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  1. 25 CFR 39.806 - How is the SURV calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is the SURV calculated? 39.806 Section 39.806 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Determining the Amount Necessary To Sustain an Academic or Residential Program § 39.806 How is the SURV...

  2. 25 CFR 39.806 - How is the SURV calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the SURV calculated? 39.806 Section 39.806 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Determining the Amount Necessary To Sustain an Academic or Residential Program § 39.806 How is the SURV...

  3. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

    SciTech Connect

    Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep.

  4. SurvCurv database and online survival analysis platform update

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Matthias; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Bhat, Aditi; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Understanding the biology of ageing is an important and complex challenge. Survival experiments are one of the primary approaches for measuring changes in ageing. Here, we present a major update to SurvCurv, a database and online resource for survival data in animals. As well as a substantial increase in data and additions to existing graphical and statistical survival analysis features, SurvCurv now includes extended mathematical mortality modelling functions and survival density plots for more advanced representation of groups of survival cohorts. Availability and implementation: The database is freely available at https://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/SurvCurv/. All data are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Contact: matthias.ziehm@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26249811

  5. The Snapshot A-Star SurveY (SASSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garani, Jasmine; Nielsen, Eric L.; Marchis, Franck; Liu, Michael C.; Macintosh, Bruce; Rajan, Abhijith; De Rosa, Robert J.; Wang, Jason; Esposito, Thomas; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptise

    2017-01-01

    We present the Snapshot A-Star SurveY (SASSY), an adaptive optics survey conducted using NIRC2 on the Keck II telescope to search for young, self-luminious planets and brown dwarfs (M > 5MJup) around high mass stars (M > 1.5 M⊙). We describe a custom data-reduction pipeline developed for the coronagraphic observations of our 200 target stars. Our data analysis method includes basic near infrared data processing (flat-field correction, bad pixel removal, distortion correction) as well as performing PSF subtraction through a Reference Differential Imaging algorithm based on a library of PSFs derived from the observations using the pyKLIP routine. We present early results from the survey including planet and brown dwarf candidates and the status of ongoing follow-up observations. Utilizing the high contrast of Keck NIRC2 coronagraphic observations, SASSY reaches sensitivity to brown dwarfs and planetary mass companions at separations between 0.6'' and 4''. With over 200 stars observed we are tripling the number of high-mass stars imaged at these contrasts and sensitivities compared to previous surveys. This work was supported by the NSF REU program at the SETI Institute and NASA grant NNX14AJ80G.

  6. geneSurv: An interactive web-based tool for survival analysis in genomics research.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Goksuluk, Dincer; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-09-05

    Survival analysis methods are often used in cancer studies. It has been shown that the combination of clinical data with genomics increases the predictive performance of survival analysis methods. But, this leads to a high-dimensional data problem. Fortunately, new methods have been developed in the last decade to overcome this problem. However, there is a strong need for easily accessible, user-friendly and interactive tool to perform survival analysis in the presence of genomics data. We developed an open-source and freely available web-based tool for survival analysis methods that can deal with high-dimensional data. This tool includes classical methods, such as Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards regression, and advanced methods, such as penalized Cox regression and Random Survival Forests. It also offers an optimal cutoff determination method based on maximizing several test statistics. The tool has a simple and interactive interface, and it can handle high dimensional data through feature selection and ensemble methods. To dichotomize gene expressions, geneSurv can identify optimal cutoff points. Users can upload their microarray, RNA-Seq, chip-Seq, proteomics, metabolomics or clinical data as a nxp dimensional data matrix, where n refers to samples and p refers to genes. This tool is available free at www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/geneSurv. All source code is available at https://github.com/selcukorkmaz/geneSurv under the GPL-3 license. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SurvExpress: an online biomarker validation tool and database for cancer gene expression data using survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Martínez-Ledesma, Emmanuel; Martínez-Torteya, Antonio; Chacolla-Huaringa, Rafael; Rodriguez-Barrientos, Alberto; Tamez-Peña, José G; Treviño, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Validation of multi-gene biomarkers for clinical outcomes is one of the most important issues for cancer prognosis. An important source of information for virtual validation is the high number of available cancer datasets. Nevertheless, assessing the prognostic performance of a gene expression signature along datasets is a difficult task for Biologists and Physicians and also time-consuming for Statisticians and Bioinformaticians. Therefore, to facilitate performance comparisons and validations of survival biomarkers for cancer outcomes, we developed SurvExpress, a cancer-wide gene expression database with clinical outcomes and a web-based tool that provides survival analysis and risk assessment of cancer datasets. The main input of SurvExpress is only the biomarker gene list. We generated a cancer database collecting more than 20,000 samples and 130 datasets with censored clinical information covering tumors over 20 tissues. We implemented a web interface to perform biomarker validation and comparisons in this database, where a multivariate survival analysis can be accomplished in about one minute. We show the utility and simplicity of SurvExpress in two biomarker applications for breast and lung cancer. Compared to other tools, SurvExpress is the largest, most versatile, and quickest free tool available. SurvExpress web can be accessed in http://bioinformatica.mty.itesm.mx/SurvExpress (a tutorial is included). The website was implemented in JSP, JavaScript, MySQL, and R.

