implementation of additional coagulation assays in their laboratory. The survey was administered and data were collected between June and September 2015. Results A total survey response rate was 104/170 (61.2%). Most respondents were faced with incomplete information on prescribed therapy and diagnosis on the test request or inappropriate samples withdrawn on distant locations, but also do not have protocols for handling samples with high haematocrit values. Reporting of PT-INR and D-dimer results was different between laboratories. Although almost all laboratories developed a critical value reporting system, reporting a value to general practitioners is still a problem. Result on coagulation POCT testing showed that not all devices were supervised by laboratories, which is not in compliance with Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemistry acts. Conclusion Obtained results highlighted areas that need improvement and different practice patterns in particular field of haemostasis testing among laboratories. A harmonization of the overall process of haemostasis testing at national level should be considered and undertaken.

  19. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  20. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting.

  1. Effectiveness of the UNICEF/WHO 20-hour Course in Improving Health Professionals’ Knowledge, Practices, and Attitudes to Breastfeeding: A Before/After Study of 5 Maternity Facilities in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Burmaz, Tea

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate knowledge, practices, and attitudes to breastfeeding among Croatian health professionals before and after the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization (UNICEF/WHO) 20-hour course. Methods Study included 5 of 9 maternity hospitals in southern Croatia, which had completed the UNICEF/WHO 20-hour breastfeeding training course between December 2007 and February 2009. An anonymous questionnaire testing knowledge, practices, and attitudes was distributed to 424 health professionals before training and to 308 health professionals afterwards. Health professionals’ attitudes were assessed using the validated Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Results The pre-training response rate was >90%, but only 53% of data were analyzed; the post-training response rate was 69%. Only one-fifth of health professionals prior to training knew that breast preparation in pregnancy was unnecessary, but this increased to 57% after training (P < 0.001). The proportion of health professionals who recognized hospital practices that support breastfeeding and signs of poor positioning when breastfeeding nearly doubled after training (P < 0.001). The proportion of health professionals correctly recommending immediate “skin-to-skin” contact post-Cesarean section under local anesthesia did not improve significantly, and stratification analyses showed that younger respondents (<36 years) were more likely to support this practice. Although the proportion of health professionals who correctly managed mastitis improved significantly as a result of the training, the proportion of those who after training inappropriately recommended partial or complete cessation of breastfeeding remained high at 47%. The number of staff with positive attitudes toward breastfeeding increased from 65% to 79%, whereas the number of staff with neutral attitudes dropped from 26.6% to 9.9% (P < 0.001). Even after training, a substantial proportion of health

  2. Collision-related Early Paleozoic evolution of a crustal fragment from the northern Gondwana margin (Slavonian Mountains, Tisia Mega-Unit, Croatia): Reconstruction of the P-T path, timing and paleotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balen, D.; Massonne, H.-J.; Petrinec, Z.

    2015-09-01

    An orthogneiss from the oldest metamorphic complex at Mt. Papuk (Tisia Mega-Unit, Croatia) enables the quantification of the P-T evolution of Early Paleozoic rocks of the Panonian Basin basement in contrast to neighboring peri-Gondwanan terrains which are significantly overprinted by pre-Variscan, Variscan, and Alpine events. Two different groups of Ce-rich monazite within oval-shaped corona microstructures have been observed. Age dating of the corona cores yielded two populations with average ages of 528 ± 7 (2σ) Ma and 465 ± 7 Ma, respectively. Furthermore, an Y-rich group, found inside garnet cores, was dated at 616 ± 23 Ma. Th-rich monazite included in garnet rims yielded an age of 491 ± 6 Ma. The youngest monazite group at 417 ± 20 Ma is located inside mica. The orthogneiss precursor was a calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline igneous peraluminous crustal rock (diorite) from an active continental marginal setting. The calculated P-T pseudosection in the MnNCKFMASHTO system in combination with assemblage characteristics and mineral chemistry data provides good constraints on the P-T evolution: for stage I peak P-T conditions of 13 kbar and 670 °C were derived followed by stage II, which was characterized by moderate cooling accompanied by uplift to mid-crustal levels (5.2 kbar and 610 °C). Subsequently, the system cooled to 480 °C at 4.4 kbar (stage III). Formation of titanite rims on ilmenite suggests further cooling to 4 kbar and 400 °C (stage IV). The clockwise P-T path implies exhumation from a tectonically thickened crustal setting (ca. 45 km depth at a geothermal gradient of 15 °C/km) to mid-crustal levels (ca. 18 km) followed by cooling at depths < 14 km. Crustal thickening was due to the collision of a continental plate (Gondwana) with a smaller plate, which was underthrust.

  3. The Validity of Holland's Theory in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverko, Iva; Babarovic, Toni

    2006-01-01

    The validity of Holland's theory in the Croatian sample has been tested. The Croatian version of Holland's Self-Directed Search was applied on 1,866 Croatian adolescents from different age samples. The instrument has shown a good reliability of all RIASEC scales in all subsamples. Construct validity was also verified: The presence of circular…

  4. Mapping of cosmic radiation dose in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Poje, M; Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Miklavčić, I; Faj, D; Varga Pajtler, M; Planinić, J

    2012-01-01

    The Earth is continually bombarded by high-energy particles coming from the outer space and the sun. These particles, termed cosmic radiation, interact with nuclei of atmospheric constituents and decrease in intensity with depth in the atmosphere. Measurements of photon and gamma radiation, performed with a Radiameter at 1 m above the ground, indicated dose rates of 50-100 nSv/h. The neutron dose rate was measured with the CR-39 track etch detector calibrated by the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. Correlation between neutron dose rates and altitudes at 36 sites was examined in order to obtain a significant positive correlation coefficient; the resulting linear regression enabled estimation of a neutron dose at particular altitude. The measured neutron dose rate in Osijek (altitude of 89 m, latitude of 45.31° N) was 110 nSv/h.

  5. The history of pharmacy studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, N; Inić, S

    2014-02-01

    The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).

  6. Language Politics in Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Language and the Internet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 216. 103 Paul Bartlett , “Kazakhstan: Moving Forward with Plan to Replace Cyrillic...Times, April 2, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/02/business/global/02eurotrade.html (accessed January 28, 2010). 151 Neil MacDonald, “Corruption

  7. Information Literacy in Croatia: An Ideological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poler Kovacic, Melita; Zgrabljic Rotar, Nada; Erjavec, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    New information and communication technologies were widely perceived as something that would lead post-socialist European countries towards the technologically developed information society. In this article, a critical perspective is taken in examining information literacy as an ideological form. The deconstruction of ideological practice was…

  8. University Students' Attitudes: Croatia versus Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Norman V.; Racic, Stanko; Gelo, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed Croatian and Turkish business school students, from universities emphasizing globalization, to analyze whether consideration for travel to the USA is affected by attitude toward their own country and the USA. The results from comparing and contrasting differences between these countries and differences between males and females in each…

  9. The Utility of Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 (ERCC1), Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Expression in Small Biopsy in Prognosis of Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma – A Retrograde Single-Center Study from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Burazer, Marina Piljić; Mladinov, Suzana; Ćapkun, Vesna; Kuret, Sendi; Durdov, Merica Glavina

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out in order to evaluate our institutional experience with small biopsy in diagnosis and molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma. Few specific and predictive markers have been evaluated and correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy. There have not been such reports from Croatia. Material/Methods A total of 142 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively investigated in small biopsies for the immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, napsin A, ERCC1, ALK, and the EGFR mutation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Results TTF-1, napsin A, and ERCC1 expression was found in 81%, 78%, and 69% of patients, respectively, and the expressions were not significantly associated with subtype. Expression of ALK was found in 4% and EGFR mutation in 10% of patients. Exon 19 deletions were the most common. Longer survival was significantly associated with TTF-1 positivity (p=0.007) and napsin A positivity (p=0.026). Higher relative risk of death significantly correlated with positive expression of ERCC1 (p=0.041). Conclusions Positive TTF-1 and napsin A expressions in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were useful diagnostic and favorable prognostic parameters. Positive ERCC1 expression was identified as a negative prognostic marker in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The percentages of EGFR and ALK mutations corresponded to those in previously published reports for Caucasians. PMID:28128193

  10. Professor Eugen Cerkovnikov (1904-1985): the founder of the Chemical and Biochemical Institute of the Rijeka University School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Milin, Cedomila

    2008-01-01

    Professor Eugen Cerkovnikov, PhD (Kamenska, Russia, 1904- Rijeka, Croatia 1985) graduated in chemical technology from the Faculty of Engineering in Zagreb in 1929. His first job was at the School of Medicine in Paris in 1930, and then he moved to Zagreb to the Department of Organic Chemistry of the Faculty of Engineering run by our Nobel Prize winner Vladimir Prelog (1935-1938). There he took his PhD degree with a dissertation on piperidine gamma derivatives. From 1938 to 1947 he was a research associate at an institute established by the pharmaceutical company Kastel (later Pliva). This is when he became a lecturer at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Zagreb and the first director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry, established in 1946/47. In 1948 he became reader, and in 1956 (full) professor. In 1957 he moved to the newly established School of Medicine in Rijeka, and set up the Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He ran the Institute until retirement in 1975. He was the second dean of the Rijeka University School of Medicine and a pioneer of quantum chemistry and medical cybernetics in undergraduate and (post)graduate courses. His scientific work consists of over 200 papers published at home and abroad, 60 professional papers, 20 book reviews, three works of translation, and 27 volumes of lecture notes. In 1958, professor Cerkovnikov established the Croatian Chemical Society and the Rijeka and Istria branches of the nation's Association of Chemists and Chemical Engineers, chairing them until 1974. In addition, he was one of the founding fathers, and the first chair of the Health Culture Studies Association in Rijeka (that preceded today's Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture), established in 1965.

  11. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month.

  12. NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-06

    Affairs. 32 For more information on the NATO headquarters presence in Skopje , see “NATO Headquarters Skopje ” web page at [http://www.jfcnaples.nato.int...process, Macedonia hosts a NATO liaison office in Skopje that provides advice on military reforms and support to NATO-led Balkan operations.32 At a...solutions to outstanding issues.” Visiting Skopje in March 2008, the NATO Secretary General pointedly noted that “Greece is a staunch NATO member

  13. NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    in Skopje that provides advice on military reforms and support to NATO-led Balkan operations.24 At a January 2008 meeting to review NATO’s...European Affairs, and updated by Steven Woehrel, Specialist in European Affairs. 24 For more information on the NATO headquarters presence in Skopje , see...NATO Headquarters Skopje ” web page at http://www.jfcnaples.nato.int/nhqs/index.html. 25 NATO press release, January 23, 2008. 26 “NATO’s

  14. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in fish farm sediments. Detrital and authigenic apatite P concentrations were explained by either terrestrial inputs or by internal transformation from other P forms. Statistical analysis among P and geochemical parameters indicated the granulometric composition as a leading differentiation parameter in sediment P species distribution. Statistics also indicated P-Fe importance in the P flux on the sediment water interface due to correlation between orthophosphate concentration in the water column, sediment pore water, redox-potential and iron concentration.

  15. Attitudes towards information system security among physicians in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Markota, M; Kern, J; Svab, I

    2001-07-01

    To examine attitudes about information system security among Croatian physicians a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 800 Croatian physicians. An anonymous questionnaire comprising 21 questions was distributed and statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test. A 76.2% response rate was obtained. The majority of respondents (85.8%) believe that information system security is a new area in their work. In general, physicians are not informed about European directives, conventions, recommendations, etc. Only a small number of physicians use personal computers at work (29%). Those physicians who have a personal computer use it mainly for administrative reasons. Most healthcare institutions (89%) do not have a security manual and the area of information system security is left to individual interest and initiative. Only 25% of physicians who have a personal computer use any type of password. A high percentage of physicians (22%) has never thought about the problem of personal data being used by organizations (e.g. police, banks) without legal background; a small, but still significant percentage of physicians (5.6%) has even agreed with such use. Results indicate that for the vast majority of physicians, information system security is a new area in their daily work, one which is left to individual interest and initiative. They are not familiar with the ethical, technical and legal backgrounds which have been defined for that area within the Council of Europe and the European Union. New aspects: This is the first study performed in Central and Eastern Europe dealing with information system security, performed on a representative nationwide sample of all the physicians.

  16. Processes of Globalisations and Adult Educations in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapan, Anita; Lavrnja, Ilija

    Globalization is one of those words being used every day, although the majority of the common people hardly know its true meaning. Globalization is a term formed and promoted by economists and ecologists, both understanding the world as a unique and inseparable space. Globalization is a force reorganizing the world's economy, and the main…

  17. Physics Education Research in Croatia: Historical Roots and Actual Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marušic, M.; Sliško, J.

