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Sample records for kastel gomilica croatia

  1. The population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sterc, S; Crkvencic, I

    1996-04-01

    The authors examine historical and current population dynamics in Croatia. "The demographic structure of Croatia indicates a series of specificities which were primarily conditioned by the historical development of Croatia and which is particularly expressed in constant emigration since the end of the nineteenth century, the relatively large direct and indirect losses to the population during and immediately after the First and Second World Wars, emigration as a type of population movement in all inter-census periods after 1945, the appearance of a natural decline and the aging of the population on almost one half of the state territory." excerpt

  2. The demographic situation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mrden, S; Friganovic, M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper [the] authors discuss demographic features in Croatia [from] the [second] half of the 19th century till 1996, paying special attention to the period since [the] early fifties onwards. Beside...population migration, vital statistics, projections and population development programs have been analysed. It is possible to compare Croatia with some European countries...." (EXCERPT)

  3. Agricultural depopulation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stambuk, M

    1991-01-01

    Trends in urban depopulation since 1945 in Yugoslavia and specifically in Croatia are analyzed. Two phases are identified: the first involved the eradication of the peasant farm under the Communist system, which resulted in a large-scale exodus from agricultural to urban-based activities. The second phase, which has lasted until the present, has two features: one is the tendency of those staying on family farms to have other employment off the farm; the other involves the likelihood of seeking employment abroad. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  4. Croatia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  5. Education of Adult Educators in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    Croatia has still not established a system of adult educator training. A large part of the problem in development of adult education studies is that Croatia retained the idea that andragogy is a pedagogic subject; also, some believed andragogy was an import from the West. Significant progress has been made since the 1950s when Croatia rebelled…

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  9. Healthy migrant effect within Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic determinants and health status of within-country migrants in Croatia. Data from the Croatian Adult Health Survey from 2003 (N = 9,070) were used in the analysis. Migrants due to 1991-1995 war were excluded from the analysis and only those who indicated that the reason for their migration within Croatia was related to employment or other reasons were included. Prevalence of hypertension and increased body weight was calculated for each of the three migration-related groups (employment-related migrants, other reasons migrants and non-migrants). Migrants were on general younger than non-migrants (more than three quarters of migrant were under 50 years). Employment-related migrants had the lowest prevalence of measured hypertension, while other reasons migrants had the lowest prevalence of increased body weight. Non-migrants had the worse indices in almost every trait and age group that was analysed. The results support the healthy migrant hypothesis, even in case of migrants who migrated within Croatia. However, the results of this study show that health status of migrants may depend on the reasons for their migration, suggesting that future migration studies should record and take this into account.

  10. Food contamination monitoring in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Capak, K; Katalenić, M; Barisin, A

    2001-06-01

    The Croatian National Institute of Public Health Implements the statistical food safety monitoring programme for foods marketed in Croatia in accordance with effective laws and regulations. Laboratories for food safety control, certified by the Ministry of Health, report their findings in quarterly notifications, using the standard forms and issue statements of compliance or non-compliance with current regulations, specifying the cause in case of the latter. This paper brings the results for the period 1993-99 as an illustration of the monitoring programme.

  11. United Nations Protection Force in Croatia, (UNPROFOR).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. WTC QUALITY INSPECTED % ■S3 USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR...of Serbs in Croatia. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I, Croatia joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and...UNITED NATIONS INVOLVEMENT The collapse of the former Yugoslavia in 1991 seemed to take the international community by surprise. The European

  12. ALIS evaluation tests in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Kido, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2009-05-01

    Tohoku University, Japan is developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. The Migration processing drastically increases the quality of the imaging of the buried objects.Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted several test sites. Tests in real mine fields in Croatia has been conducted between December 2007 and April 2008. Under different soil and environment conditions, ALIS worked well. Then ALIS evaluation test started in Cambodia in February 2009 and we could find discrimination capability of ALIS in test lanes, and we are planning to start evaluation test in real mine fields in Cambodia.

  13. Human hydatidosis in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Morović, M

    1997-10-01

    Human echinococcosis remains a very serious public health problem worldwide, although a decline in incidence has been observed in some endemic areas during the last decades. However, in some non-endemic areas an increase in new cases and new foci of animal echinococcosis were registered during the same time. In Dalmatia, a well known endemic area of hydatidosis in the most Mediterranean part of Croatia, from the mid-1950s until present a decrease of incidence of over 70% has been registered. Age, sex and occupational category specific incidence as well as lethality rate have remained the same as before. Migrations from rural to urban regions seem to be the most important parameter in the changing epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Dalmatia.

  14. Human hydatidosis in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Morović, M.

    1997-01-01

    Human echinococcosis remains a very serious public health problem worldwide, although a decline in incidence has been observed in some endemic areas during the last decades. However, in some non-endemic areas an increase in new cases and new foci of animal echinococcosis were registered during the same time. In Dalmatia, a well known endemic area of hydatidosis in the most Mediterranean part of Croatia, from the mid-1950s until present a decrease of incidence of over 70% has been registered. Age, sex and occupational category specific incidence as well as lethality rate have remained the same as before. Migrations from rural to urban regions seem to be the most important parameter in the changing epidemiology of human hydatidosis in Dalmatia. PMID:9363027

  15. Physician Labor Market in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Bagat, Mario; Sekelj Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyze the physician labor market in Croatia with respect to the internship and employment opportunities, Croatian needs for physicians and specialists, and trends in physician labor market in the European Union (EU) in the context of EU enlargement. Methods Data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the Croatian Employment Service, and the Croatian Institute for Public Health. We compared the number of physicians waiting for internship before and 14 months after the implementation of the State Program for Intern Employment Stimulation. Also, the number of employed specialists in internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, and pediatrics was compared with estimated number of specialists that will have been needed by the end of 2007. Average age of hospital physicians in the four specialties was determined and the number of Croatian physicians compared with the number of physicians in EU countries. Results The number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship decreased from 335 in 2003 to 82 in 2004, while a total number of unemployed physicians decreased from 436 to 379 (χ2 = 338, P<0.001). In October 2004, 79.3% of unemployed physicians waited for internship <6 months; of them, 89.2% waited for internship <3 months. In February 2005, 365 unemployed physicians were registered at the Croatian Employment Service and that number has been decreasing in the last couple of years. The number of employed specialists was lower than the estimated number of specialists needed in the analyzed specialists, as defined by the prescribed standards. A shortage of 328 internists, 319 surgeons, 209 gynecologists, and 69 pediatricians in Croatian hospitals is expected in 2007. Conclusion The lack of employment incentive seems to be the main reason for the large number of unemployed physicians waiting for internship before the implementation of the Employment Stimulation Program. According to the number of physicians per 100

  16. Trichinellosis in wolves from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Kusak, Josip; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Lucinger, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Huber, Duro; Gudan, Andrea; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves (Canis lupus) in a 17,468 km(2) area in Croatia. Muscle samples were collected from 67 wolves between 1996 and 2007 and analyzed by artificial digestion. Muscle larvae were detected in 21 wolves (31%) and genotyped by multiplex PCR. Trichinella britovi was the predominant species confirmed in 90% (19 wolves) while Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9% (2 wolves). The presence of the so called "domestic"Trichinella species was a surprise since, to date, only T. britovi had been reported in wild animals in this region. The larval burdens in infected animals ranged from 0.3 to 45.9 larvae per gram. The prevalence of infected animals varied by geographic region; infected animals were found in the region of Gorski Kotar (20%) which has very similar environment to the region of Lika, where almost all wolves were found infected. Interestingly, this is the first report of infected wolves in Dalmatia.

  17. History of venereology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo

    2009-01-01

    The term sexually transmitted infections has a wider meaning than the older venereal diseases. It is known that gonorrhea was present even in ancient times, whereas syphilis appeared in Europe at the end of the 15(th) century. Soon cases were observed along the coast in Zadar, Dubrovnik and Istria, and were treated by surgeons. The relatively late establishment of medical schools, along with wars and different governments, were some of the reasons why dermatovenereology as a specialty developed later in Croatia than in other European countries. Nevertheless, during the 19(th) century, many Croatian physicians and dermatovenereologists of the past century were interested in venereology. Among the most important personalities that worked at departments and dispensaries for venereal diseases were Cambieri, Kogoj, Bozić, Nonveiller, Orhel, and many others. They introduced new diagnostic technologies and treatments, and wrote about these diseases. Significant progress was achieved in larger towns where medical schools had been opened. Croatian venereologists also organized several international congresses on sexually transmitted diseases and became members of the respective international societies. Nowadays, the interest of dermatovenereologists has been shifting towards chlamydial infections, herpes genitalis, human papillomavirus genital infection and human immunodeficiency virus infection, and their presence among homosexuals.

  18. Occurrence of hereditary bullous epidermolyses in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pavicić, Z; Kmet-Vizintin, P; Kansky, A; Dobrić, I

    1990-06-01

    To determine the occurrence of hereditary bullous epidermolyses (EB) in Croatia, Yugoslavia, from 1960 to 1987, cases were gathered from the hospital files of dermatologic and pediatric clinics and departments throughout the area. The diagnosis of EB type was made on the basis of clinical features, patients' histories, and light microscopy and electron microscopy findings. Fifty families with 58 patients were registered; 44 patients were examined personally by one of the authors. The most frequent type of EB in Croatia was recessive dystrophic EB Hallopeau-Siemens, occurring in 35 of the 58 individuals. Regional accumulation of cases within the Varazdin area was noted (13 patients). Prevalence of EB in Croatia is 0.956 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. One case of recessive dystrophic EB Hallopeau-Siemens occurred in about every 52,000 live births.

  19. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  20. Problems with drugs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vrhovac, B

    1997-01-01

    Croatia has 4.8 million inhabitants, 11,800 physicians, 2000 pharmacists, two now shareholding, pharmaceutical companies (about 6500 employees, total sales of about 350 million US dollars). There are a number of problems due to the war (GNP fell from 3800 to about 1500 US dollars), occupation of 25% of its territory, 0.5 million refugees and lack of resources (139 US dollars/capita for health, about 40 US dollars i.e. 30%!! for drugs)--about three times less than before the aggression. The drug situation is controlled with the help of: (1) donations (approximate value of 600 million US dollars since 1991 from Europe and US), (2) (essential) drug formularies--250 for outpatients, and 580 generic names for various levels of hospital use, (3) special efforts to purchase drugs of good quality at a reasonable price (a kind of tender), (4) control of prescribing (prescriptions, specialists referral) especially by GPs. A new Medicines Act is in preparation and about 1000 generic names are on the market. DRUG EDUCATION: Pharmaca: the Croatian journal of pharmacotherapy has been published since 1962, there are several Drug bulletins (one published since 1975); special chapters on clinical pharmacology in textbooks, translation of three editions of Laurence's textbook with special commentary and adaptation to local needs; ADR spontaneous and intensive monitoring (WHO programme) with a personal feedback to the reporters and regular articles on drug use in a number of periodicals. Data on drug consumption indicates that there is room for improvement of prescribing. There is an enthusiasm for 'vasoactive drugs'--after dipirydamole came oxpentifylline and antimicrobials are always overprescribed. All these problems will hopefully decrease when the war finally stops and when industry (especially tourism) starts being fruitful again. In any case the importance of teaching of pharmacotherapy at the under- and postgraduate level should be recognized.

  1. Spherical Model of Interests in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverko, Iva

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the validity of spherical model of interests in Croatia, three Croatian samples of primary school students (N = 437), secondary school students (N = 540) and university students (N = 630) were administered a translated version of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, [Tracey, T.J.G. (2002). Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of…

  2. Peer Evaluation of Oral Presentations in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Mirjana Matea; Sirkovic, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore student engagement in peer evaluation activities related to giving scientific presentations in English (L2) and to investigate student attitudes towards this form of evaluation in the course Communication skills in Croatian (L1). The participants in this study were first-year students of engineering in Split, Croatia.…

  3. Teaching Philanthropy in Croatia: Problems and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledic, Jasminka

    This paper describes "Initiating Philanthropic Activities in Croatia (Rijeka) through Teacher's Education," a project started in 1995 and supported by the Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, and designed to help promote the values of philanthropy, primarily through teacher education. The project is part of the program called…

  4. Spherical Model of Interests in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sverko, Iva

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the validity of spherical model of interests in Croatia, three Croatian samples of primary school students (N = 437), secondary school students (N = 540) and university students (N = 630) were administered a translated version of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, [Tracey, T.J.G. (2002). Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of…

  5. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula.

  6. New records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Ivković, Marija; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records are provided for Limoniidae and Pediciidae from Croatia, with new distribution records for species in 12 different genera. Four genera and 18 species are newly recorded for Croatia. Until now, including this data, 87 Limoniidae and eight Pediciidae have been recorded from Croatia. In this paper we confirm presence of Ormosia (Oreophila) bergrothi (Strobl, 1895) and we give the first records of Dicranota (Paradicranota) pavida (Haliday, 1833) and Molophilus (Molophilus) repentinus Starý, 1971 from Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26257567

  7. Caring for academic ophthalmology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Zdravko; Vatavuk, Zoran

    2004-06-01

    Like any other area of academic medicine in Croatia, academic ophthalmology has always been limited by or has depended on the factors outside the profession itself: during the communist regime, it was mostly political and ideological correctness of academic ophthalmologists, and today during the social and economic transition, it is the lack of finances, planning, and sophisticated technology. The four university eye clinics, which are the pillars of academic ophthalmology in Croatia, provide health care to most difficult cases, educate students, residents, and specialists, and do research. On the other hand, they lack equipment, room, and financial recognition. This ever growing imbalance between requirements imposed on academic ophthalmology today and its possibilities make it less and less attractive, especially in comparison with private practice. The possible solution lies in increasing the independence of ophthalmology from pharmaceutical industry and politics, especially in research and financial aspects.

  8. [Regional distribution of physicians in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Velibor; Bagat, Mario; Golem, Ante-Zvonimir

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show regional distribution of physicians in Croatia. Number of physicians members of the Croatian medical chamber and number of physicians in the system of mandatory health insurance were compared between the counties. In 2006 in Croatia there were 276 physicians per 100,000 inhabitants, i.e., 215 physicians per 100,000 inhabitants in the system of mandatory health insurance. The fewer number of physicians per 100,000 inhabitants in the system of mandatory health insurance, less then 150, were in Koprivnica-Krizevci County, Lika-Senj County and Vukovar-Srijem County, while the greatest number of physicians, more than 250 per 100,000 inhabitants, were in the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County, and Primorje-Gorski kotar County. There were significant differences in the number of physicians per 100,000 inhabitants between the counties (chi2 = 148.7, DF = 19, P < 0.001, chi2-test). Number of general practitioners (GPs) per 100,000 inhabitants in Croatia were 54.2, with range from 47.1 in Pozega-Slavonia County to 61.8 in Primorje-Gorski kotar County. Number of physician specialties in four basic specialties per 100,000 inhabitants in Croatian hospitals were for internal medicine 19.1, general surgery 11.0, gynecology and obstetrics 6.7 and pediatrics 7.8. There were significant differences in the number of physicians in four specialties (internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics and pediatrics) per 100,000 inhabitants between the counties (chi2 = 76.0, DF = 19, P < 0.001, chi2-test). Apart from the insufficient number of physicians in Croatia, an inadequate allocation of physicians in certain counties is also evident.

  9. Hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma, type papulosa, in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, A; Kansky, A; Basta-Juzbasić, A; Skerlev, M; Beck, T

    1993-09-01

    Hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma (HPPK), type papulosa, is rare, and epidemiologic data are sporadic and inconsistent. An epidemiologic population study of this disease has not been performed previously. We performed a large population study on prevalence of HPPK, type papulosa, in Croatia. The data were collected from medical records of dermatology departments throughout Croatia; 14 patients and their relatives were examined. Histopathologic studies were performed in 11 of these 14 patients. Fifty-five patients were identified and the prevalence was 1.17 per 100,000 inhabitants. All 55 patients belonged to 20 different families. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance was confirmed in 13 families. All 14 patients examined by the authors had both palmar and plantar lesions; the volar aspects of fingers were also involved. Thickened nails were observed in four patients, and no significant skin lesions were found elsewhere. HPPK, type papulosa, is rare, and its prevalence in Croatia is about four times lower than HPPK, Unna-Thost type. It should be considered a distinct entity.

  10. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  11. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  12. Nursing in Croatia: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlic-Sumić, Marija; Simunec, Dragica

    2008-06-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia, there are 30000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consists of secondary-level vocational education followed by two cycles of university-level education--baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary-level vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined responsibilities. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. Licensing registered nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, because Croatian nurses with only secondary vocational qualifications do not meet the requirements for licensing. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessment of the job complexity index and nursing salary.

  13. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Janev Holcer, Natasa; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavić, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  14. Nurses in Croatia: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kalauz, Sonja; Orlić-Šumić, Marija; Šimunec, Dragica

    2008-01-01

    In the health care system of the Republic of Croatia there are 30 000 nurses. More than 7000 of them have college or university professional qualifications. Nursing education consist of secondary vocational education followed by two cycles of university education – baccalaureate and diploma cycle. A PhD cycle, which would allow the development of scientific career for nurses, does not exist. The secondary vocational school qualifications are not recognized by the European Union educational system, requiring a necessary reform in that field. The education of nurses should be attuned with the needs of health care institutions, and nursing care should be based on modern categorization of patients, standards of nursing practice, and clearly defined spheres of responsibility. However, the Croatian Ministry of Health has not yet defined the necessary number of nurses in Croatia or their required educational level. The license for independent work for nurses is another great problem that the health care system is facing, since Croatian nurses with only vocational secondary school qualifications do not meet the requirements to be licensed. The current legislation on nursing is still only formal and not implemented on a wide scale in the health care system. Considering the new trends, nurses in Croatia should work on developing a new systematization of workplaces and more accurate assessing of the job complexity index and the ratio of personal incomes. PMID:18581608

  15. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation.

  16. [Demographic development of Croatia, 1991-1994].

    PubMed

    Lajic, I

    1995-01-01

    "The demographic development of Croatia in the period 1991-1994, marked by... Serbian aggression, the state of ¿half-war', and the war in Bosnia and Hercegovina, should be described as irregular--its components being determined by the above conditions. This proves especially true concerning forced migrations and their past and future influence on population change. The paper analyzes the insufficiently studied topic of war mortality, as well as various dimensions of the refugee population. It also emphasizes several structural characteristics of the population, particularly its ethnic structure, and the population dynamics in the temporarily occupied territories." (EXCERPT)

  17. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous.

  18. Increasing burden of melanoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Malatestinić, Dulija; Nadarević-Stefanec, Vesna; Suljić, Petra; Glazar, Bojan; Janković, Suzana

    2011-09-01

    Melanoma consists 4-5% of all skin cancers, but it contributes to 71-80% of skin cancers deaths. It is controversial whether worldwide increases in melanoma incidence represent a true epidemic but at the same time that dramatic increase in incidence occur in setting of relatively stable mortality trends, observed in Croatia also. The majority of authors accept that main risk factors for melanoma relate to environmental exposure and genetics with epidemiologic studies linking sun exposure to melanoma development. Data were obtained from Croatian cancer register for patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2008, for malignant melanoma of the skin (ICD-10 code C43) at national level and from 2003 to 2008, at the County level (Primorsko-goranska County). Melanoma incidence nearly doubled in males from 8.75 to 13.4/10(5) per year, fold in females from 9.1 at the start of observation to the end of 12.0/10(5) per year in Croatia. Melanoma incidence rates were much more higher for Primorsko-goranska County with range from 10.1 to 17.5/10(5) per year. The greatest increase of melanoma incidence rates was in males 60 years and over year group at diagnosis. National comparison of variation in cancer incidence by region and age can provide basis for public health prevention. It requires the integration of information on risk factors, incidence that could help to reduce regional inequalities in incidence and reduce the future cancer incidence.

  19. Challenges for health care development in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of the research done in this paper was to establish key challenges and perspectives for health care development in the Republic of Croatia in the next two decades. Empirical research was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews involving 49 subjects, representatives of health care professionals from both, public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). The results have shown that key challenges and problems of Croatian health care can be divided into three groups: functioning of health care systems, health care personnel, and external factors. Research has shown that key challenges related to the functioning of health care are inefficiency, financial unviability, inadequate infrastructure, and the lack of system transparency. Poor governance is another limiting factor. With regard to health care personnel, they face the problems of low salaries, which then lead to migration challenges and a potential shortage of health care personnel. The following external factors are deemed to be among the most significant challenges: ageing population, bad living habits, and an increase in the number of chronic diseases. However, problems caused by the global financial crisis and consequential macroeconomic situation must not be neglected. Guidelines for responding to challenges identified in this research are the backbone for developing a strategy for health care development in the Republic of Croatia. Long-term vision, strategy, policies, and a regulatory framework are all necessary preconditions for an efficient health care system and more quality health services.

  20. Emigration and emigrants from Croatia between 1880 and 1980.

    PubMed

    Cizmic, I

    1996-04-01

    "Croatia ranks among those parts of Europe which have taken very high part in all forms of emigration flows in almost all periods of the last few centuries. The emigration from Croatia was caused by different reasons, such as historical, political, national, religious, social and other. It started in the 16th century and has been going on more or less intensively in different historical periods up to now.... We would like to emphasize that the problem of emigration was and is still actual for the Croatian nation, especially in view of the fact that emigration from Croatia did not stop and continues up to this day." excerpt

  1. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milicić-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovlić, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we

  2. Croatia founded a national body for ethics in science.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia

    2007-06-01

    The Committee for Ethics in Science and Higher Education (CESHE) was created in Croatia as a national body appointed by the Parliament. Thus Croatia became one of a handful of countries with national means of responding to allegations of scientific misconduct. The Committee's duties, with the help of the Ethics Code, include promotion of ethical norms and values in science and higher education. The CESHE will work on cases of possible research misconduct and alleged disregard for the ethical norms associated with research.

  3. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  4. Occupational Health Problems among Dentists in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vodanović, Marin; Sović, Slavica; Galić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the health status among dentists in Croatia regarding the symptoms of musculoskeletal, dermatological, sight, hearing and neurological disorders. Methods The anonymous online survey was conducted among 506 Croatian dentists. Results It was found that over 78.18% of the surveyed dentists experienced work related pain in upper back, 76.97% of them in lower back. Work-related skin problems were reported by 29.29% of dentists. Vision problems were reported by 46.87% and hearing problems by 19.03% of participants. Neurological disorders were reported by 15.76% of dentists. Conclusion This study is the first to report on the overall health status of Croatian dentists and, unfortunately, it showed undesirable results. Numerous health hazards, increased professional requirements and limited ergonomics in the work environment of Croatian dental practitioners cause various health disorders, and the prevalence of occupational diseases is very high. PMID:28275278

  5. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  6. Diversity of currently circulating rabies virus strains in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lojkić, Ivana; Cac, Zeljko; Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Brstilo, Mate; Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad M

    2012-01-01

    Sylvatic rabies has been present in Croatia for more than three decades, with the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as the main reservoir. The present epidemic of sylvatic rabies in Croatia started already in 1977 and in the past ten years the disease has become enzootic in the entire country and thus represents a considerable veterinary and public health threat. A genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus isolates (RABV) from Croatia was performed using panel of 32 selected rabies-positive brain samples from domestic and wild animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Based on the comparison of 367-nucleotide sequences of a conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene (nucleotides 75-441), the phylogenetic analysis revealed a low genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV strains in Croatia. 18 RABV isolates mainly originating from Eastern Croatia clustered with the formerly established Eastern European (EE) lineage, and the rest (14) were identical with the West European (WE) group. Both phylogenetic groups seem to coincide in central regions on both sides along the Save River. A high sequence identity in the N gene of the RABV isolates from neighbouring countries was found.

  7. Reform of health insurance in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Turek, S

    1999-06-01

    After democratic changes in 1990 and the declaration of independence in 1991, Croatia inherited an archaic system of economy, similar to all the other post-communist countries, which had especially negative effects on the health system. Health services were divided into 113 independent offices with their own local rules; they could not truly support the health care system, which gradually stagnated, both organizationally and technologically. Such an administrative system devoured 17.5% of the total funds, and primary care used only 10.3% of this. Despite the costly hospital medicine the entire system was financed with US$300 per citizen. The system was functioning only because of professionalism and enthusiasm of well-educated medical personnel. Such health policy had a negative effect on all levels of the system, with long-term consequences. The new health insurance system instituted a standard of 1,700 insureds per family medicine team, reducing hospital capacities to 3.8 beds per 1,000 citizens for acute illnesses. Computerization of the system makes possible the transparency of accounting income and expenses. In a relatively short period, in spite of the war, and in a complex, socially and ethically delicate area, Croatian Health Insurance Institute has successfully carried out the rationalization and control of spending, without lowering the level of health care or negatively influencing the vital statistics data.

  8. Assessing primary care in Croatia: could it be moved forward?

    PubMed

    Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić; Kovačić, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that countries with strong primary care achieve better health outcomes at lower costs. Therefore, the effort of World Health Organization in promoting primary care as a basic principal of successful health care system is an ongoing process. Although Croatia was recognized as a country with primary care orientation due to the development of health centers and introduction of specialist training of general practitioners, it seems that many health care reforms aimed at better organization of health institutions and decreasing of health care costs did not result with higher primary care orientation. By application of the Primary Care Score instrument in 2014 (Croatia received 11.2 out of 20 possible points), and international comparison performed in 2002, it was concluded that among the eighteen OECD countries Croatia could be categorized as an "intermediate primary care country", obtaining the scores just a bit above the average.

  9. [Incidence of skin manifestations of Lyme disease in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Kansky, A; Balić-Winter, A; Bolanca-Bumber, S; Skerlev, M

    1992-01-01

    In the study, the most relevant historical data concerning Lyme-borreliosis are shortly reviewed. The most frequent skin manifestations, i.e. erythema cronicum migrans (ECM), lymphocytoma cutis (LCC) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) are described. The clinical course of Lyme disease and the chronologic review of the most significant data on the disease are given. The frequency of skin manifestations of Lyme-borreliosis in various areas of Croatia from 1988 to 1989 based on the reports of dermatologists throughout Croatia is presented. According to our results, it can be concluded that skin manifestations of Lyme-borreliosis are much more frequent in the central and western parts of Croatia than elsewhere. The authors hope that the use of a fluorescent method for detecting antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi since 1989 in the Serologic Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology, Salata, Zagreb will lead to more precise results about this disorder in the future.

  10. Neonatal birth weight variations between inland and littoral Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Rodin, Urelija; Matanić, Dubravka; Jovancevic, Milivoj

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neonatal birth weight (BW) differences between inland and littoral Croatia, to identify BW groups with most pronounced differences, and possible variations in the rate of BW > or = 4000 g between Sibenik area and the rest of littoral (counties with access to the Adriatic Sea) and inland Croatia. The study included data on 99.42% of 200,740 live births recorded in 37 Croatian maternity hospitals during the 2001-2005 period. Distribution of 500-g BW groups was analyzed irrespective of neonatal sex and gestational age. Differences were found between the inland and littoral parts of Croatia according to distribution of the BW groups of < 2500 g (5.4% vs. 4.4%), 2500-3999 g (84% vs. 80.2%) and > or = 4000 g (10.6% vs. 15.4%) (chi2 = 882; p < 0.001).The highest rate of BW > or = 4000 g was recorded in Sibenik-Knin County (5-year mean 18.32%) and was greater throughout the littoral as compared with inland Croatia (5-year mean 14.99% vs. 9.58%). A shift towards higher BWgroups recorded throughout littoral as compared with inland Croatia supports the hypothesis on variation in anthropologic characteristics in the respective populations to be pronounced as early as at birth. Study results confirmed fetal macrosomia not to be exclusively characteristic of Sibenik-Knin County, since the rate of neonatal BW > or =4000 g was significantly higher in the entire littoral as compared with inland Croatia.

  11. Medical Informatics in Croatia – a Historical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dezelic, Gjuro; Kern, Josipa; Petrovecki, Mladen; Ilakovac, Vesna; Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey of medical informatics (MI) in Croatia is presented from the beginnings in the late sixties of the 20th century to the present time. Described are MI projects, applications in clinical medicine and public health, start and development of MI research and education, beginnings of international cooperation, establishment of the Croatian Society for MI and its membership to EFMI and IMIA. The current status of computerization of the Croatian healthcare system is sketched as well as the present graduate and postgraduate study MI curricula. The information contained in the paper shows that MI in Croatia developed and still develops along with its advancement elsewhere. PMID:24648620

  12. Sinking karst river Dobra hydrology (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, O.; Andrić, I.

    2009-04-01

    A case of special hydrological characteristics of sinking karst river Dobra is analysed. Its catchment is located in the central part of the Dinaric karst region of Croatia. The Dobra River has three parts. First one calls Upper or Ogulinska Dobra. Its length from the spring to the Djula sink is 51.2 km. The second part flows through karst underground from the Djula sink to the karst spring zone near village Gojak. In order to reappear at the karst springs zone of the Lower or Gojačka Dobra River it flows through cave system 16,396 km long. The shortest aerial distance between Djula sink and the Lower Dobra River karst spring zone is 4.6 km. The longitude of this third part of the Dobra River is 52.1 km. Along the some sections of the open watercourse of the Upper Dobra there are huge water losses through small karst sinks located on the bottom of its channel. The hydrological as well as hydrogeological regime of the Dobra River is strongly influenced by the construction of HEPP Gojak built in 1959. Water from the neighbouring Zagorska Mrežnica River is provided by tunnel to the hydroelectric power plant (HEPP) Gojak situated immediately downstream from the Gojak karst spring zone. By this way mean annual discharge of the Lower Dobra has increased doubly, from about 13.6 to 28 m3/s. At the end of July 1999, the town of Ogulin was flooded. This flood was caused by insufficient swallow capacity of the Djula spring. New changes of hydrological, hydrogeological and ecological characteristics of the Lower Dobra River should be expected in the near future. The HEPP Lešće on the Lower Dobra is currently under construction.

  13. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  15. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  16. Spreading of West Nile virus infection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbić, Ljubo; Listeš, Eddy; Katić, Sanda; Stevanović, Vladimir; Madić, Josip; Starešina, Vilim; Labrović, Ankica; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2012-10-12

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with rapid global expansion. The virus circulation is confirmed in many countries of Mediterranean Basin and Southern and Central Europe. In our study detection of specific WNV antibodies was performed in horses and cattle sera samples collected from October 2010 to April 2011. Serum samples were randomly taken from different parts of Croatia and tested by IgG and IgM ELISA. Positive serological results were confirmed by virus neutralization assay (VN-assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results showed that WNV antibodies were present in 72 out of 2098 horse sera (3.43%) and 3 of 2695 cattle sera (0.11%). The highest seroprevalence was found in Eastern Croatia in counties next to Hungarian, Serbian and Bosnia and Herzegovinian state borders. In Adriatic part of Croatia positive animals were found only in the westernmost county, near Slovenian and Italian borders. Geographic distribution and number of positive horses indicated that WNV is highly present in Croatia and spreading from East to West. However, positive horses in westernmost part of country indicate possible second origin of spreading. Location of serological positive cattle supports the hypothesis that seropositive cattle could be indicators of high WNV activity in the respective geographic regions.

  17. Broad Strokes of Recovery: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta; Juros, Luka; Vizek-Vidovic, Vlasta

    2004-01-01

    For a long time after the proclamation of independence, Croatia suffered economic stagnation that negatively affected the development of science and higher education. However the turn of the millennium brought higher state investment in science and higher education, and all statistics now show a steady increase in the number of students and…

  18. Motivation and Personality of Preservice Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Marusic, Iris; Ivanec, Tea Pavin; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2012-01-01

    The study presents results founded upon the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale validation and the relations between personality traits and motivation for teaching in Croatia. A sample of 374 first-year preservice teachers from three universities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the items comprising the Croatian…

  19. Academic Marginalism in Western Balkans: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajkovic, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on document analysis and in-depth, open-ended interviews with university leaders and government officials in a post-socialist and a recent European Union entrant country, Croatia. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the Croatian academic sector, as well as to unpack the top academic officials'…

  20. Developing and Implementing an Effective National Security Strategy for Croatia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    unfortunately unrealized dream.” This position was deemed unacceptable by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Croatia, Vesna Pusic.26 The...Parliament, Croatian National Security Strategy (Zagreb: The National Papers, number 32/02, March 2002), 2. 26 Minister of Foreign Affairs Vesna

  1. Assessing the Quality of University Teaching in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledic, Jasminka; Rafajac, Branko; Kovac, Vesna

    1999-01-01

    Studied the extent to which university teaching is respected in Croatia through questionnaires completed by 203 teachers and 469 students from 11 university departments. Results show that teachers access the quality of actual teaching at the university higher than students do, and that the differences for some of the 15 criteria studied could be…

  2. Informed consent in Croatia. A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2014-07-01

    As Croatia makes the transition from one political system and type of economy to another, there are inevitable social and political changes that have a profound affect on the healthcare system. This article charts some of the progress of change with respect to patients' rights and informed consent.

  3. The Educational Program "Zajedno Jaci" (Stronger Together) in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanja, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore intercultural learning undertaken through the educational program "Stronger Together." The program "Stronger Together" was created in 1998 in order to support and educate teachers working with children in post-war regions of Croatia using intercultural education and cooperative learning as tools for…

  4. Learning Wellness: A Water Exercise Class in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…

  5. Learning Wellness: A Water Exercise Class in Zagreb, Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…

  6. Academic Marginalism in Western Balkans: The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajkovic, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on document analysis and in-depth, open-ended interviews with university leaders and government officials in a post-socialist and a recent European Union entrant country, Croatia. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the Croatian academic sector, as well as to unpack the top academic officials'…

  7. Motivation and Personality of Preservice Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugovic, Ivana; Marusic, Iris; Ivanec, Tea Pavin; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2012-01-01

    The study presents results founded upon the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale validation and the relations between personality traits and motivation for teaching in Croatia. A sample of 374 first-year preservice teachers from three universities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the items comprising the Croatian…

  8. Bone traumas in late antique populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3r to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar--located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, Strbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar--350 km to the west, is located deep in the territory of the Roman Empire. Numerous historical sources describe barbaric incursions, as well as large battles related to civil wars during the Late Antique period in continental Croatia. Conversely, there is no mention of similar events in the Zadar region. In accordance with these data our analysis tests the hypothesis that the inhabitants of continental Croatia were exposed to greater levels of violence than those living in Zadar. Analysis of bone traumas in the two series shows a similar, relatively high prevalence of long bone fractures in both samples, with a slightly higher frequency recorded in Zadar. Both series exhibit a high frequency of cranial injuries with, once again, higher frequencies recorded in the Zadar series. Additionally, two perimortem cranial fractures (one caused by a sword, the other by a blunt object) were observed in Zadar. Some of the recorded traumas in both samples resulted from accidents, but a number of injuries clearly resulted from intentional violence of lesser intensity. Further multidisciplinary research incorporating osteological, archaeological, and historical analyses is necessary to confirm the results obtained from these samples.

  9. Storm wave deposits in southern Istria (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Devoto, Stefano; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to extreme waves are well documented in different areas of the Mediterranean coasts, such as in Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Greece (Lesbos and Crete islands), France, Spain, Malta, Italy (Sicily and Apulia regions). These deposits have been associated to storm or tsunami events or both, depending on the local history. If compared to the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea is considered a shallow basin, with very low wave energy. In particular the NE Adriatic, where Istria Peninsula (Croatia) is located, geological and geomorphological evidences of extreme wave events have never been described, as well as no tsunamis have been registered. We present the boulder deposits that have been recently found out in southern Istria, at Premantura and Marlera localities and we discuss the mechanisms that could have been responsible of the detachment and movement of these large rocky blocks from the emerged part of the coast and from the sea bottom inland. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted: geological and geomorphological surveyings, UAV and digital photogrammetric analysis, applying of the hydrodynamic equations as well as underwater profiles were carried out between 2012 and 2016. The southern Istrian coasts are composed of Cretaceous bedded limestones, sub-horizontal or gently inclined toward the sea and are exposed to southern winds, Scirocco and Libeccio, with wide fetch. The boulder deposits occur in correspondence of flat promontories or ancient quarry pavements, where the topography, together with the bedding planes and a dense fracture pattern constitute the predisposing factors of the boulder sizing and detachment. Boulder sizes, density, position and elevation have been measured in order to apply the hydrodynamic equations, which provide wave height values that can discriminate a storm from a tsunami origin. Biogenic marine encrustations, sometimes very recent, have been observed on large part of the boulders, attesting

  10. Regional Geomagnetic Field Model for Croatia at 2009.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujić, Eugen; Brkić, Mario; Kovács, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic data of north, east, and vertical components at Croatian repeat stations and ground survey sites, as well as European geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations, were used to obtain a regional geomagnetic model over Croatia at 2009.5 epoch. Different models were derived, depending on input data, and three modelling techniques were used: Taylor Polynomial, Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis, and Spherical Harmonic Analysis. It was derived that the most accurate model over Croatia was the one when only Croatian data were used, and by using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis. Based on Croatian repeat stations' data in the interval 2007.5-2010.5, and a global Enhanced Magnetic Model, it was possible to estimate the crustal field at those sites. It was also done by taking into account the empirical adjustment for long-term external field variations. The higher crustal field values were found at those stations which are on or close to the Adriatic anomaly.

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  12. SOME INDICATORS OF HEALTH CARE STATUS IN CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Poljičanin, Tamara; Mayer, Dijana

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the basic principles of health care, health care measures and strategic objectives of these measures in Croatia. The health of the population does not depend solely on the activities of the health care system but also on various demographic indicators. Our success in implementing health care depends largely on the structure of health facilities and health workers. The Croatian health system in late 2013 had permanently employed 74,489 workers. Out of these, 77% were health care workers. Most health care workers had only secondary school education (37.7%); physicians represented 17.4% of the workforce. On assessing the health of the population, certain health indicators are of utmost importance. The leading cause of deaths were circulatory diseases (in 2012, 24,988 persons died, 585.5/100,000). Neoplasms were the cause of death in 13,940 persons (326.6/100,000), then injuries and poisoning (69.1/100,000), diseases of the gastrointestinal system (53.1/100,000), and respiratory diseases (50.4/100,000). Data are presented on the basis of diseases reported from several national registries (cancer, psychoactive drug abuse, the disabled, diabetes, and suicides). The importance of vaccination for the control of infectious diseases in Croatia is especially emphasized, as well as the experience and excellent results achieved in this area. The epidemiological situation in Croatia in terms of infectious diseases can be assessed as favorable. This is due to the general living conditions, which contributed to the entire health system, making Croatia equal to other developed countries of Europe and throughout the world.

  13. Bioarchaeological research in Croatia--a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sikanjić, Petra Rajić

    2005-12-01

    The study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites gives us the opportunity to answer important questions about the lifestyle of past populations. The discipline that studies human skeletal remains is known as bioarchaeology. This paper provides a historical review of bioarchaeological research in Croatia. It is based on the available published material that analyzes human skeletal remains from archaeological sites located on the Croatian territory covering time span from the Neolithic period to the late Middle Ages.

  14. Achievements and Perspectives of the Adult Education in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapan, Anita

    Historical development of adult education in Croatia can be identified in seven phases: (1) the beginning of the 20th century and the period between the two World Wars; (2) World War II; (3) period from 1945 to the early 1950s; (4) early 1950s to 1965; (5) period between 1965 and 1980; (6) 1980s; and (7) period after the fall of the Berlin…

  15. Comparison of twinning rates for villages in Makarska region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Jadranka; Borić, Matija; Urlić, Natalija; Urlić, Lara

    2013-11-01

    A detailed database on the genealogy of the Makarska region in Croatia has been created. The twinning rate for three villages in the region (Podgora, Tučepi and Brela) were analysed over the period 1870 to 1940 and factors such as mother's age and birth order are discussed. Of the three villages, Podgora was identified as having the highest twinning rate and consequently records for Podgora were examined further to include almost 400 years of historical data (from 1621 to 1950).

  16. Analysis of the extraordinary 2011/2012 drought in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindrić, Ksenija; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Herceg-Bulić, Ivana; Mihajlović, Domagoj; Pasarić, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a meteorological analysis of the recent 2011/2012 extreme drought which seriously affected the territory of Croatia. The drought event is put in the historical context by examining its severity in terms of duration, intensity and magnitude. The drought climatology is analysed by employing the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months) for five stations with a secular dataset (1901-2012). The most intense droughts had occurred during the 1920s, 1940s, 1950s and 1990s, as well as in the beginning of the 2010s. The 2011/2012 drought is characterised by extremely long duration in the continental region, with the highest magnitudes since the beginning of the twentieth century. Spatio-temporal evolution of the event is analysed by employing the data from additional 23 stations all over Croatia. The drought had started in February 2011 being intensified later, mainly by the lack of rainfall in November 2011 and March 2012. This happened due to two intense blocking episodes over Europe which resulted in dry northern flows over Croatia. A possible impact of large-scale circulation patterns was also investigated, indicating that the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/Western Russian Teleconnection patterns maintained dry conditions in the period from November 2011 to March 2012.

  17. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia.

  18. Secular trends in monthly heating and cooling demands in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitan, Lidija; Sokol Jurković, Renata

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyzes long-term heating and cooling trends for five locations in Croatia from 1901 to 2008 to assist in the revision of Croatia's heating and cooling energy policy. Trends in monthly heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) were determined for three related temperature threshold values each and analyzed to provide insight into the influence of desired thermal comfort on the extent of changes in energy consumption. Monthly trends in the corresponding number of heating days (HD) and cooling days (CD) were also analyzed. A basic investigation of HDD, HD, CDD, and CD trends proved to be essential to the development of a complete description of important climate-related conditions that impact energy demands associated with heating and cooling. In a few cases, the dependence of the trends on the implemented temperature thresholds was rather pronounced and was reflected in great spatial and temporal variations in monthly trends. The statistical significance of the detected monthly trends illustrated a diverse range of possible impacts of climate changes on heating and cooling energy consumption both across and within three main climate regions in Croatia (continental, mountainous, and maritime). It is confirmed that the applied monthly scale for analyses is suitable for assessing heating and cooling practices.

  19. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  20. Analysis of senior population visits to physical medicine in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Muzić, Vedrana; Radović, Endi; Marinović, Marin

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the senior population when deciding to choose either going to the private or public physical medicine practice in Croatia. 240 patients (public and private group, 120 participants each) from the Croatian medium large county Primorje-Gorski kotar, were enrolled from 6 physical medicine practices (3 public and 3 private). Between December 1st 2009 and January 31st 2010, in the public and private practices seniors aged 65 to 85 years were 64.17%, 52.40% respectively, of all interviewed participants in single group. The results showed that in Croatia majority of seniors visiting the physical medicine were females in revisit and dependents of government health insurance. Study suggested the great influence of general practitioner, closeness to home and time of the appointment for patients going to public physical medicine, while in private peers and sooner appointment outweigh. In either practice seniors were satisfied with the overall quality of health services and graded the best average-higher in favor for the private. Elderly Croatian residents showed to be the important feature in physical medicine and rehabilitation and to participate actively in their health issues. Following those results, we will perform the study in the rest of the country and compare it to this data. That could enable the specific improvement for the health care of seniors in Croatia.

  1. Climate Atlas of Croatia 1961-1990, 1971-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninovic, K.

    2009-09-01

    Following the recommendation of the World Meteorological Organisation, each member state National meteorological service is expected to develop a Climate Atlas. For the previous climate period (1931-1960) the area of Croatia was covered by the Climate Atlas of Yugoslavia, published in 1969, and the new Climate Atlas of Croatia 1961-1990, 1971-2000 is published recently. The Climate Atlas comprises maps of the spatial distribution of climatological elements, graphs of the annual course of climatological elements at ten chosen meteorological stations and a textual description of the relevant climate characteristics and their causes. It ends with tables of the mean 30-year monthly, seasonal and annual values of climatological elements at 20 stations representative of the climate diversity of Croatia. Because of the time variability of climatological parameters and the perceived warming in the last decade of the 20th century, the tables have been expanded to include the 1971-2000 climate period. The Atlas is intended to help experts engaged in the study of the effects of climate change to adapt their research and professional work to local climate conditions thus mitigating meteorological risks and contributing to environmental protection and to the social and economic development of the country.

  2. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  3. Three new species of eriophyoid mites from grass hosts in Croatia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new species of grass-feeding eriophyid mites are described from Croatia: Acaralox croatiae n. sp., inhabiting purple moorgrass, Molinia coerulea (L.) Moench; Aculodes festucae n. sp., inhabiting tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; and Aculodes sylvatici n. sp., inhabiting false brome, Br...

  4. Education in Countries in Transition Facing Globalization--A Case Study Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaus, Ivo; Slaus-Kokotovic, Andrea; Morovic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The status of the educational system of Croatia is presented and several human development indicators for Croatia are compared with those of other countries in transition. The role of education in facing globalisation and in assuring sustainable development is analysed. The aims of various levels of education: primary, secondary and higher…

  5. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Adult Education Institutional Network in Croatia and Slovenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    The Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia both became independent states in 1991 after separating from the former Yugoslavia. Despite their common origin, Croatia and Slovenia have very different cultures and traditions, different systems of education, and very different systems of adult education. Most of the differences between the two…

  7. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  8. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-08-28

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening.

  9. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity.