  8. SurvNet: a web server for identifying network-based biomarkers that most correlate with patient survival data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Roebuck, Paul; Grünewald, Stefan; Liang, Han

    2012-07-01

    An important task in biomedical research is identifying biomarkers that correlate with patient clinical data, and these biomarkers then provide a critical foundation for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Conventionally, such an analysis is based on individual genes, but the results are often noisy and difficult to interpret. Using a biological network as the searching platform, network-based biomarkers are expected to be more robust and provide deep insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease. We have developed a novel bioinformatics web server for identifying network-based biomarkers that most correlate with patient survival data, SurvNet. The web server takes three input files: one biological network file, representing a gene regulatory or protein interaction network; one molecular profiling file, containing any type of gene- or protein-centred high-throughput biological data (e.g. microarray expression data or DNA methylation data); and one patient survival data file (e.g. patients' progression-free survival data). Given user-defined parameters, SurvNet will automatically search for subnetworks that most correlate with the observed patient survival data. As the output, SurvNet will generate a list of network biomarkers and display them through a user-friendly interface. SurvNet can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/main/SurvNet.

  9. Calculation of Direct Antiretroviral Treatment Costs and Potential Cost Savings by Using Generics in the German HIV ClinSurv Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Matthias; Kollan, Christian; Bergmann, Frank; Bogner, Johannes; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Fritzsche, Carlos; Hoeper, Kirsten; Horst, Heinz-August; van Lunzen, Jan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim of the Study The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART,-regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. Methods Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART,-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC)-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. Results During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70). Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively). Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. Conclusions Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research and will give insights into the

  10. Sex Work as an Emerging Risk Factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroconversion Among People who Inject Drugs in the SurvUDI Network.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Karine; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Roy, Élise; Blanchette, Caty; Parent, Raymond; Serhir, Bouchra; Alary, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Recent analyses have shown an emerging positive association between sex work and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the SurvUDI network. Participants who had injected in the past 6 months were recruited across the Province of Quebec and in the city of Ottawa, mainly in harm reduction programs. They completed a questionnaire and provided gingival exudate for HIV antibody testing. The associations with HIV seroconversion were tested with a Cox proportional hazard model using time-dependent covariables including the main variable of interest, sexual activity (sex work; no sex work; sexually inactive). The final model included significant variables and confounders of the associations with sexual activity. Seventy-two HIV seroconversions were observed during 5239.2 person-years (py) of follow-up (incidence rates: total = 1.4/100 py; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7; sex work = 2.5/100 py; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6; no sex work = 0.8/100 py; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2; sexually inactive = 1.8/100 py; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5). In the final multivariate model, HIV incidence was significantly associated with sexual activity (sex work: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13-4.25; sexually inactive: AHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92-2.88), and injection with a needle/syringe used by someone else (AHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.73-4.66). Sex work is independently associated with HIV incidence among PWIDs. At the other end of the spectrum of sexual activity, sexually inactive PWIDs have a higher HIV incidence rate, likely due to more profound dependence leading to increased vulnerabilities, which may include mental illness, poverty, and social exclusion. Further studies are needed to understand whether the association between sex work and HIV is related to sexual transmission or other vulnerability factors.