    2012-01-01

    Quality pedagogical tradition of Central European countries, in which the Croatian school system existed and evolved, helped in the establishment of the Department of Methodology of Teaching (in several disciplines) at the University of Zagreb and other Croatian universities (Split, Rijeka and Osijek). Unfortunately, it was not too long ago that…

  18. Expert witnesses in dentistry: a comparison between Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2012-11-30

    A dentist is frequently required to translate dental trauma into monetary value, for example after car accidents and/or work-related injuries. When called to act in this capacity a dentist should combine his/her biological and technical knowledge with a quality medico-legal knowledge. Calculation of economic (pecuniary) damages and non-economic (non-pecuniary) damages requires specific training in medico-legal matters and awareness of the inherent pitfalls. Expert Witnesses registered in Court are usually asked to perform this duty. Nevertheless, European countries have differences regarding dental damage evaluations as well as significant differences in the conditions required for registration as an Expert Witness in Court. A dental Expert Witness has precise responsibilities and is subject to civil or criminal proceedings (depending on the judicial system) if found wanting. In forensic/legal dentistry a medico-legal doctor should not work in isolation from a dentist in dental cases nor is it wise for a dentist to work in the courts without having had specific training regarding judicial disciplines relating to dental damages. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the principal differences in the judicial systems regarding the appointment of Expert Witnesses in both Italian and Croatian courts. The next step will expand this investigation through to European countries in order to marshal knowledge towards harmonization, best practice and a common ground for dental evaluation and claim compensations (in accordance with the Council of Europe Resolution 75 – 7 Compensation for physical injury or death).

  19. 76 FR 50813 - Designation of Two Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... blocked pursuant to Executive Order 13382: 1. COMMERCIAL BANK OF SYRIA (all offices worldwide), P.O. Box 933, Yousef Azmeh Square, Damascus, Syria; Aleppo Branch, P.O. Box 2, Kastel Hajjarin St., Aleppo, Syria; Damascus Branch, P.O. Box 2231, Moawiya St., Damascus, Syria; SWIFT/BIC: CMSY SY DA 2....

  20. Application of Business Intelligence System in Company Restructuring Process: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakula, Iva; Curko, Katarina; Bach, Mirjana Pejic; Vukšic, Vesna Bosilj

    2016-01-01

    After Croatian accession to the EU, Croatian companies have faced tough competition and all other challenges posed by doing business in open markets. These companies must increase competitiveness and take their position on developed globalized markets through differentiation of their products and services and/or creation of cost advantage. For…

  1. Psychometric properties of the eating attitudes test and children's eating attitudes test in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi-Randić, N; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

    2005-12-01

    The factor structure of the children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were examined in Croatian girls of different ages. A self-report survey was given to 225 girls (Grades 5 to 8), 525 high school girls (Grades 9 to 12), and 646 female university students. Factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors for ChEAT, and three interpretable factors for EAT-26. Internal consistency of both instruments was satisfactory. 10.3% of school girls scored 20 or higher on ChEAT, when 7.6% of high school girls and 11.3% of university students had elevated EAT-26 scores. The ChEAT and EAT-26 were useful for screening large non-clinical groups and measuring disturbed eating behaviours. Those with elevated ChEAT and EAT-26 scores were more likely than those with lower scores to be engaged in extreme weight control methods (e.g. vomiting, binging).

  2. Epidemiology of central nervous system tumors in Karlovac area (Croatia), 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Jancić, Ervin; Cvitanović, Hrvoje; Miholović, Vesna; Kralj, Diana; Hranilović, Biserka

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the central nervous system (CNS) tumours epidemiology in Karlovac region, over the 1995-2010 period. We analyzed data on 359 patients (194 men and 165 women), diagnosed with CNS tumours according to the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria, in period 1995-2010. The data were obtained from the Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, including other medical records. The data were analysed with t-test and chi-square test. A total of 359 cases of tumours in CNS were recorded for the period of 1995-2010, with slight predominance of men (194;54.0%) over women (165;46.0%). Under the assumption of gender equality, we did not detect a significant gender difference in tumour diagnosis (p = 0.279). Mean age at the diagnosis was 64.1 +/- 12.6 years, with significant gender difference: mean age at diagnosis for men was 62.8 +/- 11.6 years, while for women it was 65.7 +/- 13.5 (p = 0.029). The commonest type of all tumours was metastases (144;40.1%). When only primary tumours were analysed, the commonest type was glioblastoma (125;58.15%), followed by meningeoma (44;20.5%). The remaining types were much less frequent, with i.e. 5 recorded cases of the following three types: astrocytoma, ependimoma and oligodendroglyoma (2.3%). These results suggest a commonly encountered epidemiological profile in the region, with commonest metastases, and glioblastoma as the most common primary tumour. Due to difficulties related to patient gravitating hospitals admittance and overall small sample size for more detailed analyses, it remains for future studies to determine potential association of the Homeland war (1991-1995) and the occurrence of CNS tumours.

  3. Between Teaching and Research: Challenges of the Academic Profession in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Marko; Ledic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about synergy or independence of teaching and research are present in many studies (Bilic, 2009; Brew & Boud, 1995; Enders & Teichler, 1997; Griffiths, 2004; Jakovljevic, 2010; Jenkins, 2000; Ramsden & Moses, 1992). Humboldt's model introduced synergy between teaching and research, thus highlighting the importance of…

  4. Attitudes, behaviour and knowledge on sexuality among female adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Buković, D; Lakusić, N; Kopjar, M; Maricić, I; Fures, R; Mahović, D; Marjan, D; Juresa, V; Zadro, M; Grah, J J; Simić, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of knowledge about sexuality, attitudes and sexual behaviour of female adolescents. The study included 194 female students, 117 from Medical High School (MHS) and 77 from General High School (GHS) in Zagreb. Data was collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. In addition to items on personal data (age, parental education etc.), the participants were asked to define terms about sexuality (e.g. menstruation, puberty) the definitions of which are found in biology textbooks for the fifth and eighth grade of primary school. The aim of the third part of the survey was to collect information about attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents. The results showed a low level of knowledge in students of both schools. General High School students showed a higher level of knowledge than their Medical High School peers. One fifth of General High School students and 1/3 of Medical High School students were unable to define the term "menstruation". The majority of adolescents talk about sexuality with their friends, 92.1% of General High School and 81.2% of Medical High School students. Almost 50% of students of both schools would like to talk about sexuality with their school doctor. 6.9% of Medical High School students had at least one sexual intercourse while none of the General High School students had been sexually active at the time of the survey. As the majority of students were not sexually active and results showed a rather low level of knowledge, this seems to be the ideal period for the implementation of educational programs aimed at increasing the level of knowledge, and thus preventing unwanted consequences (STD, pregnancy, abortion, infertility).

  5. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  6. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  7. The Long-Term Effects of War Experiences on Children's Depression in the Republic of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether different levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys and girls could be predicted on the basis of war experiences, perceived available social support (instrumental support, support to self-esteem, belonging and acceptance) and extraversion. Methods:: The sample consisted of…

  8. Consumer Pride and Consumption-Based Family Rituals: A Field Study in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sredl, Katherine Christina

    2009-01-01

    Consumer emotions are rarely examined from a phenomenological perspective, with few exceptions. Moreover, consumer pride is overlooked as an influence on the marketplace practices of consumers. In spite of the lack of theoretical development on consumer pride, it clearly drives consumption: take, for instance, consumers who use goods to…

  9. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Culig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan

    2004-05-01

    The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification x400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  10. Embodiment of terror: gendered violence in peacetime and wartime in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Olujic, M B

    1998-03-01

    Gendered violence is not a special type of torture used only in war. Its roots are well established in peacetime. This article discusses parallels between the patterns of everyday domination and aggression during times of peace and war. Further, it discusses how metaphors and acts of rape in peacetime are transformed into symbols and acts of rape for wartime purposes. During peacetime the individual body, especially its essence--sexuality and reproduction--becomes the symbol of everyday domination and aggression. Wartime transforms individual bodies into social bodies as seen, for example, in genocidal rapes or ethnic cleansing, which are thought to purify the bloodlines. Then, institutions--that is, medical, religious, and government establishments--further reinforce the wartime process by manipulating the individual/social body into the body politic by controlling and defining "human life" and using political rapes to entice military action by the West. The final transformation (at the war's conclusion) is the reformation of the social body back into the individual body, making the individual body once again the focus of dominance and aggression as the acceptable social "order."

  11. "Since I have my case manager, I am back to life" case management in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ema N; Ivezić-Strkalj, Sladana; Agius, Mark; Martić-Biocina, Sanja

    2008-03-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient who was treated by a case manager, a member of a Croatian Community Mental Health (CMH) Team, following the recommendations of WHO 2004 as well as the IRIS guidelines and the Basic Standards for Management of Patients with Serious Mental Illness in the Community (Agius 2005) and using the elements of Clinical case management (Muser 1998), Assertive community treatment model (Burns 1995, Scott 1995, Wolfsan 1990), the personal strength model (Rapp 1988) and Rehabilitation model (Anthony 1993). In order to emphasize the importance of the therapist-patient relationship in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients (Ivezic 2001) and creating the group atmosphere a Croatian model of case management is created where the patient's needs and risks are assessed by a multidisciplinary team which also conducts the recommended psychosocial interventions plan. The majority of interventions are conducted in groups. The case manager develops a confident relationship with a patient, nourishes the positive transference and aids the delivery of the treatment. The main goals of the interventions are empowerment of the patient, improvement of his abilities and decreasing of disabilities. The case manager also carries out a full assessment of the needs of the patient's family so that the family or carers are also included in the treatment or support if necessary (Gruber 2006). A case report of a patient and the work of her case manager as well as the case manager's diary (Gruber 2007) and the Croatian model of case management is presented in this article.

  12. Exposure of Children to Sexual Content on the Internet in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flander, Gordana Buljan; Cosic, Ivana; Profaca, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of children and youth exposure to sexual content and inappropriate sexual questions on the Internet; and to identify emotional and behavioral reactions of children after such exposures. Methods: Sample of the study included 2,880 of children and youth aged 10-16 who identified themselves as Internet users.…

  13. Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  14. Detection and characterisation of hepatitis E virus in naturally infected swine in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Zoran; Novosel, Dinko; Vojta, Lea; Roić, Besi; Simpraga, Miljenko; Vojta, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a viral zoonotic disease infecting swine worldwide. Since pigs represent a likely animal reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, the epidemiology of naturally occurring hepatitis E was investigated in Croatian swine herds. Nearly all tested animals were seropositive for antibodies against the hepatitis E virus (55/60, 91.7%). Active infection was detected in all age groups by RT-PCR of viral RNA in serum (8/60, 13.3%) and bile samples (3/37, 8.1%), which was further confirmed by histopathological findings of characteristic lesions in the livers of the infected animals. Three new strains of hepatitis E virus were isolated from Croatian pig herds. Phylogenetic analysis using median-joining networks clustered those Croatian strains with isolates from various parts of the world, indicating their likely origin in international trade. Similarity to human isolates implies a zoonotic potential of Croatian strains, which raises a public health concern, especially in the light of the high prevalence of hepatitis E in the herds studied.

  15. An Easy A or a Question of Belief: Pupil Attitudes to Catholic Religious Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Boris; Hargreaves, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a mixed model research that, as the first of its kind, aimed to determine the nature of, and underlying factors influencing, Croatian elementary pupils' attitudes towards confessional Catholic religious education (RE). Analyses of the questionnaire responses of the eighth-grade pupils from the stratified sample…

  16. [Railway medical hygiene and health protection system in Croatia between 1945 and 1953].

    PubMed

    Lajnert, Sinisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system of medical hygiene and health care adopted by the Croatian section of Yugoslav Railways in the aftermath of World War Two until 1953, based on archival information. In 1945, the human resources section of the Railway Administration in Zagreb included the Department of Social Welfare with offices that managed health insurance in cases of illness and accidents, workers' pension fund, and sanitary care‥ On 19 June 1947, the regional railway executive board established a medical section within the so called Secretariat and appointed Dr Marijan Derkos as its head. On 3 July 1948, central and regional healthcare offices for traffic staff were established to manage and oversee the activities of health institutions providing services for railway workers. The seat of the regional office in Zagreb was in Grgurova street. After the dismantlement of the central healthcare office in charge of railway health institutions in 1953, regional boards established new institutions, that were now self-financed.

  17. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  18. Intensive care of severely wounded military and civilian casualties in Zadar, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mlinarić, J; Nincević, N; Peranić, H; Kostov, D; Gnjatović, D; Dominis, M; Tolić, I; Mitrović, N; Serić, J

    1994-06-01

    From August 1, 1991, to May 30, 1992, 148 severely wounded military and civilian casualties with the injury severity score of 3 to 5 were treated in the intensive care unit of the Zadar General Hospital. There were 138 male and 10 female patients; their mean age was 32 years. There were 64 wounded civilians and 84 wounded soldiers. The average evacuation time was 3 hours. Twelve (8%) severely wounded persons died. The cause of death was craniocerebral injury in 7 patients (58%) and hemorrhage in 4 patients (33%). Complications following shock-like acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, coagulopathy, and hepathopathy developed in 18 wounded persons (12%).