  10. National survey of pain clinics in Croatia: Organization and services.

    PubMed

    Fidahić, Mahir; Dogan, Katarina; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze organization and therapeutic procedures administered in tertiary outpatient pain clinics in Croatia. Data about organization of pain clinics, its personnel, equipment, continuing medical education, therapeutic procedures, research activities and relations with pharmaceutical industry were collected using questionnaires. Twenty-two Croatian pain clinics were included in the study. Most of the pain clinics employ exclusively anesthesiologists and nurses. The most frequently prescribed therapeutic procedures in pain clinics were pharmacotherapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, acupuncture and trigger point injections. Almost all pain clinics provide educational material for patients. Most of the pain clinics have regular interactions with pharmaceutical companies. Prescribing decisions were based mostly on information from scientific meetings, research articles and consultations with colleagues. Information sources which are considered to be the gold standard--the systematic reviews of The Cochrane Collaboration--were used less frequently (n=12; 57%) than advertising materials from pharmaceutical companies (n=16; 76%). Few physicians and other pain clinics staff had scientific degrees or academic titles or were involved in a research project. The national study about pain clinics in Croatia pointed out that there is room for improvement of their organization and services. Pain clinics should employ health-care professionals with diverse backgrounds. They should offer treatments backed by the highest-level of scientific evidence. Since pain is a major public health issue, pain clinic staff should engage more in research to contribute to the growing field of pain research, to enhance capacities for pain research in Croatia, to incorporate scientific evidence into their daily decision-making and to enable evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2015 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Croatia in the European context

    PubMed Central

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Kaic, Bernard; Vilibic, Maja; Pandak, Nenad; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vranes, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence, risk factors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution in different population groups in Croatia in the context of HCV epidemiology in Europe, with the aim to gather all existing information on HCV infection in Croatia which will be used to advise upon preventive measures. It is estimated that 35000-45000 of the Croatian population is chronically infected with HCV. Like in other European countries, there have been changes in the HCV epidemiology in Croatia over the past few decades. In some risk groups (polytransfused and hemodialysis patients), a significant decrease in the HCV prevalence was observed after the introduction of routine HCV screening of blood/blood products in 1992. Injecting drug users (IDUs) still represent a group with the highest risk for HCV infection with prevalence ranging from 29% to 65%. Compared to the prevalence in the Croatian general population (0.9%), higher prevalence rates were found in prison populations (8.3%-44%), human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (15%), persons with high-risk sexual behavior (4.6%) and alcohol abusers (2.4%). Low/very low prevalence was reported in children and adolescents (0.3%) as well as in blood donors (0%-0.009%). In addition, distribution of HCV genotypes has changed due to different routes of transmission. In the general population, genotypes 1 and 3 are most widely distributed (60.4%-79.8% and 12.9%-47.9%, respectively). The similar genotype distribution is found in groups with high-risk sexual behavior. Genotype 3 is predominant in Croatian IDUs (60.5%-83.9%) while in the prison population genotypes 3 and 1 are equally distributed (52.4% and 47.6%). Data on HCV prevalence and risk factors for transmission are useful for implementation of preventive measures and HCV screening. PMID:26327756

  12. Autoimmune joint diseases in Late Medieval skeletal sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Rajić Sikanjić, Petra; Vlak, Dejana

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 25 skeletons from Late Medieval cemetery Uzdolje-Grablje near Knin, Croatia, revealed three cases of systematic pathological changes to joints. Observed pathological lesions were examined macroscopically and radiologically and compared to the available paleopathological standards in order to formulate a differential diagnosis. In all three cases observed changes were most consistent with autoimmune joint diseases including ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Based on published clinical studies, we suggest that the high prevalence of autoimmune diseases in our skeletal sample stems from the genetic basis of the autoimmunity, and that three individuals describe here are possibly closely related.

  13. Technical assistance development soil management policy in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruyt, Eva; Helsen, Stefan; Hambach, Patrick; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    As from the first of July 2013, Croatia became a EU member country and therefore has to comply with all the EU-rules (the "acquis") as defined in the European Council in Copenhagen in 1993. One of the aspects of this acquis is the protection and conservation of the soil and groundwater and the remediation of contaminated sites that cause human and environmental risks. On behalf of the Department of Environment, Nature and Energy of the Flemish government together with the Public Waste Agency of Flanders(OVAM), ECOREM was assigned to carry out this study. The scope of this study therefore focuses on the aspect of soil management that can be divided into two main policies, beïng the policy for the prevention of soil contamination from new activities(1) and the policy for the management and remediation of historical soil contamination from local sources like industrial sites(2). To form a soil management policy, Croatia must start from the legal obligations enforced by the European Union. One of the European Directives regulating the monitoring and protection of soil and groundwater is the new Industrial Emission Directive ('IED' - 2010/78/EU) from the 24th of November 2010. Whereas the framework of the Directive is larger than contamination of soil , the focus of this study was limited to soil contamination only. In order to comply with the existing EU policy contributing to soil protection, the regulations in the IED, the Croatian government needs to adapt existing legislations or apply new regulations regarding soil monitoring for the industrial activities. Also other EU Directives enforce actions contributing to soil protection. Therefore, a questionnaire with different sorts of questions was sent to the different stakeholders (environmental institutes, agencies, ministries,…). The results were interpreted and allowed Ecorem, being the environmental consultant, to evaluate the gaps in the environmental and soil management policy. This study gives advice on how

  14. First report of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Mazzariol, Annarita; Plečko, Vanda; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Barl, Petra; Vraneš, Jasmina; Cornaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    In February 2011, a 78-year-old male patient was admitted to Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb with subdural haematoma. Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was isolated. PCR revealed the presence of bla(KPC), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) genes. Sequencing of bla(KPC) gene identified K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 beta-lactamase. The strain belonged to ST37 clone by multilocus sequence typing. Infection control efforts limited the spread of KPC-producing clone of K. pneumoniae in our hospital so far. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Croatia.

  15. Essential oil composition of Prasium majus from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Suste, Marko; Males, Zeljan; Pilepić, Kroata Hazler

    2012-07-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Prasium majus L., collected during two years in Croatia, were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-two compounds were identified, representing 90.3-91.8% of the total oils. The major constituents in both samples were fatty acids (particularly hexadecanoic acid and (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid), lower aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids (major ones oct-1-en-3-ol and (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal) and phenylpropane derivatives (e.g. eugenol). Beta-Caryophyllene was the most abundant terpene and (E)-beta-ionone was the major norisoprenoid.

  16. Reproductive rights and the state in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Skrabalo, Marina; Subotic, Jelena

    2002-02-01

    The global reproductive rights movement arose in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a challenge to the population control paradigm that has dominated family planning policy for almost half a century. The essence of the challenge is to place women into the center of population discussions as subjects, not objects of policy, and to reorient family planning and health programs toward meeting the broad reproductive health needs of individuals, rather than the narrow population control objectives of states. Reproductive rights advocates argue that the use of family planning programs for developmentalist-oriented population control objectives is illegimate, and inevitably relegates women to the status of depersonalized policy "targets". The cases of Croatia and Serbia, the two dominant partners in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, offer interesting twists on these reproductive rights issues. In Croatia and Serbia, unlike in many nations, the governments are deliberately seeking to increase rather than decrease fertility levels. Moreover, the objective concerns identity politics, more so than development: the governments have encouraged increased fertility to safeguard the survival of their nations and to strengthen national power amidst threatening internal and external environments of ethnic conflict. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of pro-natalist fertility policy in Croatia and Serbia. We do so with a view to explaining why, despite similarities, the two have followed divergent paths. While reproductive rights violations have occurred in both nations, they have been markedly higher in Serbia than Croatia. To explain this divergence we look at a series of sociopolitical factors, including the space available for groups to mobilize in each political system; the degree of nationalistic extremism present in the discourse of central political leaders; and perceptions of threats and opportunities in external geopolitical environments. In conducting this

  17. Modelling of maize production in Croatia: present and future climate

    PubMed Central

    VUČETIĆ, V.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maize is one of the most important agricultural crops in Croatia, and was selected for research of the effect of climate warming on yields. The Decision Support System for the Agrotechnology Transfer model (DSSAT) is one of the most utilized crop–weather models in the world, and was used in this paper for the investigation of maize growth and production in the present and future climate. The impact of present climate on maize yield was studied using DSSAT 4.0 with meteorological data from the Zagreb–Maksimir station covering the period 1949–2004. Pedological, physiological and genetic data from a 1999 field maize experiment at the same location were added. The location is representative of the continental climate in central Croatia. The linear trends of model outputs and the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test indicate that the beginning of silking has advanced significantly by 1·4 days/decade since the mid-1990s, and maturity by 4·5 days/decade. It also shows a decrease in biomass by 122 kg/ha and in maize yield by 216 kg/ha in 10 years. Estimates of the sensitivity of maize growth and yield in future climates were made by changing the initial weather and CO2 conditions of the DSSAT 4.0 model according to the different climatic scenarios for Croatia at the end of the 21st century. Changed climate suggests increases in global solar radiation, minimal temperature and maximal temperature (×1·07, 2 and 4°C, respectively), but a decrease in the amount of precipitation (×0·92), compared with weather data from the period 1949–2004. The reduction of maize yield was caused by the increase in minimal and maximal temperature and the decrease in precipitation amount, related to the present climate, is 6, 12 and 3%, respectively. A doubling of CO2 concentration stimulates leaf assimilation, but maize yield is only 1% higher, while global solar radiation growth by 7% increases evapotranspiration by 3%. Simultaneous application of all these climate changes

  18. Incidence of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Croatia: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, Dragutin; Demarin, Vida; Dikanović, Marinko; Lusić, Ivo; Tuskan-Mohar, Lidija; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Mihaljević, Ivan; Kadojić, Mira; Bitunjac, Milan; Vranjes, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219.65, Split 195.82. Incidence rate of stroke for the Republic of Croatia is 251.39. The following incidence rates of TIA, expressed at population of 100,000, have been established: Zagreb 87.15, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 156.53, Rijeka 90.11, Split 59.10. Incidence rate of TIA for the Republic of Croatia is 100.55. In the continental part of Croatia (Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod) incidence rate of stroke is higher by 45%, while incidence rate of TIA is higher by 82% than in the coastal part of Croatia, probably due to different lifestyle and environmental factors. The study has shown relatively high incidence rates of acute CVD (stroke and TIA) in the Republic of Croatia, which proves that CVD are a great public health problem.

  19. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  20. Homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Cengija, Morana; Cuculic, Drazen; Petaros, Anja; Sosa, Ivan; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of homicide-suicide events in Southwestern Croatia from 1986-2009 relying on autopsy reports of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, Rijeka and police records. A total of 17 cases involving 19 victims were identified. The perpetrators were most often men (82%), living in a spousal relationship with the victim. In 76.5% cases, suicide was committed immediately after homicide, and the same mean (most often an illegal firearm) was used for both. After examining the belongings of those involved in homicide-suicides, two factors differentiated our study from others, i.e. more victims and perpetrators were from the lower socioeconomic class and explosives were used in two homicide-suicide (12%) cases. The greater frequency of explosive used in homicide-suicide events may be a result of factors associated with the recent war fought in Croatia. These data prove the influence of sociological, historical and also political factors on the characteristics of a rare event such as homicide-suicide.

  1. Radioactive contamination in Croatia by phosphate fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Franic, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzovic, Maja

    2009-03-15

    The contents of natural radionuclides (radium, uranium and potassium) were measured in the area of a phosphate fertilizer factory in central Croatia, as a part of extended and still ongoing monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia that is performed by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb. Activity concentrations in all analysed media (waste water, trickling water from piezometers, phosphogypsum deposit and final products) considerably fluctuated, especially in phosphogypsum and waste water. Mean (226)Ra activity concentration in waste phosphogypsum was measured to be 483+/-190 Bqkg(-1). Based on that value, it was estimated that 4 million m(3) of phosphogypsum that have been deposited up to now contain about 4.3 x 10(12) Bq, i.e. about 200 g of (226)Ra. However, effective dose for an adult that would be incurred by consumption of water from nearby wells was estimated to be 5.3+/-1.3 microSv. The results show that (226)Ra activities cause effective doses, which are below the recommended maximum as the estimated annual (226)Ra effective dose does not exceed 0.1 mSv as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  2. Radiocaesium contamination of beef in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Marović, Gordana; Mestrović, Jurica

    2008-06-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in beef in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in beef decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be 0.57+/-0.06 years for 1986-1990 period and 5.21+/-0.27 years for the 1991-2005 period. For 1986-1990 period, the effective ecological half-life of 134Cs in was estimated to be about 0.69+/-0.05 while 134Cs activity concentrations after year 1990 were below the detection limit of the instruments. The 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in beef has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other foodstuffs and environmental samples. Radioecological sensitivity for beef meat, i.e., the transfer coefficient from fallout to sample was estimated to be 1.15x 10(-2)Bqykg(-1)/(Bqm(-2)). For an adult member of Croatian population annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of beef are small, as per caput effective dose for the overall 1986-2005 period was estimated to be 24.6microSv. Consequently, after the Chernobyl accident beef consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans in Croatia.

  3. [Arterial hypertension in Croatia. Results of EH-UH study].

    PubMed

    Jelaković, Bojan; Zeljković-Vrkić, Tajana; Pećin, Ivan; Dika, Zivka; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Podobnik, Drina; Smuc, Tomislav; Gamberger, Dragan; Katić, Kristina; Kasner, Mario; Kuzmanić, Dusko

    2007-06-01

    Arterial hypertension (AH) is the most important independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of AH is higher than it was several decades before, and in Europe it is approximately 40%. A higher prevalence of AH has been reported in Europe than in the United States and Canada. According to the results of epidemiology of arterial hypertension in Croatia study (EH-UH), the prevalence of AH in Croatia is 37.5%. Women are more aware, they were treated more often, and blood pressure control was more frequently achieved than in men. However, body mass index and socioeconomic factors have a greater influence on blood pressure values and prevalence of AH in women. A low level of health education and inappropriate treatment are the most important reasons for the poor blood pressure control observed. Measures of primary prevention should be performed continuously and adjusted to special population subgroups. As an increase of obesity and hypertension was observed in school children, these measures should start at that age.

  4. Presentation of DMFT/dmft Index in Croatia and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Tomislav; Vukres, Vlasta Dečković; Rotim, Željko; Zore, Irina Filipović

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Dental caries is the most common oral disease affecting all age groups and a major cause of tooth loss. Although a decrease in the prevalence of dental caries has been marked across the globe, in many countries it has remained a major oral-health problem. Aim The objective of this paper was to show the trends in the DMFT/dmft index ​​in Croatia, compare it with European countries and present further courses of action oriented towards promotion of oral health and decrease in caries prevalence. Material and Methods The DMFT index databases have been generated based on online database searches for the period from 1985 to 2015. Results Croatia is one of European countries with a high DMFT index relating to 12-year old children (4.18). The experience of countries with a low DMFT index has shown that dental caries can be controlled through education and prevention activities, which eventually lead to diminished financial costs, at individual and national level, improving overall health and quality of life. Conclusion Tracking and monitoring of oral health i.e. dental caries need to be improved in terms of creation of data base systems on the prevalence of dental caries, determining multi-factorial causes of its occurrence and with respect to the implementation of national oral-health prevention programs. PMID:27688411

  5. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučina, V Višekruna; Filipović, S Kurečić; Kožnjak, N; Stamenić, V; Clark, A D; Mounaud, B; Blau, J; Hoestlandt, C; Kaić, B

    2015-05-07

    Pneumococcus is a known cause of meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and acute otitis media in children and adults globally. Two new vaccines for children have the potential to prevent illness, disability, and death, but these vaccines are expensive. The Croatian Ministry of Health has considered introducing the vaccine in the past, but requires economic evidence to ensure that the limited funds available for health care will be used in the most effective way. Croatia appointed a multidisciplinary team of experts to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) into the national routine child immunization program. Both 10-valent and 13-valent PCV (PCV10 and PCV13) were compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The TRIVAC decision-support model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness over the period 2014-2033. We used national evidence on demographics, pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality, the age distribution of disease in children, health service utilization, vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and serotype coverage. Vaccine effectiveness was based on evidence from the scientific literature. Detailed health care costs were not available from the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance at the time of the analysis so assumptions and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for Croatia were used. We assumed a three-dose primary vaccination schedule, and an initial price of US$ 30 per dose for PCV10 and US$ 35 per dose for PCV13. We ran univariate sensitivity analyses and multivariate scenario analyses. Either vaccine is estimated to prevent approximately 100 hospital admissions and one death each year in children younger than five in Croatia. Compared to no vaccine, the discounted cost-effectiveness of either vaccine is estimated to be around US$ 69,000-77,000 per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted over the period 2014-2033 (from the government or societal perspective). Only two alternative scenarios

  6. First molecular analysis of West Nile virus during the 2013 outbreak in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kurolt, Ivan C; Krajinović, Vladimir; Topić, Antea; Kuzman, Ilija; Baršić, Bruno; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-08-30

    This is the second subsequent year of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) outbreak in Croatia. Between July and October 2013, 22 patients presented with symptoms of WNND: all with meningitis and 18 additionally with encephalitis. In contrast to 2012, where six autochthonous infections were confirmed in eastern Croatia, the majority of this year's cases occurred in and around the city of Zagreb, where no West Nile virus infections have been observed before. Viral RNA was recovered from two patients and phylogenetic analyses revealed West Nile virus lineage 2. This represents the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the circulating West Nile virus strain in Croatia.

  7. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, O.; Ljubenkov, I.; Roje-Bonacci, T.

    2006-03-01

    Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flows, and heavy loss of life and property. Karst flash floods have specific characteristics due to special conditions for water circulation, which exist in karst terrains. During karst flash floods a sudden rise of groundwater levels occurs, which causes the appearance of numerous, unexpected, abundant and temporary karst springs. This paper presents in detail an example of a karst flash flood in the Marina bay (Dinaric karst region of Croatia), which occurred in December 2004.

  8. Project Northland in Croatia: results and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    West, Bernadette; Abatemarco, Diane; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Zec, Vezna; Russo, Andrea; Milic, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international public health partnership formed in 2001 we assessed the impact of Project Northland in Croatia--an adolescent alcohol school-based prevention intervention implemented in Split--on students. The curriculum was implemented in 13 randomly selected schools with another 13 schools serving as controls. The evaluation included quantitative and qualitative methods, using pre/post-tests to compare intervention and controls and follow-up focus groups with parents and teachers. Quantitative data showed the intervention was more successful in changing attitudes in the first two years, but had less impact on older students. Qualitative data suggest benefits from the program overall. Given the intervention was successful in the earlier grades it should be initiated earlier to have a greater impact. Challenges and lessons learned are offered.

  9. [40 years of neurological intensive care in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Barac, Bosko

    2013-01-01

    On the 40 year anniversary of the foundation of the first Neurological intensive therapy unit (ICU) in Zagreb, Croatia and in the region, the author recalls circumstances which stipulated its realization. The process lasted several years, from the proposal in 1968, starting working in provisional conditions in 1971--acquiring experience, and normal functioning in the newly adapted rooms in 1974. Paying tribute to personalities who supported and participated in the advances of this process, the author informs that at the First Congress of Intensive Care (London, 1974) his report on Zagreb Neurological intensive therapy unit was the only one in neurology. The basic principles of therapy are nowadays the standard in the neurological departments, enabling better recovery from stroke, neurological ailment with high mortality. Positive development brought to the realization of the concept of comprehensive care for cerebrovascular patients, including prevention, early intensive therapy and neurological restoration measures after stroke.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes towards sun protection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Vurnek Zivković, Maja; Dediol, Iva; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna; Simić, Dubravka

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer; the World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 million cases of skin cancer are being diagnosed each year worldwide. Excessive sun exposure and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are the major avoidable risk factors for skin cancer, including melanoma. Sun protection can be achieved through behavioral modification, social changes and environmental changes: regular use of sunscreen, wearing hats and protective clothes, staying in the shade, creating shade by planting trees or constructing canopies, practicing work and sport activities during the time of the day when the sun is not the strongest and many others. The aim of this paper was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes about sun protection and sun behavior patterns in Croatia, as well as the perception of melanoma among general population. Our results indicate relatively good sun behavior patterns among our participants and their mostly correct perception of melanoma.

  11. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  12. HIV risks among female sex workers in Croatia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lausević, Dragan; Bozicević, Ivana; Baćak, Valerio; Mugoba, Boban; Terzić, Natasa; Drglin, Tihana

    2010-09-01

    The study analyzed the prevalence and determinants of HIV-risks among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia and Montenegro. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in Zagreb, Split, and Podgorica during the 2006-2008 period. Croatian participants (n = 154) reported fewer clients, more consistent condom use, higher rates of HIV testing, and greater HIV knowledge. The participants interviewed in Montenegro (n = 119) were more likely to have injected drugs and to have experienced sexual abuse in the previous year. Although Montenegrin FSWs were more exposed to HIV-risks than Croatian FSWs, they reported lower HIV-risk self-assessment. Consistent condom use was significantly associated with education and HIV-risk self-assessment in the Croatian and the experience of physical/sexual abuse in the Montenegrin sample. In spite of a number of methodological limitations, the empirical insights provided by this study may assist in improving the existing HIVV prevention initiatives.

  13. Estimation of copper intake in moderate wine consumers in croatia.

    PubMed

    Tariba, Blanka; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Pizent, Alica

    2011-09-01

    To estimate Cu exposure level from wine consumption and to assess possible health risk for moderate wine consumers, wine samples were collected from different wine-growing areas of Croatia. Median concentrations were 180 μg L-1, range (76 to 292) μg L-1, in commercial wines and 258 μg L-1, range (115 to 7600) μg L-1, in homemade wines (P>0.05). Maximum permitted level of 1000 μg L-1 was exceeded in three homemade wines. However, daily intake of Cu from wine (in the range from 0.02 mg d-1 to 1.52 mg d-1) estimated from Cu concentration in all wine samples is lower than the tolerable upper intake level of 5 mg d-1 proposed by the EU Scientific Committee on Food and does not present a risk to moderate wine consumers.

  14. First Epigravettian ceramic figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500-15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000-27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic.

  15. Impact of heat waves on mortality in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat waves present an increased risk, but in very long heat waves the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.

  16. Stable isotope composition of the meteoric precipitation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hunjak, Tamara; Lutz, Hans O; Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation is the input into the water system. Its stable isotope composition has to be known for the proper use and management of water resources. Croatia is not well represented in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, and the geomorphology of the country causes specific local conditions. Therefore, at the Stable Isotope Laboratory (SILab), Rijeka, we monitor the stable isotope composition (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of precipitation. Since δ(18)O and δ(2)H are well correlated, we concentrate the discussion on the δ(18)O distribution. Together with GNIP, our database contains 40 stations in Croatia and in the neighbouring countries. Their different latitudes, longitudes and altitudes give information of great detail, including the influence of the topographic structure on the precipitation in the south-eastern part of Europe, as well as the complex interplay of the different climate conditions in the area. Within a few hundred kilometres, the stable isotope values display a significant change from the maritime character in the south (mean δ(18)O around-6 to-8‰) to the continental behaviour in the north (mean δ(18)O around-8 to-11‰). Depending on the location, the mean δ(18)O values vary with altitude at a rate of approximately-0.2‰/100 m and-0.4‰/100 m, respectively. Also the deuterium excess has been found to depend on location and altitude. The data are being used to construct a δ(18)O map for the entire area.

  17. Centralized National Ethical Review of Clinical Trials in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vitezić, Dinko; Lovrek, Maja; Tomić, Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Aim To present the Croatian system of ethical review of clinical trials and assessment outcomes of the applications reviewed by the Croatian Central Ethics Committee. Methods Clinical trial applications reviewed by the Croatian Central Ethics Committee, which has the legal mandate to review clinical trials of medicinal products and medical devices, were retrospectively analyzed from May 2004 to the end of 2008 according to the number, research area, and type of opinion issued. Applications from 2008 were analyzed separately according to the study phase, participants (adult trials vs pediatric trials), and sponsor (commercial trials vs academic trials). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results Since its establishment in 2004, the Croatian Central Ethics Committee has reviewed 407 trials. The greatest number of clinical trials was in the field of oncology (n = 69), mental and behavioral disorders (n = 52), and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases (n = 50). In the initial assessment of clinical trials, 60% applications received a conditionally positive opinion. In 28% of applications, the opinion had to be postponed because additional documentation or explanations were required. In 2008, the Croatian Central Ethics Committee reviewed 99 trials, most of which were phase III trials (n = 57). Five clinical trials included pediatric population and 3 were academic clinical trials. Conclusion The model of centralized clinical trial review seems to be appropriate for the current number of clinical trials conducted in Croatia. The efficient and standardized review process of clinical trials by the Central Ethics Committee may positively affect the increasing number of clinical trials conducted in Croatia. Future development includes the transparency of the clinical trials through a publically available database and establishing the basis for conducting academic clinical trials. PMID:19399943

  18. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    PubMed

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  19. Geochemistry of topsoil in kindergarten playgrounds in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šparica Miko, M.; Miko, S.; Hasan, O.; Mesić, S.; Bukovec, D.; Hruškova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical mapping based on analysis of urban topsoil (0-5 cm) and deeper soil horizons (40-50 cm) in kindergarten playgrounds has been carried out in Zagreb. In two geochemical studies performed by sampling on a regular grids (1x1 km2) it was determined that the soils in the Old Town and industrial area have elevated concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Zn). The high soil heavy metal concentrations are decreasing toward the outer parts of the city, similar to patterns observed in many other cities in Europe. Since the youngest children are exposed to topsoil in playgrounds, an evaluation of heavy metal pollution for 150 kindergarten and 50 public playground topsoil was made. During the study aqua regia (ISO 11464) soil extracts were analyzed for 42 major and trace elements. Urban soil pollution in each city is specific depending on pollution sources and the geochemical signature of the local lithology. Based on the calculated enrichment factors for heavy metals and the regional geochemical baseline values for northwestern Croatia the following elements were found in concentrations that can be attributed to pollution: Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu. Also elevated concentrations Sb, Ag, Zn and Cd at some of the locations indicate anthropogenic influences. Other elements considered as potentially toxic (As, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Tl) have concentrations within the established regional soil baselines and can be considered as lithogenic. Guidance values for heavy metals in soils for kindergarten playground soils have not been established in Croatia so the quality criteria for soils in playgrounds of Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used as well as calculated enrichment factors were used to evaluate the degree of soil pollution. It was determined that based on the composite soil data 21 locations should be assessed with follow up studies to determine the need for remediation. In Zagreb, only 5 of the 64 kindergartens sampled had an elevated dust lead level. Paint chips taken from

  20. [The influence of the economic recession on health care labor market in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Bagat, Mario; Drakulić, Velibor

    2010-01-01

    Trends in the labor market, as a result of global economic recession, are characterized by reduction of manpower activity, decreased number of employed and increased number of unemployed persons. As the result of economic recession more then million workplaces are expected to be lost in the European Union. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic recession on labor market in general and healthcare labor market in Croatia. In Q1/2009, the number of employed persons in the European Union declined by -1.2% compared to the same quarter of 2008, while in Croatia the number of employed persons declined by -0.4%. The comparison of quarterly employment rate in Croatia and the European Union in the period from Q2/2008 to Q1/2009 was not significantly different (p = 0.169, df = 6, t = 1.564, Student t test). Average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 in the European Union was 8.1% +/- 0.3 and it was increased by 9.4% compared to Q4/2008, while in Croatia the average unemployment rate in Q1/2009 was 8.4% +/- 0.1 and it was increased by 3.3% compared to Q4/2008. Monthly changes of unemployment rates compared between the European Union and Croatia in the six month period (Q4/2008 and Q1/2009) was significantly different (p = 0.001, df = 10, t = 4.425, Student t test). In Croatian health care system in Q1/2009 the number of employed person increased by 0.7% compared to Q1/2008, while the number of unemployed persons in the same period was reduced by -1.0%. Trends in the labor market in Croatia follow the global trends in the labor market in times of economic recession, although the increase in unemployment in Croatia was slower than in the countries of the European Union. As a result of Croatian healthcare system organization, system of financing, supply and demand on healthcare labor market, healthcare workforce in Croatia was less affected by recession than workforce in Croatia in general.

  1. Introduction of participatory conservation in Croatia, residents' perceptions: a case study from the Istrian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  2. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  3. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  4. The Quality of Gymnasium Education in the Banal Croatia in the Era of Neoabsolutism (1854-1860)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bošnjak, Arijana Kolak

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an attempt to increase the quality of education in the Banal Croatia by analysing the reports sent to the Ministry of Religion and Education in Vienna by secondary school supervisor for the Banal Croatia Anton Jarc as well as the existing scholarly literature. The mentioned attempt was based on a reform of the…

  5. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. The newest findings on Red Lake (Dinaric karst of Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Ivo; Jukić, Branimir

    2014-05-01

    Red Lake in the Dinaric karst (Croatia) is of the deepest karst lakes in the world. Even so, through the history of Red Lake's research there were many controversies in the conclusions and the theories concerning its genesis, geomorphology and hydrology. This work has for a goal to present the newest research results won with the help of emerging technologies based on LiDAR and SoNAR methods. The measurements took place during September 2013. New generation of equipment developed to advance the geoscientific research has been deployed during the field work and the gathered data enabled the analysis which led to a new understanding of the lake's morphology. Some of the results confirmed already known and well documented features of Red Lake whereas others disputed widely accepted assumptions in the scientific community and general public. The objective of this paper is also groundwork for further research in the field of karst hydrology and a new insight on local and regional scale.

  7. Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radunić, Mira; Jukić Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

    2015-06-15

    The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7 mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  9. Treatment of migraine and tension-type headache in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Vlasta; Plavec, Davor; Lovrencić Huzjan, Arijana; Budisić, Mislav; Demarin, Vida

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns of migraine and tension-type headache in the Croatian population. Analysis included the proportion of patients who were taking specific antimigraine therapy and the number of tablets per attack per month, the proportion of patients who were taking prophylactic therapy or using alternative treatment methods and their satisfaction with the treatment. The design of the study was a cross-sectional survey. Self-completed questionnaires were randomly distributed to adults >18 years of age in the Croatian population. A total of 616 questionnaires were analyzed: 115 patients with migraine (M), 327 patients with tension-type headache (TTH), and 174 patients with probable migraine (PM) and TTH. Specific antimigraine therapy was taken by half of patients with migraine: 35.7% of patients used triptans and 21.7% ergotamines. Prophylactic treatment had been used by 13.9% of M, 1.2% of TTH, and 6.9% of PM patients. Alternative methods of treatment were tried by 27% of M and TTH patients. Only 16.8% of patients with M pay regular visits to physicians, while 36.3% never visited a physician. More than half of TTH patients have never visited a physician. The majority of patients are only partially satisfied with their current treatment, and almost one-third are not satisfied. Results of this study indicate that the treatment of primary headaches in Croatia should be improved.

  10. Radiocarbon application in environmental science and archaeology in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajcar Bronić, I.; Obelić, B.; Horvatinčić, N.; Barešić, J.; Sironić, A.; Minichreiter, K.

    2010-07-01

    Radiocarbon is a cosmogenic radioisotope equally distributed throughout the troposphere and biosphere. This fact enables its most common application—radiocarbon dating. Natural equilibrium of radiocarbon has been disturbed by diverse anthropogenic activities during the last ˜150 years, enabling also the use of 14C in various environmental applications. Here we present three types of studies by using 14C that were performed in the Zagreb Radiocarbon Laboratory. 14C in atmospheric CO 2 has been monitored at several sites with various anthropogenic influences and the difference between the clean-air sites, the industrial city and the vicinity of a nuclear power plant has been established. 14C has been applied in geochronology of karst areas, especially in dating of tufa, speleothems and lake sediments, as well as in studies of geochemical carbon cycle. 14C has been used in various archaeological studies, among which the dating of the early Neolithic settlements in Croatia is presented. In these studies 14C was measured by radiometric techniques, i.e., by gas proportional counting and more recently by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Two sample preparation techniques for LSC measurement were used: benzene synthesis for archaeological dating and other applications that require better precision, and direct absorption of CO 2 for monitoring purposes. The presented results show that various studies by using 14C can be successfully performed by the LSC technique, providing a large enough sample (>1 g of carbon).

  11. Reverse shoulder prosthesis: implementation and experience in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Benčić, Ivan; Matejčić, Aljoša; Dojčinović, Bojan; Ćuti, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    Reverse shoulder prosthesis has become one of the most often used prosthetic implants in shoulder replacement surgery. It has a wide spectrum of indications, starting from comminuted humeral fractures and posttraumatic arthritis to arthritis caused by the rotator cuff loss. Its application at our hospital began in 2004, at first in few specific cases and with time in ever growing number of patients. Over 8 years, more than 250 reverse shoulder prostheses were implanted at our institution. In addition, our surgeons supervised its application in other hospitals all over Croatia. In the postoperative course, the shoulder was immobilized for 4-6 weeks with a thoracobrachial cast. After removal of the cast, physical therapy was initiated. The length of physical therapy program depended upon many factors. As a rule, immobilization lasted longer in patients that were operated on due to posttraumatic arthritis and those that suffered from deltoid muscle atrophy and shoulder contracture before surgery. Complications included dislocation of the prosthesis shortly after surgery (in the first four weeks) and infection. Infection was a special problem and treatment included even explantation of the prosthesis.

  12. First Epigravettian Ceramic Figurines from Europe (Vela Spila, Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Farbstein, Rebecca; Radić, Dinko; Brajković, Dejana; Miracle, Preston T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent finds of 36 ceramic artifacts from the archaeological site of Vela Spila, Croatia, offer the first evidence of ceramic figurative art in late Upper Palaeolithic Europe, c. 17,500–15,000 years before present (BP). The size and diversity of this artistic ceramic assemblage indicate the emergence of a social tradition, rather than more ephemeral experimentation with a new material. Vela Spila ceramics offer compelling technological and stylistic comparisons with the only other evidence of a developed Palaeolithic ceramic tradition found at the sites of Pavlov I and Dolní Věstonice I, in the Czech Republic, c. 31,000–27,000 cal BP. Because of the 10,000-year gap between the two assemblages, the Vela Spila ceramics are interpreted as evidence of an independent invention of this technology. Consequently, these artifacts provide evidence of a new social context in which ceramics developed and were used to make art in the Upper Palaeolithic. PMID:22848495

  13. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  14. War victims in need of physical rehabilitation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Henigsberg, N; Lagerkvist, B; Matek, Z; Kostovic, I

    1997-09-01

    A Rehabilitation Information System was created in July 1993 in order to register war victims in need of physical rehabilitation all over Croatia. The system is currently operating and presented data covers the period from July 1991 to July 1995. Approximately 15,000 questionnaires had been completed and returned from medical institutions on in total 8589 disabled war victims in need of rehabilitation. People with severe disabilities comprised about 20% of all in need of rehabilitation. Those reported injured were 3.5 times more than those in need of physical rehabilitation. Most common types of injuries were fractures with a permanent disabling condition (3109 persons), peripheral nerve injuries (1213 persons) and amputations (956 persons). Traumatic brain injuries were registered for 594 and spinal cord injuries for 262 persons. Causes of injuries were explosive devices (such as mines, mortar shell shrapnel, etc.) in 37% of cases, bullets in 22%, accidents in 7%, other (such as fire, blast injuries, etc.) and unknown causes in 34%.

  15. Regional differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Kern, Josipa; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Ivicević-Uhernik, Ana; Vuletić, Silvije

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyzes the Croatian Adult Health Survey data, collected in 2003 with a total of 9,070 respondents aged 18+. Based on an average of two measurements, respondents with the mean systolic arterial pressure > or = 140 mmHg or mean diastolic pressure > or = 90 mmHg were classified as hypertensive. The data for men and women were analyzed separately, according to regions. Prevalence of hypertension in men was 40.5% (95% confidence interval CI 37.9-43.01; coefficient of variability CV = 3.2), women 34.9% (95% CI 33.2-36.7; CV 2.5). There were no significant differences in regional prevalence in men, except in the Northern and Eastern region. In women we did not detect any significant regional difference. Non-controlled arterial hypertension is an important public health problem in all monitored regions of Croatia. Raising awareness about the problem, early detection and encouraging the population to adhere to the therapy for elevated arterial pressure, in addition to a healthy life style, are important for successful control and harm reduction.

  16. Mercury in pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) organs in Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the concentrations of total mercury were analyzed in the pheasant organs (liver, kidney, brain and muscle) that live freely in an area that was exposed to elevated levels of mercury as a result of industrial activity (mercury contaminated natural gas production and processing which began in 1980). The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in pheasant organs in Podravina, Croatia were 0.0004-0.024, 0.0001-0.034, 0.0002-0.016 and 0.0001-0.025 μg/g for liver, kidney, brain, and muscle, respectively. Results of these studies confirms that in the study area in the observed period there was no significant mercury contamination which can be linked to anthropogenic activities (hydrocarbon production)‥ On the contrary, systematic measurements demonstrate a small but constant (barely noticeable) decline in mercury concentrations in pheasant's organs. Primarily, this is the result of the significant improvement in the technological process which involves the removal of mercury from the natural gas that was designed and implemented in 1993. However, due to the need for reliable control of mercury contaminated natural gas production and the importance for better understanding of long-term exposure to low levels of mercury, and assessment of their possible harmful effects on the environment, human and animal health, research will be continued.

  17. Bone porosity and longevity in early medieval Southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bečić, Kristijan; Jandrić Bečić, Darija; Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Zekić Tomaš, Sandra; Anterić, Ivana; Bašić, Zeljana

    2014-03-01

    Porosity of the skull and skeletal remains, especially of the orbital roof, are one of the most frequent pathological findings on ancient human skeletal remains. There are several presumed causes of this condition and anthropologists consider skull porosities as a marker of physical and nutritional stress. A total of 115 graves were discovered at the early-medieval graveyard near Zadar (Croatia) that contained 128 partially preserved skeletons. Average estimated age at death was 37.2 ± 12.6 years for men, 31.9 ± 13.9 for women, and 5.3 ± 3.6 years for subadults. Pathological bone porosity was analysed. Cribra orbitalia was observed on 21 skulls (28.7%), signs of temporal porosity were noticed on six skulls and signs of subperiosteal bleeding on three skulls. Nineteen skulls had bone porosities in other areas. There was a significant difference (p = 0.039) in achieved age of adults with and without cribra orbitalia as those with cribra orbitalia lived on average 8.1 years longer. The bone porosity was probably caused by malnutrition that might have had a beneficial effect on longevity of adults, similar to effects of restricted food intake on extending lifespan through epigenetic signatures influencing gene expression.

  18. Oral vaccination against swine erysipelas--field experiences in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C R; Bilkei, G

    2006-01-01

    In order to prove the effects of mass application of oral erysipelas vaccine via drinking water, in a farrow-to-finish production unit in Croatia, the growing-finishing animals were divided into 3 groups and treated as follows:--Group 1 (n=199) was vaccinated intramuscularly against swine erysipelas at 1 week and 3 weeks after arrival in the growing-finishing facility with a swine erysipelas bacterin.--Group 2 (n=199) were vaccinated at the same time with an avirulent culture of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae oral vaccine through drinking water.--Group 3 (n=200) was not vaccinated. Animals with clinical signs of swine erysipelas, chronic progressive arthritis at slaughter, mortality, average daily weight gain during the growing-finishing phase were evaluated. None of the pigs in the groups 1 and 2 showed clinical signs typical for acute swine erysipelas. Twenty-four of the pigs (12 %) in group 3 had pyrexia and skin lesions typical for swine erysipelas. Fifteen pigs in group 1, 13 pigs in group 2, and 63 pigs in group 3 had chronic progressive arthritis (group 1 and 2 vs. group 3: P < 0.01). No significant differences in mortality were recorded between the groups. Group 1 and 2 had higher (P < 0.05) average daily weight gains compared with the group 3.

  19. The analysis of tobacco consumption in Croatia--are we successfully facing the epidemic?

    PubMed

    Padjen, Ivan; Dabić, Marina; Glivetić, Tatjana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Biočina-Lukenda, Dolores; Lukenda, Josip

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to analyse several health and economically related indicators of tobacco consumption: smoking prevalence, standardized death rates (SDRs) from lung cancer and the proportion of GDP spent on tobacco in Croatia and other transitional countries--the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania, and Bulgaria. The overall smoking prevalence in Croatia decreased by 5.2% during 1994-2005, more among females (-9.9%) than males (-0.3%). There is no significant difference in the smoking prevalence between Croatia (27.4%) and other countries. However, 33.8% of Croatian males smoked during 2002-2005, more than in Romania and the Czech Republic, and less than in Hungary and Poland. The prevalence of female smoking (21.7%) in Croatia is similar to the female smoking prevalence in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, but male smoking is predominant in all countries. The proportion of smokers among youth is above 20% and it is the highest in the Czech Republic (29.7%), followed by Hungary (26.7%), Slovenia (24.9%), Croatia (24.1%), and Poland (21.5%). The proportion of smokers among girls is higher than among boys in Slovenia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Croatia, contrary to Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Poland where boys smoke slightly more. There is no significant difference between the prevalence of smoking among girls in Croatia and Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, and Slovakia. According to the SDR from lung cancer in males (70.3/100,000), Croatia is ranked high assuming the 3rd place, after Hungary (99.7) and Poland (72.0). With a SDR of 15.9/100,000 for females, Croatia is ranked slightly better--5th place. Tobacco consumption continues to be a major public health problem in transitional countries. Croatia conducted several campaigns and programmes in the past. However, results reveal that current anti-tobacco strategies are ineffective in reducing

  20. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling.

    PubMed

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  1. Translation of evidence-based tobacco use prevention programming in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skara, Silvana; Kovacic, Luka; Civljak, Marta; Voncina, Luka

    2008-09-01

    Croatia faces a major threat of smoking-related health burdens given the monumental changes this newly formed country has undergone in the past 15 years because of its postcommunist democratic and economic transitions and the destructive 1991-1995 war with Serbia. This article provides information on Croatia's general background, current smoking prevalence and attitudes, and current evidence-based smoking prevention efforts. Furthermore, various cultural and contextual conditions within Croatia that facilitate or impede smoking prevention research utilization are discussed. Finally, it is concluded that new research is needed that continues to build on comprehensive research-tested multicomponent prevention initiatives utilizing school-, family-, community-, and mass media-based delivery modalities, which specifically focus on the social influences of smoking.

  2. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  3. Epidemiological patterns of tuberculosis in Croatia in the period 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Jurcev-Savicević, Anamarija; Katalinić-Janković, Vera; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Simunović, Aleksandar; Vidić, Dordija; Gunjaca, Jerko; Obrovac, Mihaela

    2011-06-01

    The last comprehensive publication on tuberculosis in Croatia and the earliest impact of war, besides the yearly routine reports, was done in 1996 in Croatian. We were, therefore, interested to explore incidence trends and to highlight the early post-war tuberculosis epidemiological patterns in the next ten years period (1996-2005). A retrospective analysis of epidemiological data on all registered tuberculosis cases in Croatia searching the databases of 21 Croatian Public Health Institutes and the National Tuberculosis Registry was made. During the study period, the total tuberculosis incidence rates in Croatia dropped from 45 to 25.8/100 000 inhabitants. The average highest age-specific rates were recorded in the age group > or = 65 years being in decrease in all age groups. Paediatric cases (0-14 years) represented 4.5% of all cases. Tuberculosis cases among males were recorded in 64% cases, and 83.6% were indigenous population. Tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 67.7% cases. A low proportion of drug resistance (3.3%) was recorded. During 1985-2005, 56 tuberculosis cases among 242 AIDS cases were reported. Tuberculosis mortality showed a decreasing trend (p < 0.001). However, tuberculosis has still had the highest mortality rates among infectious diseases in Croatia. Despite the War chain of events and tuberculosis programmatic changes, tuberculosis incidence rates in Croatia have been decreasing but they are still far away from national target, incidence rate of 10/100 000 declared in 1998 and much higher than in European Union and Western Europe. Tuberculosis among children, resistance to tuberculosis drugs and HIV prevalence, significant problems in many European countries, have not caused problems in tuberculosis control in Croatia. This favourable epidemiological situation must be kept and improved through strengthened tuberculosis control measures.

  4. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  5. Trends in precipitation indices in Croatia, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić-Čapka, Marjana; Cindrić, Ksenija; Pasarić, Zoran

    2015-07-01

    Precipitation data from the period 1961-2010 and from a dense rain-gauge network over Croatia is analysed for spatial characteristics of trends in precipitation amounts and precipitation indices. Besides large spatial variability, the area is characterized by large temporal (seasonal) variability. Thus, analysis is performed on annual and seasonal scales over seven predefined subregions. Ten precipitation indices are selected to assess the intensity and frequency of extreme events as well as their contribution to annual and seasonal precipitation changes. The results reveal that the changes in annual and seasonal amounts are predominantly weak. A significant trend is detected only for annual amounts (negative) in the mountainous region and for summer (negative) in the mountainous littoral, mountainous region and central hinterland. A significant positive trend for autumn appears in eastern mainland. Negative trends in summer are associated with a decrease in frequency of moderate wet days, in maximal 1- and 5-day precipitation and in an increase in light precipitation. A negative annual trend is mainly caused by a decrease in frequency of very wet days and their contribution to the total precipitation. A positive autumn trend is associated with more very wet days and an increase of their contribution to the total precipitation as well as an increase in maximal 1- and 5-day precipitation. This study complements the existing analysis of five Croatian secular data series of extreme precipitation indices by involving the whole precipitation dataset since the mid-twentieth century and fills the gap present in the trend assessment of precipitation trends in Mediterranean and Europe.

  6. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  7. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia - does it still exist?

    PubMed

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-31

    To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. The median MDSS score was 11 out of maximum 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.

  8. Risk management in air protection in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag

    2014-03-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, according to the Air Protection Act, air pollution assessment is obligatory on the whole State territory. For individual regions and populated areas in the State a network has been established for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network consists of stations for measuring background pollution, regional and cross-border remote transfer and measurements as part of international government liabilities, then stations for measuring air quality in areas of cultural and natural heritage, and stations for measuring air pollution in towns and industrial zones. The exceeding of alert and information threshold levels of air pollutants are related to emissions from industrial plants, and accidents. Each excess represents a threat to human health in case of short-time exposure. Monitoring of alert and information threshold levels is carried out at stations from the state and local networks for permanent air quality monitoring according to the Air Quality Measurement Program in the State network for permanent monitoring of air quality and air quality measurement programs in local networks for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network for permanent air quality monitoring has a developed automatic system for reporting on alert and information threshold levels, whereas many local networks under the competence of regional and local self-governments still lack any fully installed systems of this type. In case of accidents, prompt action at all responsibility levels is necessary in order to prevent crisis and this requires developed and coordinated competent units of State Administration as well as self-government units. It is also necessary to be continuously active in improving the implementation of legislative regulations in the field of crises related to critical and alert levels of air pollutants, especially at local levels.

  9. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  10. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m(3)) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m(3). Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  11. Dew and rain water collection in the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk, I.