  11. Using relative survival measures for cross-sectional and longitudinal benchmarks of countries, states, and districts: the BenchRelSurv- and BenchRelSurvPlot-macros

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of screening programs is to discover life threatening diseases in as many patients as early as possible and to increase the chance of survival. To be able to compare aspects of health care quality, methods are needed for benchmarking that allow comparisons on various health care levels (regional, national, and international). Objectives Applications and extensions of algorithms can be used to link the information on disease phases with relative survival rates and to consolidate them in composite measures. The application of the developed SAS-macros will give results for benchmarking of health care quality. Data examples for breast cancer care are given. Methods A reference scale (expected, E) must be defined at a time point at which all benchmark objects (observed, O) are measured. All indices are defined as O/E, whereby the extended standardized screening-index (eSSI), the standardized case-mix-index (SCI), the work-up-index (SWI), and the treatment-index (STI) address different health care aspects. The composite measures called overall-performance evaluation (OPE) and relative overall performance indices (ROPI) link the individual indices differently for cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Results Algorithms allow a time point and a time interval associated comparison of the benchmark objects in the indices eSSI, SCI, SWI, STI, OPE, and ROPI. Comparisons between countries, states and districts are possible. Exemplarily comparisons between two countries are made. The success of early detection and screening programs as well as clinical health care quality for breast cancer can be demonstrated while the population’s background mortality is concerned. Conclusions If external quality assurance programs and benchmark objects are based on population-based and corresponding demographic data, information of disease phase and relative survival rates can be combined to indices which offer approaches for comparative analyses between benchmark objects. Conclusions on screening programs and health care quality are possible. The macros can be transferred to other diseases if a disease-specific phase scale of prognostic value (e.g. stage) exists. PMID:23316692

  12. MetaSurv: Web-Platform Generator for the Monitoring of Health Indicators and Interactive Geographical Information System.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Laurent; Moreau, Stéphane; Bonnard, Gaétan

    2005-01-01

    The control of the transmissible epidemics of diseases requires fast and effective tools for data acquisition, analysis, and information feedback to the actors of health like to general public. We present a tool for the fast creation of platforms of monitoring on Internet allowing the collection and the analysis in real time of the epidemic data of any origin with the dynamic and interactive cartographic representation. A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS) has been designed for communicable diseases monitoring. The Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System. It allows to access views of communicable diseases. Thus it is a useful tool for supporting health care decision-making for communicable diseases.This tool is based on the 20 years experiment of the Network Sentinels, with the daily participation of the general practitioners.

  13. The Viscoscity of Synthetic and Natural Silicate Melts and Glasses at High Temperatures and 1 Bar (105 Pascals) Pressure and at Higher Pressures, U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1764

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.

    Over the past decade, I have routinely collected papers dealing with the physical properties of rocks and other materials. Their dog-eared and coffee-stained appearance is just one indication of their continuing value to me. Focusing on viscosity of silicate melts, Michael Ryan and James Blevins have considerably extended and formalized this collection process, resulting in the publication of a massive report containing viscosity data on an extensive variety of melt compositions. According to the authors, this report represents an initial step in establishing a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data base for the properties of multicomponent silicate melts.

  14. Safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function: analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF study subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure).

    PubMed

    Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2013-10-22

    The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and serum potassium <5.0 mmol/l. Patients were receiving optimal therapy and most had been hospitalized for a cardiovascular reason within 180 days of inclusion. Underuse of eplerenone in patients with HF-REF may be due to fear of inducing hyperkalemia or WRF in high-risk patients. This was a pre-specified analysis of subgroups of patients at high risk of hyperkalemia or WRF (patients ≥ 75 years of age, with diabetes, with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and with systolic blood pressure < median of 123 mm Hg), examining the major safety measures (potassium >5.5, >6.0, and <3.5 mmol/l; hyperkalemia leading to study-drug discontinuation or hospitalization; and hospitalization for WRF) as well as the primary outcome (hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular mortality). In all high-risk subgroups, patients treated with eplerenone had an increased risk of potassium >5.5 mmol/l but not of potassium >6.0 mmol/l, and of hospitalization for hyperkalemia or discontinuation of study medication due to adverse events. Eplerenone was effective in reducing the primary composite endpoint in all subgroups. In patients with chronic HF-REF, in NYHA functional class II, and meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, including an eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and potassium <5.0 mmol/l, eplerenone was both efficacious and safe when carefully monitored, even in subgroups at high risk of developing hyperkalemia or WRF. (A Comparison Of Outcomes In Patients In New York Heart Association [NYHA] Class II Heart Failure When Treated With Eplerenone Or Placebo In Addition To Standard Heart Failure Medicines [EMPHASIS-HF Study]; NCT00232180). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma cells by survivin promoter-driven expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    PubMed Central