  19. Available potential energy of the daily coastal circulation at Zadar (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trošić, T.; Šinik, N.; Trošić, Ž.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the sea breeze speed on the basis of its energy. Energetics of the sea breeze can be studied by means of the available potential energy (APE). Part of this energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of the sea breeze. Some similarity exists between the large scale processes of the circulation and the small coastal air circulation due to the fact that both circulations are triggered by the same physics, i.e., solenoidal activity of the baroclinic atmosphere. To evaluate the sea breeze speed, APE was calculated by use of the Lorenz’s equation (1955), and which is possible if the coastal circulation is considered to be a closed system in a hydrostatic equilibrium. For calculations and verifications hourly sea-surface temperatures, near-ground air temperatures and wind speed measurements, as well as the radio-sounding measurements at 12 UTC were used at the Zadar station (ϕ = 44° 08' N, λ = 15° 13' E), which is situated in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast. Two days with an undisturbed sea breeze circulation were extracted using the methods for minimizing other atmospheric influences. Calculated hourly near ground sea breeze speeds obtained in this way were higher than the measured ones. With the assumption that some of the APE is transformed into the kinetic energy it is possible to obtain characteristic speed of the developed sea breeze with small discrepancies to the near-ground measurements. If 6.6% of the mean daily near ground APE was taken to be transformed to the mean daily kinetic sea breeze energy on the 29th and 4.2% on the 30th September 2002, the best agreement was obtained with the mean daily measured near ground sea breeze speed. This range of values can be attributed to inability to extract precise values for the lapse-rate needed in the APE sea breeze calculations. Results show similarities to the general circulation of the atmosphere, since about 10% of the APE is transformed to the kinetic energy of the sea breeze. On the other hand calculated wind speed at the lower branch of the borderline coastal circulation was not dependent on the integral value of the APE over the land, but on its value at the near-ground level.

  20. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klarin, Ivo; Majnarić, Ljiljana; Jovanović, Zeljko; Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Ivan; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Results of the retrospective, population-based study, 2000-2010, on inflammatory bowel disease, ulceratice colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), from Zadar County, have been presented and compared with world experience and comparative data from Primorsko-Goranska and Vukovarsko-Srijemska Counties. The average incidence rates (per 100 000) were 8.2 and 8.4, for UC and CD, respectively. Prevalence rates, at the end of the follow up, were 133.9 for UC and 111 for CD. Constant increase in the incidence rates for both, UC and CD, have been recorded, for CD more prominently in the second part of the follow up, 2006-2010. Prevalence rates have being continuosly rased for both diseases, data for UC exceeding that for CD. Results of data comparison among the counties contribute in favour to the hypothesis of Zadar County as a rapidly developing area and strongly argue against the existence of the North-South gradient between Vukovarsko-Srijemska and Zadar Counties.

  1. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  2. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity.

  3. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin).

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M; Bogutskaya, Nina G

    2010-08-27

    A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27-32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39-45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area.

  4. Low frequency of filaggrin null mutations in Croatia and their relation with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sabolić Pipinić, I; Varnai, V M; Turk, R; Breljak, D; Kezić, S; Macan, J

    2013-06-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations are considered associated with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of FLG null mutations R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X in the Croatian population and their role in the occurrence of allergic diseases including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Study enrolled 440 freshmen with defined allergic diseases by means of both present symptoms in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (relevant respiratory and/or skin symptoms) and markers of allergic sensitization (positive skin prick and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were successfully genotyped in 423 students of which 11 (2.6%) were carriers of FLG null mutation: 1/423 (0.2%) was heterozygous for R501X and 10/423 (2.4%) were heterozygous for 2282del4. No carriers of R2447X and S3247X mutations were identified. In wild-type FLG carriers (412 subjects), atopic dermatitis was present in 45 (11%), allergic rhinitis in 70 (17%) and allergic asthma in 29 (7%) students. Twenty-five of 393 (7%) patch-tested wild-type FLG carriers had ACD. Among 11 FLG null mutation carriers, four had one or more allergic diseases, and five had reported skin symptoms without defined allergic sensitization (positive skin prick test and/or patch test). FLG null mutations were not confirmed as a predictor of analysed allergic diseases, but were confirmed as an independent predictor of skin symptoms (OR 17.19, 95% CI 3.41-86.6, P < 0.001). Our results in general indicate a low frequency of FLG null mutations in the studied Croatian population supporting a theory of a latitude-dependent distribution of FGL null mutations in Europe, with a decreasing north-south gradient of R501X and 2282del4 mutation frequency. The relation between FLG null mutations and skin disorders was confirmed.

  5. Identification and phylogenetic diversity of parvovirus circulating in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bidin, M; Lojkić, I; Bidin, Z; Tiljar, M; Majnarić, D

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic diversity of parvovirus detected in commercial chicken and turkey flocks is described. Nine chicken and six turkey flocks from Croatian farms were tested for parvovirus presence. Intestinal samples from one turkey and seven chicken flocks were found positive, and were sequenced. Natural parvovirus infection was more frequently detected in chickens than in turkeys examined in this study. Sequence analysis of 400 nucleotide fragments of the nonstructural gene (NS) showed that our sequences had more similarity with chicken parvovirus (ChPV) (92.3%-99.7%) than turkey parvovirus (TuPV) (89.5%-98.9%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis grouped our sequences in two clades. Also, the higher prevalence of ChPV than TuPV in tested flocks was defined. The necropsy findings suggested a malabsorption syndrome followed by a preascitic condition. Further research of parvovirus infection, pathogenesis, and the possibility of its association with poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) is needed to clarify its significance as an agent of enteric disease.

  6. Antenatal characteristics of Roma female population in Virovitica-Podravina County, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Šegregur, Domagoj

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study reports about antenatal characteristics of Roma minority population. The study was designed to investigate data about health behaviours known to be associated with reproductive outcomes of Roma women that have very good living conditions and relatively high resource availability. Methods A retrospective study included 204 Roma and 408 non-Roma hospitalised singleton births that occurred in the Maternity Ward of the General Hospital Virovitica in the period from 1991 to 2010. Data about women’s age, marital status, smoking, reproductive health (abortions, delivery), antenatal care, perinatal complications and gestational age were taken from hospital records and analysed. Results Roma women were averagely more than three years younger than non-Roma women, only 10.8% were married. Smoking was more frequent. The average number of births of Roma and non-Roma women was similar, averagely two children per woman. The rate of induced abortions in the Roma women was higher, while the frequency of spontaneous abortions was equal. Inadequate antenatal care of Roma women was associated with two times higher incidence of perinatal complications. A higher frequency of deliveries at home without professional assistance in Roma pregnancy resulted in lower perinatal outcomes. It was confirmed that Roma mothers give birth earlier (38+6 vs. 39+4 weeks) and have a higher incidence of premature births (9.3% vs. 2.2%). Conclusions In the comparison of antenatal parameters between the two researched groups, poorer prenatal outcomes in the Roma population were found, despite full integration and considerable improvement in living standards of this ethnic Roma population. PMID:28289463

  7. Education on occupational health and health related habits among dental students in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Matoš, Krešimir; Jurec, Zrinka; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Occupational diseases are diseases caused by occupational exposures at the workplace, while diseases related to work are diseases caused by many factors, wherein the harmful work conditions are one of the possible causes. Dental medicine is a profession with a high risk of developing occupational diseases. The aim of this paper was to present the results of a survey about occupational health risks and health related habits among dental students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb and to show how this survey led to an improvement in education by introducing a new course into the dental curriculum. Participants and methods Students of all years at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb (total of 663) were offered to participate in a survey about occupational health risks and health related habits. Results A questionnaire was completed by 351 students. 28.0% of male students and 22.5% of female students were smokers. During the first two years of study, up to 84.6% of students consumed alcoholic beverages at least once a week. Prior to enrollment in the university, 85.3% male and 77.6% female students were engaged in sports. The significant drop in the number of students who participated in sports was noticed in the first study year in both sexes. Student awareness of the health risks related to dental profession increases with the year of study. Most students believe that occupational diseases can be prevented. Conclusion The results have shown that students enter the School of Dental Medicine with a relatively low level of awareness of the health hazards of dental profession. Although the level of awareness increases with years of study, harmful habits such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and the lack of physical activity also remain present in the later years of study. PMID:27688426

  8. Rogoznica Lake (Croatia), a unique anoxic seawater system on the Adriatic coast under the anthropogenic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciglenečki, Irena; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Marguš, Marija; Čanković, Milan; Carić, Marina; Viličić, Damir; Ljubešić, Zrinka; Kršinić, Frano; Batistić, Mirna; Janeković, Ivica; Plavčić, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Rogoznica Lake is a typical example of euxinic saline lake, situated on the eastern Adriatic coast (43o32'N 15o58'E). It is a karstic depression filled with seawater, with an area of 10276 m2 and a maximum depth of 15m The lake has circular shape and is surrounded with sheer, karstic cliffs (4-23 m high), which completely protect the lake from the influence of the wind. During the year the lake is thermally, densely and chemically stratified into oxic and anoxic layers. The surface water is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia occurs in the bottom layer. The mixolimnion varies seasonally and it is greatly influenced by meteorological conditions (temperature, wind, rainfall) which also influence the water layer mixing. Vertical mixing usually occurs during autumn/winter when cold, oxygen-rich water from the surface sinks downwards. Depending on the intensity of the mixing process anoxic conditions in the entire water column could appear. At the boundary oxia-anoxia usually a pinky colored chemocline layer, cca 50 cm thick develops. Anoxic deep water is characterized by high concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSS up to 1mM, mainly in the form of sulfide), and nutrients (NH4+, up to 150 μM; PO43-, up to 22 μM; SiO44-, up to 400 μM) as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC up to 6 mg l-1) indicating the pronounced remineralization of allochthonous organic matter produced in the surface water The eutrophication of the lake is strongly influenced by nutrient recycling under anaerobic conditions. Due to the extreme ecological conditions which prevail in this lake, phyto- and zooplankton populations are represented by a relatively small number of species, some of them, however, in the populations denser than those in the surrounding sea. After the period of total anoxia appearance, the number of species and their abundance are significantly reduced in comparison with the pre-anoxia values. Diatoms were found to be the dominant microphytoplankton group while copepods, the heterotrophic zooplankton organisms, play an important role and control the biochemical processes in the lake, especially in the post-anoxic period. The calanoid copepod Acartia italica is the only metazoan plankton species surviving and reaching high abundance in the Rogoznica Lake. Results of recent investigations (since 2001 up to now) have showed significant change of organic matter properties what most probably is a consequence of changes in phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation with significant change in hydrographic conditions, i.e. temperature and salinity that highly influence stratification process what we believe is closely related with global climate changes. All our data show how particular sequences of meteorological events, some of which can be regarded as extreme, have affected the internal processes in the Lake. An integration of all results (since 1994 up to now) reveals an interesting possibility that this environment may well potentially serve as valuable sentinels of climate change.

  9. Teachers' Attitudes towards Behaviour Patterns in Social Conflicts in Primorsko-Goranska County in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlah, Nataša; Jancec, Lucija; Cepic, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the empirical research is to determine primary school teachers' attitudes towards behaviour patterns in social conflict. A primary school teacher is the role model for his/her pupils, so in the context of the theory of hidden curriculum, the purpose of the study is determining a better understanding of teacher's needs for further…

  10. Mineralogical discrimination of the pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in Srijem and Baranja, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija; Peh, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Previous investigations of the mineralogical composition of loess sections (loess, loess-like sediments, paleosols, alluvial intercalations) in the Carpathian Basin have concluded that the Danube River is the dominant control on the loessitic parent material. These investigations also identify a significant role for the Danube's tributaries in creating local variations. The north-south alignment of these sections forms a transect from the central part of the Carpathian Basin to its southern edge. In this work, the mineral origin of loess sediments was identified by using the multivariate statistical method of discriminant function analysis. Two models were constructed based on the modal composition as the suite of predictor (independent) variables: one is using geographic location as the a priori grouping criterion (SECTION); another employing the difference between the sampling media (LITHOLOGY). Both of the examined discriminant models demonstrate the existence of the mixing zones. The Erdut section is a clear mixture of the mineralogies at the other studied locations, while loesses appear generally intermediate in mineralogy between alluvium and paleosol. The main rationale for the observed difference in modal composition between the Šarengrad and other analyzed sections is the proximity of the Šarengrad section to the Sava River floodplain and Dinaric Ophiolite Zone (DOZ), both important source areas for aeolian sediments in the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin that transport material from the Central Bosnian Mountains unit of DOZ. Chemically, the most resistant heavy minerals together with opaque minerals are exclusively associated with paleosols, being typical products of geochemical pedogenic processes.