    2009-06-01

    Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment but can exploit a free, clean (outside urban/industrial zones) and inexhaustible source of water. This study investigates the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. In addition, we evaluate the utility of transforming abandoned roof rain collectors ("impluviums") to collect dew water too. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 and October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m 2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud cover, windspeed and direction). Maximum yields were 0.41 mm in Zadar and 0.6 mm in Komiža. The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). Because of its physical setting, Komiža represents a poor location for dew collection. However, during the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide useful supplementary water, especially during the dry season. As an example, the 1300 m 2 impluvium at Pod\\vspilje near Komiža could provide, in addition to rain water, 14,000 L dew water per year.

  12. The Gap between the Knowledge and Current Practices--A Case of Tobacco Control Programs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Civljak, Marta; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Skara, Silvana; Oresković, Stipe

    2015-09-01

    Despite the availability of numerous evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programs, many countries are still not implementing these research-proven programs. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the extent to which evidence-based smoking control programs have been implemented in Croatia over the last two decades. Data from the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group, which are readily available worldwide, were used as criteria to evaluate whether effective, evidence-based programs have been implemented in Croatia. According to our findings, the most effective behavioral and pharmacological smoking cessation interventions have thus far been underutilized in Croatia. In addition, some interventions that have been continuously implemented in Croatia--such as using self-help materials, school-based programs and the celebration of World No Tobacco Day--have only small, short-term beneficial effects according to the Cochrane reviews. However, Croatia is a party to the World health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and therefore has effective national legislation on tobacco control. Croatia should develop and implement programs that integrate the existing high-quality empirical evidence on the effectiveness of various behavioral, pharmacological, and social interventions for smoking prevention and cessation. This programming should become a part of a continuous national strategy, and should be implemented throughout all of Croatia.

  13. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stipančić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Požgaj Šepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundžić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). Methods We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100 000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. Results The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100 000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100 000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100 000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.3% in southern Croatia. Conclusion Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors. PMID:22522992

  14. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  15. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  16. Investigating Parents' Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikelic Preradovic, Nives; Lešin, Gordana; Šagud, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of parents in Croatia towards advantages and disadvantages of computer use in general as well as their children's computer use and to reveal parents' concerns and opinions about digital technology (DT) education in kindergarten. The paper reports on research findings from one of the large public…

  17. A Language Academy by Any Other Name(s): The Case of Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Keith; Peti-Stantic, Anita

    2011-01-01

    There are three main institutions in Croatia today that are actively engaged in language management activities on the national level: The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, The Council for the Norms of the Croatian Standard Language, and the Institute for the Croatian Language and Linguistics. Their efforts are focused on establishing the…

  18. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  19. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.

  20. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    PubMed

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping.

  1. Creating an Intercultural Learning Opportunity: Zagreb, Croatia and Plattsburgh, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountcastle, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 I embarked on a teaching experiment in which I joined an online SUNY-Plattsburgh class taking my Anthropology of Human Rights course with a conventional class at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, where I was a visiting professor teaching the same course. My motivations were several, but prominent among them was to test the…

  2. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  3. Cultural Capital--A Shift in Perspective: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Data for Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzic, Saša; Gregurovic, Margareta; Košutic, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Using PISA 2009 data for Croatia, this paper addresses the relationship between socio-economic background, cultural capital and educational attainment. Following Bourdieu, we emphasized the importance of interpreting cultural capital effects as effects of family habitus. The results indicated that the material and the relational dimension of…

  4. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  5. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  6. Young People in Croatia in Times of Crisis and Some Remarks about Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrnjaus, Kornelija; Vrcelj, Sofija; Zlokovic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the youth as a research phenomenon and present the current position of young people in the Croatian society. The authors exhibit interesting results of a recent study of youth in Croatia and present the results of their research conducted among Croatian students aiming to explore the attitudes of young people and…

  7. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  8. [General aspects of population reproduction in the Socialist Republic of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Wertheimer-baletic, A

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a social and historical review of population growth in Yugoslavia. Aspects of population growth unique to a Marxist society are identified. Using Croatia as an example of a region with a low birth rate, the author discusses fertility, mortality, and migration as they affect overall population growth. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  9. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  10. Hrvatska pred vratima privatne televizije (Croatia on the Threshold of Private Television).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkovic, Damir

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Croatian government bill on telecommunications permitting the founding of private radio/television stations. Notes that 10 TV stations have been operating (illegally). States that the greatest problem facing private television is monetary. Notes that foreign investment will not be attracted to Croatia because of small population, a…

  11. Cultural Capital--A Shift in Perspective: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Data for Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzic, Saša; Gregurovic, Margareta; Košutic, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Using PISA 2009 data for Croatia, this paper addresses the relationship between socio-economic background, cultural capital and educational attainment. Following Bourdieu, we emphasized the importance of interpreting cultural capital effects as effects of family habitus. The results indicated that the material and the relational dimension of…

  12. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  13. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  14. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10-19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation.

  15. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  16. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  17. 78 FR 65220 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Designated Country-Croatia (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... country under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA). Croatia joined the European Union, which is a party to the WTO GPA, on July 1, 2013. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013. FOR... 571-372-6101. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The European Union is a party to the WTO GPA...

  18. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  19. 100 Years of Studies of the Crust and Upper Mantle in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herak, D.; Herak, M.; Tkalcic, H.

    2009-12-01

    The study of properties of the earth’s crust and upper mantle started in Croatia one century ago, by the seminal paper in which A. Mohorovicic proved the existence of the crust-mantle boundary. Most of Mohorovicic’s work which followed was dedicated to improving travel-time curves of crustal phases. During the 1980-es most of the research—mostly based on interpretation of several deep seismic profiles running across the country—was directed towards determination of the Moho-topography. The interest for the study of elastic properties of the crust was revived in the 1990-es, when several papers appeared which dealt with determination of velocities and attenuation (coda-Q) in the greater circum-Adriatic region. More recently, a large database of Pg-phase arrival times was used to assess the azimuthal anisotropy of the P-wave velocity within the crust in the NW Croatia and in parts of the External Dinarides. It was found that the direction of the fast velocities closely correspond to the direction of predominant current tectonic stress field. Current research based on the data obtained within a large international seismic experiment (ALP2002) lead to new constraints on the crustal structure in northern and western Croatia. Lithospheric structure beneath coastal and continental Croatia is being studied also by broadband teleseismic waveform modeling using receiver functions. The results indicate that the Mohorovicic discontinuity in Dalmatia may lie considerably deeper than presented on recent maps of the Moho topography in Europe.

  20. Introduction of Digital Storytelling in Preschool Education: A Case Study from Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preradovic, Nives Mikelic; Lesin, Gordana; Boras, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Our case study from Croatia showed the benefits of digital storytelling in a preschool as a basis for the formal ICT education. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between children aged 6-7 who learned mathematics by traditional storytelling compared to those learning through digital storytelling. The experimental group that…

  1. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  2. Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Croatia: species richness, distribution and relationship to surrounding countries.

    PubMed

    Ivković, Marija; Kúdela, Matuš; Kúdelová, Tatiana

    2016-05-05

    All records of blackflies (Simuliidae) from the territory of Croatia are summarized, including previously unpublished data. The blackfly fauna of Croatia consists of 28 species. Simulium (Nevermannia) angustitarse (Lundström), Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum (Rubtsov) complex, Simulium (Nevermannia) lundstromi (Enderlein), Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum Macquart complex, Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti) complex, Simulium paraequinum Puri and Simulium pseudequinum Séguy are reported for the first time from Croatia. Information related to the ecoregions, in which species were found and specific species traits are given. Genus Prosimulium Roubaud is represented by one species only. Genus Simulium Latreille is represented by 27 species in six subgenera, with subgenus Simulium Latreille s. str. being most species rich (13 species) and subgenera Boophthora Enderlein and  Trichodagmia Enderlein represented each by only one species. Compared to the neighboring countries, the Croatian species assemblage is most similar to the fauna of Slovenia and least similar to that of Italy. The relatively low number of species, presence of several species complexes and unclear identity of other species show that further research of blackflies in Croatia is needed.

  3. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  4. Reflections on a Visit to the Union of the Blind of Croatia, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt; Hanke, Peter

    The paper reports a visit to the Union of the Blind in Croatia, an organization serving the needs of 4,500 blind individuals in this part of Yugoslavia. Briefly considered are personnel, financial support, and services (such as braille and talking book production). A separate section describes the organization's library, recorded and braille…

  5. [History of gynecology and perinatology in Croatia. Midwifery. Clinics and hospitals in Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, A

    1999-03-01

    The development of obstetrics in Croatia and the formation of unique discipline of obstetrics and gynecology in Croatia in first ten years of 20th century are presented. The midwifery is mentioned in Croatia for the first time in Dubrovnik in 14th century. The "protomedicus" from Varazdin Johan Baptist Lalangue in 1777 has published the booklet "Brevis institutio de re obstetritia". First public school of midwifery was founded in Zadar on 1820 and the second one in Zagreb in 1877. In Zadar, Ante Kuzmanić, "magister obstetritiae et chirurgiae" published a short textbook "Sixty lessons from midwifery for midwifes", thereafter in 1908 Nikola Lalich "Book for midwifes". In Zagreb, Antun Lobmayer published in 1877 "The midwifery". Gynecology was developing in the second half of 19th century as a part of surgery. On break-time from 19th to 20th century rose the unique medical profession obstetrics and gynecology. In Croatia the unique discipline established Dr Franjo Durst, since he was in 1905 installed for the first head of Royal Country Maternity Hospital in Ilica street and thereafter in 1921 for the first head and university professor of Royal University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Petrova street. The evolution of gynecology and obstetrics, respective of perinatology, during last 30 years, in the Zagreb in departments of clinical hospitals "Clinical Hospital Center", "Sestre Milosrdnice", "Merkur" and "Sv. Duh" is presented.

  6. Building a Team of Passionate Callers to Enrich Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojsic, Jasenka; Magzan, Masa

    2010-01-01

    This article is about a group of eight people joined by a common idea--a strong call to enrich education in Croatia so that it motivates leadership and empowers children. Through use of philosophy and methodology of Appreciative Inquiry, this informal group of people has gradually developed into the core team of a potential national movement.…

  7. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  8. Turbidity dynamics of the karst spring Ombla (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denic-Jukic, V.; Juras, T.; Plenkovic, M.; Kadic, A.; Jukic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrogeological characteristics of the karst are complex and significantly different from the characteristics of granular media. Underground structures of pores, fissures, fractures and conduits of various size and forms with significant spatial and temporal variability and discontinuity of hydraulic and geometric parameters create complex hydrogeological conditions for groundwater flow. Karst aquifers are important fresh water resources but are frequently contaminated by turbidity because of the presence of various degrees of karstified limestone with highly transmissive conduits. Many analyses have shown that the period of turbidity represents the period of increased water pollution with bacteria. The present study presents the Ombla spring karstic system (Dubrovnik, Croatia). The Ombla Spring is located at an elevation of 2.5 m above sea-level and the river immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The water from the Ombla Spring is used for the water supply for the city of Dubrovnik. The precipitation regime is changeable. The average annual rainfall measured in Dubrovnik was 1220 mm. At Vukovići raingauge station, 7 km away, it amounted to 1800 mm and at the Hum raingauge station, 12.5 km from Dubrovnik it reached 2100 mm. The method applied is based essentially on time series analysis which has wide application in hydrogeological system analysis. A simple analysis gave a definition of the pattern signals of three types of records: rainfall, discharge rate and turbidity. Cross-correlation and spectral analysis were made between rainfall and discharge rates that were considered to be input signal and turbidity values which were considered to be the output signal. Both the simple and cross-analysis were made taking into account time and frequency domain. Analyzing turbidity as additional output signal parameter and parallel analysis of two responses reveals additional valuable information about the karst spring functioning. Turbidity of water in the Ombla karst

  9. Correlation between Annual Corn Crop per Hectare in Croatia and Drought Indices for Zagreb-Gric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandzic, Kreso; Likso, Tanja

    2017-04-01

    Correlation coefficients between annual corn crop per hectare in Croatia and 9-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Zagreb - Gric for August are shown as significant. The results indicate that there is also a significant correlation between those drought indices and drought damages. Thus a forecast of the indices for August could be used for estimation e.g. annual corn crop per hectare in Croatia. Better results could be expected if statistical relationship between annual corn crops per hectare will be considered on county level instead the whole Croatia and indices calculated for weather stations for the same county. Effective way for reduction of drought damages is irrigation which need to be significantly improved in future in Croatia

  10. Crveno jezero - the biggest sinkhole in Dinaric Karst (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2012-04-01

    fascinating and has been measured on a number of occasions. Valuable and interesting data about the lake depth, as presented by academician Milivoj Petrik in 1955, show that the lake is about 250 meters deep, which discouraged any attempts to dive to the bottom of the lake. During the 5th International Congress of Speleology held in Stuttgart in Germany, Croatian cavers and speleologists have tried to add the Red Lake to the list of deepest pits in the world, as its real depth amounted to 518 meters at the time. However, the response of the documentation committee was that the depth had not been duly documented, that no man has been at such depth etc., although in reality it is a real pit one half of which is filled with water. In late 1970's and early 1980's the speleodiving activities rapidly gathered momentum in all parts of the world and it is in this period that deepest dives were made at the source called Fontaine de Vaucluse. At that time, a special underwater vehicle, the so called "Speleonaut", attained (without crew) the depth of 315 meters. Similar vehicle called Hyball descended down to the depth of 165 meters in Hranicke propasti in Czech Republic. These speleological structures are therefore considered as sufficiently documented and, as such, they have been added to the list of the world's deepest water structures. In 1980's speleodiving has became an increasingly popular cave exploration method in Croatia. Thus, the decision was made to contact the world's best speleodivers and invite them to investigate the Red Lake. In 1981, during their stay in the USA, Dr. Mladen Garašić contacted Mr. Jochan Hassenmayer who was at that time the best speleodiver of the world. However, because of political climate that prevailed in that period, Mr. Hassenmayer finally decided not to come to our country. In an unfortunate turn of events, this diver was later affected with a permanent disability. In the course of 1989 and 1990, Dr. Garašić established contact with Mr. Sheck

  11. Karst and Caves in Post orogenetic carbonate breccias in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2009-04-01

    In Croatian karst area there are several places where post orogenetic carbonate breccias are present. Coarse carbonate clastics of Lika, Velebit, Mala Kapela and Hrvatsko Primorje were first considered and described as a facies of the Paleogene Promina beds. However, because of their indistinct relation or sporadically mutual connections as well as the great difference in composition, were the reasons for the introduction of the term «Jelar beds». Their genesis is later connected with significant tectonic disturbances (inverse faulting and overthrusting), followed by younger predominantly vertical faults. Promina beds found in Ravni Kotari and Mt. Promina area, as well as Jelar bed areas, are at all times in transgressive contact with older beds (carbonate clastics estimated to date from Palaeogene -Neogene). Karstification in these beds is very intensive. Additionally, spring of river Gacka (length of third sinking river in the World), is situated in Jelar beds area, and river Zrmanja is partly breaking through Promina beds. Jelar carbonate breccias is present in Northern and Southern Velebit mountain. Maybe their genesis is connected with glaciation too, but the most important is that these rocks are very soluble. In an area of approx. 25 km2 on North Velebit Mt. more than 400 caves were discovered and explored. The systems Lukina jama - Trojama (-1392 m), Slovacka jama (-1301 m) and Velebita - Dva javora (-1026 m) are the deepest caves in Croatia. Furthermore, significant depth was reached at Meduza (-679 m), Patkov gust (-553 m), Ledena jama (-536 m) and Jama Olimp (-531 m). Theses caves are really vertical and inner vertical step in Valeria (518 me) is the deepest in the World, and outer vertical step in Patkov Gust (553 me) is the second vertical entrance in the World. All these caves are located in post or carbonate Jelar breccias. In an area of approx 30 km2 on South Velebit Mt. There are more than 300 caves discovered and explored. Well known Cerova

  12. Modelling soil properties in a crop field located in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Millan, Mesic; Percin, Aleksandra; Zgorelec, Zeljka

    2016-04-01

    Development of tillage activities had negative effects on soil quality as destruction of soil horizons, compacting and aggregates destruction, increasing soil erosion and loss of organic matter. For a better management in order to mitigate the effects of intensive soil management in land degradation it is fundamental to map the spatial distribution of soil properties (Brevik et al., 2016). The understanding the distribution of the variables in space is very important for a sustainable management, in order to identify areas that need a potential intervention and decrease the economic losses (Galiati et al., 2016). The objective of this work is study the spatial distribution of some topsoil properties as clay, fine silt, coarse silt, fine sand, coarse sand, penetration resistance, moisture and organic matter in a crop field located in Croatia. A grid with 275x25 (625 m2) was designed and a total of 48 samples were collected. Previous to data modelling, data normality was checked using the Shapiro wilk-test. As in previous cases (Pereira et al., 2015), data did not followed the normal distribution, even after a logarithmic (Log), square-root, and box cox transformation. Thus, for modeling proposes, we used the log transformed data, since was the closest to the normality. In order to identify groups among the variables we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), based on the correlation matrix. On average clay content was 15.47% (±3.23), fine silt 24.24% (±4.08), coarse silt 35.34% (±3.12), fine sand 20.93% (±4.68), coarse sand 4.02% (±1.69), penetration resistance 0.66 MPa (±0.28), organic matter 1.51% (±0.25) and soil moisture 32.04% (±3.27). The results showed that the PCA identified three factors explained at least one of the variables. The first factor had high positive loadings in soil clay, fine silt and organic matter and a high negative loading in fine sand. The second factor had high positive loadings in coarse sand and moisture and a high

  13. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja

    2015-04-01

    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  14. Freshwater and brackish bryozoan species of Croatia (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata) and their genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Novosel, Maja; Koletić, Nikola

    2015-10-15

    Freshwater and brackish species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata class. Twelve species of bryozoans were recorded and morphologically determined at eight locations in the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin in Croatia. Twelve species of Bryozoa have been listed in the taxonomic index for Croatia (Conopeum seurati, Lophopus crystallinus Paludicella articulata, Cristatella mucedo, Fredericella sultana, Hyalinella punctata, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella emarginata, Plumatella fruticosa, Plumatella fungosa, Plumatella geimermassardi and Plumatella repens). For the purposes of gene identification of recorded species, molecular markers for nuclear 18S and 28S genes, ITS2 region and mitochondrial COI gene were amplified. Genetic identifications of morphologically determined bryozoan species were confirmed using highly similar sequences local alignment analysis. Proliferation of freshwater bryozoan species over long distances with the help of the vector animals was confirmed by defining haplotypes on the base of 18S, 28S and ITS2 sequences associated with the Black Sea-Mediterranean waterfowl flyway.

  15. Access to war weapons and injury prevention activities among children in Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Kopjar, B; Wiik, J; Wickizer, T M; Bulajic-Kopjar, B; Mujki-Klaric, A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of children in Croatia to war weapons, we surveyed random samples of children (n=986) aged 11 to 16 years and of parents (1469) of children aged 7 to 16 years in April 1994 in four war-affected districts in Croatia. The children's survey indicated that 57% of the boys and 36% of the girls had access to weapons at home, at some other place, or at both. Eighteen percent of the boys and 5% of the girls reported playing with weapons. The parents' survey showed that 68% of the households possessed weapons, with 19% of the children having access to weapons at home. Influenced by preliminary findings of these surveys, the Croatian government modified its national campaign (one partially supported by international aid) to prevent war-related injuries among children. This study demonstrates the feasibility of scientific evaluation of humanitarian aid programs. PMID:8604767

  16. Sellar Region Surgery in Croatia in the First Half of 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović Ferenčić, Stella; Gnjidić, Živko

    2006-01-01

    We reconstructed the historical development of surgical approaches to the pituitary gland, which were used in Croatia in the first half of the 20th century, on the basis of earliest clinical case reports and descriptions of initial surgical attempts. The first published case report on surgical treatment of acromegaly was described, as well as the review of 11 patients with pituitary disease admitted to the Ophthalmology Clinic in Zagreb in the period 1925-1927. The earliest 5 reports on pituitary surgery dating from 1925 were analyzed to reveal the circumstances that led to the development of transsphenoidal approach as a method of choice in Croatia, when this technique was becoming obsolete in other parts of the world. Frequent modifications of surgical approaches to sellar region have been shown a suitable historical-medical model for analysis of changes in surgical trends. PMID:16625698

  17. Usage of Alternative, Environmentally Acceptable Materials—Experience from Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišić, I.; Zagvozda, M.; Dimter, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concept of sustainability should be the main guiding principle in the construction industry today. It mandates conservation of natural resources and thus lower impact on the environment. In road construction, part of construction industry that consumes largest quantities of natural materials, sustainable building and maintenance of roads is possible trough application of secondary materials. Usage of industrial and construction waste presents energy, ecologically and financially effective alternative. Republic of Croatia, even as a new member of the European Union, still lags behind the well-established practices of the application of alternative materials in different European countries. The reasons for this can be found in the current legal and technical regulations for alternative materials. In this paper, the existing regulations for alternative materials and the impact they have on the application of these materials in practice in the region of eastern Croatia will be shown.

  18. Molecular characterization of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, N.; Milas, Z.; Margaletic, J.; Staresina, V.; Slavica, A.; Riquelme-Sertour, N.; Bellenger, E.; Baranton, G.; Postic, D.

    2003-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of 16 Leptospira spp. strains isolated from small rodents captured in 11 different regions of inland Croatia. Large NotI and SgrAI restriction fragment allowed us to assign 10 isolates to the serovar istrica, 5 isolates to the serovar tsaratsovo and 1 isolate to the serovar lora. The phylogenetic analysis conducted from the sequences of the first 330 bp from the 16S rDNA gene revealed that the strains belonged to three different species, L. borgpetersenii, L. kirschneri and L. interrogans. Carrier rates in eight rodent species varied from 0 to 71.4%. Mus musculus showed the highest infection level and confirmed its role as a major reservoir of the serogroup Sejroë. For the first time we reported the occurrence of serovars tsaratsovo and lora in Croatia. PMID:12613757

  19. Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Markotić, Alemka; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Zmak, Ljiljana; Janković, Mateja; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Soprek, Silvija; Daković Rode, Oktavija; Milas, Zoran; Puljiz, Ivan; Ledina, Dragan; Hukić, Mirsada; Kuzman, Ilija

    2009-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID) are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the 'One Health initiative' which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

  20. The rescue of Jewish physicians in the independent state of Croatia (NDH), 1941-1945.

    PubMed

    Gitman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Despite the murder of three-fourths of Croatia's Jews, Croatian doctors, representatives of the Ministry of Health, and other government figures saved 142 Jewish physicians by mobilizing them for a mission to alleviate endemic syphilis in Bosnia. Twenty-seven others were recruited into the Home Guard. Along with members of their families, these Jews were granted "Aryan rights." In 1942 some began defecting to the partisans; others followed after the capitulation of Italy in 1943. Many died in battle, succumbed to typhus, or were murdered by the Nazis, the Croatian fascist Ustae, or the Serbian nationalist etniks. But the story recounted below shows how much better they fared than the Jewish population generally: sixty-two percent survived, thanks to courageous efforts by Croatian civilians and officials. Their rescue demonstrates both that popular attitudes influenced events in Yugoslavia, and that common stereotypes of Croatia during the war should be reconsidered.

  1. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology among health care professionals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shields, J; Erdal, K; Skrinjaric, J; Majic, G

    1999-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptomatology was found in 22 of 25 health care professionals working in postwar Croatia. Assessment of exposure to war trauma and of the subjective impact of this exposure found the former more predictive of post-traumatic stress. Results suggest that the situations faced by health care professionals in war and postwar environments may be considered independent traumatic stressors, and that the symptomatology arising from such exposure may last for years. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  2. The Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis B in Croatia: The Results of the Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kljajić, Zlatko; Petricević, Josko; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Pranić, Shelly; Mulić, Rosanda

    2015-09-01

    This study shows epidemiological characteristics and preventive measures implemented for the prevention and control of hepatitis B infections in Croatia. We analyzed the data from obligatory infectious disease reports and notifications of death due to infectious diseases, data on the hepatitis B infections in Croatia, and data collected by survey of the population. The average prevalence of the disease is 3.67 per 100,000 annually. All age groups are affected, but still a higher rate of the disease is found in the age groups from 15-19 and 20-29 years of age. Hepatitis B disease is 1.4 times more likely in men than in women. For the past 18 years, the average rate of mortality was 0.2%. The incidence of HbsAg-positive donors of blood is within the range of 0.65% in 1992 to 0.012% in 2011. The largest part of preventive measures implemented in Croatia against hepatitis B is predicted and required by legislation. The registrations of acute and chronic carriers of the virus are obligatory. High-risk groups have started being vaccinated since 1992. The obligatory vaccination of infants was introduced in the mandatory vaccination program in 2007. Routine testing of blood exclusively from voluntary donors for HbsAg presence is obligatory. The non-governmental organization "Help" created for intravenous drug users, along with the "Harm reduction" program implemented hepatitis B, C, and HIV/AIDS prevention program in 1995. In order to gain a better understanding of epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Croatia, the specifics of its dynamics in small communities are required since the research of Croatian public health officials and researchers have shown that hepatitis B is spread in different ways.

  3. Budget Impact Analysis of Biosimilar Trastuzumab for the Treatment of Breast Cancer in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cesarec, August; Likić, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and has considerable impact on healthcare budgets and patients' quality of life. Trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) is a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) for the treatment of breast cancer. Several trastuzumab biosimilars are currently in development. In 2015, trastuzumab was the drug with the highest financial consumption among all drugs in Croatia. This model estimates the 1-year budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar trastuzumab in Croatia. A budget impact model, based on approvals for trastuzumab treatment in 2015, was developed for the introduction of biosimilars. Two biosimilar scenarios were developed: biosimilar scenario 1, based on all approvals in 2015, and biosimilar scenario 2, based on approvals after February 2015 and the reimbursement of the subcutaneous formulation of trastuzumab in Croatia. Only trastuzumab-naïve patients and drug-acquisition costs were used in the model. Uptake of biosimilar was assumed at 50 %. Scenarios were calculated with price discounts of 15, 25 and 35 %. The robustness of the model was tested by extensive sensitivity analyses. The projected drug cost savings from the introduction of biosimilar trastuzumab range from €0.26 million (scenario 2, 15 % price discount) to €0.69 million (scenario 1, 35 % price discount). If budget savings were reinvested to treat additional patients with trastuzumab, 14 (scenario 2, 15 % price discount) to 47 (scenario 1, 35 % price discount) additional patients could be treated. Sensitivity analyses showed that the incidence of breast cancer had the highest impact on the model, with a 10 % decrease in incidence leading to an 11.3 % decrease in projected savings. The introduction of biosimilar trastuzumab could lead to significant drug cost savings in Croatia.

  4. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Changes in the dynamics of the population in Eastern Croatia 1948-1991].

    PubMed

    Zivic, D

    1995-01-01

    "Changes in the dynamics of the population in Eastern Croatia are shown, on the level of its natural (geographic) components as well as in its regional units (former communes) for the period 1948-1991. Regional distribution of the population is shown and differential development of the population is observed. Ageing of the population is established, a drop in the natural growth rate and strengthening of depopulational and emigrational processes." (EXCERPT)

  6. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations. Images PMID:1645081

  7. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-06-01

    The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations.

  8. Awareness and Use of Evidence-based Medicine Databases and Cochrane Library Among Physicians in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Katarina; Mirić, Dino; Jurin, Ana; Vukojević, Katarina; Aljinović, Jure; Čarić, Ana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Poljičanin, Ana; Košta, Vana; Rako, Dalibora; Marušić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness and use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study with a telephone survey was performed among 573 physicians (88.6% response rate from 647 contacted physicians) from family practice and 4 major university hospital centers in Croatia. The main outcome measures were physicians' awareness of The Cochrane Collaboration, awareness and use of The Cochrane Library, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. Results Overall, 54% of respondents said they had access to EBM databases, but when asked which databases they used, they named mostly non-EBM databases. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 53% respondents, 30% heard of The Cochrane Collaboration, and 34% heard about The Cochrane Library. They obtained information about The Cochrane Library mostly from colleagues and research articles, whereas the information about EBM was gained mainly during continuous medical education. There were more respondents who thought The Cochrane Library could help them in practice (58%) than those who heard about The Cochrane Library (30%). Only 20% of the respondents heard about the initiative for the establishment of the Croatian branch of The Cochrane Collaboration. Family physicians had significantly lower level of awareness, knowledge, and use of EBM and The Cochrane Library than physicians from university hospitals. Conclusion There is low awareness about EBM and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia, which creates a need for educational interventions about EBM for the benefit of health care in Croatia. PMID:20401959

  9. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  10. Differences in the Fitness Levels of Urban and Rural Middle School Students in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Dario; Bernstein, Eve R.; Podnar, Hrvoje; Vozzolo, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is known that suburban youth are more fit than urban youth in Croatia. Method: Differences (p < 0.05) in fitness levels and motor abilities of 9,164 (F = 4,671, M = 4,493) Croatian children (age range: 11-14 years) from urban (F = 1,380, M = 1,268), mixed rural-urban (F = 274, M = 289), and rural (F = 3017, M = 2936) areas were…

  11. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Medical Procedures in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality of informed consent form is essential for adequate information transfer between physicians and patients. Current status of medical procedure consent forms in clinical practice in Croatia specifically in terms of the readability and the content is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the content of informed consent forms for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used with patients in Croatia. Methods 52 informed consent forms from six Croatian hospitals on the secondary and tertiary health-care level were tested for reading difficulty using Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula adjusted for Croatian language and for qualitative analysis of the content. Results The averaged SMOG grade of analyzed informed consent forms was 13.25 (SD 1.59, range 10–19). Content analysis revealed that informed consent forms included description of risks in 96% of the cases, benefits in 81%, description of procedures in 78%, alternatives in 52%, risks and benefits of alternatives in 17% and risks and benefits of not receiving treatment or undergoing procedures in 13%. Conclusions Readability of evaluated informed consent forms is not appropriate for the general population in Croatia. The content of the forms failed to include in high proportion of the cases description of alternatives, risks and benefits of alternatives, as well as risks and benefits of not receiving treatments or undergoing procedures. Data obtained from this research could help in development and improvement of informed consent forms in Croatia especially now when Croatian hospitals are undergoing the process of accreditation. PMID:26376183

  12. The Activities of Students in Leisure Time in Sisak-Moslavina County (Republic of Croatia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðuranovic, Marina; Opic, Siniša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence of activities in leisure time of the young. A survey was conducted on 1062 students in 8 primary (n = 505; 47,6%) and high schools (n = 557; 52,4%) in Sisak-Moslavina County in the Republic of Croatia. The questionnaire of spending leisure time used was made up of 30 variables on a five-degree…

  13. Serological, Bacteriological, and Molecular Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Domestic Animals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Špičić, Silvio; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Račić, Ivana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the surveillance data on Brucella melitensis, B. suis, and B. ovis infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine in Croatia obtained in 2008 by serological, bacteriological, and molecular methods for diagnostics of brucellosis in domestic animals. Methods We serologically tested 42 785 cattle serums, 22 686 sheep and goat serums, and 28 520 swine serums using the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation test, and various immunosorbent assays. We also tested 10 173 ram blood samples for B. ovis infection using the complement fixation test. Bacteriological examination was conducted on 214 samples collected from 34 serologically positive animals. Different molecular methods were employed in the identification and typing of 20 isolates from the samples. Results B. melitensis biovar (bv.) 3 was confirmed with different identification methods in 2 flocks in 2 Croatian counties and B. suis bv. 2 in 3 herds in 3 counties. B. melitensis in cows was confirmed for the first time in Croatia. Infection with B. ovis was serologically confirmed in 202 rams in 12 counties. Conclusions In 2008, the size of the brucellosis-affected area in Croatia and the efficiency of detection and prevention of brucellosis in sheep, goats, and swine were satisfactory. Infection with B. melitensis in cattle was confirmed for the first time and possible links for infection in humans were detected. More efficient measures for suppression and control of ovine epididymitis are required and a new strategy may be necessary for complete eradication of this disease. PMID:20718085

  14. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries.

  15. Epizootiological survey of small mammals as Leptospira spp. reservoirs in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stritof Majetic, Zrinka; Galloway, Renee; Ruzic Sabljic, Eva; Milas, Zoran; Mojcec Perko, Vesna; Habus, Josipa; Margaletic, Josip; Pernar, Renata; Turk, Nenad

    2014-03-01

    In this survey we investigated a population of small mammals in Eastern Croatia in order to determine Leptospira carriage rates and identify circulating serovars. Out of 67 trapped animals, 20 (29.9%) isolates were obtained. Identification of isolates using microscopic agglutination test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing revealed that 10 (50.0%) isolates belong to serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok, 6 (30.0%) isolates to serogroup Australis, serovar Jalna, 2 (10.0%) isolates to serogroup Sejroe, serovar Saxkoebing, and 1 (5.0%) isolate to serogroup Grippotyphosa, serovar Grippotyphosa. One isolate from serogroup Bataviae was unable to be identified to the serovar level. Amplification of a 331-bp region of the locus LA0322 using real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that 12 (60.0%) isolates belong to L. kirschneri, 6 (30.0%) isolates to L. interrogans, and 2 (10.0%) isolates to L. borgpetersenii. Leptospira carriage rate was high (29.9%), which corresponds to a high incidence of human and domestic animal leptospirosis in Eastern Croatia. Furthermore, 90.0% of the isolates belong to serogroups Pomona, Australis and Sejroe which are also the most prevalent serogroups in humans in this area. These findings suggest that small mammals might be an important source of Leptospira spp. infection in Eastern Croatia.

  16. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans.

  17. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  18. Can Croatia Join Europe as Competitive Knowledge-based Society by 2010?

    PubMed Central

    Petrovečki, Mladen; Paar, Vladimir; Primorac, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century has brought important changes in the paradigms of economic development, one of them being a shift toward recognizing knowledge and information as the most important factors of today. The European Union (EU) has been working hard to become the most competitive knowledge-based society in the world, and Croatia, an EU candidate country, has been faced with a similar task. To establish itself as one of the best knowledge-based country in the Eastern European region over the next four years, Croatia realized it has to create an education and science system correspondent with European standards and sensitive to labor market needs. For that purpose, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (MSES) has created and started implementing a complex strategy, consisting of the following key components: the reform of education system in accordance with the Bologna Declaration; stimulation of scientific production by supporting national and international research projects; reversing the “brain drain” into “brain gain” and strengthening the links between science and technology; and informatization of the whole education and science system. In this comprehensive report, we describe the implementation of these measures, whose coordination with the EU goals presents a challenge, as well as an opportunity for Croatia to become a knowledge-based society by 2010. PMID:17167853

  19. Surgical scientific publication and the 1991-1995 war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Vanja; Udiljak, Nikola; Bartolić, Nina; Vargović, Martina; Kuduz, Robert; Boban, Natasa; Pećina, Marko; Polasek, Ozren

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical scientific publication in relation to the 1991-1995 war in Croatia, based on the articles indexed in Medline database that were published in 1980-2005 period. The number of articles was extracted from PubMed and analysed with trend analysis, which is preferred analytic approach over calculation of crude publication rates. The results indicate sporadic pre-war output, which was almost completely reduced by the onset of war. During wartime, a significant increasing trend in the number of published surgical articles that were related to warfare was detected (p = 0.003). During the post-war period a gradual shift towards surgical articles that were not related to warfare was detected, also marked by the significant increasing trend (p = 0.027). Both trends were significantly steeper than the overall Croatian biomedical output, suggesting that surgical scientific articles were being published more dynamically than in other biomedical areas in Croatia. The results suggest that war in Croatia has had a strong modifying effect on the surgical scientific output.

  20. Suicide in Croatia and in Croatian immigrant groups in Australia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, E; Marusic, A

    2001-12-01

    To compare suicide rates in Australia, Slovenia, and Croatia with suicide rates in Croatian immigrant groups in Australia and Slovenia in a 10-year period. We analyzed records for completed suicides of the residents of Australia in a decade between 1988 and 1997 and Croatia and Slovenia in a decade between 1985 and 1994. The Croatian Catholic Centers in Australia had 31 completed suicides reported in their Parish Registries in the decade between 1985 and 1994. In Slovenia, 141 completed suicides of Croats were reported in the same decade by the Institute of Public Health of Republic of Slovenia. The suicide rate and method of suicide in the Croatian immigrant group in Slovenia (26.01/100,000/year; 60% of hanging) converged towards those of the host country (31.43/100,000/year; 76% of hanging), perhaps as a function of the years since migration from Croatia (22.53/100,000/year; 42% of hanging). Somewhat higher male-female ratio in this immigration group (3.55) could be explained by their lower social status. Surprisingly low suicide rate was calculated for the immigration group in Australia (3.10/100,000/year). Croat immigrants to Australia have the lowest suicide rate, but the highest male-female suicide ratio, which could be a consequence of underreporting of suicides by Croatian Catholic Centers in Australia. Different suicide data sources can be a source of significant bias in cross-cultural comparison of suicide behavior.

  1. Research involvement, specialty choice, and emigration preferences of final year medical students in croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Mihalj, Hrvoje; Gombac, Elena; Kraljević, Vinka; Kraljević, Ivana; Krakar, Goran

    2005-02-01

    To explore involvement in scientific research, choice of specialty, and readiness to emigrate among graduating medical students in Croatia. A total of 312 out of 408 (76%) final year medical students of all Croatian Medical Schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Osijek, and Split) graduating in 2004 answered a questionnaire designed for this study, including questions on scientific involvement, desired specialty, and emigration preferences. During undergraduate study, 71 (23%) students have been involved in scientific projects. However, only 27 of them (38%) succeeded in publishing their results. Students identified poor project management as the most common reason for publication failure. Specialty choice varied among the four medical schools in Croatia but internal medicine, pediatrics, and surgery were usually highly preferred in all schools. If they failed to get the desired specialty, 104 (33%) students would consider emigration. There is a clear need for improvement in the management of students' research projects in Croatia, enabling enthusiastic medical students to publish the results of their work and retain their interest in science. The analysis of change of the desired specialties throughout the undergraduate study suggests an increased interest in the "controllable lifestyle" specialties. Failure to get the desired specialty would result in emigration for many students.

  2. Health care professionals' and students' attitude toward collaboration between pharmacists and physicians in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Seselja-Perisin, Ana; Mestrovic, Arijana; Klinar, Ivana; Modun, Darko

    2016-02-01

    As traditional roles of pharmacists and physicians seem nowadays insufficient to ensure patient safety and therapy effectiveness, interprofessional collaboration has been suggested to improve health outcomes. To assess and compare the attitudes of physicians and pharmacists, as well as medical and pharmacy students in Croatia, toward interprofessional collaboration in primary health care. The study included 513 pharmacists and physicians, and 365 students of pharmacy and medicine from Croatia. The validated questionnaire, Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician–Pharmacist Collaboration, was translated in Croatian and completed, anonymously and voluntarily, by all participants. Results Pharmacists showed a more positive attitude toward collaboration than physicians (53.8 ± 4.8 vs. 50.7 ± 5.0). Pharmacy students expressed the most positive attitude (56.2 ± 4.9), while medical students showed the remarkably lowest attitude toward collaboration (44.6 ± 6.2). Pharmacists and physicians in Croatia expressed a relatively positive attitude toward their collaboration, comparable with their colleges in the USA. On the other hand, medical students expressed a 21 % less positive attitude than pharmacy students which could have an effect on interprofessional collaboration in the future when those students start working as health care professionals. Future studies, focusing on the promotion of this collaboration, on both under-graduated and post-graduated level, are warranted.

  3. Assessing clinical and life sciences performance of research institutions in Split, Croatia, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia; Vukojević, Katarina; Lovrić Kojundzić, Sanja; Sapunar, Damir

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate publications of clinical and life scientists from research institutions in Split, Croatia, and the publication output from government-funded research projects of the University of Split School of Medicine. We analyzed the number of publications from research institutions in Split, Croatia, in the 2000-2006 period, relative impact factors, predominant research fields, output of researchers from the University of Split School of Medicine receiving government research grants, and the average price of published article. From 2000 to 2006, clinical and life scientists published 350 articles indexed in Thomson Scientific database Current Contents. The number of articles increased from 30 in 2000 to 76 in 2006, and the average impact factor of journals where these articles were published increased from 2.03 in 2000 to 2.89 in 2006. Twenty percent of articles (72/350) were published in the Croatian Medical Journal. Principal investigators of the 12 research projects receiving government grants published 0 to 8 articles related to the project topic in the 2002-2006 research grant cycle. The research grantees published 78 original research articles, with an average price per article of euro 29.210 euros. Although the number and impact factor of research articles published by clinical and life scientists from Split, Croatia, is increasing, it is still low when the number of scientists is taken into account. There should be better mechanisms of control and evaluation of research performance of government-funded research projects.

  4. Assessing Clinical and Life Sciences Performance of Research Institutions in Split, Croatia, 2000-2006

    PubMed Central

    Puljak, Livia; Vukojević, Katarina; Lovrić Kojundžić, Sanja; Sapunar, Damir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To evaluate publications of clinical and life scientists from research institutions in Split, Croatia, and the publication output from government-funded research projects of the University of Split School of Medicine. Methods We analyzed the number of publications from research institutions in Split, Croatia, in the 2000-2006 period, relative impact factors, predominant research fields, output of researchers from the University of Split School of Medicine receiving government research grants, and the average price of published article. Results From 2000 to 2006, clinical and life scientists published 350 articles indexed in Thomson Scientific database Current Contents. The number of articles increased from 30 in 2000 to 76 in 2006, and the average impact factor of journals where these articles were published increased from 2.03 in 2000 to 2.89 in 2006. Twenty percent of articles (72/350) were published in the Croatian Medical Journal. Principal investigators of the 12 research projects receiving government grants published 0 to 8 articles related to the project topic in the 2002-2006 research grant cycle. The research grantees published 78 original research articles, with an average price per article of € 29.210. Conclusion Although the number and impact factor of research articles published by clinical and life scientists from Split, Croatia, is increasing, it is still low when the number of scientists is taken into account. There should be better mechanisms of control and evaluation of research performance of government-funded research projects. PMID:18461671

  5. Serologic evidence of Leptospira spp. serovars in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slavica, Alen; Konjevic, Dean; Huber, Duro; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Sindicic, Magda; Severin, Kresimir; Dezdek, Danko; Masek, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) collected in Croatia over a period of 10 yr (1998-2007) were tested by microscopic agglutination test for specific antibodies (Ab) to 12 Leptospira spp. pathogenic serovars. At titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:2,000, 19 samples (36.5%) were Abpositive to at least one serovar. Antibodies for 10 Leptospira spp. serovars were detected: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroe, Canicola, Poi, Hardjo, Ballum, Saxkoebing, Pomona, and Grippotyphosa. In comparison to previous reports, the prevalence of Ab to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (52.6%) was significantly higher. Other common serovars were Australis (47.4%) and Sejroe (42.1%). High Ab titers for serovars Canicola (1:500) and Grippotyphosa (1:1,000) were detected for the first time in free-ranging bears from Croatia. A significant correlation between the age of the bears and detection of Ab to Leptospira spp. serovars suggested the presence of pathogenic agents in the natural habitats, whereas increasing trends of Ab prevalence for specific serovars (Icter-ohaemorrhagiae, Australis, and Sejroe) confirmed cohabitation of bears with rats and other small terrestrial mammals on garbage dumps and at bear feeding stations. To prevent cohabitation of bears and rodents, improvements in Croatian waste treatment, big game management, and rodent control programs are strongly recommended, especially in Lika and Gorski Kotar, regions that have high-quality natural habitats for brown bears in Croatia.

  6. Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrga, Ivana; Mitić, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlović, Dragoslav; Stjepanović, Barbara; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.

  7. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Ian Lipkin, W.

    2016-01-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. PMID:26711522

  8. Diversity of carbapenemases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia--the results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Zujić Atalić, V; Bedenić, B; Kocsis, E; Mazzariol, A; Sardelić, S; Barišić, M; Plečko, V; Bošnjak, Z; Mijač, M; Jajić, I; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Cornaglia, G

    2014-11-01

    Since the first carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated in 2008, Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to one or more carbapenems have emerged sporadically in different geographical regions in Croatia. These observations gave rise to a multicenter study on carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from Croatia. Fifty-seven carbapenem-non-susceptible strains of Enterobacteriaceae were collected during 2011-2012 from four large hospital centres in Croatia. Overall, 36 strains produced VIM-1 β-lactamase, three produced NDM-1, and one produced KPC-2. A high degree of clonal relatedness was observed in Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains, in contrast to K. pneumoniae strains. BlaVIM genes were located within class1 integron which contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aacA4 ). The study found strong association between blaVIM and qnrB6 and between blaNDM and qnrA6 genes.

  9. Osteological and dental markers of health in the transition from the Late Antique to the Early Medieval period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze health at the transition from the Late Antique (LA) to the Early Medieval (EM) period in Croatia. Results of the analyses of skeletal remains are compared with historical and archaeological data to test the hypothesis that the transition was catastrophic. An additional objective is to determine whether the transition was a uniform process, or differentially affected the past inhabitants of Croatia because of various local considerations. To accomplish this, four markers of health: cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia, nonspecific periostitis, and trauma were compared in 981 skeletons: 477 from nine urban LA sites, and 504 from six rural EM sites. Data were collected by sex and age for individual, and for co-occurrences of various features. Because continental and Adriatic Croatia has different ecological features, data were specifically tabulated for the two regions. Comparisons between the continental and Adriatic regions of the LA series showed no significant differences in the frequencies of the analyzed markers of stress. Comparisons between the LA and EM series showed similar frequencies in continental Croatia--suggesting no significant discontinuity of living conditions, and a significant increase of cribra orbitalia, periostitis, and trauma frequencies during the EM period in Adriatic Croatia. The deterioration of living conditions primarily affected subadults and males. These data suggest that the transition from the LA to the EM period in Croatia was not a uniform process, but differentially affected population biology most likely because of local cultural, socio-economical or political considerations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Transparency and public accessibility of clinical trial information in Croatia: how it affects patient participation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.

  11. Genus Neelus Folsom, 1896 (Hexapoda, Collembola) reveals its diversity in cave habitats: two new species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Papáč, Vladimír; Lukić, Marko; Kováč, Ľubomír

    2016-03-07

    Two new species of the genus Neelus Folsom, 1896, N. cvitanovici sp. nov. and N. lackovici sp. nov., are described from caves of Croatia. N. lackovici sp. nov. exhibit marked troglomorphic features such as extremely elongated ungua and antennae, larger body among others. Descriptions are completed with comparative tables for chaetotaxy of antennae and legs. Diagnostic table for the congeners and identification key to the world species are provided. Distribution records of other Neelus species in Croatian caves are added. Threats of troglobiotic Neelus species in Croatia are discussed.

  12. A Multifaceted Approach to Revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grgurić, Josip; Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Pavičić Bošnjak, Anita; Stanojević, Milan

    2016-08-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation. All maternity facilities were invited by UNICEF and the Ministry of Health to join the renewed BFHI. UNICEF materials were translated and training for trainers, assessors, coordinators, and hospital staff held. By June 2015, 30 of 32 (94%) maternity facilities, providing care to 89% of newborns, were Baby-Friendly. Nine maternity hospitals have been renovated and 2 new hospitals have been built. Exclusive breastfeeding rates have risen 16% at 0 to 2 months (from 51% in 2007 to 67% in 2014) and 14% at 3 to 5 months (from 32% in 2007 to 46% in 2014). Fourteen "Breastfeeding-Friendly" primary care practices have been designated, 166 breastfeeding support groups are in operation, criteria for Mother-Friendly care are being piloted in 2 maternity facilities, and "Ten Steps in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" are being introduced. The BFHI provides an excellent opportunity for revitalizing breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in all settings. Recognition and support of the BFHI by the Croatian government was crucial for implementing the BFHI, whereas the marketing practices of the breast milk substitutes industry are an ongoing challenge.

  13. Analysis of 12 X-STR loci in the population of south Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mršić, Gordan; Ozretić, Petar; Crnjac, Josip; Merkaš, Siniša; Račić, Ivana; Rožić, Sara; Sukser, Viktorija; Popović, Maja; Korolija, Marina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess forensic pertinence of 12 short tandem repeats (STRs) on X-chromosome in south Croatia population. Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit was used to co-amplify 12 STR loci belonging to four linkage groups (LGs) on X-chromosome in 99 male and 98 female DNA samples of unrelated donors. PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Population genetic and forensic parameters were calculated by the Arlequin and POPTREE2 software, and an on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all X-STR markers in female samples. Biallelic patterns at DXS10079 locus were detected in four male samples. Polymorphism information content for the most (DXS10135) and the least (DXS8378) informative markers was 0.9212 and 0.6347, respectively. In both male and female samples, combined power of discrimination exceeded 0.999999999. As confirmed by linkage disequilibrium test, significant association of marker pair DXS10074-DXS10079 (P = 0.0004) within LG2 and marker pair DXS10101-DXS10103 (P = 0.0003) within LG3 was found only in male samples. Number of observed haplotypes in our sample pool amounted 3.01, 7.53, 5 and 3.25% of the number of possible haplotypes for LG1, LG2, LG3 and LG4, respectively. According to haplotype diversity value of 0.9981, LG1 was the most informative. In comparison of south Croatia with 26 world populations, pair-wise [Formula: see text] values increase in parallel with geographical distance. Overall statistical assessment confirmed suitability of Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit for forensic casework in both identification and familial testing in the population of south Croatia.

  14. Molecular characterization of a collection of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from Croatia, June 2009 to January 2014.

    PubMed

    Bukovski, Suzana; Vacca, Paola; Anselmo, Anna; Knezovic, Ivica; Fazio, Cecilia; Neri, Arianna; Ciammaruconi, Andrea; Fortunato, Antonella; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fillo, Silvia; Lista, Florigio; Stefanelli, Paola

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Croatia remained stable at approximately 1 case per 100 000 inhabitants, affecting mainly children aged ≤5 years. We report the molecular characterization of meningococci causing IMD occurring from June 2009 to January 2014 in Croatia. Genomic DNA from 50 clinical isolates was analysed for serogroup, multilocus sequence typing and allele type of the two outer membrane protein genes, porA and the iron-regulated fetA. Furthermore, 22 of them were characterized by using whole-genome sequencing to define the meningococcal vaccine four-component meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) antigen genes factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria heparin-binding antigen (nhba) and Neisseria adhesin A (nadA) and the antimicrobial target resistance genes for penicillin (penicillin binding protein 2, penA), ciprofloxacin (DNA gyrase subunit A, gyrA) and rifampicin (β-subunit of RNA polymerase, rpoB). The Etest was used to phenotypically determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated meningococci. The main serogroup/clonal complex combinations were MenB cc41/44, MenC/cc11, MenW/cc174 and MenY/cc23. PorA P1.7-2, FetA F5-5 and F1-5 were the most represented through the serogroups. Meningococci with decreased susceptibility to penicillin (38.9 %) and one strain resistant to ciprofloxacin were identified. Forty-two percent of MenB showed the presence of at least one of the 4CMenB vaccine antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA). Our findings highlight the genetic variability of meningococci causing IMD in Croatia, especially for the serogroup B. Molecular-based characterization of meningococci is crucial to enhance IMD surveillance and to better plan national immunization programmes.

  15. Soil temperature regime and vulnerability due to extreme soil temperatures in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja; Filić, Suzana; Smolić, Ante

    2016-10-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor within the climate system. Changes of trends in soil temperature and analysis of vulnerability due to heat stress can provide useful information on climate change. In this paper, the soil temperature regime was analyzed on seasonal and annual scales at depths of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 cm at 26 sites in Croatia. Trends of maximal, mean, and minimal soil temperatures were analyzed in the periods 1961-2010 and 1981-2010. Duration of extreme soil temperatures and vulnerability due to high or low soil temperatures in the recent standard period 1981-2010 was compared with the reference climate period 1961-1990. The results show a general warming in all seasons and depths for maximal and mean temperatures in both observed periods, while only at some locations for minimal soil temperature. Warming is more pronounced in the eastern and coastal parts of Croatia in the surface layers, especially in the spring and summer season in the second period. Significant trends of maximal, minimal, and mean soil temperature in both observed periods range from 2.3 to 6.6 °C/decade, from -1.0 to 1.3 °C/decade, and from 0.1 to 2.5 °C/decade, respectively. The highest vulnerability due to heat stress at 35 °C is noted in the upper soil layers of the coastal area in both observed periods. The mountainous and northwestern parts of Croatia at surface soil layers are the most vulnerable due to low soil temperature below 0 °C. Vulnerability due to high or low soil temperature decreases with depth.

  16. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and counselling on injury prevention for preschool children in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.

  17. Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Counselling on Injury Prevention for Preschool Children in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia. PMID:23086152

  18. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  19. Survey of mammography practice in Croatia: equipment performance, image quality and dose.

    PubMed

    Faj, Dario; Posedel, Dario; Stimac, Damir; Ivezic, Zdravko; Kasabasic, Mladen; Ivkovic, Ana; Kubelka, Dragan; Ilakovac, Vesna; Brnic, Zoran; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj

    2008-01-01

    A national audit of mammography equipment performance, image quality and dose has been conducted in Croatia. Film-processing parameters, optical density (OD), average glandular dose (AGD) to the standard breast, viewing conditions and image quality were examined using TOR(MAM) test object. Average film gradient ranged from 2.6 to 3.7, with a mean of 3.1. Tube voltage used for imaging of the standard 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate phantom ranged from 24 to 34 kV, and OD ranged from 0.75 to 1.94 with a mean of 1.26. AGD to the standard breast ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 mGy with a mean of 1.1 mGy. Besides clinical conditions, the authors have imaged the standard phantom in the referent conditions with 28 kV and OD as close as possible to 1.5. Then, AGD ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 mGy with a mean of 1.3 mGy. Image viewing conditions were generally unsatisfying with ambient light up to 500 lx and most of the viewing boxes with luminance between 1000 and 2000 cd per m(2). TOR(MAM) scoring of images taken in clinical and referent conditions was done by local radiologists in local image viewing conditions and by the referent radiologist in good image viewing conditions. Importance of OD and image viewing conditions for diagnostic information were analysed. The survey showed that the main problem in Croatia is the lack of written quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Consequently, equipment performance, image quality and dose are unstable and activities to improve image quality or to reduce the dose are not evidence-based. This survey also had an educational purpose, introducing in Croatia the QC based on European Commission Guidelines.

  20. Monitoring of nitrates in drinking water from agricultural and residential areas of Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Konjačić, Miljenko; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2013-11-01

    Nitrates are the most common chemical pollutant of groundwater in agricultural and suburban areas. Croatia must comply with the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) whose aim is to reduce water pollution by nitrates originating from agriculture and to prevent further pollution. Podravina and Prigorje are the areas with a relatively high degree of agricultural activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was, by monitoring nitrates, to determine the distribution of nitrates in two different areas, Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia), to determine sources of contamination as well as annual and seasonal trends. The nitrate concentrations were measured in 30 wells (N = 382 samples) in Prigorje and in 19 wells (N = 174 samples) in Podravina from 2002 to 2007. In Podravina, the nitrate content was 24.9 mg/l and 6% of the samples were above the maximum available value (MAV), and in Prigorje the content was 53.9 mg/l and 38% of the samples above MAV. The wells were classified as correct, occasionally incorrect and incorrect. In the group of occasionally incorrect and incorrect wells, the point sources were within 10 m of the well. There is no statistically significant difference over the years or seasons within the year, but the interaction between locations and years was significant. Nitrate concentrations' trend was not significant during the monitoring. These results are a prerequisite for the adjustment of Croatian standards to those of the EU and will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive and the Directives on Environmental Protection in Croatia and the EU.

  1. External quality assessment of medical laboratories in Croatia: preliminary evaluation of post-analytical laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana

    2017-02-15

    Proper standardization of laboratory testing requires assessment of performance after the tests are performed, known as the post-analytical phase. A nationwide external quality assessment (EQA) scheme implemented in Croatia in 2014 includes a questionnaire on post-analytical practices, and the present study examined laboratory responses in order to identify current post-analytical phase practices and identify areas for improvement. In four EQA exercises between September 2014 and December 2015, 145-174 medical laboratories across Croatia were surveyed using the Module 11 questionnaire on the post-analytical phase of testing. Based on their responses, the laboratories were evaluated on four quality indicators: turnaround time (TAT), critical values, interpretative comments and procedures in the event of abnormal results. Results were presented as absolute numbers and percentages. Just over half of laboratories (56.3%) monitored TAT. Laboratories varied substantially in how they dealt with critical values. Most laboratories (65-97%) issued interpretative comments with test results. One third of medical laboratories (30.6-33.3%) issued abnormal test results without confirming them in additional testing. Our results suggest that the nationwide post-analytical EQA scheme launched in 2014 in Croatia has yet to be implemented to the full. To close the gaps between existing recommendations and laboratory practice, laboratory professionals should focus on ensuring that TAT is monitored and lists of critical values are established within laboratories. Professional bodies/institutions should focus on clarify and harmonized rules to standardized practices and applied for adding interpretative comments to laboratory test results and for dealing with abnormal test results.

  2. External quality assessment of medical laboratories in Croatia: preliminary evaluation of post-analytical laboratory testing

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Proper standardization of laboratory testing requires assessment of performance after the tests are performed, known as the post-analytical phase. A nationwide external quality assessment (EQA) scheme implemented in Croatia in 2014 includes a questionnaire on post-analytical practices, and the present study examined laboratory responses in order to identify current post-analytical phase practices and identify areas for improvement. Materials and methods In four EQA exercises between September 2014 and December 2015, 145-174 medical laboratories across Croatia were surveyed using the Module 11 questionnaire on the post-analytical phase of testing. Based on their responses, the laboratories were evaluated on four quality indicators: turnaround time (TAT), critical values, interpretative comments and procedures in the event of abnormal results. Results were presented as absolute numbers and percentages. Results Just over half of laboratories (56.3%) monitored TAT. Laboratories varied substantially in how they dealt with critical values. Most laboratories (65-97%) issued interpretative comments with test results. One third of medical laboratories (30.6-33.3%) issued abnormal test results without confirming them in additional testing. Conclusion Our results suggest that the nationwide post-analytical EQA scheme launched in 2014 in Croatia has yet to be implemented to the full. To close the gaps between existing recommendations and laboratory practice, laboratory professionals should focus on ensuring that TAT is monitored and lists of critical values are established within laboratories. Professional bodies/institutions should focus on clarify and harmonized rules to standardized practices and applied for adding interpretative comments to laboratory test results and for dealing with abnormal test results. PMID:28392737

  3. KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Croatia: A Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Marko; Butic, Iva; Plecko, Vanda; Cipris, Ivan; Jajic, Ines; Bejuk, Danijela; Koscak, Iva; Marinkovic, Sonja; Pal, Marina Payerl; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic

    2016-12-01

    In the last few years, Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes have emerged as important multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitalized patients. This report describes KPC-producing isolates collected through the Croatian antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in the early stage of their dissemination in Croatia. Forty-eight KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, collected during a period from February 2011 to August 2013, were analyzed in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using disk diffusion and E-test. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for epidemiological analysis. Identification of β-lactamase genes and associated antibiotic resistance mechanisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction and positive products were sequenced. Localization of blaKPC was investigated by S1 PFGE and Southern hybridization. Of 40 participating centers in Croatia, KPC isolates were recorded in 9 of them. They all had multidrug-resistant phenotype, but showed varying levels of resistance to carbapenems. All isolates displayed ST258, and PFGE showed that all but one were closely related. All isolates harbored blaKPC-2. Isolate with a unique PFGE pattern produced TEM-1, while others produced TEM-116. All isolates harbored blaSHV-11, but were negative for blaCTX-M and blaAmpC genes. All isolates contain one KPC-harboring plasmid, ranging in size from ∼60 to ∼210 kb, characterized as FIIs and IncR. This report describes that the early stage of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae dissemination in Croatia is associated with a prolific PFGE type belonging to ST258. So far, the spread of an outbreak strain is limited to the northwest region of the country.

  4. Analysis of 8 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Gršković, Branka; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Popović, Maja; Primorac, Dragan; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim To analyze 8 X-linked short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the population of central Croatia and to evaluate their forensic efficiency. Methods We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses, collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre ‘‘Ivan Vučetić.’’ Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR amplification kit was used for typing the data of 99 unrelated healthy women and 78 men from central Croatia. Haplotype frequencies were calculated only in male samples. Arlequin 3.5 software was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), observed and expected heterozygosity. Power of discrimination (PD) for men and women, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and mean exclusion chance for deficiency cases, normal trios, and duos were determined using online database ChrX-STR.org. Results In female samples, deviations from HWE (P = 0.006) for each locus were not found. LD test performed both on female and male samples revealed no significant association between markers (P = 0.002). DXS10135 was the most polymorphic locus (PIC = 0.931). PD varied from 0.692 to 0.935 in male and from 0.845 to 0.992 in female samples. Combined PD reached 99.999999% in men and 99.9999999999% in women. Conclusion Performed analyses revealed that the studied marker set contained polymorphic markers with high power of discrimination. We can conclude that Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR kit is suitable for application in the population of central Croatia. Results of this study, together with collected allele and haplotype frequencies, are the first step in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 8 X-STR loci. PMID:23771754

  5. Flexible Removable Partial Denture Prosthesis: A Survey of Dentists’ Attitudes and Knowledge in Greece and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis; Kranjcic, Josip; Vojvodic, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate through a questionnaire the knowledge, attitudes and possible differences in the use of flexible RPDPs among dentists in Greece and Croatia. Material and Methods A questionnaire of 16 questions was originally created in English, translated into Greek and Croatian language following a two way translation and tested for apprehension, precision, clarity and homogeneity by a number of native English speaking Greek and Croatian dentists. Following the necessary corrections, the questionnaires replicated in two online surveys and their addresses with an informed consent were sent by emails to nearly 4000 dentists in each country to participate. Collected data were analyzed by chi-square tests at a= .05 level of significance. Results 378 dentists from Greece and 304 from Croatia participated in the study. 137(36.2%) dentists from Greece and 56(18.4%) from Croatia provided flexible RPDPs to their patients. Statistical analysis for all providers indicated no significant difference between genders (P>.05), significant differences between age groups (P<.01), years of practice (P<.05), specialization (P <.001), and instruction on flexible prostheses (P <.001). The analysis between the two countries showed differences for gender and age groups (P<.01) but no differences between experienced, specialized or instructed groups (P >.05). Conclusion The survey indicated differences between the two countries in the percentages of dentists using, selecting and providing RPDPs for their patients. Practitioners’ age, years in practice and instruction were associated with the provision of the prostheses, while comfort, esthetics and cost were the reasons for deciding to use the flexible RPDPs. Conclusion Although dentists are not educated in their schools about flexible RPDPs, almost a third of them offer this treatment to their patients. Long term success of these devices depends on clinical education, more experience and definitely more

  6. Analysis of 12 X-chromosomal markers in the population of central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnjac, Josip; Ozretić, Petar; Merkaš, Siniša; Ratko, Martina; Lozančić, Mateja; Rožić, Sara; Špoljarić, Daniel; Korolija, Marina; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2016-07-01

    Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit is a commercially available set that allows simultaneous PCR amplification of 12 X-STR markers belonging to four linkage groups (LG). To assess the forensic efficiency of these markers for the population of central Croatia and consequent applicability in routine forensic casework, DNA from 200 blood samples of unrelated donors (100 female and 100 male) was amplified by Investigator® Argus X-12 Kit and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Statistical computations based on allele and haplotype frequencies for LG1 - LG4 were performed using Arlequin 3.5 software and on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. In female samples, all X-STR markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The most informative marker for central Croatia population was DXS10135 with polymorphism information content (PIC) 0.9296. The least polymorphic locus was DXS8378 (PIC=0.6363). Power of discrimination (PD) varied from 0.6968 to 0.9336 in male and from 0.8476 to 0.9916 in female samples. Combined PD exceeded 0.999999999 in both men and women. In male samples, linkage disequilibrium (LD) test revealed significant association (P=0.0000) of one marker pair in LG4 and two marker pairs in LG3. Portion of observed haplotypes in the number of possible haplotypes varied from 2.86% to 7.47% across all LGs. LG1 was the most informative with haplotype diversity (H) 0.9972. High PD of all analyzed markers exhibited for central Croatia population confirms suitability of Investigator® Argus X-12 for forensic pertinence. Moreover, results of this study will be included in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 12 X-STR loci, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of the forensic casework results.

  7. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  8. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF HEALTH TOURISM SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Sanela; Hendija, Zvjezdana

    2016-03-01

    Health tourism can be generally divided into medical, health spa and wellness tourism. Health spa tourism services are provided in special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts, and include under medical supervision controlled use of natural healing factors and physical therapy in order to improve and preserve health. There are 13 special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia. Most of them are financed through the state budget and lesser by sale on the market. More than half of their accommodation capacity is offered for sale on the market while the rest is under contract with the Croatian Health Insurance Fund. Domestic overnights are several times higher than foreign overnights. The aim of this study was to analyze business performance of special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts in Croatia in relation to the sources of financing and the structure of service users. The assumption was that those who are more market-oriented achieve better business performance. In proving these assumptions, an empirical research was conducted and the assumptions were tested. A positive correlation was proven in tested indicators of business performance of the analyzed service providers of health-spa tourism with a higher amount of overnight stays realized through sales on the market in relation to total overnight stays, with a greater share of foreign overnights in total of overnights and with a higher share of realized revenue on the market out of total revenue. The results of the research show that special hospitals for medical rehabilitation and health resorts that are more market-oriented are more successful in their business performance. These findings are important for planning the health and tourism policies in countries like Croatia.

  9. [Ophthalmological themes in baroqueiconography in north-west Croatia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dorn, V

    1978-09-01

    The northwest Croatia is distinguished through valuable master-pieces of exuberant baroque art. Cultural comprehensions and spirit of time are registered in numerous sacred and profane monuments of art. It is also understandable, that actualities of medicine are reflected in art, too. Small and big plastic-arts, pictures and frescoes are iconographic material of what ophthalmological themes we try to analyse to conceive knowledges about health and sick eyes in that time, about regional pathology and social aspects of eye diseases, also thus to get to learn ophthalmological problems of that time.

  10. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  11. A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, A; Beck, R; Kusak, J; Gudan, A; Martinkovic, F; Artukovic, B; Hohsteter, M; Huber, D; Marinculic, A; Grabarevic, Z

    2008-04-01

    The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that lesions associated with infection by Leishmania infantum are, in this case, typical for visceral leshmaniosis commonly described in dogs. Review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of gray wolf death due to lesions caused by L. infantum.

  12. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  13. Highlights of the Second International Conference on MS, May 2003, Dubrovnik, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Poser, Charles M; Brinar, Vesna V

    2003-12-01

    The conference was organized by Professors Vesna Brinar of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia and Charles Poser of the Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. It was attended by almost 200 neurologists from as far afield as South Africa and Russia. The major topics to be explored were: the natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS); development of diagnostic criteria; genetics with special emphasis on the 'MS trait'; pathogenesis with emphasis on repair; nomenclature of MS and its 'variants'; differentiation between MS and disseminated encephalomyelitis; diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas resulting from MRI abnormalities in asymptomatic people; various treatments; and a general critique of therapeutic trials.

  14. Verification of warnings at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, Lovro

    2017-04-01

    The role of national meteorological services is increasingly related to warnings. This is particularly stressed due to more frequent extreme events and severe weather. At the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia various warnings products are introduced, from Civil protection service and MeteoAlarm to different specialized products, such as heat spells, cold spells, forest fire warnings, etc. Verification of warnings is a relatively new field, with spurious methods and diverse data. Still, various results of warnings will be presented in this paper, mostly through contingency tables and related verification scores. These results provide an insight to the forecast system, it's properties and give a good feed-back to the forecasters.

  15. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava–Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  16. Anthropometric variation and population structure of the island of Pag, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Smolej-Narancić, N; Chaventré, A; Rudan, P

    1994-04-01

    Anthropometric variation in the population of the island of Pag (eastern Adriatic, Croatia) was investigated by using data on 14 head and 24 body dimensions. The data were related to past and present migration patterns, geography, and linguistics. The analyses revealed heterogeneity among three population groups inhabiting geographically defined regions of the island and heterogeneity among the village populations. The congruence between anthropometric variation, migration history, geographic distances, and current linguistic features says much for the strength of the isolating factors on this ecologically uniform island, which have effected the genetic structure of the population.

  17. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  18. Characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Rijeka, Croatia from 2013 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Stelcer, Eduard; Orlić, Ivica; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    PM2.5 daily aerosol samples were collected in Rijeka, Croatia during period from 6th August 2013 to 29th January 2015. In total, 259 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed by PIXE and PIGE techniques to give information on 21 elements from Na to Pb. Additionally, black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method. Results were statistically evaluated using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Eight major pollution sources: auto, smoke, secondary sulfates, heavy oil combustion, sea spray, road dust, industry iron and soil dust were identified together with their relative contributions in total PM2.5 pollution.

  19. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E virus in Domestic Animals and Wildlife in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Jelena; Černi, Silvija; Škorić, Dijana; Keros, Tomislav; Brnić, Dragan; Cvetnić, Željko; Jemeršić, Lorena

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis E is becoming a growing health concern in European countries as an increase of sporadic human cases of unknown origin has been recorded lately. Its causative agent, Hepatitis E virus (HEV), is known to have zoonotic potential and thus the role of domestic and wild animals in the chain of viral spread should be considered when investigating risk factors and the epidemiology of the disease. A comprehensive survey based on viral RNA detection was carried out in Croatia including blood, spleen and liver samples originating from 1816 different domestic and wild animals and digestive gland samples from 538 molluscs. A high HEV prevalence was detected in domestic pigs (24.5%) and wild boars (12.3%), whereas cattle, molluscs, ruminant and carnivore wildlife samples tested negative. Molecular characterization of both ORF1 and ORF2 genomic regions confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of the obtained sequences into genotype 3, previously reported in Europe. Furthermore, our results proved the presence of identical sequence variants in different samples, regardless of their origin, age or habitat of the host, suggesting transmission events between domestic swine, as well as between domestic swine and wild boars in the country. Moreover, a close genetic relationship of Croatian animal strains and known human HEV strains from GenBank opens the question of possible cross-species HEV transmission in Croatia, especially in the areas with an intensive swine production.

  20. A study of genetic variability of human parainfluenza virus type 1 in Croatia, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Košutić-Gulija, Tanja; Slovic, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2016-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology of human parainfluenza viruses type 1 (HPIV1) was investigated. Samples were collected from patients hospitalized in Croatia during the three consecutive epidemic seasons (2011-2014). Results indicated co-circulation of two major genetic clusters of HPIV1. Samples from the current study refer to clades II and III in a phylogenetic tree of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Additional phylogenetic trees of fusion (F) and phosphoprotein (P) genes confirmed the topology. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of entire P, F and HN genes demonstrated similar values: 0.0255, 0.0236 and 0.0237, respectively. However, amino acid diversity showed F protein to be the most conserved, while P protein was the most tolerant to mutations. Potential N- and O-glycosylation sites suggested that HPIV1 HN protein is abundantly glycosylated, and a specific N-glycosylation pattern could distinguish between clades II and III. Analysis of potential O-glycosylation sites in F protein indicated that samples from this study have two potential O-glycosylation sites, while publicly available sequences have five potential sites. This study provides data on the molecular characterization and epidemic pattern of HPIV1 in Croatia.

  1. Health care funding reforms in Croatia: a case of mistaken priorities.

    PubMed

    Voncina, Luka; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Mastilica, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an overview of funding mechanisms in Croatian health care and analyses them in terms of sustainability, efficiency and equity. The study presents an in depth investigation of problems facing funding health care in Croatia: high expenditure, inadequate financial resources, continuous deficits of the state insurance fund, lack of transparency in funding, an aging population, etc. Furthermore, the study provides a critical overview of reforms that have been implemented to counter those issues from 1990 to 2002. The study argues that the implemented reforms over relied on shifting health expenditure from public to private sources in addressing financial deficits in the system. The study argues that, instead, the reforms should have focused more on curbing rising expenditure in health care providers. Emphasis has been put on the extent to which the reforms affected the conceptual-social foundations of the system. Finally, the paper provides recommendations for policy makers in Croatia and presents an overview of Croatian experiences that might be of interest to researchers and policy makers internationally.

  2. Between stigma and dawn of medicine: the last leprosarium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Wokaunn, Mario; Jurić, Ivan; Vrbica, Zarko

    2006-10-01

    In an attempt to reconstruct the function of the last leprosarium in Croatia, situated in the little town of Metkovic in the Neretva valley, we used local folk tales and compared them with different data sources, such as register of deaths in the Roman Catholic parishes in Metkovic and the nearby village of Vidonje, archived local newspapers, building documents, and different artifacts from the beginning of the 20th century. We identified individuals and families who were treated in the leprosarium during its existence from 1905, when it was built, until 1925, when it was closed down. We analyzed why the Neretva river valley was chosen for the isolation of lepers. It seems that the geographical position of the region, close to the endemic seat of the disease in the neighboring Bosnia, was more important for the decision to build the leprosarium than the incidence of leprosy or some recent outbreak of the disease in Croatia. Building of leprosariums, such as this one in Metkovic, was a part of tradition of separating lepers from human community. This was considered as a socially and medically justified behavior in a time when it was not possible to identify the cause of leprosy and apply the proper treatment.

  3. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship.

  4. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants.

  5. Dental stigmata and enamel thickness in a probable case of congenital syphilis from XVI century Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lauc, Tomislav; Fornai, Cinzia; Premužić, Zrinka; Vodanović, Marin; Weber, Gerhard W; Mašić, Boris; Rajić Šikanjić, Petra

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the dental remains of an individual with signs of congenital syphilis by using macroscopic observation, CBCT and micro-CT images, and the analysis of the enamel thickness. Anthropological analysis of human skeletal remains from the 16th century archaeological site Park Grič in Zagreb, Croatia discovered a female, 17-20 years old at the time of death, with dental signs supportive of congenital syphilis: mulberry molars and canine defects, as well as non-specific hypoplastic changes on incisors. The focus of the analysis was on three aspects: gross morphology, hypoplastic defects of the molars, canines and incisors, as well as enamel thickness of the upper first and second molars. The observed morphology of the first molars corresponds to the typical aspect of mulberry molars, while that of the canines is characterised by hypomineralisation. Hypoplastic grooves were observed on the incisal edges of all incisors. The enamel of the first molars is underdeveloped while in the second molars a thick-enamelled condition is observed. Our observations for the dental and skeletal evidence are supportive to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis for this specimen from XVI century Croatia. The use of CT imaging helped documenting the diagnostic features and quantifying the effect of the dental stigmata on first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  7. Wartime migration and the incidence of tuberculosis in the Zagreb region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, M; Simić, D; Krstić-Burić, M; Corović, N; Zivković, D; Rozman, A; Peros-Golubicić, T

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the rate of decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in residents (1985-1994) and in refugees and displaced persons (1992-1994) during prewar and war periods (1985-1994) in the region of Zagreb, Croatia, and to examine a possible change in the trend of decline in the resident population. Data on the incidence of TB were obtained from the Epidemiology Department, Institute for Lung Diseases, Zagreb, Croatia. The sample comprised two groups of subjects: residents (800,000-1,000,000 inhabitants) and all refugees and displaced persons temporarily residing in the Zagreb region (78,000-95,000 persons). Data were analysed by stepwise logistic regression. The most significant predictors of the TB incidence rate were the square of the year and residence status. The rate of TB incidence in nonresidents was significantly higher than in residents. The decline in incidence in residents was significantly slower than in the nonresident group. The results did not indicate a potential change in the natural decline of the incidence of tuberculosis in the resident population during the study periods. The difference between the regression trends of the incidence of tuberculosis in residents and nonresidents was the result of various concomitant factors, including artefacts of the war.

  8. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  9. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  10. The Miocene "Pteropod event" in the SW part of the Central Paratethys (Medvednica Mt., northern Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bošnjak, Marija; Sremac, Jasenka; Vrsaljko, Davor; Aščić, Šimun; Bosak, Luka

    2017-08-01

    Deep marine Miocene deposits exposed sporadically in the Medvednica Mt. (northern Croatia) comprise pelagic organisms such as coccolithophores, planktic foraminifera and pteropods. The pteropod fauna from yellow marls at the Vejalnica locality (central part of Medvednica Mt.) encompasses abundant specimens of Vaginella austriaca Kittl, 1886, accompanied with scarce Clio fallauxi (Kittl, 1886). Calcareous nannoplankton points to the presence of NN5 nannozone at this locality. Highly fossiliferous grey marls at the Marija Bistrica locality (north-eastern area of Medvednica Mt.) comprise limacinid pteropods: Limacina valvatina (Reuss, 1867), L. gramensis (Rasmussen, 1968) and Limacina sp. Late Badenian (NN5 to NN6 nannozone) age of these marls is presumed on the basis of coccolithophores. Most of the determined pteropods on species level, except V. austriaca have been found and described from this region for the first time. New pteropod records from Croatia point to two pteropod horizons coinciding with the Badenian marine transgressions in Central Paratethys. These pteropod assemblages confirm the existence of W-E marine connection ("Transtethyan Trench Corridor") during the Badenian NN5 nannozone. Limacinids point to the possible immigration of the "North Sea fauna" through a northern European marine passage during the Late Badenian (end of NN5-beginning of NN6 zone), as previously presumed by some other authors.

  11. The methods of committing and alcohol intoxication of suicides in Southwestern Croatia from 1996 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Coklo, Miran; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Sosa, Ivan; Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Alcohol is the psychoactive substance most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that the level of alcohol intoxication and the choice of specific methods of committing suicide are related. Suicides in the Southwestern Croatia in a 10-year period, especially regarding the method of committing and alcohol intoxication, were analyzed. Ten various methods of committing suicide were recorded. The average blood alcohol concentration at the moment of suicide was 0.68 g/kg with male, and 0.29 g/kg with female victims. The highest blood alcohol levels at the moment of suicide were recorded with suicides by explosive device (with the average blood alcohol concentration of 1.71 g/kg). This especially drastic method of suicide was rare in Croatia in a period prior to the Croatian Independence War (1991-1995), but its incidence significantly increased during the war and in a post-war period. These victims were not chronic alcoholics, but the excessive alcohol consumption occurred as a result of psychiatric disorders as a consequence of war stress they suffered.

  12. Air pollution study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES and AAS analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Frontasyeva, Marina

    2013-07-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique was applied in a heavy-metal pollution study of Croatia in 2006 when this country participated in the European moss survey for the first time. This survey was repeated in 2010, and the results are presented in this study. For this purpose, 121 moss samples were collected during summer and autumn 2010. The content of 21 elements was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analyses was applied to show the association between the elements. Six factors (F1-F6) were determined, of which two are anthropogenic (F3 and F6), two are mixed geogenic-anthropogenic (F1 and F5), and two are geogenic factors (F2 and F4). Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information systems technology. Comparison of the median values of some of the anthropogenic elements-such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc-with those from the 2006 study shows that anthropogenic pollution has changed insignificantly during the last 5 years. The data obtained in the investigation in Norway are taken for comparison with pristine area, which indicates that Croatia is somewhat polluted but still, shows a more favourable picture when compared with two neighbouring countries.

  13. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  14. A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus in Croatia, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Vojnovic, Gordana; Babic-Erceg, Andrea; Tabain, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common etiological agent of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. The molecular epidemiology of HRSV in Croatia over four consecutive seasons (from 2006 to 2008) was investigated. A total of 72 HRSV samples were chosen from 696 screened cases in a pediatric clinic in Zagreb. Molecular characterization of HRSV revealed the predominance of HRSV group B viruses in the first two epidemic seasons and HRSV group A viruses in the next two seasons. According to the phylogenetic analysis, NA1 and BA9 were the predominant circulating HRSV genotypes detected during the study. Overall, 82.9% of all HRSV A strains belonged to the NA1 genotype. The HRSV B genotype BA9, detected in two consecutive seasons (2006 and 2007), was the predominant circulating HRSV B genotype, accounting for 80.6% of all HRSV B strains. This study provides data on the circulation pattern of HRSV genotypes in Croatia and their molecular characterization.

  15. Assessing the quality of mental health promotion and prevention in Croatia: the case of Istria.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Josipa; Novak, Miranda; Hosman, Clemens; Domitrovich, Celene

    2015-12-20

    While the availability of mental health promotion and prevention programs worldwide is growing, there is divergence in their level of effectiveness that has led to increasing interest in the development of 'effect management' strategies. Mental health promotion and prevention science and practice has a relatively young history in Croatia, but major investments towards its development have been made over the last decade. This paper reports on a research project that took place within the Istrian Region. The long-term goal of the initiative is to establish quality assurance indicators for mental health promotion and prevention interventions. The current study involved adapting the Dutch Preffi 2.0 instrument for use in Croatia. The content of the Preffi reflects the literature regarding research-based effect predictors. An instrument allows users to assess whether programs have been designed and implemented in ways that maximize their ability to be effective. The Preffi scores can be used for improving a program and the quality with which it is implemented. The first aim of the study is to determine if independent researchers can use the Preffi reliably as a quality assessment instrument. The second aim is to use the Preffi to describe the quality of one cohort of mental health promotion and prevention programs. The study represents the first steps toward developing a strategy for quality assurance that strengthens community capacity for effective service delivery and that could inform other countries whose mental health promotion and prevention efforts are in early stages of development.

  16. Lead and cadmium content in human milk from the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Frkovic, A.; Kras, M.; Alebic-Juretic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Though occupational exposure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium) is well documented, harmful effects of environmental exposure to lower levels of these two metals is still under investigation. Most toxic metals are emitted by human activities and the atmosphere is the main transport route for these elements. According to some authors, 332 358 t of lead and 7570 t of cadmium were emitted in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 1983. The principle source of lead is traffic, e.g. leaded petrol, still widely used in Croatia, as well as coal combustion, iron and steal production. Volcanic activity, zinc production and waste incineration are the main sources of cadmium. Recent study indicates that traffic could also be the main source of cadmium found along busy streets. Chronic lead exposure at low levels is associated with adverse health effects especially in fetus and young children. This study examines lead and cadmium levels in breast milk from nursing women living in the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Spiritual needs of PTSD patients in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina: A quantitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Andrijana; Jors, Karin; Büssing, Arndt; Baumann, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, many people have been affected by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considering that religion plays an important role in both of these countries and that religiosity/spirituality can be a positive coping resource, we were interested in investigating the spiritual needs of PTSD patients in these countries. Also, we aimed to compare the spiritual needs of war veterans and civilians with PTSD. In this cross-sectional study, 120 questionnaires were distributed to civilians and veterans with PTSD at one university hospital in Croatia and in Bosnia-Herzegovina, respectively (response rate: 52.2%). The sample ranged in age from 35-61 years (average age: 49±1 years) and was mostly male (77.8%). The Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ 2.1) was used. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS. Two-thirds of participants identified themselves as religious and exhibited a variety of spiritual needs. The intensity of spiritual needs (i.e., Religious Needs, Existential Needs, Inner Peace Needs, Giving / Generativity Needs; but also Social Support needs) did not significantly differ between veterans and civilians. PTSD patients who identified themselves as non-religious had significantly lower Religious Needs and Existential Needs; there was also a trend to lower Inner Peace Needs. Regardless of religious identity, PTSD patients in our study expressed several psychosocial, existential and spiritual needs. A holistic approach to treatment of these patients, which includes psychosocial and spiritual aspects, appears meaningful.

  18. Proceeding of the International Scientific Colloquium: MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (How to Teach and Learn Mathematics) (Osijek, Croatia, April 13, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the Organisational Committee of the international scientific colloquium Mathematics and Children is to encourage additional scientific research in the field of mathematics teaching in Croatia. The development of science and education is a part of a long-term Education Sector Development Plan 2005-2010. Following the example of…

  19. Atmospheric particulate matter and ozone under heat-wave conditions: do they cause an increase of mortality in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Alebić-Juretić, Ana; Cvitas, Tomislav; Kezele, Nenad; Klasinc, Leo; Pehnec, Gordana; Sorgo, Glenda

    2007-10-01

    In August 2003 Croatia experienced a heat-wave period during which elevated concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and ozone in ambient air were measured. By applying the model of Stedman and Rooney et al., it was shown that a significant part of excess mortality during this period can be attributed to PM10 and ozone in ambient air.

  20. English-Language Teaching in the Republic of Croatia, Yugoslavia: Some Recent Developments. ELT Documents (76/1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, P. B.

    English is now the leading foreign language in Croatia. Within the framework of a general reform of the Yugoslavian education system, between 1972 and 1975, a particular attempt has been made to reform the ELT program in the four-year secondary-school cycle. One important distinction to be made was that of the differing needs of students in the…

  1. Application of the Cobb-Douglas Model to the Use of Information Resources by Industry in Croatia, Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarc, J.; Svarc, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Cobb-Douglas model applied to value added as a function of labor, capital, purchases of information services, and purchases of other input is used to investigate the use of information by the industrial sector of Croatia, Yugoslavia. It is concluded that less than an optimal amount of information resources is being used. (13 references)…

  2. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  3. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p < 0.026, 95% CI 0.37-0.94). Seropositivity to B. canis was 3.41 times higher for dogs that lived outdoors/shelter (p < 0.006) or 4.57 times higher in mixed/hunting (p < 0.001) compared to indoor/companion dogs. This is the first comprehensive survey of VBP seropositivity conducted in Croatia. Some

  4. Anaesthesiology activities in Croatia from the first ether narcosis in Zadar in 1847 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    This is a short review of the historical development of anaesthesiology and intensive care in Croatia from its beginning to recent days (2008). Five months after the first public demonstration of ether anaesthesia in the USA, Ivan Bettini followed with the first ether anaesthesia in Zadar, on 13 March 1847. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the following doctors wrote about performing anaesthesia: Miroslav Čačković (in 1896), Dragutin Schwarz, Edo Šlajmer, Milan Crljenak, Antun Medanić, BoŽidar Lavrić, Simo Mučalov, Josip Vodenhal, Ante Drešćik, Radoslav Akerman, and Đurđa Klaić. The first endotracheal anaesthesia, was induced by Dr Risto Ivanovski at the military hospital in Zagreb in 1948. Croatian anaesthesiology started to develop in 1950 with the introduction of a one-year postgraduate course in Copenhagen, within the framework of a WHO programme, intended for underdeveloped and developing countries and overseen by the WHO Centre for Anaesthesiology. Croatian physicians attending this course were Andrija Longhino, Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser, Miroslav Hromadko, Mara Biondić, and Vlasta Lederer. The first specialists in anaesthesiology in Croatia were urđa Klaić, Ljubomir Ribarić, and Jagoda Bolčić Wickerhauser. In Zagreb, the first postgraduate courses in anaesthesiology were held in 1953, 1955, and 1957. In 2007, the anaesthesiology service in Croatia consisted of three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinics, three Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Departments, 11 Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Units, 13 Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Services, and eight Anaesthesiology Units within Surgery Departments. It included 481 specialists in anaesthesiology and resuscitation and 172 general physicians specialising in anaesthesiology and resuscitation (totalling 653 in December 2007). This means that one specialist serviced 9,140 people, that is, 6,730 if we include GPs undergoing specialist training

  5. [Clinical and histopathological characteristics of biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Batinić, Danica; Sćukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Milosević, Danko; Subat-Dezulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marjan; Delmis, Jasna; Puretić, Zvonimir; Cvitkovic-Kuzmić, Andrea; Skitarelić, Natasa; Spajic, Marija; Nizić, Ljiljana; Vrljicak, Kristina; Matković, Maja; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Batinić, Danko; Grković, Lana; Borojević, Irena; Flajsman, Sanja; Kosuljandić-Vukić, Durdica; Marić, Semsa; Ljubanović, Danica

    2007-09-01

    There is little data on the spectrum of renal diseases in children in Croatia. The Croatian Society for Pediatric Nephrology has established the Registry of Biopsy-Proven Renal Diseases in an attempt to address this issue nationwide. Here we report preliminary results of a retrospective analysis of clinical and histopathological data of 565 children aged < or =17 years presenting to 9 hospitals in Croatia from 1991 to 2004, in whom kidney biopsy was performed. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (39.1%), followed by asymptomatic proteinuria/hematuria (22.0%) and acute nephritic syndrome (17.0%). All biopsies were analysed by light-, immunofluorescent and electron microscopy. The majority of children, 552 out of 565 (92.4%), had glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubulointerstitial nephritis was found in 16 (2.8%), congenital renal parenchyma anomalies in 14 (2.5%) and vascular disease in 11 (1.9%) cases. One (0.2%) child had sarcoidosis with nephrocalcinosis. The sample was non-diagnostic in 1 (0.2%) case. Among children with GN, primary GN accounted for 70.9%, secondary GN for 16.1% and hereditary GN for 13.0% cases. The most frequent primary GN forms were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (24.6%), mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MEPGN) (19.2%) and IgA nephropathy (18.1%). Acute GN in resolution was found in 11.1% and minimal changes GN in 6.8% of cases. Most children with secondary GN had nephritis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) (54.7%) and nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (40.5%), while among hereditary GN Alport syndrome was most common (80.9%). In the group of children with primary GN who presented with nephrotic syndrome, most common forms were FSGS (38.5%) and MEPGN (24.0%). Minimal changes GN accounted for only 10.9% of cases. IgA nephropathy, primary or related to HSP (20.0%), FSGS (16.1%), MEPGN (12.6%) and Alport syndrome (9.7%) were the most common biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatian

  6. Full-Genome Characterization of a G8P[8] Rotavirus That Emerged among Children with Diarrhea in Croatia in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Roberto; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Bukovski-Simonoski, Suzana; Lukic-Grlic, Amarela; Ianiro, Giovanni; Fiore, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The whole genome of a G8P[8] rotavirus from the 2006 epidemic in Croatia was sequenced and showed a Wa-like genotype constellation. Its VP7 gene clustered with DS-1-like G8 African rotaviruses and a G8P[4] German strain. Remaining genes clustered with contemporary Belgian G1P[8] rotaviruses, suggesting reassortment between human G8 and G1P[8] rotaviruses in Croatia or other European countries. PMID:23426928

  7. Self-help, mutual aid and chronic patients' clubs in Croatia, Yugoslavia: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Kulcar, Z

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the clubs for patients with hypertension which have operated effectively in parts of Croatia and Slovenia (Yugoslavia) for more than 15 years, with many thousands of patients enrolling voluntarily. Based on the principle of self-help, yet involving the regular participation of members of a patient's own primary health team, they increase compliance with long-term treatment regimens and improve the quality of life. Such programmes are capable of reducing the amount of time devoted by a medical practitioner while increasing the effectiveness of treatments. If they are to succeed, it is essential to ensure regular club meetings, social activities and encouragement to each individual member to find a role and to continue attending for as long as possible. A new life style and consequent benefits to health are obtained only through long membership. PMID:2041007

  8. Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač-Andrić, Elvira; Sheta, Alaa; Faris, Hossam; Gajdošik, Martina Šrajer

    2016-07-01

    Ozone is one of the most significant secondary pollutants with numerous negative effects on human health and environment including plants and vegetation. Therefore, more effort is made recently by governments and associations to predict ozone concentrations which could help in establishing better plans and regulation for environment protection. In this study, we use two Artificial Neural Network based approaches (MPL and RBF) to develop, for the first time, accurate ozone prediction models, one for urban and another one for rural area in the eastern part of Croatia. The evaluation of actual against the predicted ozone concentrations revealed that MLP and RBF models are very competitive for the training and testing data in the case of Kopački Rit area whereas in the case of Osijek city, MLP shows better evaluation results with 9% improvement in the correlation coefficient. Furthermore, subsequent feature selection process has improved the prediction power of RBF network.

  9. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujević, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers.

  10. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Croatia and France.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Fabien; Jerkovic, Igor; Masotti, Véronique; Milos, Mladen; Mastelic, Josip; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Viano, Josette

    2003-02-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of two populations of Artemisia absinthium, from France and from Croatia, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of A. absinthium of French origin contain (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenyl acetate as major components while the oils of Croatian A. absinthium contain mainly (Z)-epoxyocimene and beta-thujone. Analysis of oils before and after anthesis showed some quantitative differences. Analysis of separated leaves and flowering heads showed only few differences among these organs. As they contain no thujone, antimicrobial screening was performed on samples of French origin and showed that A. absinthium oil inhibited the growth of both tested yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri).

  11. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  12. Genograms of exile and return families in Croatia--a medical anthropological approach.