  11. ["Training cum research" an obligatory form of continuing medical education in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Milaković, Sanja Blazeković; Stojanović-Spehar, Stanislava; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Katić, Milica; Zupanić, Gordana; Supe, Svjetlana

    2007-02-01

    Family medicine as a discipline is more than other specialties oriented to holistic approach to patient. The physician has to know and use the possibilities of clinical, first of all somatic but also psychosociological medicine, and to continuously evaluate and follow-up results of his/her own work. The aim of the article is to present differences in clinical judgment before and after postgraduate study in family medicine. A 60-year-old woman living with her disabled son is presented. She visited her family physician many times complaining of a number of symptoms: itching, hypertension, sleep disturbance, poor general condition, trembling. It took ten months to diagnose hyperthyroidism and to begin appropriate therapy. Polysymptomatolgy of the disease based on the patient's psychological and family situation was the reason for the long-lasting wandering to definitive diagnosis. Analysis of the case revealed that neither clinical nor holistic approach was properly used in family medicine. The wrong clinical approach could be explained by fact that this physician worked for years without specialization or continuing education in family medicine. The authors conclude that postgraduate education as part of professional training in family medicine enables physicians to recognize and distinguish the interference of psychological, somatic and environmental factors, which is a major characteristic of good family practice.

  12. [Movement and dance therapy in the context of sport and recreation during winter in Zagreb, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Radovancević, Ljubomir

    2007-01-01

    The author defines the movement as the act or process of moving, an instance of this, an impulse; the development of action, a rhythmic quality; the moving parts of an organism or a particular group of such parts (muscles). Movement is moving or being moved: activity (contrasted with quiet and rest): the cat changing positions. The author describes, discusses, systematises movements and movement therapy; he analyses, interprets, comments these issues and examines the relationship of psyche (soul) and body in the very context as well as correlations of movement and dance therapy.

  13. Ownership and Use of New Media by Teachers in Rural and Urban Areas of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolovcan, Tomislav; Toplak, Tea; Matijevic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The development and use of new media in the class emphasizes independent learning based on the activities of the students, constructivist learning and student-centred lessons in general. Using new media in the class does not prompt more efficient learning and teaching in itself, but can initiate the learning processes by didactically shaping the…

  14. The extent of middle Pleistocene ice cap in the coastal Dinaric Mountains of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanac, Tihomir; Marjanac, Ljerka

    2016-05-01

    Solitary limestone blocks and groups of blocks occur on Risnjak and Velebit Mountains and on the northern Adriatic islands of Krk and Rab. Previous researchers have interpreted some of these as a) erratic blocks, b) corrosional remnants, or c) rockfalls. We have studied their mode of occurrence and composition, and revised previous interpretations of their origin in the light of transport mechanism and depositional processes. After analyzing the context of the block positions and the physical processes responsible for their emplacement, and taking into account their sedimentological context (their association with glaciogenic sediments), we herein propose a glacial origin for most of these blocks. However, some blocks are indeed shaped by sub-soil corrosion, as evidenced by their structure. The interpreted erratic blocks on the inner northern Adriatic Sea islands document the presence of middle Pleistocene glaciation of Dinaric Mountains though not its maximal extent, which is still unclear as the ice terminus was in the area that is inundated by postglacial rise of Adriatic Sea. The reconstructed ice cap area, which extended along the coastal mountains from Risnjak Mt. to south Velebit Mt. and across the range from Lika Polje to Rab Island, is conservatively estimated to be 5400 km2.

  15. The instrumentally recorded fall of the Križevci meteorite, Croatia, February 4, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.; Spurný, P.; Šegon, D.; Andreić, Ž.; Kac, J.; Korlević, K.; Atanackov, J.; Kladnik, G.; Mucke, H.; Vida, D.; Novoselnik, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Križevci H6 meteorite was recovered on the basis of fireball data obtained by the cameras of the Croatian Meteor Network. The fireball, which occurred on February 4, 2011, 23:20:40 UT, was also observed by meteor cameras in Slovenia and by the Autonomous Fireball Observatory in Martinsberg, Austria, which belongs to the European Fireball Network. Here, we present detailed data on fireball trajectory, velocity, deceleration, light curve, and orbit. We also modeled the atmospheric fragmentation of the meteoroid on the basis of the light curve and deceleration. The initial mass of the meteoroid was between 25-100 kg, most probably about 50 kg. Severe fragmentation occurred at heights of approximately 60 and 31 km, under dynamic pressures of 0.1 and 3 MPa, respectively. The peak absolute magnitude of -13.7 was reached during the second severe fragmentation event. The recovered 291 g meteorite was probably the only fragment with a terminal mass exceeding 100 g. The orbit had a low inclination of 0.6 degrees, perihelion distance 0.74 AU, and semimajor axis 1.54 AU. Križevci can be ranked among the 10 best documented meteorite falls.

  16. Metal Content in Four Shellfish Species from the Istrian Coast of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Džafić, Natalija; Ostojić, Dijana Mišetić; Potočnjak, Dalibor

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were measured in four shellfish species (oysters, mussels, scallops, warty venus) collected along the Istria Peninsula coast during autumn 2013. Mean metal levels in shellfish ranged as follows (mg/kg): As 1.69-3.91, Cd 0.15-0.99, Hg 0.06-0.2, Pb 0.33-0.74, Cu 1.23-36.2, Zn 16.3-511. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in As (p<0.05), Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu and Zn (p<0.01, all) levels among shellfish species. The highest metal concentrations were found in oysters (mg/kg): As 3.91, Cd 0.99, Cu 36.2 and Zn 511. The highest means of Pb and Hg were measured in (mg/kg): warty venus 0.74; scallops 0.12. The estimated daily intakes for oysters shown it as a good source of Cu and Zn. The higher contribution of Cd and As levels to the provisional tolerable weekly intake in shellfishes suggest a careful approach for consumption.

  17. Promoting Social and Emotional Competencies among Young Children in Croatia with Preschool PATHS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihic, Josipa; Novak, Miranda; Basic, Josipa; Nix, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) is an evidence-based universal prevention program focused on promoting children's social and emotional competencies and reducing the likelihood of behaviour problems and negative relationships with peers and teachers. This paper examines changes in the social and emotional competencies of…

  18. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  19. Stable isotope analysis of the karst hydrological systems in the Bay of Kvarner (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Mance, D; Hunjak, T; Lenac, D; Rubinić, J; Roller-Lutz, Z

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the results of the first systematic analysis of the stable isotope composition of the karst hydrological systems in the Bay of Kvarner. Gaussian mixture modelling, time series analysis and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling were applied using the stable isotope compositions of the karst groundwater. This study revealed that the recharge is dominated by winter precipitation, the dual-porosity system is dominated by baseflow, the hinterlands of the individual springs have different degrees of karstification and the springs within the Rječina River catchment have higher recharge elevations than the springs in the Bakar Bay catchment.

  20. Contemporary Teaching: Collection of Scientific Papers. International Scientific Colloquium (Osijek, Croatia, December 5-6, 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the new century, education of students faces an ambitious task, namely to realize the vision in which an individuals and institutions, all around the world, appreciate learning, not only as means of accomplishing an aim, but as an aim itself. To pursue the realization of that aim, Department for Educational and Psychological…

  1. A model of mudflow propagation downstream from the Grohovo landslide near the city of Rijeka (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žic, E.; Arbanas, Ž.; Bićanić, N.; Ožanić, N.

    2014-11-01

    Mudflows regularly generate significant human and property losses. Analyzing mudflows is important to assess the risks and to delimit vulnerable areas where mitigation measures are required. In recent decades, modeling of the propagation stage has been largely performed within the framework of continuum mechanics, and a number of new and sophisticated computational models have been developed. Most of the available approaches treat the heterogeneous and multiphase moving mass as a single-phase continuum. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics model (SPH model) adopted here considers, in two phases, a granular skeleton with voids filled with either water or mud. The SPH depth integrated numerical model (Pastor et al., 2009a) used for the present simulations is a 2-D model capable of predicting the runout distance, flow velocity, deposition pattern and the final volume of mudflows. It is based on mathematical and rheological models. In this study, the main characteristics of mudflow processes that have emerged in the past in the area downstream of the Grohovo landslide are examined, and the more relevant parameters and attributes describing the mudflow are presented. Principal equations that form the basis of the SPH depth integrated model are reviewed and applied to analyze the Grohovo landslide and the propagation of the mudflow wave downstream of the landslide. Based on the SPH method, the runout distance, quantities of the deposited materials and the velocity of mudflow progression which occurred in the past at the observed area are analysed and qualitatively compared to the recorded consequences of the actual event.

  2. Sociocultural attitudes towards appearance and body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pokrajac-Bulian, A; Ambrosi-Randic, N

    2007-12-01

    Four hundred and seventy-one girls and young women aged 14 to 23 were surveyed regarding their awareness and internalization of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction. Measures included the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ). These young women were found to express a large degree of body dissatisfaction which was significantly related to the internalization and awareness of the thin ideal. Multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied in order to determine the effects of age, awareness and internalization on body image using body mass index (BMI) as covariate. It was concluded that the girls with high scores on the internalization and awareness scales were the most dissatisfied with their bodies. The present study suggests that the awareness and adoption of the thin body ideal and high body dissatisfaction are a part of the process of globalization, which is now present in most cultures and nations.

  3. When and How Does Europe Matter? Higher Education Policy Change in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasovic, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The study underlying this article investigates the factors under which European policy initiatives with respect to higher education (HE), such as the Bologna Process, lead to policy change at the national level. In theoretical terms, it uses institutionalist approaches to the Europeanization of public policy developed in the fields of comparative…

  4. Clinical ethics in Croatia: an overview of education, services and research (an appeal for change).

    PubMed

    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Cengić, Tomislav; Ratz, Aleksandar; Rotim, Ante; Kes, Vanja Basić

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to delineate current position of clinical ethics in the Croatian healthcare system by analyzing the following: representation of clinical ethics contents in the curricula of medical and associated schools; composition and role of clinical ethics consultations; and establishment of an ethical/legal framework for the conduct of research. Curriculum investigation, literature review, arid analysis of the Croatian Act on the Protection of Patients' Rights were performed. The contents of clinical ethics are offered through 63 obligatory and elective subjects at 12 institutions. It is wrongly placed either too early or too late within the curriculum. Continuity at all levels of health professional education is needed. Croatian experience with clinical ethics consultations is shaped only by ethics committees. Problematic is the review of research protocols indicated as their main activity. Inclusion of team and individual consultations would increase the availability and facilitate the usage of ethics support services. The Act on the Protection of Patients' Rights is based on the principles of humanity and availability, ensuring the right to protection when participating in clinical trials. Unfortunately, the outdated paradigm of paternalistic medicine aggravates the respect for patients' rights in cure, care and research. A shift towards the patient/person-centered healthcare system would put the Act into everyday practice. Although clinical ethics has entered the Croatian healthcare system in a formal and practical way, the authors wish to emphasize the need to approach the European and other international standards regarding the recent Croatian accession to the European Union.

  5. Prevalence of the pathogen Aphanomyces astaci in freshwater crayfish populations in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ivana; Jelić, Mišel; Klobučar, Goran; Delpy, Mylène; Delaunay, Carine; Grandjean, Frederic

    2016-02-11

    The Oomycete Aphanomyces astaci is an obligate crayfish parasite that co-evolved with American crayfish species, and they therefore generally live in a balanced relationship. On the contrary, European native crayfish are highly susceptible to A. astaci, and infestation with it causes development of the lethal disease termed crayfish plague. Until now, 5 A. astaci strains have been described from the freshwater crayfish present in Europe. In this study we aimed to investigate the occurrence of the pathogen A. astaci in Croatian native and non-native crayfish populations, as well as to genotype established strains using microsatellite markers and obtain information on the pathogen's epidemiology. Our results showed that the pathogen is widespread in both native and non-native crayfish populations. Agent level, when positive, in non-native crayfish was generally low; in native species it was higher. Genotyping from microsatellites proved the presence of the B (Ps) strain in non-native species (Pacifastacus leniusculus), while the A (As) strain was detected from viable native species (Astacus astacus and Austropotamobius torrentium) that are distributed in areas lacking non-native crayfish. The genotype from A. torrentium differed from a typical A (As) by 1 allele. Strain B (Ps) was identified in native Astacus leptodactylus from the population that co-occurs with P. leniuscuslus. Interestingly, in 1 A. leptodactylus population both A (As) and B (Ps) strains were present.

  6. Impact evaluation of the industrial activities in the Bay of Bakar (Adriatic Sea, Croatia): recent benthic foraminifera and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Popadić, Adriana; Vidović, Jelena; Cosović, Vlasta; Medaković, Davorin; Dolenec, Matej; Felja, Igor

    2013-11-15

    The Bay of Bakar is one of the most heavily polluted bays at the Eastern Adriatic. Three major industrial companies potentially endanger the bay. The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in surface sediments from thirteen stations was discussed in relation to the sediment type and foraminiferal assemblages. The distribution of major elements in the bay is influenced by geological nature of surroundings. Heavy metal distribution depends on pollution sources and on amount of mud fraction: fine-grained sediments are enriched by them in comparison with coarse-grained ones. Different sediment quality criteria complicate the pollution assessment in the bay. Heavy metal concentrations generally fall into allowed depositional values for marine environments; only area in front of the coke plant and the City of Bakar harbor is heavily polluted. Stress-tolerant foraminiferal species dominate at stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals and coarse-grained sediments consist of larger number of epifaunal taxa.