    PubMed

    Spoljar-Vrzina, S M

    2000-12-01

    This article presents the most important results of an applied anthropological long-term study of the prolonged exile and return that many families are currently undergoing in Croatia. The results are elaborated with a special reflection upon two important overlapping issues concerning the methodological approach that was applied: firstly, it discusses the crucial questions which motivated the search for a tool that will not distort the experiences, reality and suffering of exile families; and secondly, it critically describes the application of the genogram (a tool borrowed from systemic family therapy) in the exile setting. This tool was not only useful in the clinical sense of psychotherapeutically helping the families, but was also a very flexible part of the methodology orientated towards evoking family history and providing valid knowledge about different family and living circumstances.

  13. A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Kay; de Filippo, Cesare; Grote, Steffi; Mafessoni, Fabrizio; Korlević, Petra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Vernot, Benjamin; Skov, Laurits; Hsieh, Pinghsun; Peyrégne, Stéphane; Reher, David; Hopfe, Charlotte; Nagel, Sarah; Maricic, Tomislav; Fu, Qiaomei; Theunert, Christoph; Rogers, Rebekah; Skoglund, Pontus; Chintalapati, Manjusha; Dannemann, Michael; Nelson, Bradley J; Key, Felix M; Rudan, Pavao; Kućan, Željko; Gušić, Ivan; Golovanova, Liubov V; Doronichev, Vladimir B; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Eichler, Evan E; Slatkin, Montgomery; Schierup, Mikkel H; Andrés, Aida; Kelso, Janet; Meyer, Matthias; Pääbo, Svante

    2017-10-05

    To date the only Neandertal genome that has been sequenced to high quality is from an individual found in Southern Siberia. We sequenced the genome of a female Neandertal from ~50 thousand years ago from Vindija Cave, Croatia to ~30-fold genomic coverage. She carried 1.6 differences per ten thousand base pairs between the two copies of her genome, fewer than present-day humans, suggesting that Neandertal populations were of small size. Our analyses indicate that she was more closely related to the Neandertals that mixed with the ancestors of present-day humans living outside of sub-Saharan Africa than the previously sequenced Neandertal from Siberia, allowing 10-20% more Neandertal DNA to be identified in present-day humans, including variants involved in LDL cholesterol levels, schizophrenia and other diseases. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Current radiological situation in Slavonski Brod, Croatia: is there a reason for concern?

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Tišma, Isabela; Šoštarić, Marko; Sovilj, Marina Poje; Babić, Dinko; Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Vuković, Branko

    2017-09-26

    For years, the town of Slavonski Brod in Croatia has been facing serious problems with air pollution, which is usually attributed to an oil refinery across the Sava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina. While the air quality is being monitored rigorously with regard to nonradioactive matter, no attention has been paid to the possibility of a coincidental radioactive pollution. This study is the first to have addressed this issue. We measured ambient dose rate equivalents at 150 sites and found that none exceeded 120 nSv h-1, while the average was 80 nSv h-1. Gamma-ray spectrometry of the collected river water and soil samples did not reveal any unusual radioactivity either. In other words, we have found no evidence of radioactive pollution that would endanger the health of the residents of Slavonski Brod.

  15. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of three selected Micromeria species from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Štefan, Maja Bival; Alegro, Antun; Koszegi, Tamás; Petrik, József

    2011-02-10

    Antioxidant activities of three selected Micromeria species growing in Croatia (M. croatica, M. juliana and M. thymifolia) were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays, in comparison with plant polyphenolic constituents and reference antioxidants. All studied ethanolic extracts exhibited considerable activity to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, reducing power, iron chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity in the order: M. croatica > M. juliana > M. thymifolia. Total polyphenol (9.69-13.66%), phenolic acid (5.26-6.84%), flavonoid (0.01-0.09%) and tannin (3.07-6.48%) contents in dried plant samples were determined spectrophotometrically. A strong positive correlation between antioxidant activities and contents of phenolic acids and tannins was found, indicating their responsibility for effectiveness of tested plants. Our findings established Micromeria species as a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, especially the endemic M. croatica.

  16. [The Brill-Zinsser disease still occurs in Croatia: retrospective analysis of 25 hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Turcinov, Drago; Kuzman, Ilija; Puljiz, Ivan

    2002-10-01

    The article presents epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic characteristics of Brill-Zinsser disease (BZD). A total of 25 cases of BZD were retrospectively analyzed during the period from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 2000, and etiology was confirmed by rickettsial complement-fixation test (CFT). The majority of cases 15 (60%) quoted history of primary attack of epidemic typhus during or after the World War II. During the course of the disease in our patients different organic systems were involved. Aseptic meningitis was verified in 21 (84%) patients, rash in 17 (68%), liver lesion in 14 (56%), pneumonitis in 7 (28%), myopericarditis in 7 (28%) and 5 (20%) had renal lesion. Not a single clinical symptom or finding of disease has a diagnostic particularity. However, long term fever, headache, rash and aseptic meningitis, or information of infestation with lice in childhood, or a history of epidemic typhus should arouse a suspicion of this disease, which still occurs in Croatia.

  17. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  18. Trends in statin consumption and cardiovascular mortality in Croatia 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Vojvodić, Zeljko; Stimac, Danijela

    2014-12-01

    Prescribing of statins showed an increasing trend in all developed countries, during the last two decades. The aim of this study was to research the trends in statin consumption in the period from 2004 to 2012 as well as trends of cardiovascular mortality during the 1990 to 2012 period, and to compare them between Croatia and several neighbouring countries. Data on statin expenditures and consumption expresed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID), were taken from annual reports of Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (HALMED). Data on crude mortality rates and standardized cardiovascular mortality rates, were taken from the Croatian Health Statistics Yearbooks. The utilization of statins increased by 196.7% during the observed period, with the highest consumption of atorvastatin and simvastatin. Financial expenditure of statins expanded at much faster rate in comparison with overall drug costs. Cardiovascular mortality rates decreased slightly, while maintaining higher level in comparison with some neighbouring countries.

  19. Non-ionising radiation human exposure assessment near telecommunication devices in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Dina

    2006-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the regulatory acts in non-ionising radiation in the world, with a special emphasis on basic guidelines issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). ICNIRP Guidelines are implemented in many countries worldwide. Croatia has also implemented them indirectly through the European Recommendation 1999/519/EC. The Croatian regulatory acts include the Non-lonising Radiation Protection Act, Ordinance on Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Protection, and the Ordinance on Basic Requirements for Devices which produce Optical Radiation and Measures for Optical Radiation Protection. Dosimetry and densitometry are compliant with relevant international and European standards. The paper presents an example of densitometric human exposure assessment in complex indoor exposure conditions. In spite of a high number of indoor and outdoor sources and the "worst-case exposure assessment", the results are within the limits defined by the Croatian EMF Ordinance.

  20. Mental health consequences in men exposed to sexual abuse during the war in Croatia and Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-02-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the statement of each victim was recorded. Victims were exposed to physical torture of their genitals, psycho-sexual torture and physical abuse. The most common symptoms of traumatic reactions were sleep disturbances, concentration difficulties, night-mares and flashbacks, feelings of hopelessness, and different physical stress symptoms such as constant headaches, profuse sweating, and tachycardia. In addition to rape and different methods of sexual abuse, most of the victims were heavily beaten. The conclusion is made that the number of sexually abused men during the war must have been much higher than reported.

  1. Development of the competitive business in the context of environmental legislation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matesić, Mirjana; Kalambura, Sanja; Bacun, Dubravka

    2014-03-01

    Environmental protection has a key role in the context of crisis management. It is not just about development of the industry of environmental protection and implementation of new ways of management in innovative solutions in solving problems. Important area of improvement is also revision of environmental legislation aiming at simplification and reduction of costs of procedures for the business. This paper discusses problems of business sector in Croatia related to transposition of demanding environmental EU regulation, it suggests improvements such as simplification of special waste management systems, of environmental impact assessments processes, environmental permitting etc. The paper considers revision of environmental protection not by lowering environmental standards, but by introducing transparent and compromising models between business and environmental protection, based on sustainable development, with control mechanisms which don't impact functioning of business sector (and its competitiveness), therefore allowing successful protection of environment and its renewable and non-renewable resources.

  2. Analysis of the feeding sites for some horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) on a human in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Stjepan; Marić, Svjetlana

    2006-12-01

    The landing patterns of horse flies on the human body were observed in Croatia. A total of 386 horse flies belonging to 22 species were sampled. The five most commonly collected species were used in the analysis. The stochastic linear connection is tight among the landings of the species Tabanus bromius, Tabanus maculicornis, Tabanus tergestinus, and Philipomyia graeca on the human body regions (matrix R). The preferred feeding area for these four species was the lower leg, whereas for the species Haematopota pluvialis it was the head and neck. Of the total number of horse flies that landed 44.81% were on the lower leg. Only 0.26% landed on the forearm. Chi-square analysis indicated non random landing patterns on human by these horse flies.

  3. Seawater quality along the Adriatic coast, Croatia, based on toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Fafandel, Maja

    2004-04-01

    The potential toxicity of organic extracts from 12 seawater samples from each of 24 sampling sites, collected during 1999-2001 along the Adriatic coast, Croatia, was analyzed with the Microtox toxicity bioassay. The results were consistent with the usefulness of Microtox for the detection of accidental toxic events. To determine the water quality of selected areas, cluster analysis for discrimination between groups with similar toxicity load and water quality index as a base for the ranking of sampling sites was introduced. Based on our experimental data, five classes of the quality index were defined, and so areas were ranked in five categories (excellent, good, fair, poor, and very poor) according to their potential toxic influence. The water quality of selected sites for the potential toxicity of organic extracts could be described as excellent at one sampling site, good at 15 sampling sites, and fair at eight sampling sites. Poor and very poor seawater quality was not detected.

  4. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Mustapić, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68) who worked in Centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18) in Croatia. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  5. Importance of bottom-up approach in water management - sustainable development of catchment areas in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavic, M.; Cosic-Flajsig, G.; Petricec, M.; Blazevic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Association for preservation of Croatian waters and sea SLAP is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that gathers more than 150 scientist, hydrologist and civil engineers. SLAP has been established in 2006 and since then had organized many conferences and participated in projects dealing with water management. We have started our work developing plans to secure water supply to the 22 (21) villages in the rural parts of Dubrovnik (Pozega) area and trough the years we have accumulated knowledge and experience in dealing with stakeholders in hydrology and water management. Within this paper we will present importance of bottom-up approach to the stakeholders in water management in Croatia on two case studies: (1) Management of River Trebizat catchment area - irrigation of the Imotsko-Bekijsko rural parts; (2) Development of multipurpose water reservoirs at the River Orljava catchment area. Both projects were designed in the mid and late 1980's but due to the war were forgotten and on halt. River Trebizat meanders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and acquires joint management by both countries. In 2010 and 2011 SLAP has organized conferences in both countries gathering all the relevant stakeholders from representatives of local and state governments, water management companies and development agencies to the scientist and interested NGO's. The conferences gave firm scientific background of the topic including presentation of all previous studies and measurements as well as model results but presented in manner appropriate to the stakeholders. The main result of the conference was contribution to the development of joint cross-border project sent to the EU Pre-Accession funds in December 2011 with the aim to strengthen capacities of both countries and prepare larger project dealing with management of the whole Trebizat catchment area to EU structural funds once Croatia enters EU in 2013. Similar approach was taken for the Orljava catchment in the northern

  6. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  7. Laboratory diagnostics of chronic kidney disease in Croatia: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Biljak, Vanja Radišić; Honović, Lorena; Matica, Jasminka; Knežević, Branka; Vojak, Sanela Šimić

    2015-01-01

    Early identification and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly cost-effective and can reduce the risk of kidney failure progression and cardiovascular disease. In 2014, the Joint Croatian Working Group (JCWG) for laboratory diagnostic of CKD on the behalf of Croatian society of medical biochemistry and laboratory medicine (CSMBLM) and Croatian chamber of medical biochemists (CCMB) conducted a survey across Croatian medical-biochemistry laboratories to assess the current practice in this area of laboratory medicine. The aim of this study was to present the data collected through the survey and to give insight about laboratory diagnostics of chronic kidney disease in Croatia. An invitation to participate in the survey was sent to all Croatian medical-biochemistry laboratories (N=196). The questionnaire was designed in a form of questions and statements, with possible multiple answers, comprising 24 questions. The response rate was 80/196 (40.8%). 39 answers were from primary medical-biochemistry laboratories. 31/78 (0.40) laboratories measure creatinine with non-standardized method (uncompensated Jaffe method). 58/78 (0.74) of laboratories that measure creatinine do not report eGFR values. Similar number of laboratories (58/80, 0.73) do not measure urine albumin or protein. There is a large heterogeneity among Croatian laboratories regarding measuring methods, reporting units and reference intervals (cut-off values), both for creatinine and urine albumin or protein. The two key prerequisites for CKD screening, automatic reporting of eGFR and albuminuria or proteinuria assessment, are not implemented nationwide. There is a need for harmonization in laboratory diagnostics of CKD in Croatia.

  8. Laboratory diagnostics of chronic kidney disease in Croatia: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Honović, Lorena; Matica, Jasminka; Knežević, Branka; Vojak, Sanela Šimić

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early identification and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly cost-effective and can reduce the risk of kidney failure progression and cardiovascular disease. In 2014, the Joint Croatian Working Group (JCWG) for laboratory diagnostic of CKD on the behalf of Croatian society of medical biochemistry and laboratory medicine (CSMBLM) and Croatian chamber of medical biochemists (CCMB) conducted a survey across Croatian medical-biochemistry laboratories to assess the current practice in this area of laboratory medicine. The aim of this study was to present the data collected through the survey and to give insight about laboratory diagnostics of chronic kidney disease in Croatia. Materials and methods An invitation to participate in the survey was sent to all Croatian medical-biochemistry laboratories (N = 196). The questionnaire was designed in a form of questions and statements, with possible multiple answers, comprising 24 questions. Results The response rate was 80/196 (40.8%). 39 answers were from primary medical-biochemistry laboratories. 31/78 (0.40) laboratories measure creatinine with non-standardized method (uncompensated Jaffe method). 58/78 (0.74) of laboratories that measure creatinine do not report eGFR values. Similar number of laboratories (58/80, 0.73) do not measure urine albumin or protein. Conclusions There is a large heterogeneity among Croatian laboratories regarding measuring methods, reporting units and reference intervals (cut-off values), both for creatinine and urine albumin or protein. The two key prerequisites for CKD screening, automatic reporting of eGFR and albuminuria or proteinuria assessment, are not implemented nationwide. There is a need for harmonization in laboratory diagnostics of CKD in Croatia. PMID:25672470

  9. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  10. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward healthy eating in Croatia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ljubičić, Marija; Sarić, Marijana Matek; Barić, Irena Colić; Rumbak, Ivana; Komes, Draženka; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Guiné, Raquel P F

    2017-06-27

    Unlike fast and restaurant food, diet rich in fibre is known to contribute significantly to health. The aim of our study was to assess eating habits such as consumption of fibre-rich, fast, and restaurant food of the general population in Croatia. For this purpose we used a validated survey designed by the Polytechnic Institute Viseu in Portugal, which includes questions about demographics, good eating habits related to the consumption of the main sources of dietary fibre (fruit, vegetables, and whole grains), and unhealthy eating habits related to the consumption of fast food and restaurant meals. Between October 2014 and March 2015 we received answers from 2,536 respondents aged between 18-70 years, of whom 67.4 % were women and 32.6 % were men. Most respondents reported consuming one serving of vegetables and one piece of fruit a day, and whole grains every other day. Women and urban residents reported consuming larger amounts of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains than men (p<0.001). Men, in turn, reported eating out and eating fast food more often than women (p<0.001). Eating out highly correlated with eating fast food, which translates to lower consumption of dietary fibre (p<0.001). Higher education correlated positively with the consumption of fibre-rich food, but it also correlated positively with the consumption of fast and restaurant food (p<0.001). While eating fast food is not the predominant dietary practice in Croatia, over 50 % of respondents have reported eating fast food at least once a week. Our data also indicate that consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains falls below the national and international dietary recommendations.

  11. Jaw injuries of independence victims from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Susić, Mato; Brozović, Juraj; Zore, Irina Filipović; Milenović, Aleksandar; Strinović, Davor; Brkić, Hrvoje; Pandurić, Dragana Gabrić

    2014-03-01

    In the aetiology of maxillofacial injuries, car accidents, violence, sports injuries and lately war injuries are frequently mentioned. The purpose of this study was to exhibit and analyse types of jaw injuries on bodies exhumed from massive and individual graves located in regions temporarily occupied during the War in Croatia that lasted from 1991 to 1995. The sample was the post-mortal documentation of the orofacial region (set of teeth, photographs, radiographic images) of 1068 victims exhumed from massive grave sites in Croatia. The jaw traumatism was analysed on the whole sample as well as on individual graves, whilst the analysis of trauma frequency was performed separately. Descriptive statistics were computed and the value of P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results of this study showed that out of 1068 examined corpses, 332 had midface and lower face fractures, which was 31.1% of the total number. Lower face fractures were more frequent with 28.1%. Age related frequency analysis showed a significant dependency. There were 34.6% of fractures in the under 30 age group, 34.2% in those aged 30-60, while 21.3% of fractures were noted in the over 60 age group. Female bodies had the lowest number of jaw fractures regardless of the osteoporotic changes. The results of this study suggest that younger and middle aged persons were molested more. Jaw fractures suggest ante-mortal molestation. In females, the more likely fracture causes were the falls of the bodies into the graves or body to body hits.

  12. Cervical HPV type-specific pre-vaccination prevalence and age distribution in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Matovina, Mihaela; Božinović, Ksenija; Grubišić, Goran; Fistonić, Ivan; Belci, Dragan; Alemany, Laia; Džebro, Sonja; Dominis, Mara; Šekerija, Mario; Tous, Sara; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Grce, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The main etiological factor of precancerous lesion and invasive cervical cancer are oncogenic human papillomaviruses types (HPVs). The objective of this study was to establish the distribution of the most common HPVs in different cervical lesions and cancer prior to the implementation of organized population-based cervical screening and HPV vaccination in Croatia. In this study, 4,432 cervical specimens, collected through a 16-year period, were tested for the presence of HPV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three sets of broad-spectrum primers and type-specific primers for most common low-risk (LR) types (HPV-6, 11) and the most common high-risk (HR) types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58). Additional 35 archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue of cervical cancer specimens were analyzed using LiPA25 assay. The highest age-specific HPV-prevalence was in the group 18–24 years, which decreased continuously with age (P<0.0001) regardless of the cytological diagnosis. The prevalence of HR-HPV types significantly increased (P<0.0001) with the severity of cervical lesions. HPV-16 was the most common type found with a prevalence (with or without another HPV-type) of 6.9% in normal cytology, 15.5% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 14.4% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 33.3% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 60.9% in cervical cancer specimens (P<0.0001). This study provides comprehensive and extensive data on the distribution of the most common HPV types among Croatian women, which will enable to predict and to monitor the impact of HPV-vaccination and to design effective screening strategies in Croatia. PMID:28692681

  13. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zrinka

    2007-02-01

    Systematic investigations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between (137)Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r = 0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of (137)Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than the theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. The annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of the Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput Dose for the entire 1986-2005 period was calculated to be about 2.9 microSv, (134)Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Therefore, after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia.

  14. Scientometric analysis of anthropology in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 1980-1996.

    PubMed

    Bencetic Klaić, Z; Klaić, B

    1997-06-01

    Anthropologists from the Republic of Croatia have published 254 scientific papers in the period from 1980-1996, that are included in the secondary publication Social Science Citation Index. Scientists working in the scientific subfield anthropology participate with approximately 2% in the overall scientific output of the Republic of Croatia. Thirty-six international articles were published (14.2% of the total number), while the rest of 218 papers were published solely by domestic authors. An average anthropological paper is published by 3.06 authors, and approximately one-third of all articles by a single author. The major part of scientific papers (237 articles or 93.3%), Croatian anthropologists have published in a domestic primary scientific journal Collegium Antropologicum. All scientific papers together obtained 380 citations or 1.5 citations per article. The citation of articles is approximately 60% above the expected average for the respective journals. Published international papers had 6.6 citations, while articles by domestic authors had 0.65 citation per paper. Anthropological scientific papers obtained 154 independent citations and participate with 40.5% in the total number of citations. In the first five years after publishing, 166 articles (65.4% of the total number) were not cited, while the world's average for the scientific subfield anthropology was greater, 79.5% uncited articles. Only 19.4% of international papers and 72.9% of domestic papers were not cited in this five-year period. Based on scientometric indicators of a scientific output, that is, the number of published papers, partial scientific contribution, i.e., partial authorship, and scientific influence, i.e. number of citations, a method for the evaluation of scientific papers and their authors has been suggested in this paper.

  15. International pediatric cardiac assistance in Croatia: results of the 10 year program.

    PubMed

    Novick, William M; Anić, Darko; Ivancan, Visnja; Di Sessa, Thomas G

    2004-08-01

    In an effort to help alleviate the lack of an adequate pediatric cardiac surgical service that existed in Croatia following 1991 the International Childrens Heart Foundation (ICHF) was asked to provide the necessary surgery. Initially, this project was undertaken as a humanitarian program to provide pediatric cardiac operations. After 5 years, the Republic of Croatia financially sponsored the program. The intended purpose of the Government Sponsored Program was to provide staff education, clinical services, and the development of an organized pediatric cardiac service team in country. The surgical results of the humanitarian program and the educational and surgical results of the Government sponsored program are reported. Review of 3 separate databases maintained in country and the database of the ICHF in Memphis, Tennessee, was undertaken. Risk classification of the operations performed was performed using the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery method. A total of 32 trips (11 during the Humanitarian Program, and 21 during the Government Sponsored Program) were made between April 1993 and July 2003. A total of 601 primary operations (151 - Humanitarian Program, 450 - Government Sponsored Program) were preformed. Overall mortality in the cardiac surgical department for the Government Sponsored Program was 11%, non-risk adjusted. There were 4 senior surgeons, 3 surgical residents, 6 cardiac anesthesiologists, 2 pediatric intensivists, and 3 pediatric cardiologists involved in the educational program. The combination of humanitarian and government sponsored pediatric cardiac surgical missions provided 601 Croatian children with operations. Substantial progress was made in the areas of anesthesia, perfusion, and postoperative care in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit. Despite these improvements a number of issues still exist that prevent the development of an independently functioning full service pediatric cardiac program.

  16. Allergic rhinitis and asthma in southern Croatia: impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-02-01

    To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n=56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median +/-interquartile range, 50+/-11 vs 7+/-4; P<.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (12+/-2 vs 0+/-0; P<.001). A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia.

  17. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  18. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  19. Organization and functioning of primary healthcare for pre-school children in Croatia: a longitudinal study from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Josip; Prljević, Gordana; Menegoni, Martina; Bralić, Irena

    2014-12-01

    Primary health care for children in Croatia are mostly provided by primary pediatricians (PP) in the urban and by family doctors in rural areas. During past decades, as apart of health care reforms, primary pediatric care experiences several changes. This study was undertaken in order to investigate the trends in organizational structure and functioning of the PPs, based on routinely collected data from Croatian Health Service Yearbooks, 1995 to 2012. The results have consistently shown a shortage of PPs in Croatia. The shortage obviously affects the average number of children per PP; number increased from 994 in 1995, to 1556 children in 2010, which was far above the standard. The shortage of PPs is also related to the high number of visits (30 to 40) per PP and per working day. The obtained results clearly show only the trends, therefore further research is needed for a full understanding of the PHC for pre-school children.

  20. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Vego, Goran Kucar-Dragicevic, Savka Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-15

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia.

  1. Youth and AIDS--a study of attitudes, knowledge, behavior and risks in the post-war Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pavicić, Dino; Oresković, Stipe; Rudan, Igor; Rudan, Diana; Bozicević, Ivana; Bistrović, Dragica; Vrdoljak, Andrea; Vorko-Jović, Ariana; Biloglav, Zrinka; Kolarić, Branko; Kujundzić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vuletić, Gorka; Fajdić, Josip; Polasek, Ozren; Kolcić, Ivana; Serdar, Svjetlana; Troskot, Rosana; Saftić, Vanja; Rudan, Pavao

    2003-06-01

    According to the latest reports, the Eastern Europe currently exhibits the greatest relative increase in the number of newly registered HIV infections in the world. At the same time, Central Europe remains relatively spared from the epidemic, with reported rates significantly lower than those in both Eastern and Western Europe. Croatia geographically affiliates to Central Europe, but it has two specific potential risk factors in comparison to neighboring countries: recent War events and a summer season when immigration of large number of tourists from Central and Eastern Europe is expected. Therefore, it is critical to examine AIDS attitudes in young people, increase their knowledge, monitor their behavior and warn on risks in order to prevent larger spread of epidemics from Eastern Europe to Croatia. In this study, we report on a large related survey and education program among 17-year-old high school pupils that was conducted in years immediately following the War (1996-1999).

  2. Changes in the organizational structure of public health nurse service in the Republic of Croatia 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Bendeković, Zvonimir; Simić, Dobrislav; Gladović, Ana; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Since 1996, after the privatization of primary health care, public health nurse (PHN) in Croatia remained employed within the health center, mainly responsible for the preventive care of the inhabitants from defined catchment's area. Before that time they were part of general practice teams. The main aim of the study was to investigate what are the trends in the organizational structure of PHN service in Croatia, from 1995-2012. The main source was the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. The obtained results shows that they are college educated and mostly in full-time jobs. The important findings are the lack of nurses and theirs regional differences. In highly demanding societies, with growing numbers of elderly, mental, social and economic problems, it will be worthy to consider the lower standard then 5 100 inhabitants per one PHN. Also, it should be taken into account to invest into the lowering of regional disparities.

  3. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects.

  4. An outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis associated with raw goat milk and cheese consumption, Croatia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Markovinović, Leo; Kosanović Ličina, M L; Tešić, V; Vojvodić, D; Vladušić Lucić, I; Kniewald, T; Vukas, T; Kutleša, M; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to emphasize the risk of acquiring TBE by the consumption of raw milk and dairy products. In April-May 2015, we registered the first outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis in Croatia in seven members out of ten exposed persons who consumed raw goat milk or cheese from the same supplier. Infection was confirmed by TBEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all patients. None had been vaccinated nor had observed a tick bite.

  5. Body image and weight control among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States in the context of global obesity.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Petronyte, Gintare; Sumskas, Linas; Kuzman, Marina; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2008-04-01

    To compare body image and weight control behavior among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States (US), the countries with striking contrasts in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents. The study was carried out according to the methodology of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children collaborative survey. Nationally-representative samples of students, aged 13 and 15, were surveyed in Lithuania (3778 respondents), Croatia (2946 respondents), and the US (3546 respondents) in the 2001/2002 school year. In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being "too fat" more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%, P<0.001, z test). The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%, P<0.001, z test) and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%, P=0.005, z test). Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as "too fat;" this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively; P<0.001, chi(2) test). With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) > or =85th percentile who perceived themselves as "too fat" was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI < or =15th percentile who perceived themselves as "too thin." The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were most likely to be satisfied with their weight regardless of their weight status. Perceived body image and weight control behavior differ among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the US. Cross-cultural, age, and sex influences moderate body image and weight control behavior in underweight and overweight adolescents.

  6. Brijuni Conference (10th), Imaging in Space and Time. Held in Brijuni, Croatia on 28 August-1 September 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development United States Air Force Research Laboratory Croatian Academy of Science and Arts Ministry of Science and Technology of Croatia...papers [1,2] we presented the observation of the velocity selective population transfer between the Rb ground state hyperfine levels induced by fs pulse...of the Rb atoms with the fs frequency comb in the frequency domain. As a result, velocity selective excited state hyperfine level populations are

  7. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  8. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  9. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  10. Genetic evidence for the presence of two distinct hantaviruses associated with Apodemus mice in Croatia and analysis of local strains.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Margaletić, Josip; Niemimaa, Jukka; Nemirov, Kirill; Lundkvist, Åke; Markotić, Alemka; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV), Saaremaa (SAAV), and Puumala (PUUV) viruses are known to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). All three hantaviruses are now found in Croatia. Lung tissue samples of 315 Apodemus mice trapped in 2003-2004 were screened for the presence of hantaviral N-Ag and 20 mice (6.3%) were found either strongly positive or weak/suspected-positive. Partial sequences of hantavirus M and S segments were recovered by RT-PCR from six mice and subjected to (phylo)genetic analysis that revealed the presence of four novel strains of DOBV and one of SAAV. Curiously, one of the newly described DOBV strains was found in Apodemus agrarius mouse, that is, not in the traditional host, A. flavicollis mice, suggesting a spillover event. S segment sequences recovered previously from HFRS cases [Markotić et al., 2002] were confirmed as DOBV sequences; one of which appeared particularly close to the prototype Slovenian DOBV isolate. Taken together with earlier data on PUUV in Croatia, these results show a co-circulation of three European hantavirus pathogens in this country. So far, not a single SAAV sequence has been recovered from HFRS patients either in Croatia or neighboring Slovenia and Hungary nor in Slovakia suggesting a somewhat lower fequency of acute SAAV infection in humans in this part of Europe than for example in the Baltics. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Attributions of poverty among social work and non-social work students in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ljubotina, Olja Druzić; Ljubotina, Damir

    2007-10-01

    To investigate how students in Croatia perceive causes of poverty and to examine the differences in attributions of poverty between students of social work, economics, and agriculture. The study included 365 participants, students of social work (n=143), economics (n=137), and agriculture (n=82). We used the newly developed Attribution of Poverty Scale, consisting of 4 factors, as follows: individual causes of poverty (eg, lack of skills and capabilities, lack of effort, poor money management, alcohol abuse); micro-environmental causes (eg, poor family, region, single parenthood); structural/societal causes (eg, poor economy, consequences of political transition, war); and fatalistic causes (eg, bad luck, fate, God's will). We also used a questionnaire that measured 5 dimensions of students' personal values: humanistic values, family values, striving for self-actualization, traditional values, and hedonistic values. In both questionnaires, items were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Students of all three faculties put most emphasis on structural causes of poverty (mean+/-standard deviation=3.54+/-0.76 on a 1-5 scale), followed by environmental (3.18+/-0.60), individual (2.95+/-0.68), and fatalistic causes (1.81+/-0.74). Social work students perceived individual factors as significantly less important causes of poverty (ANOVA, F-value=12.55, P<0.001) than students of economics and agriculture. We found a correlation between humanistic values and perceived structural (r=0.267, P<0.001) and micro-environmental causes of poverty (r=0.185, P<0.001), and also between traditional values and structural (r=0.168, P<0.001), micro-environmental (r=0.170, P<0.001), and fatalistic causes of poverty (r=0.149, P<0.001). Students see structural/societal factors, such as poor economy and political transition as main causes of poverty in Croatia. Individual factors connected with individual's personal characteristics were considered less important, while luck and fate were

  12. Attributions of Poverty among Social Work and Non-social Work Students in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Družić Ljubotina, Olja; Ljubotina, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate how students in Croatia perceive causes of poverty and to examine the differences in attributions of poverty between students of social work, economics, and agriculture. Methods The study included 365 participants, students of social work (n = 143), economics (n = 137), and agriculture (n = 85). We used the newly developed Attribution of Poverty Scale, consisting of 4 factors, as follows: individual causes of poverty (eg, lack of skills and capabilities, lack of effort, poor money management, alcohol abuse); micro-environmental causes (eg, poor family, region, single parenthood); structural/societal causes (eg, poor economy, consequences of political transition, war); and fatalistic causes (eg, bad luck, fate, God's will). We also used a questionnaire that measured 5 dimensions of students’ personal values: humanistic values, family values, striving for self-actualization, traditional values, and hedonistic values. In both questionnaires, items were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results Students of all three faculties put most emphasis on structural causes of poverty (mean ± standard deviation = 3.54 ± 0.76 on a 1-5 scale), followed by environmental (3.18 ± 0.60), individual (2.95 ± 0.68), and fatalistic causes (1.81 ± 0.74). Social work students perceived individual factors as significantly less important causes of poverty (ANOVA, F-value = 12.55, P<0.001) than students of economics and agriculture. We found a correlation between humanistic values and perceived structural (r = 0.267, P<0.001) and micro-environmental causes of poverty (r = 0.185, P<0.001), and also between traditional values and structural (r = 0.168, P<0.001), micro-environmental (r = 0.170, P<0.001), and fatalistic causes of poverty (r = 0.149, P<0.001). Conclusion Students see structural/societal factors, such as poor economy and political transition as main causes of poverty in Croatia. Individual

  13. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  14. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus–polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different

  15. Construction of the bridge in the cavern in the Vrata tunnel (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Sasa Kovacevic, Meho; Juric-Kacunic, Danijela

    2010-05-01

    In the Dinaric karst system in Croatia some 11500 speleological objects have been explored so far, more than 1000 of which were discovered during construction works. Such speleological objects without natural entrance on the terrain surface (which are called "caverns") have been discovered on the construction sites of the highways. Over the past twenty years they have been systematically investigated and treated. A special kind of remediation was conducted in the cavern's large hall of the "Vrata" tunnel on the Zagreb - Rijeka highway. Due to size, shape, cavern's position and hydrogeological parameters (fissured and karstified aquifers) within the karst system it was necessary to design and construct a 58 m bridge over the cavern. In addition, the cavern's vault had to be reinforced and stabilized, as the overburden was very thin. The beam-and -stringer grid with special anchors was used. The cavern's rehabilitation in the "Vrata" tunnel was a unique undertaking, and the bridge (without piers) is the cavern's longest bridge in the world. A speleological object of large dimensions was discovered in the "Vrata"tunnel's right tube on the Rijeka-Zagreb highway. Speleological, geotechnical, engineering geological and hydrogeological investigation works were carried out for the purpose of preservation the speleological object (cavern). On the basis of classification results of rock masses and conducted numerical analyses the support system for the cavern's vault stabilization was selected. The support system's elements include the beam-and-stringer grid constructed on the terrain's surface above the cavern, tendons and geotechnical anchors. To ensure stability of the speleological object, and to conduct the backward numerical analyses the measurement of vertical deformations from the terrain's surface along the rock's mass by means of sliding micrometers was undertaken. Backward numerical analyses combined with geotechnical measurements enable safer and more rational

  16. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja; Sikora, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different symbiotic

  17. The MECP2 gene mutation screening in Rett syndrome patients from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Tanja; Knezević, Jelena; Barisić, Ingeborg; Resić, Biserka; Culić, Vida; Pavelić, Jasminka

    2006-12-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder almost exclusively affecting females and is usually sporadic. Mutations in MECP2 gene have been found in more than 80% of females with typical features of RTT. In this study, we analyzed 15 sporadic cases of RTT. In 7 of 15 patients (47%), we detected pathogenic mutations in the coding parts of MECP2 fourth exon. We found two missense (T158M, R133C), two nonsense (R168X, R270X), two frameshift mutations (P217fs and a double deletion of 28-bp at 1132-1159 and 10-bp at 1167-1176), and one in-frame deletion (L383_E392del10). To our knowledge, the last two mutations have not been reported yet. We also detected one previously described polymorphism (S194S). In conclusion, these results show that the fourth exon should be the first one analyzed because it harbors most of the known mutations. Moreover, mutation-negative cases should be further analyzed for gross rearrangements. This is the first study of its kind in Croatia and it enabled us to give the patients an early confirmation of RTT diagnosis.

  18. Ambulatory oral surgery: 1-year experience with 11 680 patients from Zagreb district, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić, Dražen; Macan, Darko; Perić, Berislav; Tadić, Marinka; Biočić, Josip; Đanić, Petar; Brajdić, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the types and frequencies of oral surgery diagnoses and ambulatory oral surgical treatments during one year period at the Department of Oral Surgery, University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data on 11 680 ambulatory patients, treated between January 1 and of December 31, 2011 were retrieved from the hospital database using a specific protocol. The obtained data were subsequently analyzed in order to assess the frequency of diagnoses and differences in sex and age. Results The most common ambulatory procedure was tooth extraction (37.67%) and the most common procedure in ambulatory operating room was alveolectomy (57.25%). The test of proportions showed that significantly more extractions (P < 0.001) and intraoral incisions (P < 0.001) were performed among male patients, whereas significantly more alveolectomies and apicoectomies were performed among female patients (P < 0.001). A greater prevalence of periodontal disease was found in patients residing in Zagreb than in patients residing in rural areas. Conclusion The data from this study may be useful for planning of ambulatory oral surgery services, budgeting, and sustaining quality improvement, enhancing oral surgical curricula, training and education of primary health care doctors and oral surgery specialists, and promoting patients’ awareness of the importance of oral health. PMID:23444246

  19. Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radović, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D

    2012-07-01

    Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests.

  20. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals.

  1. Film and television in Croatia today: production, new technologies and the relationship with visual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Vidacković, Zlatko

    2013-03-01

    This paper seeks to explain some of the most important recent production and technological changes that have affected the relationship between television and film, especially in Croatia, from the aspect of the development of visual anthropology. In the production segment, special attention was given to the role of Croatian television stations in the production of movies, "splitting" the movies into mini-series, interrupting movies with commercial breaks, and to television movies turned into feature films. This paper tries to perceive and define the structure of methodical processes of visual anthropology (reactive process). The development of photographic and film technology and the events which led to the rapid development of visual culture also point to the inseparable duality of observing visual anthropology within reactive and proactive processes, which are indirectly closely related to the technical aspects of these processes. Defining the technical aspect of visual anthropology as such "service" necessarily interferes with the author's approach in the domain of the script and direction related procedures during pre-production, on the field and during post-production of the movie. The author's approach is important because in dependence on it, the desired spectrum of information "output", susceptible to subsequent scientific analysis, is achieved. Lastly, another important segment is the "distributive-technological process" because, regardless of the approach to the anthropologically relevant phenomenon which is being dealt with in an audio-visual piece of work, it is essential that the work be presented and viewed adequately.

  2. Study of nitrogen pollution in Croatia by moss biomonitoring and Kjeldahl method.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Vučković, Ivana; Glad, Marin

    2014-01-01

    During the summer and autumn of 2006 moss samples were collected from 98 sampling sites evenly distributed all over the territory of Croatia. Moss sampling was repeated in 2010 when additional sampling sites were added and a total of 121 samples were collected. Kjeldahl method was used to determine the nitrogen content in the samples. Descriptive statistics and distribution maps were prepared. Data obtained from these two surveys were compared, and additional comparison was done with data obtained from similar studies in neighbouring countries and Finland as a clean area. The median value of N content in the samples collected in 2006 is 1.60% and varies from 0.79% to 3.16%. The content of N in samples collected in 2010 ranges between 0.71% and 2.93% with the median value of 1.49%. High contents of N (2.32% - 3.17%) were found in the regions of Slavonia, Podravina, Posavina and cities Zagreb and Sisak as a result of agricultural activities, industry and traffic.

  3. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  4. PAH content, toxicity and genotoxicity of coastal marine sediments from the Rovinj area, Northern Adriatic, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Fafandel, Maja; Hamer, Bojan; Kralj-Bilen, Blanka

    2006-08-01

    Surface marine sediments collected from 8 sampling sites within the Rovinj coastal area, Northern Adriatic, Croatia, were used for determining priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic/genotoxic potential of sediment organic extracts. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 32 microg/kg (protected area) to 13.2 mg/kg dry weight (harbor) and showed clear differences between pristine, urban industrial and harbor areas. PAHs distribution revealed their pyrogenic origin with some biogenic influence in harbor. At all sampling sites sediment extracts showed toxic potential that was consistent with the sediment type. No correlation between toxicity measured by Microtox assay and concentrations of individual or total PAHs was found. Noncytotoxic dose of sediment extracts showed no genotoxic potential in bacterial umu-test. DNA damage is positively related to total PAHs at 4 sampling sites (S-1, S-2, S-3, S-6), but the highest DNA damage was not observed at the site with the highest total sediment PAH content (S-5).

  5. Nutritional quality of meals in nursing homes and meals on wheels for elderly persons in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barić, Irena Colić; Satalić, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of meals provided for elderly residents and non-residents of nursing homes in Croatia. Menus of 44 all-day meals provided for residents from 4 nursing homes and 34 meals on wheels provided for non-residents of low socioeconomic status were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used to determine socioeconomic status and attitude of residents (n = 89) and non-residents (n = 80) regarding meals offered. An average energy value of all-day meals and meals on wheels was 96.7 and 39.8% RDA respectively. All-day meals provide adequate amounts of the micronutrients examined (phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C) with exception of calcium. Fat provided 35% and 36% of energy for all-day meals and meals on wheels respectively. The body mass index (BMI) under 18.5 kg/m2 had 1.7% residents and 4.0% non-residents. BMI higher than 24.9 kg/m2 were observed in 50% and 47% of residents and non-residents respectively. Gender differences were observed for meal preferences offered to both residents and non-residents. The meals provided adequate amounts of energy and the micronutrients examined. However, a decrease in the energy fraction of fat and decrease in protein content would be advisable.

  6. Secular trend of earlier onset and decelerated development of third molars: evidence from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Anja; Legovic, Mario; Mady Maricic, Barbara; Pavlic, Andrej; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the secular trend on development of third molars in 30 years period in Littoral region of Croatia. A total of 1103 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged from 6 to 18 years were analysed. First group comprised 531 panoramic radiographs (258 girls) taken from year period 1977 till 1979 and second group 572 radiographs (325 girls) taken from year period 2007 till 2009. Demirjian's method was used to determine the developmental stage of third molars. A secular trend in 30 years period was observed as earlier onset of third molars development in boys (6 months on average maxillary and 11 months mandibular) and girls (6 months for maxillary and 4 months for mandibular). Now-a-days, an increase in mineralisation for one Demirjian stage occurs at a slower pace of 5.2 months in boys and 3.4 in girls in maxilla and 2.3 or 2 months in mandible for boys and girls, respectively. The study showed a secular trend present as earlier onset but decelerated development of third molars in both genders and both jaws.

  7. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  8. An overview of mosquitoes and emerging arboviral infections in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Ana; Benic, Nikola; Krajcar, Darko; Kosanovic-Licina, Mirjana Lana; Tesic, Vanja; Merdic, Enrih; Vrucina, Ivana; Savic, Vladimir; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana

    2016-12-30

    Mosquito control in the Zagreb area has been conducted for many years, whereas the fauna has only been investigated in the last 20 years. So far 30 mosquito species have been detected in the city area. Culex pipiens form molestus is the dominant mosquito species in indoor breeding sites. In forested areas and areas exposed to flooding, the active period is early spring and the dominant species are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus geniculatus and Aedes vexans. The eudominant mosquito species found in the artificial breeding sites are Culex pipiens and the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Invasive Ae. albopictus, present in the Zagreb area since 2004, has expanded to a larger area of the city during the last three years. The recent emergence of the human West Nile virus and Usutu virus neuroinvasive disease in Zagreb and its surroundings highlighted the role of mosquitoes as vectors of emerging arboviruses. The paper focuses on mosquito species and arboviral infections detected in humans and animals in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

  9. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus.

  10. Regional turbidites and turbiditic environments developed during Neogene and Quaternary in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav

    2016-06-01

    The Croatian Neogene and Quaternary depositional sequences preserve a record of several different depositional environments with turbidite successions. These are turbiditic systems developed during the Late Miocene in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System and during the Pliocene and Pleistocene in the northern Adriatic Sea. The shape, salinity and depths of depositional areas were significantly different in these two depressional areas, but both were fed mostly with Alpine detritus. Neogene turbidites with lacustrine pelitic sedimentation formed thick heterogeneous sequences of sandstones and marls (totalling several hundreds to some thousands of metres in thickness in different depressional parts) of Upper Miocene age in Northern Croatia. By contrast, Pliocene and especially Pleistocene turbidites of the northern Adriatic were deposited in a marine environment where the total thickness of sand and clay sequences can reach up to several thousand metres. In both cases, individual sandy or sandstone turbiditic sequences (events) can reach several tens of metres in thickness. These turbidite clastic sediments are important hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  11. Balint groups in the postwar period in Croatia (with regard to medical and social conditions).

    PubMed

    Kulenović, M

    1999-06-01

    The author tried to present social circumstances in the postwar period in Croatia, a period similar to other situations occurring after a war. Family doctors, and especially psychiatrists, exerted themselves to be present in these situations, and also they were alert to the sufferings of human beings as a consequence of the war. New conditions, new relations, as well as the previous war actions in which the patients had participated, made psychopathologic morbidity rather different from that appearing during the war and before the war. The doctors had to adapt or innovate, with more or less skill, Balint techniques in order to achieve better treatment results. In this they undertook particular precautions not to jeopardize classical forms of treatment and to be always in collusion with continuity of medical development and social changes. The author presents this adequately, having in mind all the levels with which a patient comes into contact. And, finally, it is concluded that only two active subjects in a treatment can make this treatment successful.

  12. The recent health reform in Croatia: true reforms or just a fundraising exercise?

    PubMed

    Svaljek, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Croatia's most recent reform of the healthcare system was implemented in 2008. The aim of the reform was to enhance financial stability of the system by introducing additional sources of financing, as well as increase the efficiency of the system by reducing sick pay transfers to households, rationalising spending on pharmaceuticals, restructuring hospitals etc. This paper attempts to assess the success of the 2008 healthcare system reform in reaching financial stability and sustainability, and to evaluate the effects of the reform on equity in funding the system. It takes into account the fact that the reform coincided with a severe economic crisis and decline in the overall living standard of Croatian citizens. The paper shows that the reform ended up being expansionary and thus impaired the necessary fiscal adjustment. Finally, it is argued that in circumstances of declining disposable incomes, increased co-payments aimed at the financial stabilisation of the health system made health services less affordable and could have had detrimental effects on equity in the utilisation of health care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple co-infections of rodents with hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-05-01

    Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found.

  14. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    PubMed

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  15. Lower limb entheseal morphology in the Neandertal Krapina population (Croatia, 130,000 BP).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2011-06-01

    Although the Neandertal locomotor system has been shown to differ from Homo sapiens, characteristics of Neandertal entheses, the skeletal attachments for muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint capsules, have never been specifically investigated. Here, we analyse lower limb entheses of the Krapina Neandertal bones (Croatia, 130,000 BP) with the aim of determining how they compare with modern humans, using a standard developed by our research group for describing modern human entheseal variability. The entheses examined are those of the gluteus maximus, iliopsoas and vastus medialis on the femur, the quadriceps tendon on the patella, and soleus on the tibia. For the entheses showing a different morphological pattern from H. sapiens, we discuss the possibility of recognising genetic versus environmental causes. Our results indicate that only the gluteus maximus enthesis (the gluteal tuberosity), falls out of the modern human range of variation. It displays morphological features that could imply histological differences from modern humans, in particular the presence of fibrocartilage. In both H. sapiens and the Krapina Neandertals, the morphological pattern of this enthesis is the same in adult and immature femurs. These results can be interpreted in light of genetic differences between the two hominins. The possibility of functional adaptations to higher levels of mechanical load during life in the Neandertals seems less likely. The particular morphology and large dimensions of the Krapina enthesis, and perhaps its fibrocartilaginous nature, could have been selected for in association with other pelvic and lower limb characteristics, even if genetic drift cannot be ruled out.

  16. Cult of St. Blasius, patron saint of throat sufferers and of otolaryngologists, in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Skrobonja, Ante; Muzur, Amir; Jurdana, Stanko

    2005-03-01

    In the introductory part presented is a short hagiography of St. Blasius, and the legend of miraculous healing of a child in whose throat a bone had stuck, threatening to choke the child. Thanks to that legend, St. Blasius has become the traditional patron of the laryngeal diseases, and, since recently, the patron of the otolaryngologists, too. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the cult of St. Blasius, which is present in Croatia since the 10th century until present. Venerated all over the country, St. Blasius has been "elected" the heavenly protector of 10 parish communities, as well as of the city and the dioceses of Dubrovnik. Beside pilgrimage and prayers, among many traditional forms of folk piety, a ritual called "grlicenje" has been preserved-a curative and preventive blessing of the throat with crossed candles on the Saint's Day. In more recent times, the same day has been remembered among Croatian otolaryngologists and the societies of laryngectomized persons, who chose St. Blasius for their patron, too.

  17. Attitudes towards antimicrobial drugs among general population in Croatia, Fyrom, Greece, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Radosević, Nives; Vlahović-Palcevski, Vera; Benko, Ria; Peklar, Jure; Miskulin, Inka; Matuz, Maria; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Sabo, Ana; Palcevska-Koceska, Snezana

    2009-08-01

    A pilot study to assess patients' attitudes towards antimicrobials (ABs) in six European countries (Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia), as a step preceding educational intervention on the importance of patients' compliance with instructions on taking ABs and consequences of their inappropriate use. Patients' knowledge, emotions and behaviour regarding ABs were assessed using a structured questionnaire, constructed by a psychologist and intended for general population in six European countries. Questionnaires were filled out by individuals who visited pharmacies and general practitioners. A total of 838 questionnaires were filled in. Respondents from Slovenia showed the best knowledge about ABs, followed by Croatians. The highest willingness for self-medication reported respondents from FYROM. The most positive emotions about ABs were expressed by respondents in Greece and Hungary, and the most negative in Slovenia. All components of attitudes towards antibiotics were influenced by country and level of education. Behaviour regarding ABs complied with emotions and knowledge in all countries. The results of this study may lay a basis for conducting national public campaigns, as a step forward in education of patients on rational AB use. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Job satisfaction among medical doctors in one of the countries in transition: experience from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mrduljas-Dujić, Natasa; Kuzmanić, Marion; Kardum, Goran; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2010-09-01

    Our aim was to explore and compare the job satisfaction between family physicians and hospital specialists in Split, Croatia. The survey was carried out in 2005 and 2006. A validated questionnaire was composed of two parts: 92 statements and questions about job satisfaction in the form of a Lickert scale (range 1-5) and eight questions concerning demographic issues. The questionnaire was completed and returned by 165 hospital specialists from the University Hospital and by 131 family physicians from the Split County. Response rate for family physicians was 39.81% and 41.46% for hospital specialists. Hospital doctors were divided in two groups: internal and surgical. There were no significant differences between family physicians and hospital specialists in total job satisfaction (F = 1.02; p = 0.41). Family physicians were more satisfied with their workplace conditions than internal medicine specialists (19.37 +/- 4.23 vs. 17.37 +/- 4.59; F = 5.93; p = 0.003), and less satisfied with the possibilities for postgraduate training than surgeons (5.27 +/- 1.90 vs. 6.59 +/- 2.07; F = 9.26; p < 0.001). Global job satisfaction was rather low but does not differ between the three medical groups. Disparities were observed in some segments (opportunity for further training and academic advancement, vacation, and salary). The reason for the family physician's relative satisfaction may be due to stable working conditions, independence in organizing work schedules and personal responsibility.

  1. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  2. Terrestrial biodiversity analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): a complementary approach using diversity and rarity.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Sven D; Nikolić, Toni; Serić Jelaska, Lucija; Kusan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Guzvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  3. Physicians’ interpersonal relationships and professional standing seen through the eyes of the general public in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ćurković, Marko; Milošević, Milan; Borovečki, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionalism, as a cornerstone of medicine’s social contract with society, demands physicians adhere to high professional standards while placing public interest ahead of self-interest. This study’s objective was to investigate perceptions of the basic elements of medical professionalism related to physicians’ interpersonal relationships and their professional standing in the view of the broader public. Methods A field survey was conducted using an independently created questionnaire on a nationally representative three-stage probabilistic sample of 1,008 Croatian citizens. By including weights, the sample became nationally representative in terms of sex, age, education, and regional representation. The survey was carried out from April 17 to May 13, 2012. Results The Croatian public recognizes the importance of collaboration among physicians, but their everyday experiences tell a different story, in which almost half of the respondents evaluated physicians’ collaboration as being mediocre, poor, or nonexistent. The perception of physicians’ priorities and their primary interests, where every sixth respondent believes physicians always or almost always puts their own interest in front of that of the patients, as well as the perception of their inadequate adherence to professional standards, is indicative of a disillusioned stance of the public toward the medical profession in Croatia. Conclusion This research offered insight into findings that can have a profound and long-lasting effect on a health care delivery process if they are not further analyzed and rectified. PMID:25210442

  4. Serogenetic analysis in the study of the population structure of the eastern Adriatic (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Janićijević, B; Bakran, M; Papiha, S S; Chaventre, A; Roberts, D F

    1994-12-01

    The anthropogenetic structure of six island and peninsular populations (Brac, Hvar, Korcula, Peljesac, Silba, and Olib) of the eastern Adriatic, Croatia, is analyzed on the basis of the study of four different erythrocyte antigen systems or groups (ABO, Rhesus, Kell-Celano, P) and two erythrocyte isoenzyme systems (ACP, ESD). The average sample size was 555 individuals. Allele frequencies, genetic distances, and gene diversity values were computed. The results indicate that all the populations in question have preserved their separate characteristics over the course of their (micro)evolution to the present day; this is especially noticeable for the island populations of Korcula and Olib, as these are distinguished from the other four populations by a greater degree of isolation. Today's genetic structure of the six populations can be explained through the existing historical and cultural data for the region in question, which indicate that over the course of their ethnohistory they were all influenced by significant waves of immigration and selective emigrations that must have greatly shaped their present-day population structure.

  5. Short tandem repeat (STR) variation in eight village populations of the island of Korcula (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Klarić, I M; Barać, L; Buković, D; Furać, I; Geber, G; Janićijević, B; Kubat, M; Pericić, M; Pupić, B V; Rudan, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse short tandem repeat (STR) variation using the data on nine loci (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, THO1, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) in the populations from eight villages on the island of Korcula, Croatia, in order to analyse its genetic and population structure. The analysis of STR data in this study indicated an appreciable degree of genetic homogeneity among the studied village populations on the island, even though a so-called 'east-west dichotomy' and differentiation between the inhabitants of the most recent settlement and the remaining ones was indicated with respect to the loci CSF1PO and TPOX, respectively. The validity of STR markers in assessing genetic structure of small populations and especially in determining the relationships among geographically closely related but reproductively isolated groups remains to be further evaluated, especially in terms of a larger number of studied loci in order to possibly find specific markers useful for resolving genetic patterns of variability at regional levels.

  6. Anthropological cybernetic model of demographic structures in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, V

    1999-06-01

    Intentions of the present investigation were: a) to apply a cybernetic model in description of demography of the Republic of Croatia and b) to underline specificity of this type model application in anthrolpology based on definitions of systems theory as a reaction against reductionism. The cybernetic model is based on the idea that continuous processes of childbirth and ageing can be represented by compartment analysis. Compartment subpopulations were subjected to: a) the elimination by mortality and emigration described by constants Fi,0, and b) the enlargement by the immigration process described by constants F0,i. The consistency of the model is evaluated through the comparison between model data and census. The model prediction of the census and mortality for the period between 1953 to 1998 is fair enough (within +/- 2%). Application of this type of models provides a possibility that the anthropological fitness of regions could be quantified. The obtained data reveals that autoreproduction of the system and its fitness could be described by the chaos theory.

  7. Dermatomycoses in the Rijeka area, Croatia, before, during and after the war 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Brajac, Ines; Prpic-Massari, L; Stojnic-Sosa, L; Gruber, F

    2003-06-01

    The frequency of dermatomycoses as well as the spectrum of causative agents in the Rijeka area, northwestern part of Croatia, in the periods before and during the war (1990-1994) and in the postwar period (1995-1999) were analyzed. A total of 20 463 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses referred to the Department of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, was examined. In the period from 1990 till 1994, 2462 samples were positive, compared with 2250 positive samples during the period from 1995 to 1999. The most frequently isolated dermatophytes were in both periods Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis, followed by Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton verrucosum and in the first period T. rubrum. An intensive change in composition of the flora was observed in the postwar period, mainly connected to the migration of population from other regions to the Rijeka area. This was demonstrated by a disappearance of T. verrucosum and T. rubrum and by an eruptive occurrence of Trichophyton violaceum. This antropophilic species became third representative in the postwar period, followed by M. gypseum, and E. floccosum. Our data were compared with those obtained in the same area in previous studies, and with results obtained in other countries.

  8. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48-77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded.

  9. Internet Addiction and Mental Health Status of Adolescents in Croatia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Karacic, Silvana; Oreskovic, Stjepan

    2017-09-01

    The research examines the influence of internet addiction of adolescents in Croatia and Germany and its impact on the subjective feeling of health status. The purpose of this paper is also to give insight into how the Internet addiction which is a risky health behavior affects the health status of adolescents. The excessive use of Internet is linked with the lower health status of Croatian adolescents as well as of the adolescents in Germany. Respondents are defined as students who attend school regularly ages 11-18. The modified SF-36 questionnaire and IAT for Internet addiction were used. The Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated -0.23 with N=459 and p<0.001. Accordingly, the correlation between health quality and Internet addiction is negative but statistically significant (p<0.001). There is a strong correlation between adolescents' mental health and quality of life and the level of their Internet addiction. Out of the total number of adolescents in ill-health, 39% of them are moderately or severely addicted to the Internet. 20% out of the total number of adolescents in medium health is moderate of severely addicted to the Internet. Finally, out of the total number of adolescents in good health 13% has been moderate of highly addicted to the Internet. Therefore, the better the adolescents' health, the fewer the Internet addicts. And vice versa, the worse the health, the more the Internet addicts.

  10. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  11. [Medical elements in the Parish Church of Saint George in Lovran (Croatia)].

    PubMed

    Eterovic, Igor; Doricic, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For some reason, the sacral heritage of Lovran and its surroundings has escaped the eye of medical historians, until now. seeing that the Parish Church of st George in Lovran holds a central position in this heritage, the authors provide an analysis of medical elements in the church. The analysis has focused on three aspects. The first aspect are medical elements, especially the anthropological features of characters depicted on the frescoes, which belong to the earliest and most representative of the whole region. The second are Glagolithic inscriptions relevant for the history of medicine and health culture. The third is the iconography of patron saints against a variety of diseases (featured on paintings, altars or sculptures), paying particular attention to relevant medical imagery of st George as the church's patron saint. relying on a well developed method for analysing medical elements in the sacral heritage of Croatia and abroad, the authors seek to fill the gaps in this medical historical mosaic by investigating the parish church of Lovran.

  12. Urinary analysis reveals high deoxynivalenol exposure in pregnant women from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sarkanj, Bojan; Warth, Benedikt; Uhlig, Silvio; Abia, Wilfred A; Sulyok, Michael; Klapec, Tomislav; Krska, Rudolf; Banjari, Ines

    2013-12-01

    In this pilot survey the levels of various mycotoxin biomarkers were determined in third trimester pregnant women from eastern Croatia. First void urine samples were collected and analysed using a "dilute and shoot" LC-ESI-MS/MS multi biomarker method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites: deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide and deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide were detected in 97.5% of the studied samples, partly at exceptionally high levels, while ochratoxin A was found in 10% of the samples. DON exposure was primarily reflected by the presence of deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide with a mean concentration of 120 μg L(-1), while free DON was detected with a mean concentration of 18.3 μg L(-1). Several highly contaminated urine samples contained a third DON conjugate, tentatively identified as deoxynivalenol-7-glucuronide by MS/MS scans. The levels of urinary DON and its metabolites measured in this study are the highest ever reported, and 48% of subjects were estimated to exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (1 μg kg(-1) b.w.).

  13. Contribution of forensic anthropology to identification process in Croatia: examples of victims recovered in wells.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-08-01

    To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n=37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells.

  14. War wounds in the Sibenik area during the 1991-1992 war against Croatia.

    PubMed

    Batinica, J; Batinica, S

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the analysis of war casualties treated at the Department of Surgery of Sibenik Medical Center during a 5.5-month period, i.e., from the beginning of the aggression in August 1991 to the international recognition of the Republic of Croatia on January 15, 1992. A total of 321 war casualties were treated, 157 of whom were out-patients and 164 in-patients with severe multiple injuries, 39.25% of the wounded were civilians, 10 of whom were children. Fragment wounds from mortar shells, anti-personnel mines, and infantry weapons were the most frequent type of injuries. The most common were injuries of the limbs. Gunshot injuries to the brain had the worst prognosis. Early management of the wounds was of special importance. Stabilization of the fracture using external fixators was indicated in patients with severe, complicated fractures associated with extreme defects of the tissue. Comatose patients with possible intra-abdominal injury presented a specific diagnostic problem, which was best treated by exploratory laparotomy. The overall mortality rate was 2.49%.

  15. The Lipid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vranković, Lana; Delaš, Ivančica; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Klobučar, Karla; Krivić, Gabriela; Stojević, Zvonko; Aladrović, Jasna

    The composition of adipose tissue in brown bears (Ursus arctos) is highly variable and depends on an individual's feeding habits. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may provide insight into brown bear feeding habits, for which data are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the lipid composition of SAT and variations in the composition of fatty substances with regard to gender and to assess SAT relative to season and body mass (BM) of brown bears in Croatia. Seventy-six tissue samples of brown bear SAT were analyzed in this study. We found that gender, season, and BM significantly affected the lipid composition of SAT. Both females and males had higher percentages of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in SAT in spring than in autumn, while the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was higher in autumn. The prevalence of MUFAs in SAT and the greater presence of PUFAs in autumn, together with the presence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids, indicate the importance of these fatty acids in brown bear physiology. We suggest that the lipid content of adipose tissue may provide valuable information on changes in brown bear condition in response to feeding habits and the effects of supplemental feeding.

  16. 3000 years of solitude: extreme differentiation in the island isolates of Dalmatia, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vitart, Veronique; Biloglav, Zrinka; Hayward, Caroline; Janicijevic, Branka; Smolej-Narancic, Nina; Barac, Lovorka; Pericic, Marijana; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Skaric-Juric, Tatjana; Barbalic, Maja; Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Carothers, Andrew; Rudan, Pavao; Hastie, Nick; Wright, Alan; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2006-04-01

    Communities with increased shared ancestry represent invaluable tools for genetic studies of complex traits. "1001 Dalmatians" research program collects biomedical information for genetic epidemiological research from multiple small isolated populations ('metapopulation') in the islands of Dalmatia, Croatia. Random samples of 100 individuals from 10 small island settlements (n<2000 inhabitants) were collected in 2002 and 2003. These island communities were carefully chosen to represent a wide range of distinct and well-documented demographic histories. Here, we analysed their genetic make-up using 26 short tandem repeat (STR) markers, at least 5 cM apart. We found a very high level of differentiation between most of these island communities based on Wright's fixation indexes, even within the same island. The model-based clustering algorithm, implemented in STRUCTURE, defined six clusters with very distinct genetic signatures, four of which corresponded to single villages. The extent of background LD, assessed with eight linked markers on Xq13-21, paralleled the extent of differentiation and was also very high in most of the populations under study. For each population, demographic history was characterised and 12 "demographic history" variables were tentatively defined. Following stepwise regression, the demographic history variable that most significantly predicted the extent of LD was the proportion of locally born grandparents. Strong isolation and endogamy are likely to be the main forces maintaining this highly structured overall population.

  17. Mastoid trepanation in a deceased from medieval Croatia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boljunčić, Jadranka; Hat, Josip

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare case of infratentorial mastoid trepanation, by drilling, from medieval Croatia. An artificial ante-mortal opening was found in a male skeleton from the 11th century cemetery Zvonimirovo. It was placed roughly at the intersection of the Frankfurt's plane and the midline of the right mastoid. The right posterior parietal of the deceased also exhibited a callus-like formation consistent with the linear cranial fracture. Our aim was to investigate by computed tomography (CT) a possible presence of otopathology--a chronic middle ear infection--MEI/mastoiditis or cholesteatoma. On the other hand, both standard radiography and CT were employed in a cranial fracture diagnostic agreement. The generated CT scans confirmed the presence of an artificial hole running into a well defined trepanne canal connected with the antrum. The presence of otopathology was not established. The radiography and CT substantiated the presence of a linear posterior parietal discontinuity--without displacement, in front of the right lambdoid suture. From the medical point of view, it would be unusual to perform infratentorial--mastoid trepanation for reasons of treating supratentorial trauma, i.e. possible posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma (PTASDH). However, since there was a lack of CT evidence of osteolysis in ME, there is a possibility of medieval trepanation procedure performed for reasons of posttraumatic treat- ment. To our best knowledge, usually, ancient trepanations described in Croatian bioarchaeology and all over the world are supratentorial and do not always reveal such sophisticated surgical techniques.

  18. Health care expenditures in Croatia, 2000-2013: is primary health care in the right position?

    PubMed

    Brodarić, Zvjezdana; Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić

    2014-12-01

    The research was undertaken to determine the trends in the amount and the structure of the health care expenditures in Croatia from 2000 to 2013. It is based on routinely collected and publicly available data, The Annual Reports of the Croatian Health Insurance Fund and OECD data. The income of Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) increased by 66.9%, while total expenditures increased by 62.1%. The fastest growth of expenditure is noticed in expenditures on health care. The hospital and specialist-consultant services have the highest expenditures. Furthermore, the fastest growth is that of other expenses, from 7% of total health care expenditures in 2000, to 26.7% in 2013; which can partly be interpreted as part of hospital care expenses. In the contrast, total expenditures for primary health care decreased, from 22% in 2002, to 13.1% in 2013. The publicly available data are not sufficient enough to drown up any specific conclusions about the underlying reasons for such distribution of the costs.

  19. New trends in human and animal leptospirosis in Croatia, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Habus, Josipa; Persic, Zdenka; Spicic, Silvio; Vince, Silvijo; Stritof, Zrinka; Milas, Zoran; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Perharic, Matko; Turk, Nenad

    2017-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a geographically widespread and globally underestimated zoonosis that affects humans and variety of animals. To identify trends and possible risk factors, joined medical and veterinary teams investigated epidemiology and epizootiology of leptospirosis in Croatia. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from referent diagnostic laboratories included a total of 1917 human and 123964 animal sera tested in the period from 2009 to 2014. We found high human leptospirosis average incidence rate of 1.53/100000 with clear predominance of male patients older than 40 years (sex ratio M/F:3.2; median age 51±15.1years). Statistical analysis revealed seasonal and annual variations of incidence in humans that were primarily associated with favourable weather conditions (temperature 10-19, 9°C and precipitation above 100mm/m(2)). Majority of infections in humans were caused by serogroups Sejroe, Australis and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Notable variations in seroprevalence and changing trends in prevailing serogroups were recorded in most of the domestic animals and during the entire period of investigation. All of the observed findings underline leptospirosis as a significant human and veterinary public health threat and emphasize the importance of continuous multidisciplinary surveillance. We also argue that only input from both professions improves our overall knowledge on leptospirosis and leads to better and more efficient prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fog water collection with SFC on the mountain Velebit (Croatia) during the period 2000-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileta, M.; Likso, T.

    2010-07-01

    Zavižan (1594 m above sea level) is the highest mountain station in Croatia and it is equipped with SFC (standard fog collector). It is situated on Velebit Mountain which is the boundary between maritime and continental climate. The methodology used was described in Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) and is based on the use of the standard fog collector (SFC) of 1 m ² of polypropylene mesh. Fog water collection with SFC started in the summer 2000. With the annual mean temperature of 5. 1° C the year 2000 was the warmest year in the available measurements (1953-2009). A significant increase in annual temperature was observed during the whole period 2000-2009. Among ten the warmest years on Zavižan, five were observed in this century (2000, 2007, 2008, 2002 and 2009). The paper discusses the daily fog water amounts collected during the different long periods in the warm parts of the examined period 2000-2009. Fog water collected in days without precipitation are analysed separately. Also a number of days with fog in the monitoring period have been analysed with respect to the 1961-1990 reference period. Maximum one day value of 27.8 l /m² was recorded in October 2003, while the highest daily rate in days without rain was 19.0 l/m² in October 2002. Synoptic situation for days with maximum one day-value in 2009 has been analysed.

  1. Variation in ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen concentration in central Croatia, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Srnec, Lidija; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Hrga, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the onset, duration and termination of the ragweed pollen season; intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and possible differences in the occurrence and concentration of ragweed pollen according to sampling sites between 2002 and 2003. The study was conducted at three sampling sites in central Croatia over two pollen seasons (2002 and 2003) using the volumetric method of sampling (Hirst type sampler). In 2003, the ragweed pollen season was by 43 % longer and the percentage proportion of ragweed pollen by 3.4 % greater in comparison with 2002. The total ragweed pollen count and number of days with ragweed pollen concentration greater than 30 pollen grains per m (3) air showed a declining tendency from East to West in both seasons. The intradiurnal peak concentration occurred between 10.00-14.00. The air concentration of ragweed pollen decreased with temperature decline and precipitation. Results of the study provided useful information to individuals allergic to ragweed pollen thereby allowing them to adjust their outdoor activities to avoid contact with the allergen.

  2. Earthquake history of the Republic of Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, P.; Rovida, A.; Locati, M.

    2009-12-01

    Among the towns constellating the Dalmatian coast, Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia), stands out, both because of its location in the middle of the Eastern Adriatic coast and its long-lasting, independent history of a Modern Age town and its small coastal territory. An important intelligence crossroads, squeezed as it was in between powerful and influential neighbours, such as the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, in its history (1358-1808) the Republic of Ragusa did experience heavily damaging earthquakes. We narrate the story of these earthquakes, which were recorded in the historical documentation of the Republic (today stored at the State Archives of Dubrovnik - Drzavni arhiv u Dubrovniku) as well as in documents from officers of other Mediterranean countries and letters of individuals. Of special note is the 6 April 1667 earthquake, which inflicted a permanent scar on the Republic. The earthquake's direct effects and their consequences caused a serious financial crisis, so critical that it took over 50 years for Ragusa to recover. This large earthquake is reappraised on the basis of newly investigated sources, and effects of the damage within the city walls are detailed. A seismic history of Ragusa is finally proposed, supported by full-text coeval records.

  3. Analysis of purity profiles of generic lisinopril tablets marketed in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Benković, Goran; Sokolić, Milenko; Cudina, Branka; Zulj, Rajka Truban; Tomić, Sinisa

    2013-06-01

    In view of an increasing number of generic drugs emerging, a comparative study was performed including the approved lisinopril preparations in the form of tablets marketed in Croatia, to compare purity profiles of generic drugs versus the original medicinal product. Several batches of each individual medicinal product at different stages of their shelf life were analyzed. Impurities were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Impurity profiles were demonstrated to be specific for each individual drug. Original drug, as compared to its generic copies, had the lowest values and also the lowest variability of all the tested parameters--type, total number and content of impurities--suggesting that its manufacturing process is to certain degree better controlled compared to other manufacturers. A characteristic impurity C appearing in all the assessed preparations has the lowest levels in the original drug, whereas the amount of the highest unknown impurity does not exceed 0.10% in any of the analyzed preparations. Although the original drug stands out from all the generic preparations with its purity, it can be generally concluded that, as regarding impurities levels, all the analyzed medicinal products are within the ranges of specification limits; accordingly, it is therefore not expected that, in case of lisinopril tablets, administration of the original drug as compared to any of its generic drugs, will be safer for the patient.

  4. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trond; Baranov, Viktor; Hagenlund, Linn Katrine; Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity.

  5. Seasonal abundance of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) from two locations in eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Stjepan

    2005-12-01

    A total of 10,539 tabanid horse flies from 22 species and five genera was collected in the Tikves forest within the Kopacki rit Nature Park in eastern Croatia. Seasonal abundance was analyzed for the six most abundant species. Tabanus maculicornis, Tabanus tergestinus, and Haematopota pluvialis reached their highest peak abundance in the fourth week of June. Atylotus loewianus and Tabanus bromius reached their highest peak of abundance in the first week of August, whereas Tabanus sudeticus reached its maximum abundance in the third week of July. Horse flies also were collected once a week on the pasture at Petrijevci from mid-May to mid-September during 1993. Paired collections were made from a Malaise trap and from a horse by using a sweep net. A total of 2,867 tabanids belonging to 26 species was collected. The number of tabanids collected on horses was much higher than the total captured with Malaise traps. On their natural host (horse), 2.6 times more tabanids were collected than in the traps. Seasonal abundance was analyzed only for the eight most abundant species. Chrysops paralellogrammus, Tabanus autumnalis, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus tergestinus, Haematopota pluvialis, and Haematopota subcylindrica all reached their highest peak of abundance in the second week of July, whereas Tabanus maculicornis reached the maximal peak of abundance in the third week of June. Seasonal meteorological variability that occurs periodically from one year to another has a significant influence on the maximal peaks of tabanid abundance.

  6. Terrestrial Biodiversity Analyses in Dalmatia (Croatia): A Complementary Approach Using Diversity and Rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaska, Sven D.; Nikolić, Toni; Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Kušan, Vladimir; Peternel, Hrvoje; Gužvica, Goran; Major, Zoran

    2010-03-01

    Here we present the methodology used for terrestrial biodiversity analysis and site selection in Phase B of the UNDP/GEF COAST project. The analysis was focused on the problem of biodiversity evaluation in four Croatian counties stretching from sea level to the highest mountain in Croatia. Data on habitats, vascular flora, and fauna (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, ground beetles, and underground invertebrates) were collected and analyzed for each of the four counties. Emphasis was given to the richness of endangered species and the rarity of endemic species. Based on the spatial analyses of habitat, fauna, and flora data, four to six areas were selected from each county and ranked according to their biodiversity importance. Overlap between areas important for richness and those important for rarity was highest for data on flora (65.5%) and lowest for data on fauna (16.7%). When different data sets were compared, the lowest overlap was between flora and fauna (17.1%) and largest between fauna and habitats (23.9%). Simultaneous overlap among all three data sets was found in just 6.5% of the overall selected areas. These results suggest that less specific data, with respect to taxa threat status, could better serve as surrogate data in estimating overall biodiversity. In summary, this analysis has demonstrated that Dalmatia is a region with a high overall biodiversity that is important in a broader European context.

  7. Prehistoric massacre revealed. Perimortem cranial trauma from Potočani, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Janković, Ivor; Balen, Jacqueline; Ahern, James C M; Premužić, Zrinka; Čavka, Mislav; Potrebica, Hrvoje; Novak, Mario

    2017-07-01

    During archaeological rescue excavations carried out in 2007 at Potočani in continental Croatia, a pit containing numerous human skeletal remains (MNI = 41) was discovered. The remains were mostly articulated but also commingled and showed no clear pattern of organization. There were no associated artifacts, just a few pottery fragments probably belonging to the Copper Age Lasinja Culture (c. 4300 to 3950 BCE). Anthropological analyses suggest the presence of individuals of all ages and both sexes with many crania exhibiting various perimortem injuries. Three human bone samples from different layers were dated to around 4100 cal BCE by radiocarbon analysis. These radiocarbon dates combined with other aspects of archaeological context, indicate that the deposition was a single episode rather than a long-term accumulation. All this suggests a single violent encounter (massacre). Here we present results of the bioarchaeological analysis of four adult crania with clear signs of perimortem trauma. These include blunt force trauma as well as cuts and penetrating injuries indicating the use of different weapons/tools.

  8. Characteristics of hepatitis C infection in injecting drug users in Zadar County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Sonicki, Zdenko; Zekanović, Drazen

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine additional risk factors that could increase the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDU). The study included 327 heroin addicts registered in Zadar County, Croatia. The participants were divided into two groups according to their HCV status. HCV-positive and HCV-negative study participants were compared. HCV-positive group started injecting heroin at earlier age (median 18.5 years) than HCV-negative group (median 20.0 years) (p = 0.032) and had been injecting heroin for a significantly longer period (median 5 years vs. median 4 years, respectively; p < 0.001). IDUs in HCV-positive group shared their injecting equipment significantly more often than IDUs in HCV-negative group (p < 0.001; chi2 = 32.7). The main reasons for starting drugs were curiosity, psychological reasons (depression and/or neurosis), and peer or partner pressure in HCV-positive group, and fun, curiosity, and peer pressure in HCV-negative group (p = 0.051; chi2 = 23.6). Earlier onset of heroin use, longer heroin use, sharing injection equipment, curiosity, and psychological problems as reasons for starting drugs were associated with higher prevalence of HCV infection among injecting heroin users in Zadar County.

  9. Environmental impact of historical harbour city Zadar (Croatia) on the composition of marine sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Kralik, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sediment samples and soils along the coast line of the Adriatic Sea were sampled along a transect near the coast line at Zadar/Croatia, ranging from north-western suburbs via the historical centre and the industrial area to south-east suburbs. The sediments were dominated by carbonates and clay minerals, and contaminations with Cd-Cu-Pb-Zn-TOC (total organic carbon) at the historical centre and the industrial site were detected, as well as P and Mo input at the mouth of a small creek, probably from agriculture. No trends between the composition of surface and subsurface sea sediments were seen. At the historic harbour site, total element concentrations versus grain size showed a minimum in the fine silt fraction for most of the elements analysed. The soil samples behind the shoreline were not carbonaceous, but dominated by Fe-Al- oxides, some contained high levels of Be-Cd-Cu-Sn-Zn. Surprisingly, high TOC values within the soils might be assigned to human impacts, not to humus. Contrary to data from street dust samples from Seoul city/Korea, which were measured within our laboratory at the same time, Pt-Ir-Au were at ambient levels due to the limited use of catalysts in cars in the Zadar area at the time of sampling.

  10. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni pulsotypes isolated from humans and poultry in Split and Dalmatia County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Ana; Carev, Merica; Tripković, Ingrid; Srečec, Siniša; Siško-Kraljević, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry is considered to be an important source of human infection with Campylobacter. In the period from 2008 to 2010, 50 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from human faeces were analysed and compared with 61 isolates from poultry by pulsed field gel electrophoresis using SmaI and KpnI. Based on the analysis of SmaI macrorestriction profiles, 86 isolates (77.5 %) were assigned to 15 S clusters: 31 (62 %) from humans and 55 from poultry (90.2 %). Altogether 21 isolates (19 %) exhibited macrorestriction profiles common to both humans and poultry after restriction with SmaI and KpnI. A total of five identical pulsotypes were isolated from both poultry and patients and one of them appeared in eight different locations in the time interval of one year. These results indicate that poultry could be an important source of Campylobacter infection in Split and Dalmatia County which is the biggest County in Croatia and the most important tourist destination.

  11. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction.

  12. Getting some insight into the home care nursing service in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kostanjšek, Diana; Nižetić, Vlatka Topolovec; Razum, Zeljko; Kovačić, Luka

    2014-12-01

    Croatia, as the other Western societies are facing with the increasing share of the population over 65 years and consequently with more care-dependant people. Community living and care, including home care, is stimulating not just because of efficiency of care but also because of the peopleis preferences that home is a place of emotional and physical associations, memories and comfort. The aim of the study was to see if there is lack or surplus of Home care nursing services within the health care system. Data from the Croatian Health Insurance Fond Data base were analysed. The results of this research indicated that the number of inhabitants per one home nurse and physiotherapist contracted by the Croatian Health Insurance Fond was below the defined Standard. The average number of inhabitants per one home care nurse contracted by the CHIF for 2013 was 3373.9 compared to 3500 defined by the Standard. There was found also the huge regional differences in their distributions. The average number of contracted home physiotherapists for the same year was 9805.2 in comparison to the Standard, which was setup at the level of 15000 inhabitants per one physiotherapist.

  13. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  14. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

    2014-10-01

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  15. Rethinking the relationship between medicine and media: two examples from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jergović, Blanka

    2004-08-01

    The communication between medicine and media is an important component within the complex process of changes in post-communist transition countries. It reflects not only organizational and legislative state of the society but its cultural adaptability and character. In that respect, media communication could be a tool for shifting the existing attitudes to innovative evaluation of physician's responsibility. Adapting to the democratic society necessitates more effective communication and improvement of all components of communication process: medicine, media, and the public sphere. Existing communication strategies in Croatia were recognized as inefficient and proved damaging for the health care system and society in general. As a demonstration, two representative examples were analyzed in this paper: the case of deaths related to Baxter dialyzers, and the case of pediatric cardiac surgery at the Zagreb University Hospital Center. The cases illustrate the lack of communication within the medical profession and physicians with the executive government, and the public. There is a great need for more effective communication and skillful professionals in transition countries. The future concept of the communication should be characterized by contextual and "cross-talk' approach.

  16. Analysis of dust samples from urban and rural occupational environments in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica; Mustac, Marko; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2005-12-01

    This study estimated the exposure to dust mites in various occupational environments in Croatia. In total, 29 occupational dust samples were collected: 10 from urban areas (offices, archive of an insurance company, tobacco, paper-recycling, fish-processing and textile plants, animal unit for experimental rats, winery), nine from rural areas (barley, hay, animal food and flour warehouses, tailor's shops, wood processing plant, swine confinement house, grocer's storeroom), and 10 samples from cabins of five fishing boats (five floor and five bed samples). Mites were microscopically identified, and the levels of Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 allergens measured using the DUSTSCREEN test (Heska AG, Switzerland). Microscopy showed no mites in urban areas. Pyroglyphid mites (D. pteronyssinus) were found in all bed samples from fishing boats. Non-pyroglyphid mites were found in samples taken from barley, hay and animal food warehouses, the swine confinement house, grocer's storeroom, and fishing boats. Pyroglyphid mite allergens were detected in eight of 10 dust samples from the fishing boats. Median levels of Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 in cabin bed samples were 10 microg g(-1), 0.2 microg g(-1), and 3.5 microg g(-1), respectively. Our findings on fishing boats suggests that pyroglyphid mites could be considered work-related allergens for fishermen. The results of this study confirmed non-pyroglyphid mites as occupational risk factors in various rural environments.

  17. PSP toxins profile in ascidian Microcosmus vulgaris (Heller, 1877) after human poisoning in Croatia (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Roje-Busatto, Romana; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.

  18. Growth of Cobitis narentana Karaman, 1928 in the Neretva River, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Davor; Mrakovcić, Milorad; Schneider, Daniela; Mustafić, Perica; Caleta, Marko; Radić, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Age and growth of Cobitis narentana were examined in the delta of Neretva River in Croatia. Maximum observed length was 100.4 mm for females and 63.5 for males. Five age classes were determined, from 0+ to 4+. For both females (61.0%) and males (53.8%), the greatest proportion of specimens were in the 1+ age category. Growth was faster in males in the first year of life, while females grew at a faster rate than males after the first year. The Fulton condition factor was determined (CF=0.588 for males and CF=0.618 for females). The length-weight relationship was determined for females (W=8xl0(-5)L2.9325) and males (W=2x l0(-5)L2.6431). The parameter b was calculated as less than b=3.0, thus establishing that growth in both males and females was allometric. Growth rate was determined using the von Bertalanffy growth rate curves for females (Lt=101.1[ 1-e(-0.5(t-0.94)]; r2=0.99) and for males (Lt=65.3[1-e(-0.54(t-2.27)]; r2=0.97). The resulting growth rate coefficient (K) was found to be slightly higher in males (0.54) than in females (0.5).

  19. Long-term investigations of radioactive matter in the air of Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franic, Zdenko; Marovic, Gordana; Sencar, Jasminka

    2008-09-01

    Investigations on the distribution and fate of naturally occurring, nuclear-weapons-produced, and reactor-released radionuclides in the city of Zagreb, Coatia, have been conducted as part of the monitoring program for radioactive contamination of the human environment in Croatia since the early 1960s. This paper describes long-term investigations of man-made 137Cs and naturally occurring 7Be in the city of Zagreb after the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl nuclear accident caused a major increase in 137Cs activity concentrations only in 1986, which quickly decreased over the next few years to pre-Chernobyl values. The observed mean residence time for 137Cs in the air during the post-Chernobyl period from January 1987 to December 1990 was estimated to be 1.0 year. During this period, the observed mean residence time for 137Cs in fallout was estimated to be 0.9 years. The mean 7Be activity concentration in the air from 1987 to 2004 was (5.4 ± 2.8) × 10 - 3 Bq m - 3 . The measured 7Be activity concentrations showed seasonal behavior with the highest usually measured in July. Despite the constant presence of radioactive matter in the Zagreb air during the observational period, activity concentration values never exceeded legal limits. Consequently, 137Cs doses incurred by inhaling contaminated air after the Chernobyl accident were very small.

  20. [Emigration from Croatia to overseas and to European countries from the middle of the nineteenth century to 1981--an attempt at quantification].

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, I

    1990-12-01

    "The paper analyses the quantitative aspect of emigration [from Croatia] to European and overseas countries in the period from the middle of the 19th century till 1981 (the time of the last census). Analysing various sources and studies, the author presents data on emigration form individual Croatian lands (Istria, civil Croatia, Dalmatia) in relation to individual emigration flows (to Europe, overseas) and periods (before World War I, the inter-war period, the post-war period), and at the same time he examines external migration as an effect of the two world wars." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  1. Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n., a new species from the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group from Croatia (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) with molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes on the group

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Szivák, Ildikó; Pauls, Steffen U.; Bálint, Miklós; Delić, Antun; Vučković, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new autumnal caddisfly species Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n. from 8 localities in the Banovina region of Croatia. We also present molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes (emergence, sex ratio and seasonal dynamics) on the new species and discuss the distribution of Chaetopteryx species in general and the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group in particular. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi was separated from the clade containing the other subspecies of Chaetopteryx rugulosa. Thus the subspecies Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi is here raised to species level, Chaetopteryx schmidi, as it was described originally. We further present distribution data on rare species in the genus Chaetopteryx in Croatia. PMID:23950680

  2. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  3. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities.

  4. The effects of water diversion and climate change on hydrological alteration and temperature regime of karst rivers in central Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zganec, Krešimir

    2012-09-01

    Karst rivers in Croatia have been heavily dammed in the past. However, long-term impacts of dams, water diversion and climate change on karst rivers in Croatia have rarely been examined. This study analyzes long-term trends of hydrological and temperature conditions, prior to closure of new large dam, in five connected karst rivers of central Croatia: the sinking rivers Gornja Dobra and Zagorska Mrežnica that have underground connections with the Gojačka Dobra, Tounjčica and Mrežnica Rivers. It was established that hydrological conditions of these rivers have been greatly changed after the Gojak HPP, located at spring of Gojačka Dobra, became operational in 1959. Water diversion from the reservoirs on Zagorska Mrežnica and Gornja Dobra to the Gojak HPP has increased mean annual discharge (52-106%), causing great subdaily fluctuations and overall modification of natural flow regime along the whole course of Gojačka Dobra. By cutting the connection between Zagorska Mrežnica and Tounjčica, water diversion has caused a reduction of mean annual discharges of the Tounjčica (-60%) and Mrežnica (-29%) Rivers. Analyses of long-term trends in water temperature over the last 50 years have revealed significant positive trends in average annual temperature at three gauging stations on three rivers with increase of 0.17, 0.44 and 0.48°C per decade and climate change as the primary cause. The highest significant increasing trend was established at the lower course of Mrežnica where discharge was reduced by water diversion. Mitigation measures for the improvement of hydrological conditions of affected rivers and underground systems are proposed and discussed.

  5. Phylogenetic characterisation of feline immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected cats in Croatia indicates additional heterogeneity of subtype B in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perharić, Matko; Biđin, Marina; Starešina, Vilim; Milas, Zoran; Turk, Nenad; Štritof, Zrinka; Hađina, Suzana; Habuš, Josipa; Stevanović, Vladimir; Mojčec-Perko, Vesna; Kovač, Snježana; Martinković, Krešimir; Barbić, Ljubo

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed on 29 domestic cats with a variety of clinical signs, possibly related to FIV infection. Blood samples were tested by a rapid immunochromatographic (ICA) procedure for detection of FIV antibodies. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a portion of the proviral gag gene. All 11 positive PCR products were sequenced and compared with previously reported FIV sequences. Croatian proviral isolates that could be amplified were clustered within subtype B, and additional heterogeneity was confirmed by the formation of three separate clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of circulating strains in Croatia and in southeast Europe is necessary to improve diagnostic methods and selection of the appropriate vaccinal strains.

  6. The cranial analysis of eight skulls from collective grave of the Early Bronze Age Vucedol site (East Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Hincak, Zdravka; Cavalli, Fabio; Durman, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    The collective grave of the Vucedol culture signed as "grave 3/1985" with skeletons of eight persons, represents the most important burial of this culture on the eponimic site in East Croatia, with several indications of human sacrifice. Anthropological and radiological analysis were performed on crania remains of the individuals, specifically on the skulls of one male and seven females. Nondestructive methods embraced craniometrical analysis, analysis of cranial non-metric traits and multivariate distance analysis, with a help of radiological methods, to detect every distinct anatomical characteristic of the skulls. All methods used in this work tried to present similarities and a possible homogeneity of the analysed individuals.

  7. New member of the family Niphargidae from Croatia, Niphargus radzai, sp. n. (contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda 273).

    PubMed

    Karaman, Gordan S

    2014-06-05

    One new species of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Niphargidae) from the subterranean waters (springs) above Ravno Vrdovo in Dinara Mountain, Croatia, is described. Niphargus radzai sp. n. belongs to the artificial group within Niphargus with elevated number of setae along outer margin of dactylus in gnathopods 1 and 2 and dactylus of some or all pereopods provided with additional spines along inner margin. The differences between N. radzai and some other similar members of this group of taxa are discussed.

  8. The onset of puberty in Cameroon Dwarf goats kept as pets in northwestern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Đuričić, D; Vince, S; Valpotić, H; Žura Žaja, I; Turk, R; Lojkić, M; Getz, I; Berta, V; Samardžija, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine onset of puberty in Cameroon Dwarf goats (CDGs) kept as pets in northwestern Croatia by determining progesterone (PGS) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in the blood by RIA methods. The first cyclic ovarian activity was estimated according to hormone profiles as determined in CDG in a moderate climate environment. Sixteen female CDG kids were kept in stables with access to pasture which provided space for exercise. The goat kids born in winter (December-January-February), spring (March-April-May), summer (June-July-August) and autumn (September-October-November) were assigned into four groups according to the season of the year of birth (n = 4 in each group). At 75 days of age at the initiation of the study, they weighed between 3.2 and 5.1 kg (4.24 ± 0.53 kg). The onset of ovulatory activity was determined by PGS and IGF-I serum concentrations every 10 days starting from 75 days to 155 days of age. The onset of puberty in CDG kids occurred on average at 141.15 ± 2.66 days of age, but varied depending on the season of birth. All CDG kids born during summer were in heat by 155 days of age. In the other groups (kids born in autumn, winter or spring), one goat in each group was not in heat. Changes in blood serum PGS and IGF-I concentrations during prepubertal and pubertal periods could aid in the evaluation of reproductive status and determination of the onset of puberty in CDG during all seasons of the year in a moderate climate region. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Selenium in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Croatia: Relation to cadmium and mercury.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Kovačić, Jelena; Orct, Tatjana; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2014-01-01

    Muscle (n = 111), liver (n = 111), and kidney cortex (n = 101) samples from brown bears (Ursus arctos) were collected in the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons in Croatia and analysed for selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (Hg). The aim was to assess the levels of these elements according to age, sex, and season of collection, and to investigate possible Se/Cd and Se/Hg interactions. Median Se concentrations were 0.139 μg/g in muscle, 0.409 μg/g in liver and 1.75 μg/g wet mass in kidney cortex. Median Cd and Hg were 0.0078 and 0.0018 μg/g in muscle, 1.09 and 0.031 μg/g in liver, and 16.5 and 0.206 μg/g wet mass in the renal cortex, respectively. Se/Cd molar ratios were less than 1 in the kidney cortex, and close to or above 1 in liver and muscle, respectively. Toxic Cd and Hg correlated with Se in all of the studied tissues. Sex differences were found for all three elements (except Se in liver), with females having higher tissue concentration than males. Only Cd showed age-dependence. Bear samples collected in fall had higher Se in muscles, and Hg in muscles and liver compared to samples collected in spring. Element concentrations in brown bear tissues were within the range of previously reported studies. Bear meat is considered a rich source of Se, safe for consumption with regard to its Cd and Hg content. According to the molar ratio and correlation results, we assume that Se binding is not the primary detoxification pathway for Cd and Hg in brown bears.