  7. Clinical and scientific results in perinatal care of pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Djelmis, J

    1998-01-01

    At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Unit for Diabetes and Fetal Growth, School of Medicine, Zagreb, perinatal care of pregnancies complicated with insulin dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM), has been performed for more than 36 years. The intention of this review is to show our own results in the management of IDDM pregnancies and the latest clinical advances in perinatal care of such pregnancies. Pregnancy complicated with IDDM is at risk because of numerous maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Recent advances in medicine, especially in diabetology and perinatology, helps clinician avoid or lessen antenatal or perinatal complications in IDDM pregnancies. The main result of improved perinatal care is that today fetal and neonatal mortality in IDDM pregnancy is almost equal to that of healthy pregnant population. Intensive preconceptual care and optimal regulation of IDDM have resulted not only in decreased perinatal mortality but also in a decreased rate of congenital malformation. Tight glycemia control during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on fetal growth. Intensive control of fetal growth, verification of lung maturation at term by amniocenthesis, and control of fetal oxygenation will result in delivery of a mature eutrophic newborn with the lowest rate of neonatal complications possible. Perinatal mortality of less than 2% in IDDM pregnancy can be obtained by planned delivery between 38 and 39 weeks of gestation by either vaginal route or cesarean section, depending on indications. After delivery, intensive care of the newborn is necessary.

  8. Establishing an Institutional Framework for an E-learning Implementation--Experiences from the University of Rijeka, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuvic-Butorac, Marta; Nebic, Zoran; Nemcanin, Damir; Mikac, Tonci; Lucin, Pero

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the need of transforming the university structure, processes, and programs according to the Bologna reform, and in order to become more flexible and more responsive to the environment, the University of Rijeka management decided to enable e-learning implementation as an institutional, strategically planned operation. The manuscript…

  9. International Symposium on Radiation Physics: Summary Transactions (5th) Held in Dubrovnik, Croatia, Yugoslavia on 10-14 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    carried out and planned is given. IP-VI-4 NEUTRINO RADIATION FROM SUPERNOVAE J.A. Grifols Grup de Fisica Teorica , Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona 08193...using the Landau theory and the convolution method. These results have direct applications in radiation dosimetry, microdosimetry and quantitative

  10. Frequency and patterning of bone trauma in the late medieval population (13th-16th century) from Dugopolje, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis of an increased level of interpersonal violence in Dugopolje during the late medieval period as testified by written sources. In order to accomplish this, an analysis and comparison of frequencies and patterning of long bone and craniofacial fractures between sex and age categories in the Dugopolje skeletal sample was performed. In total 209 excellently preserved adult skeletons were analysed: 111 males and 98 females. The total long bone fracture frequency is 1.5% (29/1910) with a significantly higher frequency in males compared to females. Most of the long bone injuries occurred as a result of accidents, probably due to rugged mountainous terrain, while a certain portion of trauma resulted from deliberate violence. Significantly higher fracture frequencies in males could be a result of a strict sexual division of labour where males performed more physically demanding and risky tasks, as witnessed by historical sources. 26 out of 119 complete adult crania (21.8%) exhibit skeletal trauma with significantly higher frequencies in males. Perimortem trauma was observed in one individual while antemortem healed sharp force lesions were registered in five individuals (all males). The predominance of frontal craniofacial injuries, as well as the presence ofperimortem trauma and sharp force lesions, suggests the presence of deliberate violence in this community. Although the indicators of deliberate violence were recorded predominantly in males, suggesting that intentional violence in Dugopolje was exclusively males' prerogative, the presence of nasal fracture in a female skeleton might point to a male towards female violence. Presented bioarchaeological data are in accordance with the written documents thus corroborating the claims of an increased level of deliberate interpersonal violence in the late medieval population from Dugopolje.

  11. Hercynian I-type and S-type granitoids from the Slavonian mountains (southern Pannonian Basin, northern Croatia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pamic, J.; Lanphere, M.; Belak, M.

    1996-01-01

    Two genetically different groups of Hercynian granitoids occur in the Slavonian Mountains which are included in the southern Pannonian Basin. I-type granitoids occur in Barrovian-type progressive metamorphic sequences which originated during the Hercynian orogeny from the Late Silurian to Lower Carboniferous magmatic-sedimentary complex. S-type granitoids, enriched in incompatible trace elements, are accompanied by penecontemporaneous migmatites which originated from rocks of the same progressive metamorphic sequences and lower continental crust. I-type granitoids are represented mostly by granodiorite and monzogranite impoverished in incompatible trace elements, with rare diorite and monzodiorite and basic to intermediate rocks. Hercynian age of the crystalline rocks is supported by numerous K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr measurements carried out mostly on monomineralic concentrates. About 20 representative samples of S-type and I-type granites and associated rocks were selected from over 1000 samples and analyzed in detail for major and trace elements, including REE, Sr and O isotopic compositions; microprobe chemical composition of the main rock-forming minerals was determined. Although most major and trace element diagrams do not provide the best genetic discrimination between the Slavonian granitoids, Sr and O isotope composition, REE data and some other data for the S-type granitoids are indicative of their sedimentary and continental crust source, whereas the I-type granitoids were derived by partial melting of the upper mantle with slight crustal contamination.

  12. Trends in prescribing in primary care in Croatia, 2000-2012: prescribing volume, costs and regulatory measures.

    PubMed

    Vojvodić, Zeljko; Nelken-Bestvina, Darja; Kurc-Bionda, Alma; Stimac, Danijela

    2014-12-01

    The rise of pharmaceutical costs is a significant burden to overall health care expenditure. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) in attempts of its containment, use administrative measures directed toward the two greatest generators: pharmaceutical industry, through negotiating prices and periodic revisions of basic and suplemental drug lists, and primary care physicians, through limits in the volume of prescriptions, and annual financial expenditure. The aim of the study was to determine trends in quantity of issued prescriptions and pharmaceutical expanditure from 2000 to 2012. Data were obtained from the CHIF annual reports. Results clearly demonstrate two trends: the increase in quantity of issued prescriptions, together with accompanying rates: number of prescriptions per inhabitants, and per patients, and the increase in total cost of prescriptions until 2004, with their maintenance and slight variations since then. Despite controversies in approach, CHIF succeded in slowing down the costs, primarily by applying measures towards regulation of drug prices.

  13. The Challenge of Volunteering Frequency in Croatia--Can Volunteers Contribute to the Social Capital Development Once a Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culum, Bojana; Forcic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Volunteering is one of the strongest elements of shaping democratic change within the society. It is also an essential element in citizenship development and in re-establishing a sense of community. Volunteering empowers individuals, builds solidarity, encourages participation and protects vulnerable groups against social and economic…

  14. Droughts, dry spells, low water levels and their environmental-social consequences in late medieval Hungary (and Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Nikolic, Zrinka

    2016-04-01

    Based on medieval, contemporary evidence, in the presentation 14th-15th-century droughts, dry spells and documented low water-level events of large rivers (e.g. Danube, Tisza) and their detected environmental and social consequences are discussed in more detail, with special emphasis on the years of 1361-1364, 1393-1394, 1440, the early 1540s, 1474, 1479-1480 and 1494. The poster presentation is centred around the following topics: - magnitude, intensity and frequency of droughts and dry spells (in comparison with famous 18th-19th-century drought periods); - provide information (and a comparison) on Central European parallels; - other natural hazards combined with drought and dry spells (e.g. convective events); - the relationship of multiannual water-deficits and locust invasions, their intensity and documented further impacts; - the consequences of droughts, dry spells and low water levels on society, with special emphasis on food production (e.g. bad harvests, grazing permissions, high prices, threatening food shortage), transportation problems (esp. salt transportation), military defence (Ottoman Turkish attacks) and their further social effects (e.g. land-ownership debates; royal intervention and export prohibition).

  15. Influence of soil characteristics on rare earth fingerprints in mosses and mushrooms: Example of a pristine temperate rainforest (Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Medunić, Gordana; Furdek Turk, Martina; Ivanić, Maja; Kniewald, Goran

    2017-03-29

    The present study aims to investigate levels and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in soils, mosses and mushrooms of a pristine temperate rainforest, a non-polluted natural system, in order to characterise their environmental availability and mobility. The multielement analysis of digested soil, moss and mushroom samples was performed by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The distribution of rare earths in mosses and mushrooms was found primarily affected by local pedological setting. Mosses displayed a consistent lithological signature with an almost insignificant REE fractionation compared to soils. Mushrooms showed differences in REE concentrations in certain parts of the fruiting body with regard to their main physiological function and indicated a significant impact of soil organic content on the overall REEs uptake. Results of our work highlight the importance of substrate characteristics on the initial levels of REEs in mosses and mushrooms. Moreover, this study provides baseline data on the rare earth element levels in mosses and mushrooms growing in a pristine forest area characterised by naturally elevated REE levels in the soil.

  16. Secondary stroke in patients with polytrauma and traumatic brain injury treated in an Intensive Care Unit, Karlovac General Hospital, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belavić, M; Jančić, E; Mišković, P; Brozović-Krijan, A; Bakota, B; Žunić, J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into primary and secondary brain injury. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of injury and is the direct consequence of kinetic energy acting on the brain tissue. Secondary brain injury occurs several hours or days after primary brain injury and is the result of factors including shock, systemic hypotension, hypoxia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema, intracranial bleeding or inflammation. The aim of this retrospective analysis of a prospective database was to determine the prevalence of secondary stroke and stroke-related mortality, causes of secondary stroke, treatment and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This study included patients with TBI with or without other injuries who were hospitalised in a general ICU over a five-year period. The following parameters were assessed: demographics (age, sex), scores (Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II, SOFA), secondary stroke (prevalence, time of occurrence after primary brain injury, causes of stroke and associated mortality), length of stay in the ICU and hospital, vital parameters (state of consciousness, cardiac function, respiration, circulation, thermoregulation, diuresis) and laboratory values (leukocytes, C-reactive protein [CRP], blood glucose, blood gas analysis, urea, creatinine). Medical data were analysed for 306 patients with TBI (median age 56 years, range 18-93 years) who were treated in the general ICU. Secondary stroke occurred in 23 patients (7.5%), 10 of whom died, which gives a mortality rate of 43.4%. Three patients were excluded as the cause of the injury was missile trauma. The study data indicate that inflammation is the most important cause of secondary insults. Levels of CRP were elevated in 65% of patients with secondary brain injury; leukocytosis was present in 87% of these patients, and blood glucose was elevated in 73%. The lungs and urinary tract were the most common sites of infection. In conclusion, elevated inflammatory markers (white blood cell count and CRP) and hyperglycaemia are associated with secondary brain injury. The lack of routine use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring may explain the high mortality rate and the occurrence of secondary stroke in patients with TBI.

  17. Engineering Geological Model of the Contact between Two Petrographic and Stratigraphic Units along the Zagreb-Split Highway, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosel, Tomislav; Mlinar, Željko; Grgec, Damir

    The highway route Zagreb-Split, section through Lika region, was designed along the valley of the River Gacka. In this section the highway level line often crosses or goes along the contact zone between two lithological types. The significant differences of rock mass properties of two types would represent the geotechnical problem. The type of contact was also not known as well as the possible weathering degree. Investigation results showed no significant difference in characteristics between Cretaceous limestones and Eocene- Oligocene breccias. Using the results of comprehensive investigations engineering geologi- cal model was made.

  18. Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs (C30-C39) in the Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milas, Josip; Samardzić, Senka; Milas, Vesna; Miskulin, Maja; Males, Josip; Mihaljević, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Public Health of the Osijek-Baranja County in collaborate with different county institutes provide updated information on the cancer occurrence and trends in the Osijek-Baranja County (OBC). The cancers were defined according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), codes of malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs (C30-C39). The aim of this article was to show the size of cancer problem with the C30-C39 cancer group in the Osijek-Baranja County (OBC). This article processes data on cancer incidence and mortality, appertaining age distribution, median age, cancer survival and length of stay in hospital collected in period 2001-2009. Out of all patients diagnosed with C30-C39 cancers, there were 18.2% of females and 81.8% of males. The total incidence rate in males (119.5/100,000) decreases while the total mortality rate (110.9/100,000) does not change in 9-year period. In the same period, the total mortality rate in females (15.7/100,000) increase moderately. The age-standardized incidence rate was six times higher in males than in females. The overall median age at diagnosis of C30-C39 cancers of both genders was 64.5 years, which exceeds the average age at diagnosis of cancer in general in the OBC by 4.8 years. Five-year relative survival rate was 14.8%, 19.7% for females and 13.7% for males. Male lung and bronchus cancer patients (C34) were 1 year younger at diagnosis of cancer than the respective female patients. An average C30-C39 cancer patient was hospitalized 2.0 times during the course of their illness while the median length of stay in hospital amounted to 16.1 days. The number of hospital admissions in both genders decreased over the 2001-2009 period. In both genders, the total length of stay in hospitals was slightly reduced. Females spent 0.4 days more in hospital than males. The overall incidence and mortality rate in the OBC were among the highest in Europe. However, these rates in females reached neither the Croatian nor the EU average. Other data are similar to those in Europe.

  19. Marine historical ecology at the Brijuni Islands, Croatia: preliminary results from down-core changes of foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovic, Jelena; Cosovic, Vlasta; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The Late Holocene in the northern Adriatic is characterized by the eustatic peak of the sea-level rise, followed by the equilibrium between the regional tectonic subsidence and hydro-isostatic emergence and relatively stable sea level for a few thousand years. During this period the area experienced changes in sedimentation rate, food/oxygen availability in the benthic ecosystem and eutrophication with seasonal hypoxic and anoxic events. In order to reconstruct the marine paleoecology in the Brijuni Islands area during this period, a multidisciplinary study was carried out, including geochemical (TOC, trace metals, carbonate content), micropaleontological analyses (benthic foraminifera) and dating of sediments and mollusc shells. The principal aim of this study is to observe the effects of ecological shifts on foraminiferal assemblages during the Late Holocene. One core of 1.5 m length was taken at a sampling station south of Veli Brijuni Island, located within a marine protected area with no fishing/dredging pressure (Croatian national park). The core was sliced into smaller subsamples, and four sediment fractions of each subsample (63, 125, 250 and 500 µm) were analyzed for standard properties of the foraminiferal community (species richness, faunal composition, biodiversity indices), in comparison with relevant physical and geochemical properties of the sediment. The results concerning changes in foraminiferal species composition and abundance point to differences within the core: surface sediments are dominated by suspension feeders (Planorbulina mediterranensis, Lobatula lobatula, Cibicides variabilis, Cibicides refulgens), whereas deposit feeders (genera Textularia, Siphonaperta, Adelosina, Trioculina) appear in higher abundances at approximately 30 cm of the sediment depth and dominate down-core. Species richness in the first 30 cm is lower (10 to 34 species per sample) in comparison to the middle part of the core (39 to 53 species), and decreases again at 100 cm to 25 to 42 species per sample. Diversity indices follow the pattern of species richness and point to normal marine conditions. Similarity indices rise with core depth. The radiometric dating of the sediments together with carbon-calibrated amino acid- racemisation of mollusc shells from selected species will help to determine the timing of major ecological changes.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission.

  1. How compliant are technicians with universal safety measures in medical laboratories in Croatia? – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dukic, Kristina; Zoric, Matea; Pozaic, Petra; Starcic, Jelena; Culjak, Marija; Saracevic, Andrea; Miler, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and compliance to the code of conduct (rules defined in institutional, governmental and professional guidelines) among laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories. In addition, we explored the differences in compliance between participants of different age groups, laboratory ownership and accreditation status. Materials and methods An anonymous and voluntary survey with 15 questions was conducted among Croatian medical laboratory technicians (N = 217). The questions were divided into two groups: demographic characteristics and the use of PPE. The questions of the second part were graded according to the Likert scale (1-4) and an overall score, shown as median and range (min-max), was calculated for each participant. Differences between the overall scores were tested for each group of participants. Results The majority of participants always wear protective clothes at work, 38.7% of them always wear gloves in daily routine, more than 30.0% consume food and almost half of them drink beverages at workplace. A significantly lower overall score was found for participants working in public compared to private laboratories (36 (16-40) vs. 40 (31-40), P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall scores for participants of different age groups (P = 0.456) and laboratory accreditation status (P = 0.081). Conclusion A considerable percentage of laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories do not comply with safety measures. Lack of compliance is observed in all personnel regardless laboratory accreditation and participants’ age. However, those working in private laboratories adhere more to the code of conduct. PMID:26526817

  2. Influence of Urbanization Level and Gross Domestic Product of Counties in Croatia on Access to Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina; Vlahušić, Andro; Bilić, Ivica; Matanić, Dubravka

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of counties’ urbanization level and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita on the access to health care. Methods Counties were divided in two groups according to the urbanization level and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards. The number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants, the number of physicians in hospitals in four basic specialties, physicians’ workload, average duration of working week, the average number of insurants per general practice (GP) team, and the number of inhabitants covered by one internal medicine outpatient clinic were compared between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties, and between richer and poorer counties. Our study included only GP teams and outpatients’ clinics under the contract with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Data on physicians were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance, the Croatian Institute for Public Health, and the Croatian Medical Chamber. Data on the contracts with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and health care services provided under these contracts were obtained from the database of the Institute, while population and gross domestic product data were obtained from the Database of the Croatian Institute for Statistics. World Health Organization Health for All Database was used for the international comparison of physician’s data. Results There was no significant difference in the total number of physicians per 100 000 inhabitants between predominantly urban and predominantly rural counties (206.9 ± 41.0 vs 175.4 ± 30.3; P = 0.067, t test) nor between richer and poorer counties (194.5 ± 49.8 vs 187.7 ± 25.3; P = 0.703, t test). However, there were significantly fewer GPs per 100 000 inhabitants in rural than urban counties (49.0 ± 5.5 vs 56.7 ± 4.6; P = 0.003, t test). GPs in rural counties had more insurants than those working in urban counties (1.749.8 ± 172.8 vs 1.540.7 ± 106.3; P = 0.004, t test). The working week of specialists in the four observed specialties in hospitals was longer than the recommended 48 hours a week. Conclusion The lack of physicians, especially in primary health care can lead to a reduced access to health care and increased workload of physicians, predominantly in rural counties, regardless of the counties’ GDP. PMID:18581617

  3. Improvement of health care for the poor in Split (southern Croatia) during the first half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Brisky, Livia; Brisky, Tibor

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health care available for the poor citizens of Split during the first half of the 19th century. Soon after being constructed in 1797, the Civic Hospital in Split founded by the Ergovac brothers for the needs of the poor was transformed into a military hospital. Consequently, caring for this social stratum was taken over by two inadequate shelters and later by a small civic hospital situated in the Split suburb of Dobri. The year of the application of Petar Ergovac to the supreme ruler for the transformation of the hospital building established by his family from a military to a civil institution was found, as well as the correct data regarding its return to initial idea in 1821. On the basis of the archival documents kept in the Archaeological Museum in Split and in the State Archives in Zadar, the work organization of the Civic Hospital in Split and the first stage of its change from a charitable to a public health hospital institution were presented. This study revealed the aspiration of the authorities in the first half of the 19th century to improve the health system of the city of Split.

  4. Sequence Types 235, 111, and 132 Predominate among Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Izdebski, Radosław; Butic, Iva; Jelic, Marko; Abram, Maja; Koscak, Iva; Baraniak, Anna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Gniadkowski, Marek; Tambic Andrasevic, Arjana

    2014-01-01

    A population analysis of 103 multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Croatian hospitals was performed. Twelve sequence types (STs) were identified, with a predominance of international clones ST235 (serotype O11 [41%]), ST111 (serotype O12 [15%]), and ST132 (serotype O6 [11%]). Overexpression of the natural AmpC cephalosporinase was common (42%), but only a few ST235 or ST111 isolates produced VIM-1 or VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamases or PER-1 or GES-7 extended-spectrum β-lactamases. PMID:25070098

  5. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  6. Application of empirical model to predict background metal concentration in mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediment (Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Felja, Igor; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Bakić, Helena; Pikelj, Kristina; Juračić, Mladen

    2016-05-15

    A 96m long sediment core (S10-33) from the Mali Ston Channel (Adriatic Sea) showed large natural variation in carbonate share (between 1% and 95%) and concentration of elements. These variations indicate rather significant changes in fine-grained sediment that was deposited in this area during Younger Pleistocene and Holocene. Unaffected by anthropogenic influence, sediment in the core was used to determine background concentration of trace elements in sediment with various carbonate content. Here we propose a method of the normalization of trace elements to carbonate share, in order to assess natural/background concentration of metals in sediments consisting of carbonates and alumosilicates in various proportions. Six characteristic metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that were normalized to carbonate share showed very good correlation, with much higher background concentrations in alumosilicate than in carbonate end member. Simple formulas were proposed to easily determine background concentration of these elements, in coastal and shelf depositional environments with mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediments.

  7. Exploring Actinobacteria assemblages in coastal marine sediments under contrasted Human influences in the West Istria Sea, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Duran, Robert; Bielen, Ana; Paradžik, Tina; Gassie, Claire; Pustijanac, Emina; Cagnon, Christine; Hamer, Bojan; Vujaklija, Dušica

    2015-10-01

    The exploration of marine Actinobacteria has as major challenge to answer basic questions of microbial ecology that, in turn, will provide useful information to exploit Actinobacteria metabolisms in biotechnological processes. The ecological functions performed by Actinobacteria in marine sediments are still unclear and belongs to the most burning basic questions. The comparison of Actinobacteria communities inhabiting marine sediments that are under the influence of different contamination types will provide valuable information in the adaptation capacities of Actinobacteria to colonize specific ecological niche. In the present study, the characterization of different Actinobacteria assemblages according to contamination type revealed the ecological importance of Actinobacteria for maintaining both general biogeochemical functions through a "core" Actinobacteria community and specific roles associated with the presence of contaminants. Indeed, the results allowed to distinguish Actinobacteria genera and species operational taxonomic units (OTUs) able to cope with the presence of either (i) As, (ii) metals Ni, Fe, V, Cr, and Mn, or (iii) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Such observations highlighted the metabolic capacities of Actinobacteria and their potential that should be taken into consideration and advantage during the implementation of bioremediation processes in marine ecosystems.

  8. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations.

  9. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios of anthropgenic organic matter in the coastal environment of Kosirina Bay (Murter Island, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenec, T.; Lambaša, Ž.; Lojen, S.; Rogan, N.; Kniewald, G.; Dolenec, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study stable nitrogen isotopes ratios of particulate matter POM, zooplankton and selected biota such as Anemonia sulcata and Mytilus galloprovincialis were used to assessed the impact of anthropogenically derived organic matter from the untreated domestic sewage, municipal and industrial effluents on the coastal ecosystem of the Kosirina Bay (Murter Island). The differences in δ15N values observed in POM and organisms collected in Kosirina Bay as compared to POM and biota sampled at unaffected sites from the southern part of the Kornati Island and highly impacted Pirovac Bay revealed only a very minor effects of anthropogenic inputs of nutrients and organic matter which most probably derived from a sewage outfall south of the Tužbina Island. However, to get a better insight into the qualitative or quantitative shifts in the structure of aquatic food web caused by pollutants, more extended research on benthic population is needed, as well as a detailed investigation of seasonal variations of abundance and isotopic composition of POM and zooplankton as their presumed food source.

  10. Geomorphological significance of the palaeodrainage network on a karst plateau: The Una-Korana plateau, Dinaric karst, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bočić, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen; Mihevc, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    Karst plateaus often have a complex geological and geomorphological history. It is widely accepted that their development requires a long period of karst denudation. This study reconstructs the palaeodrainage network of a karst plateau, analyses its properties and establishes its geomorphological significance. The main purpose of this research was to deepen our understanding of a key stage in the evolution of karst plateaus - the transition from a fluvial land surface to one dominated by karst surface processes. The study was conducted on a large part of the Una-Korana plateau, the largest plateau in the Dinaric karst. The majority of the plateau is made of carbonate rocks of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age that set the conditions for the development of the karst. We have reconstructed the palaeodrainage network based on 1:25,000 topographic maps with 10 m contours. The transition of the surface drainage network to the underground karst drainage network is still in progress, so, depending on the degree of karstification, the drainage network was divided into three categories: active, dry and relict. It was found that 90.5% of the pre-existing drainage network has undergone some degree of karstification. The active surface drainage network gradually shifted to a dry network, then to a relict network. The surface drainage network is gradually replaced by a dense network of dolines. Today, the flat and karstified inter-fluvial area is drained underground towards the main watercourses and these drain the entire region over the surface towards the Pannonian basin. This is the largest known karst palaeodrainage network in the Dinaric karst that has been reconstructed in this way.

  11. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to <700 μS/cm at the bottom of the cave. Under these conditions variability of cave water temperature was less than 0.1 °C, although a 0.4 °C long-term variability was recorded. These data shows that the discharge of freshwater to the estuary determines the dynamic of this submerged cave, limiting the influence of estuarine water intrusion in the coastal aquifer and the impact of tides. This research shows that temperature is a powerful tracer of the dynamic of this coastal cave. This proxy provides valuable information on the freshwater discharge to the subterranean estuary and the influence of tides on the costal aquifer. This research was funded by the NEWFELPRO programme under the Grant Agreement n°71, Vrulja Project.