  10. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija

    2016-03-01

    In the Eastern Croatia impressive loess-paleosol successions up to 30 m thick are exposed. In the Zmajevac I section three paleosols are intercalated in loess while in the Zmajevac, Erdut and Šarengrad sections there are four paleosols are intercalated in loess. IRSL age estimates of 17.8 ± 1.9 and 217 ± 22 ka. In all investigated sections, alluvial sediments are intercalated in the loess deposits, indicating periods of fluvial activity. Strongly abraded typical aeolian spherical grains characterized by pitted well-rounded surface that was developed during transportation have original crystal surface almost destroyed. Surface of quartz grains preserves micro textures characteristic for all transport medias that it has been exposed to. However, muscovite grain surface enable successful distinguishing if the last transport was by wind or by aquatic media. Characteristic of all horizons with muscovite as a dominant mineral is recent settling of organisms. Beside the Danube, Drava and Sava River flood plains, part of the analyzed sediments also originates from regional Tertiary sediments which are rich in granite (as a muscovite-bearing rock), indicating the local influence. Enrichment of pyroxenes in the Šarengrad section points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone as its source of origin eroded by the Sava River southern tributaries. Šarengrad section is the southernmost among the analyzed sections and the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin. Thus, beside the Alpine region, the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia. Warming periods are not represented just by paleosols, but also with laminated alluvial sediments.

  11. Overview of the first HyMeX special observation period over Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivančan-Picek, Branka; Tudor, Martina; Horvath, Kristian; Stanešić, Antonio; Ivatek-Šahdan, Stjepan

    2016-12-01

    The HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) is intended to improve the capabilities of predicting high-impact weather events. Within its framework, the aim of the first special observation period (SOP1), 5 September to 6 November 2012, was to study heavy precipitation events and flash floods. Here, we present high-impact weather events over Croatia that occurred during SOP1. Particular attention is given to eight intense observation periods (IOPs), during which high precipitation occurred over the eastern Adriatic and Dinaric Alps. During the entire SOP1, the operational model forecasts generally well represented medium intensity precipitation, but heavy precipitation was frequently underestimated by the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing and was overestimated at a higher resolution (2 km grid spacing). During IOP2, intensive rainfall occurred over a wider area around the city of Rijeka in the northern Adriatic. The short-range maximum rainfall totals were the largest ever recorded at the Rijeka station since the beginning of measurements in 1958. The rainfall amounts measured in intervals of 20, 30 and 40 min were exceptional, with return periods that exceeded a thousand, a few hundred and one hundred years, respectively. The operational precipitation forecast using the ALADIN model at an 8 km grid spacing provided guidance regarding the event but underestimated the rainfall intensity. An evaluation of numerical sensitivity experiments suggested that the forecast was slightly enhanced by improving the initial conditions through variational data assimilation. The operational non-hydrostatic run at a 2 km grid spacing using a configuration with the ALARO physics package further improved the forecast. This article highlights the need for an intensive observation period in the future over the Adriatic region to validate the simulated mechanisms and improve numerical weather predictions via data assimilation and model improvements in descriptions

  12. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in war-survivors displaced in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Letica-Crepulja, Marina; Salcioglu, Ebru; Frančišković, Tanja; Basoglu, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine the role of perceived stressfulness of trauma exposure and economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in displaced war survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2000 and July 2002 with a sample of 173 internally displaced persons or refugees and 167 matched controls in Croatia. Clinical measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Results Displaced war survivors reported the exposure to a mean ± standard deviation of 13.1 ± 8.3 war stressors, including combat, torture, serious injury, death of close persons, and loss of property. Compared to controls, they reported higher rates of marked to severe impact of war on family (16.2% vs 51.6%), social (7.2% vs 43.5%), economic (12.6% vs 55.4%), occupational (1.8% vs 15.9%), and educational (2.4% vs 8.8%) adaptation. In two logistic regression analyses, the strongest predictor of PTSD and depression was high level of perceived distress during trauma exposure. PTSD but not depression was associated with economic, social, occupational, educational, and familial adaptation after trauma. Conclusion Displaced survivors who experienced multiple war events perceived greater negative impact of war on their life domains compared to individuals who lived in a war setting but had no trauma exposure. The most important determinant of psychological outcomes was perceived stressfulness of war stressors. Although post-trauma adaptation in different life spheres had an impact, its effect was not robust and consistent across disorders. These findings suggest that it would be effective to use a trauma-focused approach in rehabilitation of war survivors. PMID:22180270

  13. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  14. Health insurance in Croatia: dynamics and politics of balancing revenues and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Voncina, Luka; Kehler, Jenni; Evetovits, Tamas; Bagat, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Since 2002, the Croatian social health insurance system has undergone substantial reforms, initiated for the most part with the aim of addressing the perpetual financial deficits of the state health insurance fund. While the reforms focussed heavily on increasing the inflow of private funds into the health care system, underlying inefficiencies contributing significantly to poor financial performance have been largely ignored. Furthermore, contrary to demographic trends and developments in social health insurance schemes in other countries, funding health care became even more dependent on its main collection mechanism-payroll tax-and consequently on the employment ratio and wage level. Little effort has been made to diversify the revenue base or to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. Like other countries, Croatia is facing difficulties in adjusting its 'Bismarck' system to its changing demographic and socioeconomic context. Instead of targetting a comprehensive effort at improving revenue collection and limitating unnecessary expenditure and system inefficiencies, simplified approaches to balance the budget have been implemented at a high price to users and with limited effect. As a result, the Croatian health insurance system now offers a lower level of financial protection, while still facing the problem of spending more than can be collected through the current mix of revenue collection mechanisms. The authors suggest that, in order to meet the sustainability requirement of the health financing system, measures affecting both revenue and expenditure should be considered and implemented. On the revenue collection side, the Croatian government must make further efforts to improve collection from the informally employed to broaden the base of contributing members; equally important is the diversification of revenue sources by increasing transfers from general taxation revenues. On the expenditure side, exploring inefficiencies of the delivery system can

  15. Effects-directed analysis of organic toxicants in wastewater effluent from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Lichtenthaler, Rainer; Ahel, Marijan; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Langford, Katherine; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-02-01

    The organic toxicants present in the effluent of the main sewer of the city of Zagreb, Croatia were isolated and identified through the use of effects-directed characterisation techniques. At the time of investigation, the wastewater effluent received no treatment and was comprised of a mixture of effluent from domestic and industrial sources. The organic load of the wastewater was isolated by solid phase extraction and toxicity profiles obtained using reverse-phase HPLC. All procedures were evaluated through the analysis of a series of reference compounds of widely differing polarity. Toxicity profiles for EROD activity (CYP1A induction), vitellogenin induction (estrogenic activity), cytotoxicity (membrane stability and metabolic inhibition) were obtained using a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary hepatocyte bioassay. The suite of bioassays showed biological responses after exposure to the raw extracts for all the endpoints tested. However, a combination of mixture toxicity and cytotoxicity in the complex raw extract had some masking effect on the sub-lethal responses of vitellogenin and EROD induction. Bioassay testing of the fine fractions obtained by HPLC produced a range of endpoint-specific toxicity profiles for each sample. A number of compounds were identified by the use of GC-MS and LC-MS/MS as responsible for the observed effects. The steroid estrogens 17 beta-estradiol and estriol were identified by LC-MS/MS as estrogen receptor agonists in two of the estrogenic fractions. In addition, GC-MS analysis identified different alkylphenols, benzophenone and methylparaben which also contributed to the estrogenic activity of the sample. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl substituted PAHs, nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds (nitro-PACs), carbazoles and alkyl substituted carbazoles and other known CYP1A inducers were identified by GC-MS analysis as responsible for some of the observed EROD activity. Some active compounds remain unidentified.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni strains coresistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in patients with gastroenteritis in Croatia().

    PubMed

    Carev, Merica; Kovačić, Ana; Novak, Anita; Tonkić, Marija; Jerončić, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains are rapidly emerging worldwide. Here, we aimed to determine the antibiotic-resistance patterns and genetic structure of C. jejuni from stool samples of symptomatic patients in Dalmatia, the largest Croatian county. In a population-based laboratory surveillance programme for campylobacteriosis in Dalmatia from May 2012 to May 2013, C. jejuni (n = 76) were collected from stool samples of all the patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis and matched positive outpatients (n = 77). Antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping of isolates were performed. Approximately 60% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, whereas 24% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline; of the latter, 89% were also coresistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin was infrequent (≤ 0.7%). Antibiotic-resistant strains were generally not associated with the need for hospitalization. However, the prevalence of coresistant strains increased sharply after 2010, and these coresistant strains were more prevalent in infections caused by clonal PFGE types, with distinct patterns of temporal occurrence and age distribution in infected patients. A high prevalence of coresistant TcR/CipR C. jejuni strains were detected in patients in Croatia. Strains were significantly associated with several clonal-type PFGE genotypes, shared common patterns of temporal occurrence, and showed distinct age distribution in infected patients, suggestive of newly identified strains. Since a high prevalence of coresistant TcR/CipR strains was also observed in other countries, further in-depth studies are essential to evaluate whether this phenomenon is linked to C. jejuni epidemiology in food animals and agricultural ecosystems.

  17. Study Protocol on Cognitive Performance in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands: The Normacog Brief Battery

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Lea; Bojanić, Lana; Tsvetanova, Desislava D.; Buabang, Eike K.; de Bles, Nienke J.; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Dijkzeul, Annet; Del Pino, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    The Normacog Brief Battery (NBB) provides a comprehensive overview of an individual’s cognitive functioning within a short amount of time. It was originally developed for the Spanish population in Spain. However, there is a considerable need for brief batteries in clinical neuropsychological assessment, especially in eastern European countries. Cultural background and other individual characteristics—such as age, level of education, and sex—are shown to influence both cognition and patients’ performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to develop understanding of how and why culture impacts on cognitive testing and determine which sociodemographic variables affect cognitive performance. The current study aims to translate, adapt, and standardize the NBB in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands, and to analyze the effect of sex, age, and education level on cognitive performance between these three countries. This brief battery assesses eleven cognitive domains, including those most currently relevant in cognition such as premorbid intelligence, attention, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The translation and adaptation of the battery for different cultures will be done using the back-translation process. After exclusion criteria, the current study will include a total sample of 300 participants (≥18 years old). The samples of 100 participants per country will be balanced through the consideration of their age and level of education. Effects of the sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, and sex) on cognitive performance are expected. Furthermore, this relationship is expected to differ across countries. A multivariate hierarchical linear regression will be used and exploratory analysis will be carried out to investigate further effects. The results will be particularly valuable for future research and assessment in cognitive performance. The growing demand for accurate and fast neuropsychological

  18. Spatial distribution of soil chemical properties in an organic farm in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C

    2017-04-15

    Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) are some of the most important indicators of soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, especially in agricultural areas, with implications for crop production. The aim of this work was to study the spatial variability of pH, EC, OM, AP and AK using kriging and co-kriging methods in the Rasa River Valley (Croatia). As co-variates for each variable we considered the distance from the sea (DFS), distance from the river channels (DFC), pH, EC, OM, AP and AK. Only the variables with a significant correlation with the predictor were used as predictor variables. The results showed that soils of the study area had high pH, EC, OM and AK values and a low concentration of AP. The spatial variability was high for EC and low for pH levels. pH, EC, OM and AK had significant positive correlations. All these variables had significant negative correlations with AP. The exponential model was the best to model OM, AK and AP. Spherical and Gaussian models were the most accurate to model pH and EC. Spatial dependence was high for soil AK, EC and pH, and moderate for soil OM and AP. The incorporation of auxiliary variables increased the precision of the estimations. CoK_DFS was the best method to predict soil EC and AP, while Cok_EC, was better to estimate soil pH and Cok_pH and Cok_OM predicted soil OM and AK with the best accuracy. The maps produced with the best predictors showed that pH, EC, OM and AK had high levels in the northern and eastern parts of the study area. The opposite trend was identified in relation to the AP spatial pattern.

  19. Analysis of the elective curriculum in undergraduate medical education in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Koceic, Ana; Mestrovic, Anita; Vrdoljak, Luka; Vukojevic, Katarina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjancevic-Peric, Ines; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2010-04-01

    Elective courses are a significant part of undergraduate medical education throughout the world, but the value provided by these courses and the reasons for choosing particular elective courses have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to investigate medical and dental students' experiences of elective courses in undergraduate medical education in Croatia and to gather students' recommendations for the improvement of elective courses. Medical and dental students studying under the Bologna curriculum were given a questionnaire in which they were asked for their opinions of elective courses and their suggestions as to how they might be improved. Data on elective courses were obtained from medical schools' administrative offices. The survey response rate was 92% (834/903). Medical students gave elective courses an average grade of 3.44 out of 5, whereas dental students gave a lower average of 3.15. Students' suggestions for change included introducing more practical work and recognising international student exchanges and attendance at conferences as elective options. A third of students indicated that teachers should be given additional training in leading elective courses. Analysis of the curriculum showed that elective courses in Croatian medical schools are very heterogeneous in terms of their content and the number of credits and assessment methods they involve, and are very conservative in that only structured courses are offered. Students cannot design their own courses or take more elective courses than represent 10% of their total number of credits. Student opinion should be consulted when medical schools venture into the elective curriculum so that students can feel that they are really benefiting from these subjects. Students would welcome new and personally designed strands. Elective courses are a significant part of medical education and therefore their quality and purpose need to be assessed regularly in order to ensure that they meet

  20. Population-based study of genetic variation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have mostly focused on large-scale population samples, but examination of rare variations in isolated populations may provide additional insights into the disease pathogenesis. Methods As a first step in the genetic analysis of ASD in Croatia, we characterized genetic variation in a sample of 103 subjects with ASD and 203 control individuals, who were genotyped using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip. We analyzed the genetic diversity of the Croatian population and its relationship to other populations, the degree of relatedness via Runs of Homozygosity (ROHs), and the distribution of large (>500 Kb) copy number variations. Results Combining the Croatian cohort with several previously published populations in the FastME analysis (an alternative to Neighbor Joining) revealed that Croatian subjects cluster, as expected, with Southern Europeans; in addition, individuals from the same geographic region within Europe cluster together. Whereas Croatian subjects could be separated from a sample of healthy control subjects of European origin from North America, Croatian ASD cases and controls are well mixed. A comparison of runs of homozygosity indicated that the number and the median length of regions of homozygosity are higher for ASD subjects than for controls (p = 6 × 10-3). Furthermore, analysis of copy number variants found a higher frequency of large chromosomal rearrangements (>2 Mb) in ASD cases (5/103) than in ethnically matched control subjects (1/197, p = 0.019). Conclusions Our findings illustrate the remarkable utility of high-density genotype data for subjects from a limited geographic area in dissecting genetic heterogeneity with respect to population and disease related variation. PMID:20858243

  1. Contribution of Forensic Anthropology to Identification Process in Croatia: Examples of Victims Recovered in Wells

    PubMed Central

    Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305

  2. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. Materials and methods EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Results Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Conclusion Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  3. Influence of heredity and environment on peak bone density: a review of studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Colić Barić, Irena; Keser, Irena; Rumbak, Ivana; Šatalić, Zvonimir

    2012-01-01

    One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.

  4. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia – does it still exist?

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10 001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. Results The median MDSS score was 11 out of 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). Conclusion This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. PMID:27815932

  5. A molecular epidemiological study of human respiratory syncytial virus in Croatia, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Slovic, Anamarija; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Galinović, Gordana Mlinarić; Forcic, Dubravko

    2016-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes common respiratory tract infections in infants, young children and the elderly. The diversity of HRSV strains circulating in Croatia was investigated throughout a period of four consecutive years from March 2011-March 2014. The analysis was based on sequences from the second hypervariable region of the G gene. A predominance of HRSV group A was observed in the first three years of the study, while group B became slightly predominant during the first few months of 2014. Overall, 76% of viruses belonged to group A including the genotypes NA1, ON1 and GA5. NA1 was by far the most common genotype within group A in 2011-2013; however, only ON1 and a few GA5 viruses were detected in the first three months of 2014. The majority of group B strains were of genotype BA9 (97%), and a few BA10 genotypes were detected. BA9 had the highest substitution rate of all the detected genotypes, followed by ON1. Multiple analyses showed that HRSV group A strains were more diverse than group B strains. Gly at residue 232 (previously described to be specific for ON1) was also detected in three NA1 strains, which were phylogenetically placed on separate branches within the NA1 genotype. For all genotypes, the diversity was higher at the amino acid level than at the nucleotide level, although positive selection of mutations was shown for only a few sites using four different methods of codon-based analysis of selective pressure. More codons were predicted to be negatively selected. The complexity of the HRSV pools present during each epidemic peak was determined and compared to previous epidemiological data. In addition to presenting genetic versatility of HRSV in this geographic region, the collected sequences provide data for further geographical and temporal comparative analyses of HRSV and its evolutionary pathways.

  6. Bone growth, limb proportions and non-specific stress in archaeological populations from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pinhasi, R; Timpson, A; Thomas, M; Slaus, M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and, in particular, non-specific stress on the growth patterns of limbs and other body dimensions of children from past populations is not well understood. This study assesses whether growth of mediaeval and post-mediaeval children aged between 0-11.5 years from Adriatic (coastal) and continental Croatia varies by region and by the prevalence and type of non-specific stress. Dental ages were estimated using the Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt (MFH) scoring method. Growth of long bone diaphyses (femur, tibia, humerus, radius and ulna) was assessed by using a composite Z-score statistic (CZS). Clavicular length was measured as a proxy for upper trunk width, distal metaphyseal width of the femur was measured as a proxy for body mass and upper and lower intra-limb indices were calculated. Differences between sub-sets sampled by (a) region and (b) active vs healed non-specific stress indicators and (c) intra-limb indices were tested by Mann--Whitney U-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Adriatic children attained larger dimensions-per-age than continental children. Children with healed stress lesions had larger dimensions-per-age than those with active lesions. No inter-regional difference was found in intra-limb indices. These findings highlight the complexity of growth patterns in past populations and indicate that variation in environmental conditions such as diet and differences in the nature of non-specific stress lesions both exert a significant effect on long bone growth.

  7. Epidemiology of dermatomycosis in the eastern Croatia--today and yesterday.

    PubMed

    Barisić-Drusko, Vladimira; Rucević, Ivana; Biljan, Darko; Jukić, Zlatica

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to compare the distribution of dermatomycosis species in Eastern Croatia between two different periods: first period from 1997-2001 year, and second period from 1986-88 year. The outpatients from Department of Dermatovenerology University Hospital "Osijek" with confirmed diagnosis infection. Tinea, were selected on the basis o age, gender, localization and dermatomycosis species. During the first period (1997-2001) among 75,691 outpatients Tinea infection was confirmed in 558 (0.73%), while in the second period among 47,832 outpatients there were 126 (0.26%) cases with Tinea, what showed significant increase of fungal infections among population this region. According the age and gender in both periods predominant population were under of the age 16(40.14%: 41.26%), and female population was predominant (58.60% and 57.14%) in comparison to males (41.39% and 42.85%). The most frequent localization of lesions in period I were cutis glabrae (47.31%), palms and soles (31.36%), capitis (17.38%) and unguis (9.31%) and isolated species were as followed: Trichophyton (39.06%), Microsporum (31.72%) and Candida (28.13%) species. In period II the most frequent localization were palms and soles (40.47%), cutis glabrae (36.50%), capitis (12.69%) and unguis (10.31%). The isolated species in this period were: Trichophyton (80.15%), Candida (12.69%) and Microsporum (4.76%) species. From the data collected during two different periods we can observe 1) increase of fungal infection generally in our region; 2) significant changes in causative species (increase of Microsporum and Candida species infection, but Trichophyton spp still remain the first causative agent); and 3) changes in the localization of lesions.

  8. New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Ahern, James C M; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja; Janković, Ivor; Smith, Fred H

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with excavations during the 1970s, Vindija Cave (Croatia) has yielded significant Middle and Upper Paleolithic fossil and archaeological finds. We report on seven recently identified hominid fossils, a newly associated partial hominid cranial vault from level G(3), nine possible bone retouchers, and a revised interpretation of the Mousterian artifact assemblage from the site. This new information reinforces our knowledge of the complex biocultural phenomena revealed in unit G and earlier deposits at Vindija. Six of the new hominid fossils derive from stratigraphic units G and I, while one lacks exact provenience. All specimens preserving diagnostic anatomy are from Neandertals. One of the postcranial remains, a radius fragment which exhibits Neandertal-like anatomy, comes from level G(1)and is congruent with the previously established association of Neandertals with an early Upper Paleolithic industry at the site. The partial cranial vault represents the most complete Neandertal from Vindija. The possible retouchers derive from unit G. Our analysis of these artifacts suggests that both percussion and pressure techniques may have been used by Neandertals in the final stage of tool production (retouching). This paper also presents a revision of the artifact analysis for late Mousterian level G(3). We separated raw materials into two main groups due to the differing ways that the materials fracture and the differing morphology of the debitage. The use of raw material in level G(3)is different from earlier Middle Paleolithic levels at Vindija. This indicates that the G(3)late Neandertals were making choices regarding source material somewhat more like the Upper Paleolithic people at the site. When interpreted within a larger regional framework, the Vindija archaeological and hominid fossil remains demonstrate a complex, mosaic pattern of biocultural change in the Late Pleistocene of south-central Europe.

  9. Privatization in the health care system of Croatia: effects on general practice accessibility.

    PubMed

    Hebrang, A; Henigsberg, N; Erdeljic, V; Foro, S; Vidjak, V; Grga, A; Macek, T

    2003-12-01

    This paper analyzes some effects of the privatization process in primary health care in Croatia, and in particular evaluates actions taken by providers to improve their accessibility for patients. The sample was stratified by regional density of practices and the status of practices in relation to privatization. Three groups of general practices were included in the study and were assessed twice (in 1997/1998 and 1999/2000): (1) 106 privatized before the beginning of the study; (2) 96 privatized during the study period and (3) 65 that were not yet privatized. The research was performed by structured interview with general practitioners as informants. The indicators analyzed were: possibilities of obtaining first and follow-up visit appointments, honouring scheduled appointments, scheduling visits by telephone, visiting the practitioner after hours and obtaining telephone advice after working hours. Number of registered patients in the practice and perception of patients' waiting times were also assessed. Privatized practices performed better in improving the accessibility of their services for patients: they increasingly offered the possibility for first and follow-up appointments at precise times, scheduled visits by telephone and provided telephone advice outside working hours. They showed greater intention to honour made appointments in order to lower their patients' waiting times. The study indicates that, in the initial stage of privatization, practitioners tend to extend accessibility by structural improvements that are not time consuming. It seems that providers adjust the level of offered accessibility benefits according to the intensity of market competitiveness. Further research is needed to precisely delineate the range of structural adjustments that could be expected by privatization and to verify the effect of observed changes on the quality of care and health outcomes.

  10. Long-term investigations of post-Chernobyl radiocaesium in fallout and air in North Croatia.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Sega, Kresimir; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The long-term behaviour of (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and fallout has been studied in the city of Zagreb for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2006) as a part of an extended monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Annual mean (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and annual total deposition fluxes (wet plus dry) decreased from 2.8 x 10(-4) Bq m(-3) in September 1986 to 3.0 x 10(-6) Bq m(-3) in last quarter of 2006 and from 6,410 Bq m(-2) year(-1) in 1986 to 2 Bq m(-2) year(-1) in 2006 respectively. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve the ecological half-lives of (137)Cs in air and fallout were estimated with respective values of 0.46 and 0.54 years for immediate post-Chernobyl period, increasing to 5.52 and 3.97 years afterwards. Using the data on (137)Cs activity concentrations in air and fallout total caesium deposition velocity of (3.34 +/- 3.13) x 10(-2) ms(-1) was estimated with median value being 2.13 x 10(-2) ms(-1). Such relatively high (137)Cs deposition velocities compared with pre-Chernobyl ones, are characteristic for the post-Chernobyl period and, according to Stokes' settling law, indicate that the diameters of aerosol particles associated with (137)Cs originated from the Chernobyl accident are pretty large, i.e. >1 microm. (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in fallout and in air has been found to be similar to the theoretically predicted values, initial value being about 0.5 and decreasing according to differential radioactive decay. The similar ratio has been observed in most of the other environmental samples.

  11. Nutrition in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular risk in the continental and Mediterranean regions of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sikic, Jozica; Stipcevic, Mira; Vrazic, Hrvoje; Cerkez Habek, Jasna; Margetic, Eduard; Gulin, Dario

    2017-09-16

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effect of Mediterranean and continental nutrition on cardiovascular risk in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease in Croatia. The study included 1284 patients who were hospitalized in a 28-month period due to acute or chronic ischaemic heart disease in hospitals across Croatia. An individual questionnaire was prepared which enabled recording of various cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with chronic coronary artery disease have a better index of healthy diet than patients with acute coronary disease. Women have a better index of diet than men in both Croatian regions. When the prevalence of risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus types I and II, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hypertension) in patients with Mediterranean and continental nutrition is compared, a trend is seen for patients who have risk factors to consume healthier food. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This effect is more evident in patients with known cardiovascular disease.

  12. PATHS in Croatia: A school-based randomised-controlled trial of a social and emotional learning curriculum.

    PubMed

    Novak, Miranda; Mihić, Josipa; Bašić, Josipa; Nix, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the first rigorous evaluation of a social-emotional learning curriculum, PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies; Kusché & Greenberg, 1994), in elementary schools in Croatia. This study randomly assigned 29 schools to receive the universal preventive intervention or continue with usual practices. Within those schools, this study included 57 classrooms and 568 children. Teachers rated nine child behaviours in the middle of first grade (pre-intervention) and near the end of second grade (post-intervention). Hierarchical linear models, nesting children within classrooms, revealed few changes in behaviour across the sample as a whole or among higher risk children. However, there were changes on eight of the nine behaviours for lower risk children. The findings are considered in the context of the classroom culture and teachers' preparation and readiness to implement a social-emotional learning curriculum in Croatia. This study highlights the need to supplement universal preventive interventions with selective preventive interventions that can provide more intensive and targeted skill practice for higher risk children. This study also highlights the nuanced effects of a universal preventive intervention in helping different children in different ways. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. HIV risks and HIV prevention among female sex workers in two largest urban settings in Croatia, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Landripet, Ivan; Božić, Jasmina; Božičević, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Harm reduction-based HIV prevention has been in place among female sex workers (FSWs) in Croatia for more than a decade. However, little is known about how well the existing programs meet the needs of FSWs in an environment where sex work remains criminalized and highly stigmatized. This study aims to assess changes in FSWs' vulnerability to HIV infection in the 2008-2014 period. Using convenience samples of FSWs in Croatia's two largest urban settings, behavioral data were collected in 2007-2008 and 2014. Outreach workers interviewed 154 FSWs in the first wave of the survey and 158 in the second. The period under observation was characterized by a stable prevalence of most HIV-relevant risk behaviors and experiences. Significant changes in client-based victimization and HIV knowledge were observed only among FSWs in the capital city. Substantial and mostly sustained levels of sexual and nonsexual victimization call for more research into the limits of the current behavior-based harm reduction approach to HIV prevention in the country.

  14. A five-year follow-up study of the general public awareness and perception of epilepsy in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bagić, Dragan; Mastilica, Miroslav; Bagić, Anto

    2012-10-01

    Public reception of epilepsy in Croatia was re-assessed in 2009, 5 years after an initial survey, by interviewing 1000 randomly selected adults. Ninety-two percent (-5.0%) of the respondents had heard about epilepsy, 47% (-7.9%) knew someone with epilepsy, and 38.6% (-6.0%) had witnessed a seizure. Interviewees were quite ready to accept a person with epilepsy. Almost 8% (+1.1%) would object if their child played with a child with epilepsy, and 77.8% (+1.8%) believed that a child with epilepsy could succeed as well as a child without epilepsy. Although 45.9% (-6.6%) would approach a person having a seizure and help, 36.1% (+3.0%) would also call "911." Citizens of Croatia re-declared a high tolerance toward people with epilepsy and positive attitude toward children with epilepsy. Experiential factors remained strong predictors of more positive attitudes. A more prominent role of patients and implementation of social marketing in addressing a large persisting degree of prejudice and stigmatization worldwide are warranted.

  15. "Marina-Trinkkur" and a few more modern-time hydrotherapeutic myths from the Kvarner region of NW Croatia.

    PubMed

    Muzur, Amir; Skrobonja, Ante; Prunk, Adriana; Frković, Vedran; Azman, Josip

    2006-09-30

    The present paper tries to address the rise and decay of the sea-water "cult" in regional health tourism in NW Croatia, concentrating upon and analysing more thoroughly the example of Marina, chemically processed sea water, an invention of Dr Géza Fodor, the Hungarian physician practicing in that part of Croatia. The original documents and archived items related to the topic were examined. Furthermore, we investigated numerous communal bulletins and medical authorities' records of respective time. Our research showed that the sea-water baths, introduced thanks to the influence of balneologists (like J. Glax), and "drinking cures" (advocated by M.-J. Ortel, for instance) were surprisingly popular not only among tourists of the time, but also among the physicians that used them extensively for therapeutical purposes. These baths and "drinking cures" enriched and completed the medical offer of the resorts regardless of their sometimes dubious effectiveness. This simple distilled sea-water preparation, advertised as a real panacea, demonstrates a paradigm that elucidates the mentality of physicians, merchants, and patients/consumers of the time.

  16. Hydrochemical characterization of arsenic contaminated alluvial aquifers in Eastern Croatia using multivariate statistical techniques and arsenic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ujević Bošnjak, M; Capak, K; Jazbec, A; Casiot, C; Sipos, L; Poljak, V; Dadić, Z

    2012-03-15

    Multivariate statistical analyses, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses, were used to estimate spatial variations in groundwater chemistry in Eastern Croatia and to identify the main geochemical processes responsible for high arsenic (As) concentrations in the groundwater analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed five different groups of sampling sites linked with groundwater evolution, hydrochemical characteristics and different As content in the groundwater. Two-model factor analysis explained around 50% of total variance of the data sets and enabled identification of the different geochemical processes responsible for higher As concentrations, i.e. decoupled Fe and As reduction and desorption. Using discriminant analysis, a three-parameter discriminant function was derived: electrical conductivity, nitrate and bromide, which yielded highly accurate classification of the samples according to the concentration of As as As-safe (<10μg/L) and As contaminated (>10μg/L). A health risk assessment model was applied to calculate cumulative exposure to As as well as toxic and carcinogenic risks resulting from drinking raw groundwater contaminated by As in Eastern Croatia. Although the results obtained indicate that adverse health effects could be observed among the residents of the villages in which raw groundwater with higher As concentrations has been used, there are no reported cases of arsenicosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  18. Repeat HIV Testing at Voluntary Testing and Counseling Centers in Croatia: Successful HIV Prevention or Failure to Modify Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595

  19. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Marović, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident.

  20. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  1. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  2. The story of the Croatian village of Rude after fifty years of compulsory salt iodination in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Dabelić, Nina; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Nõthig-Hus, Dunja; Lukinac, Ljerka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2008-12-01

    The village of Rude is situated near Zagreb, the capital of Croatia in the last Alpine valley on Balkan. In the past, the village was well-known area of severe iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). In 1952', distinguished Croatian endocrinologist Professor Josip Matovinović carried out detailed village survey. Goiter prevalence in school-age children was 85.0% (with 2.3% of cretins in the village). In 1953, the first regulation on compulsory salt iodination with 10 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in former Yugoslavia. Ten years later a dramatic decrease in goiter prevalence was recorded in all endangered areas of the country and no new cretins appeared. However, at the beginning of 1990' mild to moderate iodine deficiency still persisted in Croatia. In 1991, the village of Rude survey demonstrated goiter prevalence in school-age children of 35.0% and median of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) of 7.4 microg/dL. In 1996, the new obligatory regulation with 25 mg of KI/kg of salt was established in Croatia. The study aim was to monitor IDD status in the village after the new law on compulsory salt iodination. Measurements of UIE and thyroid volumes (Tvol) by ultrasound were performed in 7-11-y-old schoolchildren living in the village of Rude. Medians of UIE and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Tvol in boys and girls were calculated. The study included 84 children in 1997, 132 in 2000, 72 in 2002, 85 in 2003 and 46 in 2004 for UIE measurement. Thyroid volumes were measured in 1999 (43 boys and 26 girls) and in 2005 (22 boys and 26 girls). Data were compared with the new WHO/ICCIDD reference values. Medians of UIE in schoolchildren from the village of Rude demonstrated rising values in microg/dL: 11.4 in 1997, 14.3 in 2000, 17.3 in 2002, 15.4 in 2003 and 19.0 in 2004. Significant decrease in BSA-adjusted Tvol was recorded from 1999-2005 in boys and girls from the village of Rude and in 2005 Tvol were within the normal range according to the new international reference

  3. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  4. Spatial variability of total carbon and soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Baranja region, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Trevisani, Sebastiano; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have an important influence on the crop production in agricultural regions. Soil carbon represents an important soil property that contributes to mitigate the negative influence of climate change on intensive cropped areas. Based on 5063 soil samples sampled from soil top layer (0-30 cm) we studied the spatial distribution of total carbon (TC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) content in various soil types (Anthrosols, Cambisols, Chernozems, Fluvisols, Gleysols, Luvisols) in Baranja region, Croatia. TC concentrations ranged from 2.10 to 66.15 mg/kg (with a mean of 16.31 mg/kg). SOC concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 58.00 mg/kg (with a mean of 13.35 mg/kg). TC and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 51.3% and 33.8%, respectively. Average concentrations of soil TC vary in function of soil types in the following decreasing order: Anthrosols (20.9 mg/kg) > Gleysols (19.3 mg/kg) > Fluvisols (15.6 mg/kg) > Chernozems (14.2 mg/kg) > Luvisols (12.6 mg/kg) > Cambisols (11.1 mg/kg), while SOC concentrations follow next order: Gleysols (15.4 mg/kg) > Fluvisols (13.2 mg/kg) = Anthrosols (13.2 mg/kg) > Chernozems (12.6 mg/kg) > Luvisols (11.4 mg/kg) > Cambisols (10.5 mg/kg). Performed geostatistical analysis of TC and SOC; both the experimental variograms as well as the interpolated maps reveal quite different spatial patterns of the two studied soil properties. The analysis of the spatial variability and of the spatial patterns of the produced maps show that SOC is likely influenced by antrophic processes. Spatial variability of SOC indicates soil health deterioration on an important significant portion of the studied area; this suggests the need for future adoption of environmentally friendly soil management in the Baranja region. Regional maps of TC and SOC provide quantitative information for regional planning and environmental monitoring and protection purposes.

  5. Family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tripković, Mara; Francisković, Tanja; Grgić, Neda; Ercegović, Nela; Graovac, Mirjana; Zecević, Iva

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to look into the roles of families' social situation and cohesion in adolescent auto-aggressiveness in Croatia. The research was conducted on a sample of Zagreb high school students which encompassed 701 pupils of both genders aged 14-19. The basic demographic data were obtained using the Structured Demographic and Family Data Questionnaire. Auto-aggressiveness was tested using a section of the Report on Youth Aged 11-18 and the Scale of Auto-destructiveness--SAD, whereas the family cohesion was tested with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales FACES III. The obtained results show differences according to the gender: girls are more prone to auto-aggressiveness than boys (t = -3.385, df = 565, p = 0.001) and girls more often show symptoms of destructiveness (t = -3.809, df = 637, p < 0.001) and anxiety (t = -6.562, df = 640, p < 0.001), while boys show pronounced aggressiveness (t = 2.655, df = 653, p = 0.008). Significant family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness are parents' marital status (chi2 = 18.039, df = 4, p = 0.001), their financial situation (F(2.548) = 4.604, p = 0.010), alcoholic father (chi2 = 9.270, df = 2, p = 0.010), mentally ill mother (t = 5.264, df = 541, p < 0.001), as well as mentally ill father (t = 4.744, df = 529, p < 0.001), and corporal punishment by mother (F(2.542) = 8.132, p < 0.001) or father (F(2.530) = 5.341, p = 0.005). Adolescents from split families show more auto-aggressiveness. Family cohesion appears to be considerably associated with auto-aggressiveness and the adolescents that see their families as less cohesive have more mental problems (chi2 = 29.98, df = 2, p < 0.001). There is a connection between auto-destructive behavior in adolescents and family factors. Knowledge of family's social situation and cohesion may help understand, prevent and treat auto-aggressiveness in adolescents.

  6. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Pećina-Slaus, Nives; Brkić, Hrvoje; Balicević, Drinko; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Pećina, Tatjana Cicvara

    2007-08-24

    From 1996 to the present, the remains of 61 individuals killed during the 1991 War in Croatia were recovered from both dried out and functioning wells. Positive identification was established in 60.7% or 37/61 cases. Remains recovered from the same geographical region but from non-well settings were identified in 77.4% or 1256/1623 cases. The purpose of this paper is to report on the taphonomic, demographic and trauma characteristics of remains recovered from wells and identify factors responsible for the discrepancy in the identification ratios. The age and sex distributions in the well and non-well series were similar, as were the frequencies of recovered personal documents, jewelry and other artifacts. The taphonomic features of the remains were, however, significantly different. Preservation of remains was considerably better in non-well settings (1400/1623 or 86.3% compared to 40/61 or 65.5% in wells). Congruently, commingling of remains was more frequent in wells (26/61 or 42.6% compared to 77/1623 or 4.7% in non-well settings). In bodies recovered from non-well settings the preservation, state and commingling of the remains were strongly correlated with positive identification. None of these features were correlated with the identification of bodies from wells. Instead, identification of remains from wells was significantly affected by the presence or absence of water in the well. As both series have similar frequencies, and identical rankings of identification factors, the reason for the discrepancy in the identification ratios lies in the fact that by themselves, these factors were rarely sufficient for positive identification. In both series the majority of identifications (51.4% in the well, and 58.1% in the non-well series) were established through a combination of biological and non-biological features. The significantly lower identification ratio in the well series resulted from the difficult recovery conditions in wells with significant amounts of

  7. Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E in Selected Population Groups in Croatia: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, T; Vilibic, M; Kolaric, B; Jemersic, L; Kucinar, J; Barbic, L; Bagaric, A; Stevanovic, V; Tabain, I; Sviben, M; Jukic, V; Mlinaric-Galinovic, G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E has become an emerging infection in many European countries. We analysed the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in selected population groups in Croatia. Overall HEV IgG seropositivity was 5.6%, while 1.9% participants showed IgM antibodies suggestive of recent infection. No IgM-positive sample was positive for HEV RNA. HEV IgG antibodies were most prevalent in alcohol abusers (8.9%) and war veterans (8.6%), compared with 6.1% among injecting drug users and 2.7% in healthcare professionals. No individual with high-risk sexual behaviour tested HEV seropositive. HEV IgG positivity increased significantly with age from 1.8% to 2.3% in individuals younger than 40 years to 11.3% in individuals older than 50 years (P = 0.023). The mean age of HEV-positive participants was significantly higher than that of HEV-negative participants (50.9 ± 11.8 years versus 41.2 ± 11.8 years, P = 0.008). Seroprevalence rates were significantly higher in residents of suburban and rural areas compared with residents of urban areas (14.5% versus 2.5%, P = 0.003). Additionally, an increasing prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was observed from 1.8% in participants living in families with two household members to 12.1% in those living with more than four members (P = 0.046). Gender, marital status, educational level, sexual orientation, source of drinking water, history of blood transfusions, surgical procedures, tattooing and travelling were not associated with HEV seroprevalence. Logistic regression showed that living in suburban/rural areas was the main risk factor for HEV seropositivity (OR = 6.67; 95%CI = 1.89-25.0; AOR = 7.14, 95%CI = 1.89-25.0). © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Linking objects in the process of mourning for sons disappeared in war: Croatia 2001.

    PubMed

    Jurcević, Slavica; Urlić, Ivan

    2002-04-01

    Mothers use linking object to externalize the complex aspects of their relationship to the loss of their child. We analyzed the linking objects that mothers kept in memory of their sons who disappeared in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia or whose remains were uncovered and identified long time after they had gone missing. The case study of disturbed mourning included 26 mothers of Croatian soldiers from Croatian Osijek-Baranja County who went missing in war or whose remains were recovered and identified long after they had gone missing. The mothers were selected independently by the president of the Association of Families of Missing and Detained Croatian Soldiers and agreed to participate in the study in 2001. They were interviewed in their homes, their testimonies were recorded, and photographs of the linking objects taken. Linking objects were classified according to the Volkan's four-group classification. Out of four Volkan's groups of linking objects, we identified the objects belonging to the first three. Those were 1) objects that had been worn by the deceased (clothes, wrist-watch, ring, or glasses), (6/26); 2) objects that could be viewed in the psychoanalytic sense as an extension of the body of the disappeared or dead person, such as a camera (4/26); and 3) objects with realistic or symbolic resemblance to the deceased, usually a photograph (8/26). None of the examined objects belonged to the fourth Volkan's group (objects at hand when the news of the death came or objects present at the funeral, things that could be considered last-minute objects, ie, related to the moment when the deceased was last seen alive). However, 8/26 objects formed a new hitherto undescribed group. Mothers used such objects to create a memorial shrine to their sons. A photograph of the missing person or person whose remains were identified long after he had gone missing occupied a central place at the shrine, and was surrounded by other symbols of the Catholic iconography (Virgin

  9. Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques: Sava River (Croatia): a case study.