  12. Anthropological analysis of the Second World War skeletal remains from three karst sinkholes located in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Ivan; Bašić, Željana; Bečić, Kristijan; Jambrešić, Gordana; Grujić, Ivan; Alujević, Antonio; Kružić, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Although in the cases of war crimes the main effort goes to the identification of victims, it is crucial to consider the execution event as a whole. Thus, the goal of the research was to determine the trauma type and probable cause of death on skeletal remains of civilians executed by partisans from WWS found in the three karst sinkholes and to explain the context in which the injuries occurred. We determined biological profiles, pathological conditions, traumas, and assessed their lethality. Nineteen skeletons were found, 68.4% had, at least, one perimortem trauma, classified as lethal/lethal if untreated in 69.2% cases. The type of execution and administered violence showed to be age and health dependent: elderly and diseased were executed with the intention to kill, by the gunshot facing victims, whilst the more violent behavior expressed towards younger and healthy individuals was indicated by the higher frequency of blunt force trauma.

  13. Initial and Continuing Professional Development of Adult Educators from an Educational-Policy Perspective: Rethinking from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepic, Renata; Mašic, Marijeta

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that adult education is accepted as an equal subsystem in all European countries, it is still characterised by a distinct level of differentiation in the approach and offer, and by a pronouncedly disorganised legislation, which may be seen in the heterogeneity of competences and qualifications expected from adult…

  14. Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetism of the Miocene intramontane Pag and Drniš-Sinj basins, External Dinarides (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Pavelić, Davor; Vranjković, Alan; Ćosović, Vlasta

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents palaeomagnetic results from the Miocene offshore Pag and the twin onshore (Drniš-Sinj) basins. Earlier magnetostratigraphic results were published from both basins, which documented that the lake sediments were good targets for palaeomagnetism. From the Pag basin, we sampled the oldest and youngest segments of the 1200 m long Crnika section and obtained statistically different palaeomagnetic directions from the two parts. During a repeated visit to the section it was revealed that modern gravity-driven creeping can account for this, i.e. the results from the Pag basin should be rejected from regional tectonic interpretation. The overall-mean palaeomagnetic direction for the Drniš-Sinj basin has excellent statistical parameters, its high quality is further supported by positive regional fold/tilt and reversal tests, based on seven geographically distributed localities. The results suggests 13-20° CCW rotation with respect to Africa and 21-27° with respect to stable Europe, during the last 15 million years. As the External Dinarides are the loci of a complicated network of Miocene and even younger tectonic zones, we cannot export the observed rotation for the whole unit, but consider our results as one step in obtaining robust kinematic constraints for the post-Oligocene tectonic history of the External Dinarides.

  15. Is There a Need for a European-Wide Initiative on Comprehensive Sexuality Education? Reflections from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, Aleksandar Štulhofer has been involved in debates over school-based sexuality education in his country. Introduced to this sensitive and often divisive topic by several research studies on sexual risk taking in youth, he recently participated in two education-policy processes dealing with school-based health and sexuality…

  16. Reinforcing of QA/QC programs in radiotherapy departments in Croatia: Results of treatment planning system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Jurković, Slaven; Švabić, Manda; Diklić, Ana; Smilović Radojčić, Đeni; Dundara, Dea; Kasabašić, Mladen; Ivković, Ana; Faj, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of advanced techniques in clinical practice can greatly improve the outcome of radiation therapy, but it also makes the process much more complex with a lot of room for errors. An important part of the quality assurance program is verification of treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric verifications in anthropomorphic phantom were performed in 4 centers where new systems were installed. A total of 14 tests for 2 photon energies and multigrid superposition algorithms were conducted using the CMS XiO TPS. Evaluation criteria as specified in the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Reports Series (IAEA TRS) 430 were employed. Results of measurements are grouped according to the placement of the measuring point and the beam energy. The majority of differences between calculated and measured doses in the water-equivalent part of the phantom were in tolerance. Significantly more out-of-tolerance values were observed in “nonwater-equivalent” parts of the phantom, especially for higher-energy photon beams. This survey was done as a part of continuous effort to build up awareness of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) importance in the Croatian radiotherapy community. Understanding the limitations of different parts of the various systems used in radiation therapy can systematically improve quality as well.

  17. Geological probability calculation of new gas discoveries in wider area of Ivana and Ika Gas Fields, Northern Adriatic, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomislav, Malvić; Josipa, Velić; Režić, Mate

    2016-09-01

    There are eleven reservoirs in Ivana Gas Field and they are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones, developed in dominant clays and marls depositional sequences. Ika Gas Field is the only field in Adriatic with gas accumulated in carbonate rocks, which are the deepest reservoir of the total four reservoirs. A carbonate reservoir is defined with tectonical and erosional unconformity, which is placed between Mesozoic and Pliocene rocks. The three younger Ika reservoirs are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones that are laminated into clays and marls. The goal of our study was to assess the `Probability Of Success' (POS) of finding new gas accumulations within the marginal area of those two fields, either in the form of Mesozoic rocks or Pleistocene deposits. The assessment was successfully completed using the Microsoft Excel POS table for the analyzed areas in the Croatian part of the Po Depression, namely, Northern Adriatic. The methodology was derived and adapted from a similar POS calculation, which was originally used to calculate the geological probability of hydrocarbon discoveries in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS).

  18. Characterization of the Gacka River basin karst aquifer (Croatia): hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium-based mean residence times.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Nur N; Lutz, Hans O; Hunjak, Tamara; Mance, Diana; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana

    2014-07-15

    The Gacka River basin aquifer is a highly-developed karst system, located in the Croatian Dinarides. It is mostly composed of permeable Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleogene age. Gacka River provides high quality water for the town of Otočac and several villages; together with the neighboring Lika River, the water is used for the Hydroelectric Power Plant at Senj on the coast. About 10 perennial and over 20 seasonal springs are located at 450 to 460 ma.s.l. (above sea level). Three major springs (Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića) provide 57% of the mean annual river flow. Similarities between the average groundwater temperatures as well as between the average specific electrical conductivity values (9.0°C-328 μS/cm, 9.6°C-350 μS/cm and 8.9°C-312 μS/cm) of the springs imply that they are fed from aquifers with similar mean residence times (MRTs). The mean δ(18)O contents of Majerovo, Tonkovića, and Pećina are around -10.1‰, -9.2‰ and -8.9‰, respectively, revealing differences in the mean recharge area elevations. Compared to the temporal amplitude of the(18)O signal of precipitation, the (18)O signal variations of the springs are substantially attenuated because the recharges occurring at different times are well mixed within the aquifers. This indicates MRTs of more than just a few years. The average tritium contents of Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića are 5.48 TU, 6.13 TU and 6.17 TU, respectively. Serially connected exponential-plug type unsteady lumped-parameter models run on an annual time scale resulted in rather satisfactory matches between the observed and calculated tritium contents for all studied springs. The models revealed similar MRTs (and corresponding reservoir volumes) for Pećina, Tonkovića and Majerovo of 12 years (470 Mm(3)), 12 years (1,190 Mm(3)), and 12.2 years (1,210 Mm(3)), respectively. Plug flow conditions dominate in about 90% of the total aquifer volumes.

  19. School Exchanges: Cultural Diversity, Conflict and Cooperation. Report of the Conference (7th, Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 11-15, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 to achieve greater unity among European parliamentary democracies. The Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) is responsible for the Council of Education's work on education, culture, and sport. This publication contains proceedings of the CDCC Conference of the Network on School Links and Exchangers.…

  20. Clinical pharmacist-led program on medication reconciliation implementation at hospital admission: experience of a single university hospital in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marinović, Ivana; Marušić, Srećko; Mucalo, Iva; Mesarić, Jasna; Bačić Vrca, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process in clinical practice by quantifying and analyzing unintentional medication discrepancies at hospital admission. Methods An observational prospective study was conducted at the Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, during a 1-year period (October 2014 – September 2015) as a part of the implementation of Safe Clinical Practice, Medication Reconciliation of the European Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care Joint Action (PASQ JA) project. Patients older than 18 years taking at least one regular prescription medication were eligible for inclusion. Discrepancies between pharmacists' Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) and physicians' admission orders were detected and communicated directly to the physicians to clarify whether the observed changes in therapy were intentional or unintentional. All discrepancies were discussed by an expert panel and classified according to their potential to cause harm. Results In 411 patients included in the study, 1200 medication discrepancies were identified, with 202 (16.8%) being unintentional. One or more unintentional medication discrepancy was found in 148 (35%) patients. The most frequent type of unintentional medication discrepancy was drug omission (63.9%) followed by an incorrect dose (24.2%). More than half (59.9%) of the identified unintentional medication discrepancies had the potential to cause moderate to severe discomfort or clinical deterioration in the patient. Conclusion Around 60% of medication errors were assessed as having the potential to threaten the patient safety. Clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation was shown to be an important tool in detecting medication discrepancies and preventing adverse patient outcomes. This standardized medication reconciliation process may be widely applicable to other health care organizations and clinical settings. PMID:28051282

  1. Social Sense and Effect of Music: Prevailing Ideology in Music Curricula in Croatia before and after Its Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magzan, Masa Bogojeva

    2009-01-01

    Approaching music from a sociological perspective, this book deals with the concept of ideology in relation to music. The focus of investigation is on the reflection of ideology and power relations in the music curriculum before and after Croatian independence. The goal of this work is to help our understanding of how and why certain musical…

  2. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  3. Computer Use in Pre-School Education: The Attitudes of the Future Pre-School Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatalovic Vorkapic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    According to the relevance of teacher attitudes in the teaching process as well as to the great number of discussions among experts of pre-school education, it was interesting to examine the students of pre-school teaching about their attitudes toward the use of computer among pre-school children. The sample consisted of N = 40 students from…

  4. Total assemblages of benthic foraminifera from a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; preliminary results from the bays of Soline and Nin (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidović, J.; Ćosović, V.; Juračić, M.; Benac, Č.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Adriatic shelf is mixed siliciclastic/carbonate area with a great proportion of carbonate biogenous production. This study presents analysis and comparison of total benthic foraminiferal assemblages (their composition, diversity and distribution) in surface sediments from two Eastern Adriatic shallow water bays (Soline and Nin Bay), sampled seasonally from 2006 to 2008. In order to characterize the carbonate sediment production, 62 samples along the bathymetric profiles (from 2 to 20 m) were collected by scuba diving with short PVC corers. Granulometrical analysis was done using method of wet sieving. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis, PCA) were performed using Past program. The most abundant biogenous components in different sediments from Soline Bay (muddy sandy gravel and mud) are foraminifera, followed by fragments of mollusks, gastropods, bryozoans and sea urchins. Foraminiferal assemblages are high diversified as confirmed by Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.14 to 3.39, Fisher α index from 5.74 to 16.30 and Equitability from 0.32 to 0.72. The shallowest part of the bay is covered with the sand, consisted of high proportion of siliciclastic component and impoverished in biogenous remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have low diversity (Shannon-Wiener index 1.36, Fisher α index 2.31 and Equitability 0.32). Throughout Nin Bay, sediments (classified as sand, muddy sand and mud) are consisted of various biogenic remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have high biodiversity, with Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.51 to 3.20, α-Fisher index from 7.84 to 12.64 and Equitability from 0.37 to 0.77. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis and PCA) grouped foraminifera in two major assemblages, related to sediment type. On sandy and gravely substrates, assemblage is dominated by epifaunal genera and species: Quinqueloculina sp. (6-20%), Elphidium sp. (5-16%), Neoconorbina terquemi (6-10 %) and Asterigerinata mamilla (5-7%). Infaunal species, Ammonia beccarii (5-16%), Ammonia inflata (5-36%), Ammonia tepida (6-38%) and genus Haynesina sp. (6-31%) dominate assemblages in muddy sediments. The only reworked species Aubignyna planidorso is found in the shallowest part of Soline Bay, making 20 to 65% of the assemblage.

  5. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    PubMed

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach.

  6. The International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (The Math Teacher) = Treci medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ucitelj matematike) (3rd, Osijek, Croatia, March 18, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In the monograph The Math Teacher (following the Third International Scientific Colloquium Mathematics and Children in 2011), the term "teacher" designates a person who teaches mathematics, and the context of each article reveals whether this implies the teacher at a pre-school institution, a school or a university instructor. In…

  7. The impact of IL-6 and IL-28B gene polymorphisms on treatment outcome of chronic hepatitis C infection among intravenous drug users in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bradarić, Nikola; Forempoher, Gea; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2016-01-01

    Background Several genes and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with either spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C infection or better treatment-induced viral clearance. We tested a cohort of intravenous drug users (IVDU) diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) for treatment response and its association with the SNPs in the interleukin-6 (rs1800795-IL6) and the interleukin-28B (rs12979860-IL28B) genes. Methods The study included 110 Croatian IVDU positive for anti-HCV antibody. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based approach. Patients were treated by standard pegylated-interferon/ribavirin and followed throughout a period of four years, during which sustained virological response (SVR) was determined. All data were analysed with statistical package SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) and PLINK v1.07 software. Results Patients showed a significantly better response to treatment according to the number of copies of the C allele carried at rs1800795-IL6 (P = 0.034). All but one of the patients with CC genotype achieved SVR (93%), whereas the response rate of patients with GG genotype was 64%. The association of rs1800795-IL6 with SVR status remained significant after further adjustment for patients’ age, fibrosis staging, and viral genotype (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.16–4.68, P = 0.019). Distributions of allele frequencies at the locus rs12979860-IL28B among the study cohort and the underlying general population were suggestive of a protective effect of CC genotype in acquiring chronic hepatitis C in the Croatian IVDU population. Discussion The rs1800795-IL6 polymorphism is associated with positive response to treatment in IVDU patients positive for HCV infection. A protective role of rs12979860-IL28B CC genotype in acquiring chronic hepatitis C is suggested for Croatian IVDU population. PMID:27812403

  8. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-09-02

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013).