    PubMed

    Marinović Ruždjak, Andrea; Ruždjak, Domagoj

    2015-04-01

    For the evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations and the interpretation of a large and complex water quality dataset obtained during a 7-year monitoring program of the Sava River in Croatia, different multivariate statistical techniques were applied in this study. Basic statistical properties and correlations of 18 water quality parameters (variables) measured at 18 sampling sites (a total of 56,952 values) were examined. Correlations between air temperature and some water quality parameters were found in agreement with the previous studies of relationship between climatic and hydrological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the most important factors determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Sava River. PCA has determined a reduced number of seven principal components that explain over 75 % of the data set variance. The results revealed that parameters related to temperature and organic pollutants (CODMn and TSS) were the most important parameters contributing to water quality variation. PCA analysis of seasonal subsets confirmed this result and showed that the importance of parameters is changing from season to season. PCA of the four seasonal data subsets yielded six PCs with eigenvalues greater than one explaining 73.6 % (spring), 71.4 % (summer), 70.3 % (autumn), and 71.3 % (winter) of the total variance. To check the influence of the outliers in the data set whose distribution strongly deviates from the normal one, in addition to standard principal component analysis algorithm, two robust estimates of covariance matrix were calculated and subjected to PCA. PCA in both cases yielded seven principal components explaining 75 % of the total variance, and the results do not differ significantly from the results obtained by the standard PCA algorithm. With the implementation of robust PCA algorithm, it is demonstrated that the usage of standard algorithm is justified for data sets with small numbers of missing data

  10. Spatial variability of soil available phosphorous and potassium at three different soils located in Pannonian Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Đurđević, Boris

    2017-04-01

    Information on spatial distribution of soil nutrients in agroecosystems is critical for improving productivity and reducing environmental pressures in intensive farmed soils. In this context, spatial prediction of soil properties should be accurate. In this study we analyse 704 data of soil available phosphorus (AP) and potassium (AK); the data derive from soil samples collected across three arable fields in Baranja region (Croatia) in correspondence of different soil types: Cambisols (169 samples), Chernozems (131 samples) and Gleysoils (404 samples). The samples are collected in a regular sampling grid (distance 225 x 225 m). Several geostatistical techniques (Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2 and 3; Radial Basis Functions (RBF) - Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Spline with Tension (SPT) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS); and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2; two geostatistical techniques -Ordinary Kriging - OK and Simple Kriging - SK) were tested in order to evaluate the most accurate spatial variability maps using criteria of lowest RMSE during cross validation technique. Soil parameters varied considerably throughout the studied fields and their coefficient of variations ranged from 31.4% to 37.7% and from 19.3% to 27.1% for soil AP and AK, respectively. The experimental variograms indicate a moderate spatial dependence for AP and strong spatial dependence for all three locations. The best spatial predictor for AP at Chernozem field was Simple kriging (RMSE=61.711), and for AK inverse multiquadratic (RMSE=44.689). The least accurate technique was Thin plate spline (AP) and Inverse distance to a weight with a power of 1 (AK). Radial basis function models (Spline with Tension for AP at Gleysoil and Cambisol and Completely Regularized Spline for AK at Gleysol) were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline models were the least accurate in all three cases. The best

  11. Issues around household pharmaceutical waste disposal through community pharmacies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jonjić, Danijela; Vitale, Ksenija

    2014-06-01

    Croatian regulations mandate pharmacies to receive unused medicines from households. Pharmacies are considered as producers and holders of pharmaceutical waste and are obliged to finance this service. Model where pharmacies are responsible for financing disposal of unused medicines without reimbursement is not common in Europe. Present service was not tested before implementation. To investigate the elements of the pharmaceutical waste disposal service provided by pharmacies, and to gain insight into the factors that might influence the effectiveness of the service. Setting All pharmacies in the city of Zagreb. Each pharmacy was asked to weigh the collected waste from the public during a period of 30 days, between June 1st and July 10th of 2011, absent from any media advertisement and answer a specifically designed questionnaire that was exploring possible connections between the amount of collected waste, type of pharmacy ownership, discretion while disposing, location of the container, appropriate labeling and to compare the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods. Quantity of collected unused medicines from the public. Of 210 pharmacies, 91 participated completing the questionnaire (43 % response rate). The total amount of collected waste was 505 kg. Pharmacies owned by the city of Zagreb had higher response rate (74 %) than privately owned pharmacies (36 %), and collected significantly higher amount of waste. Anonymity when disposing influenced collected quantity, while labelling and location of the container did not. There were differences in the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods due to the demographic characteristics and number of pharmacies per capita. The effectiveness of the pharmacy service of collecting unused medicines in Croatia shows a number of weaknesses. The amount of collected medicines is below the European average. Functioning of the service seems to be negatively influenced by the type of pharmacy ownership, distribution

  12. Relations between of the Pleistocene glaciations and karstification processes on Velebit Mt. (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocic, Neven

    2014-05-01

    Velebit is the Dinaric karst mountain. It is located in Croatia and extends to a length of 145 km along the northern part of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The highest peak is 1757 m high. It is mostly made of well karstified carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite and carbonate clastic rocks). Glaciation of this region has long attracted researchers. Studies have shown that a large part of the area was affected by the Pleistocene glaciation. These results have prompted questions about the impact of glaciation on the development of karst, especially underground karst formations - caves in this area. This work explores the impact of Pleistocene glaciations on karst development in the northern and central Velebit. Special emphasis is given to the research on the impact of glaciation on the development and morphology of caves, which is analyzed in few examples. The main methods used are geomorphological mapping and speleological research. Also, some sedimentological methods were used and 14C dating of the flowstone crust was provided. Studies on some sites are already well advanced while in some localities are only just begun. In the area of Jezera (Lakes in Croatian, northern part of the mountain) we noticed that the moraine material affects the appearance of the small occasional streams with cutting small torrents and surface erosion processes. In areas where the moraine cover is thinner or missing rekarstification of bedrock is visible, and occasional short streams sinking at contact zone of the moraine material and bedrock. In glacial valley Lomska duliba is the Ledena jama (Ice cave), 536 meters deep characterized by ice accumulation thicker than 50 m. During this study we have been mapped moraine forms along the valley and found that the same material plugs parts of the pit which led to its further dynamics. Great influence on the development of glaciation surface and underground karst forms was studied in Štirovača (middle Velebit area). Here is the 351

  13. Prevalence and prevention of dental injuries in young taekwondo athletes in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, D; Bursac, D; Skrinjaric, T; Glavina, D; Gorseta, K

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of dental and facial injuries, the habit of wearing mouthguard and the awareness regarding injury prevention and first aid after tooth avulsion among young taekwondo athletes in Croatia. A survey on a sample of 484 taekwondo athletes was conducted, which included 271 male (56%) and 213 female (44%) athletes aged between 8 and 28 years. The questionnaire submitted to the athletes contained 15 questions about dental trauma, use of mouthguard, dental trauma prevention, level of awareness about tooth avulsion and replantation and disturbances associated with mouthguard use. Collected data were evaluated according to gender, age groups and duration of actively engagement in taekwondo. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used for comparisons between groups. From the survey 300 (62%) of 484 athletes had sustained one serious injury and 103 (21%) had sustained an orofacial injury, while 194 (40%) had observed another player sustaining a dental injury. Higher number of orofacial injuries was observed in males (24%) than in females (18%). Furthermore, 98 (20%) athletes have experienced one or more dental injuries, and out of these 98 suffering dental injury 60 were male (61%) and 38 were female (39%). The frequency of orofacial injuries in the older group (42%) is higher than in three younger groups (younger cadets 25%; cadets 13%; juniors 20%) (p<0.05). Mouthguard wearing was recorded in 465 athletes (96%), 47.1% of them wear stock mouthguard, 47.6% wear boil and bite mouthguard, but only 5.3% were custom-made mouthguards. Most of them (96%) consider that mouthguards are useful for injury prevention in taekwondo. The results of this survey show that dental and orofacial injuries occur in taekwondo in all age groups but mostly in the senior group. Taekwondo players know the importance of mouthguard use, but only 5% use custom made mouthguards. This is not adequate for dental injury prevention and highlights

  14. [Care of military and civilian casualties during the war in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Hebrang, Andrija; Henigsberg, Neven; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Vidjak, Vinko; Brnić, Zoran; Hrabac, Pero

    2006-09-01

    The Yugoslav People's Army as aggressor on Croatia was well organized and equipped with weapons and medical supplies. On the other hand, the Republic of Croatia as a new country had no army of nor medical corps of its own. At the beginning of aggression we decided to establish an integrated civilian-military medicine system. This system started as a civilian organization, to develop along with the army structure. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall result of such organization all over the Croatian territory throughout war period. Data on 30,520 wounded were collected from all military and civilian hospitals. The registration of information on all hospitalized wounded was established at the beginning of war. For this analysis, a questionnaire was structured consisting of 150 data per person. Data were entered in digital form and analyzed by surgeons and general medicine specialists. The wounded were hospitalized at 58 institutions, 43 of them civilian hospitals adjusted to military purposes. In total, there were 7 163 wounded civilians (23.5%) and 23,351 wounded soldiers. Only 613 (2%) soldiers were registered as members of enemy units, most of them treated as civilians because they had enough time to remove their uniforms. Among civilian casualties, there were 1132 (15.8%) children and 1 985 (27.7%) women. The wounds were inflicted by artillery (n = 9 652, 31.6%), small arms (n = 7 302, 23.9%) and mines (n = 4587, 15.0%). First aid was administred at frontline to 5065, 25.5% soldiers), at echelon II-IV to the majority of them, while there are no data on 10,644 wounded. Among the wounded, 61.1% were evacuated within one hour and 76.3% within two hours. On admission, 313 patients were unconscious, and 1913 somnolent or disoriented. Pneumothorax was present in 740, respiratory insufficiency in 1570, and pulmonary edema in 48 patients. Hemorrhage of varying grade was present in 11,967 and hemodynamic shock in 1802 patients. The most common injuries were

  15. Statistical analysis of hail characteristics in the hail-protected western part of Croatia using data from hail suppression stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Počakal, Damir; Štalec, Janez

    In the continental part of Croatia, operational hail suppression has been conducted for more than 30 years. The current protected area is 25,177 km 2 and has about 492 hail suppression stations which are managed with eight weather radar centres. This paper present a statistical analysis of parameters connected with hail occurrence on hail suppression stations in the western part of protected area in 1981-2000 period. This analysis compares data of two periods with different intensity of hail suppression activity and is made as a part of a project for assessment of hail suppression efficiency in Croatia. Because of disruption in hail suppression system during the independence war in Croatia (1991-1995), lack of rockets and other objective circumstances, it is considered that in the 1991-2000 period, hail suppression system could not act properly. Because of that, a comparison of hail suppression data for two periods was made. The first period (1981-1990), which is characterised with full application of hail suppression technology is compared with the second period (1991-2000). The protected area is divided into quadrants (9×9 km), such that every quadrant has at least one hail suppression station and intercomparison is more precise. Discriminant analysis was performed for the yearly values of each quadrant. These values included number of cases with solid precipitation, hail damage, heavy hail damage, number of active hail suppression stations, number of days with solid precipitation, solid precipitation damage, heavy solid precipitation damage and the number and duration of air traffic control bans. The discriminant analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the two periods. Average values of observed periods on isolated discriminant function 1 are for the first period (1981-1990) -0.36 and for the second period +0.23 standard deviation of all observations. The analysis for all eight variables shows statistically substantial differences in the

  16. [The Journal of Slavonian Physicians (Glasnik druztva Slavonskih Liecnika), the journal of the medical society in Croatia 1877-1878].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Tucak, Antun

    2003-01-01

    If we discuss chronological appearance of medical journals as official gazettes of medical associations in this part of the world and Europe, then Glasnik druztva slavonskih liecnika (Glasnik DSL) is the first and the oldest medical journal of this kind in Croatia, whose first number is dated January 1, 1877, and the last December 1, 1878. It is the gazette of the Slavonian Medical Association in Osiek (DSL in Osiek), a professional medical association founded in 1874, which today marks its activity as the Croatian Medical Association--Osijek Branch (HLZ). Our goal was to investigate the key determinants of its appearance in the context of the role and contribution of Slavonian physicians in the promotion and development of Croatian medical literature, particularly medical periodicals in the 19th century. The conclusions we reached are based on the knowledge acquired during previous investigations on the history of medical associations and development of professional medical periodicals in Croatia and Slavonia in the 19th century, and on the historical material and preserved documentation of DSL in Osiek, HLZ in Zagreb, and Glasnik DSL from the beginning of 1874 through 1878. Basic determinants of the appearance and relatively short duration of the monthly periodical Glasnik DSL are highlighted, with the emphasis on: 1) events preceding its publication, including initiatives of physicians in Slavonia for the development of Croatian medical terminology, professional medical publications, particularly medical journals from the middle of the 19th century through 1876; 2) circumstances accompanying the publication of the journal Glasnik DSL in the period from January 1, 1877 through 1878; 3) events contributing to making decision on discontinuation of its publishing. The results are presented in several separate chapters which offer new scientific knowledge about the history of the medical Journal Glasnik DSL, and about the role of Slavonian physicians and DSL in Osiek

  17. Modelling of maturation, expulsion and accumulation of bacterial methane within Ravneš Member (Pliocene age), Croatia onshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial methane is a dominant hydrocarbon component in the Northern Croatia's Adriatic offshore proven hydrocarbon reservoirs. As onshore reserves are declining the potential of shallow gas accumulation, analogue to the Adriatic ones, are being tested. A part of the Lonja Formation (Pliocene Pleistocene and Holocene), the Ravneš Member (Early Pliocene age) is analysed for its maturation and expulsion regarding bacterial methane as potential source and reservoir rocks, especially as it is thermally immature. Two approaches were used for the initial lithology modelling processes - the convergent interpolation and sequential Gaussian simulation. Possibility for trapping and forming of accumulations was also modelled. Results show that selected member has a large source rock potential for bacterial methane with a total volume of 411.53 × 109 m3 for the Convergent interpolation model and 520.56 × 109 m3 for the sequential Gaussian simulation model of expulsed bacterial methane

  18. Sources, trends and ecotoxicological risks of PAH pollution in surface sediments from the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the levels, sources and historical trends (2007-2012) of PAH pollution in surface sediments in the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) have been assessed. In addition, ecotoxicological risks have been estimated by evaluating the PAH dataset against Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The results indicate that PAH in surface sediments are of pyrolitic origin with no clear positive or negative trend in PAH concentration over the investigated period. Evaluations against SQG and mSQGq indicate that surface sediments at all sampling sites have a low to medium ecotoxicological risk. In order to improve trend analysis and characterization of PAH pollution in surface sediments in this region an increase in spatial resolution of sampling points is recommended.

  19. Anthropological analysis of neolithic and Early Bronze Age skeletons--a classical and molecular approach (East Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Hincak, Zdravka; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Mihelić, Damir

    2007-12-01

    Theories about the first Indo-European migration are numerous. Significant contribution in attempt to resolve these theories is given by analysing skeletal material from two biggest prehistoric archaeological sites from N-E Croatia. Eight skeletons of Starcevo culture from sites "Nama" and "Hotel" at Vinkovci (6100-5500 BC) and seven skeletons of Vucedol culture from the site Vineyard Streim at Vucedol near Vukovar (3000-2500 BC) were analysed. Methods of classical anthropological analysis tried to distinguish the differences among members of both populations, while the methods of molecular genetics were used in defining possible genetic structure of both ancient populations. Established differences speak on the behalf of the theory of Maria Gimbutas about the first Indo-European migration with a cattle breeding population from the east around 3500 BC.

  20. Holistic anthropological research of Hvar Islanders, Croatia--from parish registries to DNA studies in 33 years.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Pavao; Janićijević, Branka; Jovanović, Veljko; Milicić, Jasna; Narancić, Nina Smolej; Sujoldzić, Anita; Szirovicza, Lajos; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Lauc, Tomislav; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Pericić, Marijana; Rudan, Diana; Rudan, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of interactions between hereditary, environmental and cultural factors in determining human phenotypes is often underestimated in biomedical research. In this paper, we present 33 years of holistic anthropological research that was being conducted since 1971 in the island of Hvar, Croatia. During this period, detailed characterization of migrations, demography, isonymy, linguistic differences, anthropometric traits (head and body dimensions), physiological (cardio-respiratory) properties, quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphic traits, radiogrammetric metacarpal bone dimensions and genetic traits (classical antigens, HLA diversity, DNA short tandem repeat -STR, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms) was performed. The analysis of this large collection of data using both model-bound and model-free approaches showed that the complexity underlying human biological traits may be considerably greater than generally assumed, which has important implications for design of future studies into genetic determinants of complex traits.

  1. Telecom Big Data for Urban Transport Analysis - a Case Study of Split-Dalmatia County in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baučić, M.; Jajac, N.; Bućan, M.

    2017-09-01

    Today, big data has become widely available and the new technologies are being developed for big data storage architecture and big data analytics. An ongoing challenge is how to incorporate big data into GIS applications supporting the various domains. International Transport Forum explains how the arrival of big data and real-time data, together with new data processing algorithms lead to new insights and operational improvements of transport. Based on the telecom customer data, the Study of Tourist Movement and Traffic in Split-Dalmatia County in Croatia is carried out as a part of the "IPA Adriatic CBC//N.0086/INTERMODAL" project. This paper briefly explains the big data used in the study and the results of the study. Furthermore, this paper investigates the main considerations when using telecom customer big data: data privacy and data quality. The paper concludes with GIS visualisation and proposes the further use of big data used in the study.

  2. The fouling of fish farm cage nets as bioindicator of aquaculture pollution in the Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Sliskovic, Merica; Jelic-Mrcelic, Gorana; Antolic, Boris; Anicic, Ivica

    2011-02-01

    A fouling assemblage (including density, species richness and diversity, and biomass) growing on netting of fish farm cages was investigated in Stracinska Bay--Location 1 and Peles Bay--Location 2 (Croatia) in order to test the efficiency of fouling as a bioindicator of organic pollution. A total number of 40 algal taxa in Location 1 and total number of 22 algal taxa in Location 2 were identified, with a dominance of opportunistic species (ESG II). We found domination of algal species over animal species and absolute dominance of Rhodophyta which are typical fouler in the Adriatic Sea. Low diversity and species richness with increase in value of the R/P index (occasionally higher than 6) were recorded in Location 2, indicating a certain impact of nutrient enrichment from fish culture facilities on a fouling community structure.

  3. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  4. Primary healthcare information system--the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare sector in Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Koncar, Miroslav; Gvozdanović, Darko

    2006-01-01

    At no time in the history of medicine has the growth in knowledge and technologies been so profound [Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2001. ISBN 0-309-07280-8]. However, healthcare delivery systems today are not able to keep up with the pace. Studies have shown that it takes an average of about 17 years for new knowledge generated by randomized trials to be incorporated into practice [B. Andrew, S. Boren, Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement, in: Yearbook of Medical Informatics, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 2000, pp. 65-70]. It is safe to say that today healthcare systems "have the data, but not information". In order to provide highest quality patient care, Republic of Croatia has started the process of introducing enterprise information systems to support business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: to provide efficient healthcare related data management in support of decision-making processes; and to support continuous process of healthcare resources spending optimization. The first initiated project refers to Primary Healthcare Information System (PHCIS) that provides domain of primary care with state-of-the-art enterprise information system that connects General Practitioners, Pediatricians and Gynecologists offices with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Public Health Institute. In the years to come, PHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of healthcare (e.g. hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories) into single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of PHCIS, explains challenges that were faced in designing and implementing the system, and elaborates PHCIS role as the cornerstone for the next generation healthcare provisioning in Republic of Croatia.

  5. Test and evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI dual sensor systems at Benkovac test site in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Furuta, K.; Pavković, Nikola

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental design and the evaluation result of a trial that were carried out from 1 February to 9 March 2006 using real PMA-1A and PMA-2 landmines at the Benkovac test site in Croatia. The objective of the Croatia- Japan joint trial is to evaluate dual sensor systems, which use both ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic inductive (EMI) sensors. A comparative trial was also carried out by Croatian deminers using an existing EMI sensor, i.e., a metal detector (MD). The trial aims at evaluating differences in performance between dual sensors and MDs, especially in terms of discrimination of landmines from metal fragments and extension of detectable range in the depth direction. Devices evaluated here are 4 prototypes of anti-personnel landmine detection systems developed under a project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the supervising authority of which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The prototypes provide operators with subsurface images, and final decision whether a shadow in the image is a real landmine or not is left to the operator. This is similar to the way that medical doctors find cancer by reading CT images. Since operators' pre-knowledge of locations of buried targets significantly influences the test result, three test lanes, which have 3 different kinds of soils, have been designed to be suitable for blind tests. The result showed that the dual sensor systems have a potential to discriminate landmines from metal fragments and that probability of detection for small targets in mineralized soils can be improved by using GPR.

  6. The frequency and distribution of caries in the mediaeval population of Bijelo Brdo in Croatia (10th-11th century).

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Hrvoje, Brkić; Slaus, Mario; Mario, Slaus; Demo, Zelijko; Zelijko, Demo

    2005-07-01

    Reconstruction of the life of ancient peoples can be accomplished by studying their dental remains. The further we go into the past, the greater the importance of dental remains for answering a wide spectre of questions related to the life of a particular community. The dental system is a valuable source of information on the type of food, illnesses, and social stratification within a community. The purpose of this paper was to determine the frequency, distribution, and characteristics of dental caries in the mediaeval population of Bijelo Brdo in Croatia. The analysed sample consisted of the dental remains of 85 individuals with the total of 1064 teeth. The majority (979 or 92.0%) of the teeth belonged to the permanent dentition, and this data set was analysed in this report. The frequency of antemortem tooth loss in the sample was 6.7%, the frequency of caries - 9.5%. The most frequent recorded caries were interproximal (3.9%), followed by occlusal (2.9%), and buccal/lingual (1.3%). This research showed that the frequency and distribution of dental caries in the early mediaeval population from Bijelo Brdo is very similar to that of other European populations of the same socio-economic status during the same historic period. Chronological changes in the localisation of caries in populations that inhabited continental Croatia during the mediaeval period indicate a gradual reduction of interproximal caries and an increase of occlusal, buccal, and lingual lesions. These data suggest a change of diet with softer foods becoming more available in the younger time periods.

  7. Initiatives to improve prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat Parkinson's disease in Croatia: influence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brkicic, Ljiljana Sovic; Godman, Brian; Voncina, Luka; Sovic, Slavica; Relja, Maja

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disease affecting older adults. Consequently, this disease should be a focus among payers, with increasing utilization of newer premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies to stabilize or even improve motor function over time. However, expenditure can be moderated by reforms. Consequently, there is a need to assess the influence of these reforms on the prescribing efficiency for drugs to treat PD in Croatia before proposing additional measures. Prescribing efficiency is defined as increasing the use of add-on therapies for similar expenditure. An observational retrospective study of the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance database of drugs to treat patients with PD in Croatia from 2000 to 2010 was carried out, with utilization measured in defined daily doses (defined as the average maintenance dose of a drug when used in its major indication in adults). The study years were chosen to reflect recent reforms. Only reimbursed expenditure is measured from a health insurance perspective. Utilization of drugs to treat PD increased by 218% between 2000 and 2010. Reimbursed expenditure increased by 360%, principally driven by increasing utilization of premium-priced patent-protected add-on therapies, including ropinirole and pramipexole. However, following recent reforms, reducing expenditure/defined daily dose for the different drugs, as well as overall expenditure, stabilized reimbursed expenditure between 2005 and 2010. Treatment of PD is complex, and add-on therapies are needed to improve care. Reimbursed expenditure should now fall following stabilization, despite increasing volumes, as successive add-on therapies lose their patents, further increasing prescribing efficiency.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  9. Results from stable isotope investigations of river waters in Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, H.; Frančišković-Bilinski, S.; Rank, D.; Stadler, P.; Bilinski, H.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation (GNIP), revealing an approximate vertical d O-18 gradient of -0,30‰ per 100 m, as reported by Vreča et al. (2006). In addition, this stable isotope data for the GNIP station Zavižan predominantly indicates precipitation from the Adriatic coast, in contrary to the GNIP station Zagreb, the precipitation of which is more influenced by continental air masses. Due to the lack of local precipitation isotope data in the Kupa drainage basin it is not possible to directly analyse the modification of the isotopic signature and its temporal variation in river waters. To sum up, the isotopic composition of river waters in the Kupa Basin is controlled by two factors: the mean altitude of the recharge areas, and differences in the isotope composition of air moisture of more maritime or more continental influence. Along with use for hydrological investigations, the presented isotope data set can serve as a base line of isotope data for assessing future climate impacts within the Kupa Basin, such as temperature changes and change of precipitation distribution. Vreča, P., Bronić, I. K., Horvatinčić, N., Baresić, J. (2006): Isotopic characteristics of precipitation in Slovenia and Croatia: Comparison of continental and marine stations.- Journal of Hydrology, 330, 457-469.

  10. Identification of land degradation evidences in an organic farm using probability maps (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Bogunovic, Igor; Estebaranz, Ferran

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a biophysical process with important impacts on society, economy and policy. Areas affected by land degradation do not provide services in quality and with capacity to full-field the communities that depends on them (Amaya-Romero et al., 2015; Beyene, 2015; Lanckriet et al., 2015). Agricultural activities are one of the main causes of land degradation (Kraaijvanger and Veldkamp, 2015), especially when they decrease soil organic matter (SOM), a crucial element for soil fertility. In temperate areas, the critical level of SOM concentration in agricultural soils is 3.4%. Below this level there is a potential decrease of soil quality (Loveland and Weeb, 2003). However, no previous work was carried out in other environments, such as the Mediterranean. The spatial distribution of potential degraded land is important to be identified and mapped, in order to identify the areas that need restoration (Brevik et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2017). The aim of this work is to assess the spatial distribution of areas with evidences of land degradation (SOM bellow 3.4%) using probability maps in an organic farm located in Croatia. In order to find the best method, we compared several probability methods, such as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Universal Kriging (UK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area is located on the Istria peninsula (45°3' N; 14°2' E), with a total area of 182 ha. One hundred eighty-two soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected during July of 2015 and SOM was assessed using wet combustion procedure. The assessment of the best probability method was carried out using leave one out cross validation method. The probability method with the lowest Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most accurate. The results showed that the best method to predict the probability of potential land degradation was SK with an RMSE of 0.635, followed by DK (RMSE=0.636), UK (RMSE=0.660), OK (RMSE

  11. Physical and chemical properties of dew and rain water in the Dalmatian coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Lekouch, I.; Muselli, M.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, I.; Sojat, V.

    2010-07-01

    The possibility to use dew water as a supplementary source of water is evaluated in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. The relative contributions of dew and rain water and their chemical quality is estimated. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 to October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data. Maximum yields were 0.41 mm (Zadar) and 0.6 mm (Komiža). The mean yearly cumulative yields were 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). During the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. The chemical properties of dew water versus rain water were analyzed during three years (2004 - 2006) in Zadar. The corresponding parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions (HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-,NO3-), major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). The mean pH and EC values were comparable for dew and rain water, pH = 6.7 (dew) and pH = 6.35 (rain), EC = 195.5 microS cm-1 (dew) and EC = 178.1 microS cm-1 (rain). The ratio (SO42- + NO3-) / (Ca2+ + Mg2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of both dew and rain water. Both dew and rain water exhibited low mineralization. The analysis of the major ions showed that the concentration of cations is high compared to that of anions (presumably NO2-,HCOO- and CH3COO- non-measured ions), with Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ the main ions. In order to discriminate between the marine and non-marine origin of ions, the sea-salt fraction (SSF) was calculated by taking Na+ as a reference. The small SSF value in dew suggests a considerable

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  13. Folnegović & Folnevogić-Smalc's "Schizophrenia in Croatia: inter-regional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence".

    PubMed

    Cooper, B; Eagles, J M

    1994-01-01

    "STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations."

  14. [Founding and activity of the Society of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slovenia as reported in the newspapers from 1874 to 1875].

    PubMed

    Belicza, Biserka; Buklijas, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the first active year of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, today's Croatian Medical Association, (from February 26, 1874 until the annual assembly held on June 31, 1875), based upon the articles published in Zagreb daily newspapers Obzor and Narodne novine and a Zadar newspaper--Narodni list. The writings of these newspapers are situated in the spatial and temporal context based on data from secondary literature and Austrian daily newspapers. These articles were employed as historical sources, which we used to find answers to following questions: How did the Croatian public accept the foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia? What did the public expect and what duties was this Association to fulfill according to the public? Finally, how did the public evaluate the results of the Association's work at the end of its first year of existence? The foundation of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia coincided with numerous initiatives on the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy level. Goal of these initiatives was to create a well ramified network of physicians' organisations that were to deal with issues related to the social status of physicians, such as fees for their professional services, retirement funds, pensions for family members etc. The first official "Rules of the Association of Physicians of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia" from May 1874, puts promotion of scientific medicine and health improvement before the interests of the medical profession status. Croatian public expected that the newly founded Association would engage itself in matters such as improving medical practice, eradicating diseases, promoting foundation of a medical school in Zagreb, counselling political bodies on the health-related issues, and so on. Based on the newspaper articles, especially ones published at the end of the first year of the Associations' existence

  15. The origin of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) from Croatia determined by high-resolution melting screening of mitochondrial cox1 haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Radvánszky, Ján; Beck, Relja

    2013-07-01

    The high-resolution melting (HRM) method, recently optimized as a reliable technique for population study of the European Fascioloides magna populations, was applied to determine an origin of F. magna individuals from Croatia. The structure and frequency of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (439 bp; cox1) haplotypes of 200 Croatian flukes coming from 19 red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) livers were screened and compared with recently determined reference samples of F. magna from all European foci-Italy, Czech Republic, and Danube floodplain forests. While the reference haplotypes Ha1 and Ha2 were specific for flukes from the first European focus of fascioloidosis, the Natural Park La Mandria in Italy, the remaining three haplotypes (Ha3, Ha4, and Ha5) represented parasites from the second focus, Czech Republic. Besides, Ha3 and Ha4 were found also in the third, latest, and still expanding European focus, the Danube floodplain forests. The HRM screening of cox1 haplotypes of Croatian F. magna individuals resulted in classification of samples into the two mitochondrial haplogroups characterized by well-distinguished melting curves. They corresponded to Ha3 and Ha4 reference haplotypes that confirmed the Danube origin of F. magna from Croatia. The results support the theory that the Danube floodplain forests population of F. magna represents uniform genetic pool of the parasite. The spread of F. magna alongside the Danube River down to Croatia was possible due to suitable ecological conditions for definitive and intermediate hosts present in this unique biotope.

  16. Laboratory testing of extravascular body fluids in Croatia: a survey of the Working group for extravascular body fluids of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Vogrinc, Zeljka; Kocijan, Irena; Culej, Jelena; Aralica, Merica; Jokic, Anja; Antoncic, Dragana; Bozovic, Marija

    2016-10-15

    We hypothesized that extravascular body fluid (EBF) analysis in Croatia is not harmonized and aimed to investigate preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures used in EBF analysis in order to identify key aspects that should be addressed in future harmonization attempts. An anonymous online survey created to explore laboratory testing of EBF was sent to secondary, tertiary and private health care Medical Biochemistry Laboratories (MBLs) in Croatia. Statements were designed to address preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal (ascites), pericardial, seminal, synovial, amniotic fluid and sweat. Participants were asked to declare the strength of agreement with proposed statements using a Likert scale. Mean scores for corresponding separate statements divided according to health care setting were calculated and compared. The survey response rate was 0.64 (58 / 90). None of the participating private MBLs declared to analyse EBF. We report a mean score of 3.45 obtained for all statements evaluated. Deviations from desirable procedures were demonstrated in all EBF testing phases. Minor differences in procedures used for EBF analysis comparing secondary and tertiary health care MBLs were found. The lowest scores were obtained for statements regarding quality control procedures in EBF analysis, participation in proficiency testing programmes and provision of interpretative comments on EBF's test reports. Although good laboratory EBF practice is present in Croatia, procedures for EBF analysis should be further harmonized to improve the quality of EBF testing and patient safety.

  17. Emigration-related attitudes of the final year medical students in Croatia: a cross-sectional study at the dawn of the EU accession.

    PubMed

    Kolčić, Ivana; Cikeš, Mihaela; Boban, Kristina; Bućan, Jasna; Likić, Robert; Curić, Goran; Dogaš, Zoran; Polašek, Ozren

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the emigration-related attitudes of final year medical students in Croatia at the dawn of the EU accession in 2013. All final-year medical students at four Croatian medical schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey on emigration attitudes. Among 260 respondents (response rate 61%), 90 students (35%) reported readiness for permanent emigration, expecting better quality of life (N=22, 31%), better health care organization (N=17, 24%), more professional challenges (N=10, 14%), or simply to get a job (N=8, 11%), while the least common expectation were greater earnings (N=7, 10%). The most common target countries were Germany (N=36, 40%), USA and Canada (N=15, 17%), and UK (N=10, 11%). In a multivariate analysis, readiness for permanent emigration was associated with an interest in undertaking a temporary training abroad (odds ratio [OR] 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-16.72), while the belief that the preferred specialty could be obtained in Croatia appeared protective against emigration (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59). Despite shortages of health care workers in Croatia, the percentage of students with emigration propensity was rather high. Prevalent negative perception of the Croatian health care and recent Croatian accession to the EU pose a threat of losing newly graduated physicians to EU countries.

  18. Emigration-related attitudes of the final year medical students in Croatia: a cross-sectional study at the dawn of the EU accession

    PubMed Central

    Kolčić, Ivana; Čikeš, Mihaela; Boban, Kristina; Bućan, Jasna; Likić, Robert; Ćurić, Goran; Đogaš, Zoran; Polašek, Ozren

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the emigration-related attitudes of final year medical students in Croatia at the dawn of the EU accession in 2013. Methods All final-year medical students at four Croatian medical schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey on emigration attitudes. Results Among 260 respondents (response rate 61%), 90 students (35%) reported readiness for permanent emigration, expecting better quality of life (N = 22, 31%), better health care organization (N = 17, 24%), more professional challenges (N = 10, 14%), or simply to get a job (N = 8, 11%), while the least common expectation were greater earnings (N = 7, 10%). The most common target countries were Germany (N = 36, 40%), USA and Canada (N = 15, 17%), and UK (N = 10, 11%). In a multivariate analysis, readiness for permanent emigration was associated with an interest in undertaking a temporary training abroad (odds ratio [OR] 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-16.72), while the belief that the preferred specialty could be obtained in Croatia appeared protective against emigration (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59). Conclusion Despite shortages of health care workers in Croatia, the percentage of students with emigration propensity was rather high. Prevalent negative perception of the Croatian health care and recent Croatian accession to the EU pose a threat of losing newly graduated physicians to EU countries. PMID:25358878

  19. Laboratory testing of extravascular body fluids in Croatia: a survey of the Working group for extravascular body fluids of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Vogrinc, Zeljka; Kocijan, Irena; Culej, Jelena; Aralica, Merica; Jokic, Anja; Antoncic, Dragana; Bozovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that extravascular body fluid (EBF) analysis in Croatia is not harmonized and aimed to investigate preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures used in EBF analysis in order to identify key aspects that should be addressed in future harmonization attempts. Materials and methods An anonymous online survey created to explore laboratory testing of EBF was sent to secondary, tertiary and private health care Medical Biochemistry Laboratories (MBLs) in Croatia. Statements were designed to address preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal (ascites), pericardial, seminal, synovial, amniotic fluid and sweat. Participants were asked to declare the strength of agreement with proposed statements using a Likert scale. Mean scores for corresponding separate statements divided according to health care setting were calculated and compared. Results The survey response rate was 0.64 (58 / 90). None of the participating private MBLs declared to analyse EBF. We report a mean score of 3.45 obtained for all statements evaluated. Deviations from desirable procedures were demonstrated in all EBF testing phases. Minor differences in procedures used for EBF analysis comparing secondary and tertiary health care MBLs were found. The lowest scores were obtained for statements regarding quality control procedures in EBF analysis, participation in proficiency testing programmes and provision of interpretative comments on EBF’s test reports. Conclusions Although good laboratory EBF practice is present in Croatia, procedures for EBF analysis should be further harmonized to improve the quality of EBF testing and patient safety. PMID:27812307

  20. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Humski, Andrea; Njari, Bela; Ostović, Mario; Duvnjak, Sanja; Cvetnić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Summary In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. In 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multilocus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs) of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the first time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia. PMID:28115906

  1. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  2. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future

  3. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  4. Mercury in Eisenia fetida and soil in the vicinity of a natural gas treatment plant in northern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Crnić, Andreja Prevendar; Zgorelec, Željka; Šuran, Jelena; Jurasović, Jasna; Špirić, Zdravko; Levak, Stefani; Bašić, Ferdo; Kisić, Ivica; Srebočan, Emil

    2016-01-28

    In the last two decades (1990-2012), as part of a mercury monitoring programme, earthworms and soils have been collected from four locations in the vicinity of a natural gas production and treatment plant near the village of Molve, Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of mercury in the collected samples, monitor its changes over a longer period of time and determine the bioaccumulation of total mercury in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the soil. Total mercury concentrations in earthworms from the surroundings of four boreholes (Molve 9-12) ranged within 0.195-1.050, 0.129-1.0, 0.229-1.236 and 0.223-0.799 μg g(-1) dry weight, while total mercury concentrations in different soil types at the same locations within 0.055-0.350, 0.035-0.250, 0.031-0.240 and 0.071-0.475 μg Hg g(-1) of soil. The calculated mercury bioaccumulation factor ranged between 0.9 and 17.5. Mercury levels in soil and earthworms, as a tool for soil pollution assessment, suggested low mercury exposure and risks for human health in the monitored area.

  5. Blind Flight? A New Troglobiotic Orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama – Trojama Cave in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Pavlek, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama—Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes “Metriocnemini” and “Orthocladiini”. Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe “Metriocnemini”. Troglocladius hajdi may be parthenogenetic, as only females were collected. The discovery confirms the position of the Dinaric arch as a highly important hotspot of subterranean biodiversity. PMID:27119557

  6. Survey of T-2/HT-2 toxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vasilj, Višnja; Kudumija, Nina; Petrović, Danijela; Vilušić, Milica; Škrivanko, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of T-2/HT-2 toxins in different unprocessed cereals (n=201), as well as in marketed cereal-based products (n=58), feed components (n=191) and feedstuffs (n=91) coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The number of positive samples of unprocessed cereals for food production (>LOD) ranged from 30.4% in barley to 68.8% in oat whereas for feed components ranged from 26.9% in wheat to 86.1% in oat. The maximal values found in unprocessed oat and oat-based feed components were 304.2μg/kg and 521.0μg/kg, respectively. As for final products, the highest T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in oat flakes (89.4μg/kg) and calf feed (129.3μg/kg). Despite of the increased T-2/HT-2 concentrations found in some of the samples, the obtained values were unanimously lower than the indicative levels given as recommendations above which further investigations should be necessary performed.

  7. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  8. The town of Cabar, Croatia, a high risk area for multiple sclerosis--analytic epidemiology of dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Perković, Olivio; Jurjević, Ante; Rudez, Josip; Antoncić, Igor; Bralić, Marina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelization disease of central nervous system of unidentified causes. Analytic epidemiological research of 19 patients, clinically approved cases of MS and 25 controls, autochthonic inhabitants of town of Cabar, Croatia, the high-risk zone for the disease, was made. The research plan included case-control investigation--the "door to door" questionnaire--about nutrition habits. An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for all the factors which were more frequently found in the patients than in the controls, and vice versa. The variables that were connected with significant risk for MS in the town of Cabar included: alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), animal fats/dried meat products consumption (p = 0.007), nitrate salting (p = 0.03), strong spices (p = 0.007), mixed bread (p = 0.002), oat and oat products consumption (p = 0.0075). No connection was found with regular consumption of vegetables and fruit (p = 0.009), blue fresh fish (p = 0.028), other fresh fish (p = 0.03), freshwater fish (p = 0.002), canned fish (p = 0.004), dormouse meat (p = 0.007), air-dried meat products (p = 0.004) and using the water from water supply (p = 0.011). In the town of Cabar nutritional customs, primarily food rich in animal fats, alcohol-abuse, and oat consumption could have an influence on MS pathogenesis in genetically inclined individuals.

  9. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmolc/kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmolc/kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmolc/kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  10. Cation exchange capacity of loess and overlying soil in the non-carbonate loess sections, North-Western Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomašić, Nenad; Kampić, Štefica; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Pikelj, Kristina; Lučić, Mavro; Mavrić, Danijela; Vučetić, Tajana

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption properties in terms of cation exchange capacity and their relation to the soil and sediment constituents (clay minerals, Fe-, Mn-, and Al-oxyhydroxides, organic matter) were investigated in loess, soil-loess transition zone, and soil at four loess-soil sections in North-Western Croatia. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk samples, the samples after oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn and Al, and after removal of organic matter, as well as of the separated clay fraction, was determined using copper ethylenediamine. Cation exchange capacity (pH˜7) of the bulk samples ranges from 5 to 12 cmol c /kg in soil, from 7 to 15 cmol c /kg in the soil-loess transition zone, and from 12 to 20 cmol c /kg in loess. Generally, CEC values increase with depth. Oxalate extraction of Fe, Mn, and Al, and removal of organic matter cause a CEC decrease of 3-38% and 8-55%, respectively, proving a considerable influence of these constituents to the bulk CEC values. In the separated clay fraction (<2 μm) CEC values are up to several times higher relative to those in the bulk samples. The measured CEC values of the bulk samples generally correspond to the clay mineral content identified. Also, a slight increase in muscovite/illite content with depth and the vermiculite occurrence in the loess horizon are concomitant with the CEC increase in deeper horizons, irrespective of the sample pretreatment.

  11. Motivation and Career Perceptions of Dental Students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process.

  12. A comparison of fruit chemical characteristics of two wild grown Rubus species from different locations of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Dujmović Purgar, Dubravka; Duralija, Boris; Voća, Sandra; Vokurka, Aleš; Ercisli, Sezai

    2012-08-30

    The main focus of our study was to investigate differences in nutritional (dry matter, soluble solids content, total acidity and pH value) and bioactive values (ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins, total phenols, and non-flavonoids content) of wild grown raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus discolor) genotypes harvested from native populations in Croatia. The average total acidity ranged from 0.93 to 1.72% in R. discolor and 1.57 to 1.91% in R. idaeus. Ascorbic acid was found between 22.34 mg and 45.00 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. idaeus, while it was between 30.64 mg and 33.09 mg 100 g⁻¹ in R. discolor genotypes. A great variability in total anthocyanins was detected in roatian wild blackberry and raspberry genotypes, ranging from 2,226 to 2,367 mg kg⁻¹ for blackberries and 279 to 582 mg kg⁻¹ for raspberries, indicating wild blackberries are particularly rich in anthocyanins. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that investigated wild growing fruit species have a great potential in nutritive research, as well as in biodiversity research. It is necessary to carry out further investigation and evaluation of wild growing fruit species to utilize them in the most appropriate way, as well as conservation of interesting accessions in the gene banks.

  13. A six decades long follow-up on body size in adolescents from Zagreb, Croatia (1951-2010).

    PubMed

    Zajc Petranović, Matea; Tomas, Željka; Smolej Narančić, Nina; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Veček, Andrea; Miličić, Jasna

    2014-03-01

    Most studies analysing the influence of socioeconomic deterioration on body size focus on the impact of food shortages and diseases on the growth in early childhood. To evaluate how socioeconomic conditions influence the growth during the adolescence, we tracked the body size of 15-19 year-olds over the last sixty years covering the socialist period (1951-1990), the war (1991-1995) and the transition to capitalistic economy. This study of Zagreb, Croatia, adolescent population provides information on the secular trend in height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) and examines their relation with Real Gross Domestic Product. From 1951 to 2010 the girls' height approximately increased by 6.2cm and weight by 6.8kg, while the boys' height increased by 12.2cm and weight by 17.3kg. Prior to 1991 mean BMI in girls was higher than in boys, but from 1991 on, the interrelation between the sexes has been opposite, possibly mirroring the cultural trends that started in mid-1970s and reflecting higher sensitivity of boys to the socioeconomic changes. In conclusion, the secular trend in body size over the investigated period reflects the positive economic trends interrupted by the war. The recent increase in BMI corresponds to the country's economic recovery and indicates the "nutrition transition".

  14. Motivation and Career Perceptions of Dental Students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Material and Methods Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. Results A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. Conclussion The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process. PMID:27847393

  15. Patterns of internet use and mental health of high school students in Istria County Croatia: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bezinović, Petar; Roviš, Darko; Rončević, Nena; Bilajac, Lovorka

    2015-06-01

    To examine associations between different forms of internet use and a number of psychological variables related to mental health in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of students (N=1539) from all high schools in the region of Istria in Croatia (14-19 years). The associations between four factors of internet use and nine mental health indicators were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. The four canonical functions suggested a significant association between different types of internet use and specific indicators of mental health (P<0.001). Problematic internet use, more typical among boys, was associated with general aggressive behavior and substance abuse (P<0.001). Experiences of harassment, more typical among girls, were associated with health complaints, symptoms of depression, loneliness, and fear of negative evaluation (P<0.001). Using the internet for communication and entertainment was associated with better relationships with peers (P<0.001), while use of the internet for academic purposes was associated with conscientiousness (P<0.001). The results suggest that different patterns of internet use are significantly associated with specific sets of positive and negative mental health indicators. The data support the assumption that internet use can have both positive and adverse effects on the mental health of youth.

  16. Patterns of internet use and mental health of high school students in Istria County, Croatia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bezinović, Petar; Roviš, Darko; Rončević, Nena; Bilajac, Lovorka

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine associations between different forms of internet use and a number of psychological variables related to mental health in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of students (N = 1539) from all high schools in the region of Istria in Croatia (14-19 years). The associations between four factors of internet use and nine mental health indicators were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Results The four canonical functions suggested a significant association between different types of internet use and specific indicators of mental health (P < 0.001). Problematic internet use, more typical among boys, was associated with general aggressive behavior and substance abuse (P < 0.001). Experiences of harassment, more typical among girls, were associated with health complaints, symptoms of depression, loneliness, and fear of negative evaluation (P < 0.001). Using the internet for communication and entertainment was associated with better relationships with peers (P < 0.001), while use of the internet for academic purposes was associated with conscientiousness (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that different patterns of internet use are significantly associated with specific sets of positive and negative mental health indicators. The data support the assumption that internet use can have both positive and adverse effects on the mental health of youth. PMID:26088855

  17. Cancer incidence in eastern Adriatic isolates, Croatia: examples from the islands of Krk, Cres, Losinj, Rab and Pag.

    PubMed

    Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Ranzani, G N; Strnad, M; Vorko-Jović, A; John, V; Kern, J; Ivanković, D; Stevanović, R; Vuckov, S; Vuletić, S; Rudan, P

    1999-12-01

    As an extension of previous research this study investigates the incidence of cancer in five genetic isolate island populations of the Eastern Adriatic, Croatia. Thorough anthropological research over the past three decades has established some of those populations as outstanding examples of genetic isolates. A previous study which found higher cancer incidence in 5 Eastern Adriatic islands than in a control population supported a hypothesis that among the founders of these populations there were genetic variants (especially with recessive inheritance) responsible for genetic susceptibility to certain types of cancer. This study sought to investigate cancer incidence in 5 further island populations. All cancer cases in five island populations (Krk, Cres, Losinj, Rab and Pag) over the 20-year period (1971 to 1990) was extracted from the data of the Croatian Cancer Registry. The mainland populations of Istrian and Primorsko-Goranska County, characterized by similar environmental factors but an outbred genetic structure, represented a control population. After standardization by by sex and age, cancer incidence was higher in the island populations than in the control population in both sexes. The cancer sites primarily responsible for the excess incidence were prostate, stomach and pancreatic cancer in males, and ovarian, breast, stomach, bowel, and brain cancer in females. The reasons for the increased cancer incidence are uncertain and may be due to different environmental exposure between the two populations. However, it is possible that genetic isolation and inbreeding are important factors. Further investigations of cancer in these isolate populations are warranted to explore these findings further.

  18. Impact of partial liberalization of driver's license regulations on the driving behavior of people with epilepsy: experience from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bielen, Ivan; Hajnšek, Sanja; Krmpotić, Pavao; Petelin, Zeljka; Sušak, Renata; Sepić-Grahovac, Dubravka; Sruk, Ana

    2011-08-01

    Until 2005 Croatia had a driving ban for people with epilepsy (PWE) on antiepileptic therapy. To investigate the impact of partial liberalization of legislation, the results of polling performed in 1999 and 2009 were compared. The results revealed that in 1999, despite the driving ban, 46.9% of respondents had a driver's license, whereas in 2009, the majority of respondents with a driver's license (60.2%) fulfilled the requirement criterion of 2 years' remission. In both pollings, one-third of respondents answered that they were driving less often than other drivers. The rate of PWE who were driving was inversely proportional to the seizure rate. In 2009 a greater proportion stated that they drove motorcycles, and few PWE (<5%) declared they were driving more often than others. The inefficiency of rigid legislation and indicators of self-restraint of PWE may be arguments in favor of liberalization, but liberalization should be accompanied by appropriate education programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Composition and source apportionment of fine particulate matter during extended calm periods in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, T.; Orlić, I.; Bogdanović Radović, I.; Čargonja, M.; Stelcer, E.

    2017-09-01

    In the city of Rijeka, Croatia, an extended, two-year aerosol pollution monitoring campaign was recently completed. During that period, 345 samples of fine fraction of aerosols were collected on stretched Teflon filters. All samples were analyzed by Ion Beam Analysis techniques Proton Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Induced γ-Ray Emission and concentrations of 22 elements were determined. Concentrations of black carbon were determined by Laser Integrated Plate Method. For the Bay of Kvarner, where the city of Rijeka is located, long periods of calm weather are common. As a consequence, during these periods, air pollution is steadily increasing. To pin-point and characterize local, mostly anthropogenic, air pollution sources, only samples collected during the extended calm periods were used in this work. As a cut-off wind speed, speed of 1.5 m/s was used. In that way, out of all 345 samples, only 188 were selected. Those samples were statistically evaluated by means of positive matrix factorization. Results show that from all anthropogenic sources (vehicles, secondary sulphates, smoke, heavy oil combustion, road dust, industry Fe and port activities) only secondary sulphates and heavy oil combustion were significantly higher (40% and 50%, respectively) during calm periods. On the other hand, natural components of aerosol pollution such as soil and sea salts, (typically present in concentrations of 1.4% and 9%, respectively) are practically non-existent for calm weather conditions.

  20. Internship workplace preferences of final-year medical students at Zagreb University Medical School, Croatia: all roads lead to Zagreb

    PubMed Central

    Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Bagat, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background Human resources management in health often encounters problems related to workforce geographical distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the internship workplace preferences of final-year medical students and the reasons associated with their choices. Method A total of 204 out of 240 final-year medical students at Zagreb University Medical School, Croatia, were surveyed a few months before graduation. We collected data on each student's background, workplace preference, academic performance and emigration preferences. Logistic regression was used to analyse the factors underlying internship workplace preference, classified into two categories: Zagreb versus other areas. Results Only 39 respondents (19.1%) wanted to obtain internships outside Zagreb, the Croatian capital. Gender and age were not significantly associated with internship workplace preference. A single predictor variable significantly contributed to the logistic regression model: students who believed they would not get the desired specialty more often chose Zagreb as a preferred internship workplace (odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86). Conclusion A strong preference for Zagreb as an internship workplace was recorded. Uncertainty about getting the desired specialty was associated with choosing Zagreb as a workplace, possibly due to more extensive and diverse job opportunities. PMID:16579857