  9. Environmental Site Investigation in Croatia and the Conception of the Environmental and Industrial Health Hazard Risk Framework for Deployed Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    1993-1994. The concerns at the time focused on the potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bauxite - used to fill sandbags for...whether targeted samples had significantly different levels of contaminants. Although the concerns were centered on PCBs and bauxite , analyses were also...nickel, potassium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulphur , titanium, vanadium, and zinc NAA GC/MS polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides

  10. The tectonic evolution of a critical segment of the Dinarides-Alps connection: Kinematic and geochronological inferences from the Medvednica Mountains, NE Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelder, I. E.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Tomljenović, B.; Andriessen, P. A. M.; Ducea, M. N.; Beniest, A.; Gruić, A.

    2015-09-01

    The transition zone between the Alps and Dinarides is a key area to investigate kinematic interactions of neighboring orogens with different subduction polarities. A study combining field kinematic and sedimentary data, microstructural observations, thermochronological data (Rb-Sr and fission track), and regional structures in the area of Medvednica Mountains has revealed a complex polyphase tectonic evolution. We document two novel stages of extensional exhumation. The first stage of extension took place along a Late Cretaceous detachment following the late Early Cretaceous nappe stacking, burial, and greenschist facies metamorphism. Two other shortening events that occurred during the latest Cretaceous-Oligocene were followed by a second event of extensional exhumation, characterized by asymmetric top-NE extension during the Miocene. Top-NW thrusting took place subsequently during the Pliocene inversion of the Pannonian Basin. The Cretaceous nappe burial, Late Cretaceous extension, and the Oligocene(-Earliest Miocene) contraction are events driven by the Alps evolution. In contrast, the latest Cretaceous-Eocene deformation reflects phases of Dinaridic contraction. Furthermore, the Miocene extension and subsequent inversion display kinematics similar with observations elsewhere in the Dinarides and Eastern Alps. All these processes demonstrate that the Medvednica Mountains were affected by Alpine phases of deformations to a much higher degree than previously thought. Similarly with what has been observed in other areas of contractional polarity changes, such as the Mediterranean, Black Sea, or New Guinea systems, the respective tectonic events are triggered by rheological weak zones which are critical for localizing the deformation created by both orogens.

  11. Risks associated with borrowing and sharing of prescription analgesics among patients observed by pain management physicians in Croatia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Markotic, Filipa; Puljak, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding and improving patient safety is a key issue in medicine. One of the potential threats to patient safety is the sharing of medication among patients, which is a form of self-medication. This study analyzed experiences and attitudes of pain management physicians (PMPs) about sharing prescription analgesics among patients. Methods This qualitative study was conducted by semi-structured interviews among PMPs employed in Croatian pain clinics. The study involved two researchers and 15 PMPs. Results Among PMPs, 80% have seen patients who share their prescription analgesics with other patients for whom prescription is not intended. Most PMPs consider prescription analgesics sharing a risky and negative behavior. Some of them, however, found certain positive aspects associated to it, such as being a benevolent behavior, helping patients to get medications when they need them, and helping them cope with pain. Conclusion The majority of physicians specialized in pain management encountered patients sharing prescription analgesics. Most of them considered this as risky behavior with a number of potential consequences. It has been noted that this problem is neglected and that physicians should inquire about medication sharing. Direct-to-consumers advertising was perceived as a factor contributing to such behavior. Patient education and more involvement of physicians in identifying this behavior were cited as potential remedies for preventing sharing of prescription analgesics. PMID:27942233

  12. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  13. Organization and functioning of primary care for women in Croatia: in relation to the health care reforms introduced between 1995 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nižetić, Vlatka Topolovec; Srček, Igor; Rodin, Urelija; Tiljak, Hrvoje

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate trends in the organization and functioning of the HC service. The Croatian Health Service Yearbooks, from 1995 to 2012, served as the basis for the data. The results showed that the HC reforms aimed at the organization and functioning of primary care for women somehow compromised their accessibility. A general lack of around 100 gynecologists, the huge number of women on the lists, from 4, 350 to 8,061 women, and excessively heavy daily consultations, between 23.8 and 28.4, were all observed. The location of the majority of gynecological practices in the big cities also makes the service inaccessible to women from the rural areas. A flow of service away from the public to the private providers was also observed. Since, the results of this study can be viewed only in terms of trends and more detailed research will be needed in future.

  14. Healing the Wounds of War and More: An Integrative Approach to Peace--The Work of Adam Curle and Others with Mir i dobro in Zupanja, Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchels, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Examines practical implications of Curle's approach to psychological aspects of conflict and peacemaking as evidenced in the Mir i dobro project in Zupanja, taking into consideration some of the current debates concerning treatment of psychological trauma, including validity of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and use of so-called…

  15. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: case study for the mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6-12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48-72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30-120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90-180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal.

  16. Blooms of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle in coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Daniela; Ljubešić, Zrinka; Godrijan, Jelena; Viličić, Damir; Ujević, Ivana; Precali, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia contains more than 30 species, though most of them are discernible only on the basis of ultrastructural or genetic differences. We present a taxonomic study of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundhum, Hasle & Moestrup in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea together with domoic acid (DA) measurements on natural and breeding populations of shellfish. Sampling carried out monthly at 13 stations during 2007 showed Pseudo-nitzschia species to be present with high abundances during the entire year, forming blooms in coastal waters (reaching abundances of up to 1.2 × 10 6 cells L -1) during the late summer/early autumn, when they contributed up to 70% of the whole phytoplankton community. Ultrastructural examination provided evidence that the observed blooms were formed by the potentially toxic species P. calliantha. After the P. calliantha bloom, DA was detected at 3 stations along the north-eastern Adriatic coast with concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 1.32 μg g -1 in shellfish tissue. The distribution patterns of the species were analyzed statistically in order to explain the relationships between environmental variables and population dynamics. We here report on a mass appearance of the potentially toxic P. calliantha in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic.

  17. Comparative analysis of plant finds from Early Roman graves in Ilok (Cuccium) and Sćitarjevo (Andautonia), Croatia--a contribution to understanding burial rites in southern Pannonia.

    PubMed

    Sostarić, Renata; Dizdar, Marko; Kusan, Dora; Hrsak, Vladimir; Mareković, Sara

    2006-06-01

    A comparative archaeobotanical analysis of the plant remains from the Early Roman incineration graves in Ilok and Sćitarjevo shows the existence of a complex burial ritual, but at the same time enables a better understanding of the agriculture and trade of the 1st/early 2nd century AD in southern Pannonia. Most of the cereals found (Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum, Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. aestivum i T. cf. spelta), the legumes (Lens culinaris, Vicia ervilia) and the fruit contributions (Cucumis melo/sativus, Malus/Pyrus sp., the Prunus avium group, P. domestica, Vitis vinifera) were probably grown in the vicinity of the investigated localities, but they might at the same time have been trade goods. Trade was undoubtedly well developed at that period, as shown by the remains of the fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea), typically Mediterranean crops, in the finds. All the species of cereals, except millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Sćitarjevo, and of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) found in the Ilok grave were carbonised and were probably placed on the funeral pyre with the departed. The lentil (Lens culinaris) and the other fruit remains were non-carbonised and mineralised, which means that they were placed in the grave in fresh, dried or cooked form as food for the deceased (belief in an immortal soul), as remains of the funerary feast, or as a sacrifice to the goods.

  18. Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) in the analysis of historical landslide occurred in 1885 in the Rječina River Valley, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugonjić Jovančević, Sanja; Peranić, Josip; Ružić, Igor; Arbanas, Željko; Kalajžić, Duje; Benac, Čedomir

    2016-04-01

    Numerous instability phenomena have been recorded in the Rječina River Valley, near the City of Rijeka, in the past 250 years. Large landslides triggered by rainfall and floods, were registered on both sides of the Valley. Landslide inventory in the Valley was established based on recorded historical events and LiDAR imagery. The Rječina River is a typical karstic river 18.7km long, originating from the Gorski Kotar Mountains. The central part of the Valley, belongs to the dominant morphostructural unit that strikes in the northwest-southeast direction along the Rječina River. Karstified limestone rock mass is visible on the top of the slopes, while the flysch rock mass is present on the lower slopes and at the bottom of the Valley. Different types of movements can be distinguished in the area, such as the sliding of slope deposits over the flysch bedrock, rockfalls from limestone cliffs, sliding of huge rocky blocks, and active landslide on the north-eastern slope. The paper presents investigation of the dormant landslide located on the south-western slope of the Valley, which was recorded in 1870 in numerous historical descriptions. Due to intense and long-term rainfall, the landslide was reactivated in 1885, destroying and damaging houses in the eastern part of the Grohovo Village. To predict possible reactivation of the dormant landslide on the south-western side of the Valley, 2D stability back analyses were performed on the basis of landslide features, in order to approximate the position of sliding surface and landslide dimensions. The landslide topography is very steep, and the slope is covered by unstable debris material, so therefore hard to perform any terrestrial geodetic survey. Consumer-grade DJI Phantom 2 Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) was used to provide the data about the present slope topography. The landslide 3D point cloud was derived from approximately 200 photographs taken with RPAS, using structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Images were processed using the online Autodesk service "ReCap". Ground control points (GCP) collected with Total Station are identified on photorealistic point cloud and used for geo-referencing. Cloud Compare software was used for the point cloud processing. This study compared georeferenced landslide point cloud delivered from images with data acquired from laser scanning. RAPS and SfM application produced high accuracy landslide 3D point cloud, characterized by safe and quick data acquisition. Based on the adopted rock mass strength parameters, obtained from the back analysis, a stability analysis of the present slope situation was performed, and the present stability of the landslide body is determined. The unfavourable conditions and possible triggering factors such as saturation of the slope, caused by heavy rain and earthquake, were included in the analyses what enabled estimation of future landslide hazard and risk.

  19. Depression, anxiety and cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a study of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Osijek, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Degmecić, Dunja; Bacun, Tatjana; Kovac, Vlatka; Mioc, Josipa; Horvat, Jasna; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the rate of depression and anxiety in the patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM), and also to determine the state of the congnitive functions in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus compared with the control group. Study was designed as a epidemiological cross sectional study, sample consisted of 108 patients, 66 of the patients were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and 42 were control group. All of them were interviewed by psychiatrist and tested through clinical interview with Hamilton depression rating scale, Hamilton Anxiety rating scale, Mini mental state examination and questionnaire about sociodemografic data. Results show that group of patients with DM were statistically significant more depressed than the control group of the patients (p = 0.035). Pathological anxiety measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) appeared in 34 DM patients and 7 of the patients in control group, which is also statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). Evaluation of the cognitive status done with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE showed us the patients with DM presented more cognitive dysfunctions compared with the control group. We can conclude that the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in diabetic patients points to the need for greater investment in appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients that consider mental issues.

  20. The assessment of air emissions increase due to the collection of municipal solid waste with old collection vehicles: A case study of Ludbreg (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Radetić, Luka; Vujević, Dinko; Premur, Vitomir; Melnjak, Ivana; Anić Vučinić, Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    The usage of old equipment (over 10-year-old diesel-fuelled waste collection vehicles, WCVs) for municipal solid waste (MSW) collection in Ludbreg for longer than a decade has had a negative environmental impact, which has been reduced by replacing an old diesel WCV with a new diesel WCV. This study aims to assess the share of air emissions of two old WCVs (FAP 1990 and MAN 2003) and one new (MAN 2015), expressed in CO2 emissions. In addition, these vehicles have been found easily to reach the limit of 100 dB, which can cause hearing damage in their surroundings. Furthermore, their average fuel consumption is more than 80 l per 100 km, which makes them ineffective in terms of fuel consumption. Generally, higher fuel consumption results in more emissions and for a more eco-friendly operation, the MAN 2003 from Ludbreg WCV fleet should be technically amended and adjusted, and the FAP 1990 should be retired. Although the MAN 2015 is diesel fuelled, the best solution for replacement, according to Maimoun et al. (Waste Management 33: 1079-1089, 2016), would be the use of hydraulic-hybrid vehicles, which provide the best environmental benefits over other alternatives. According to Maimoun et al., hybrid is better environmentally, diesel is the best environmental-economical option and landfill gas-sourced natural gas is the best alternative when accessible because it significantly (up to 80%) reduces emissions of hazardous gases as well as noise levels (50-98%).