    QU, LILI; WANG, YANYUN; GONG, LAILING; ZHU, JIN; GONG, RUJUN; SI, JIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the selective killing effect of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) suicide gene system controlled by the survivin promoter on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro. Recombinant plasmid vectors driven by the survivin promoter were constructed. HepG2 HCC and LO2 normal human liver cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmids, green fluorescent protein (GFP)/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV. GFP expression was detected by fluoroscopy and flow cytometry (FCM). TK gene expression was detected using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The selective killing effects after GCV application were evaluated by tetrazolium assay, FCM and western blot analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. After transfection with GFP/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV for 48 h, GFP expression was observed in the HepG2 cells, but not in the L02 cells and TK gene expression was evidently detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis in the HepG2 cells. Three stably transfected cell lines (HepG2/pSURV, HepG2/TK/pSURV and HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV) were successfully established. Compared with the HepG2/TK/pSURV group, a significant ‘bystander effect’ was observed in the HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV group with the incorporation of unmodifed HepG2 cells at different ratios. Following transfection with TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV, the growth of HepG2 cells in the presence of GCV was markedly inhibited. This finding was further corroborated by FCM and immunoblot analysis revealed the repressed expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our results showed that the plasmid vectors carrying the TK and TAT-TK fusion protein gene driven by the survivin promoter were successfully constructed and their specific expression in HepG2 cells provided the basis for the targeted gene therapy of HCC. PMID:23354806

  16. Suicide gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma cells by survivin promoter-driven expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lili; Wang, Yanyun; Gong, Lailing; Zhu, Jin; Gong, Rujun; Si, Jin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the selective killing effect of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) suicide gene system controlled by the survivin promoter on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro. Recombinant plasmid vectors driven by the survivin promoter were constructed. HepG2 HCC and LO2 normal human liver cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmids, green fluorescent protein (GFP)/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV. GFP expression was detected by fluoroscopy and flow cytometry (FCM). TK gene expression was detected using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The selective killing effects after GCV application were evaluated by tetrazolium assay, FCM and western blot analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. After transfection with GFP/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV for 48 h, GFP expression was observed in the HepG2 cells, but not in the L02 cells and TK gene expression was evidently detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis in the HepG2 cells. Three stably transfected cell lines (HepG2/pSURV, HepG2/TK/pSURV and HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV) were successfully established. Compared with the HepG2/TK/pSURV group, a significant 'bystander effect' was observed in the HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV group with the incorporation of unmodifed HepG2 cells at different ratios. Following transfection with TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV, the growth of HepG2 cells in the presence of GCV was markedly inhibited. This finding was further corroborated by FCM and immunoblot analysis revealed the repressed expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our results showed that the plasmid vectors carrying the TK and TAT-TK fusion protein gene driven by the survivin promoter were successfully constructed and their specific expression in HepG2 cells provided the basis for the targeted gene therapy of HCC.

  17. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AS A SENSITIVE END-POINT FOLLOWING ACUTE PERNATAL EXPOSURE TO A LOW DOSE ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE IN FEMALE LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to characterize the potential developmental effects of atrazine (ATR) metabolites at low doses, an environmentally-based mixture (EBM) of ATR and its metabolites hydroxyatrazine, diaminochlorotriazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine was formulated based on surv...

  18. The bathymetric distribution of intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three coastal estuaries of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native eelgrass Zostera marina L. within the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of three Oregon coastal estuaries (Tillamook, Yaquina, and Alsea) were determined by digital classification of aerial color infrared (CIR) orthophotographs. Stratified random surv...

  19. Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  20. Application of restoration scenarios to basin-scale demographics of coho salmon inferred from pit-tags

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  1. The bathymetric distribution of intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three coastal estuaries of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native eelgrass Zostera marina L. within the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of three Oregon coastal estuaries (Tillamook, Yaquina, and Alsea) were determined by digital classification of aerial color infrared (CIR) orthophotographs. Stratified random surv...

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED INVASIVE PLANTS IN RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems typically exhibit high levels of plant species richness, physical disturbance, and interconnectedness; characteristics that may favor establishment and spread of invasive plant species. To assess the magnitude of this invasion, we organized an extensive surve...

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED INVASIVE PLANTS IN RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems typically exhibit high levels of plant species richness, physical disturbance, and interconnectedness; characteristics that may favor establishment and spread of invasive plant species. To assess the magnitude of this invasion, we organized an extensive surve...

  4. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AS A SENSITIVE END-POINT FOLLOWING ACUTE PERNATAL EXPOSURE TO A LOW DOSE ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE IN FEMALE LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to characterize the potential developmental effects of atrazine (ATR) metabolites at low doses, an environmentally-based mixture (EBM) of ATR and its metabolites hydroxyatrazine, diaminochlorotriazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine was formulated based on surv...

  5. Application of restoration scenarios to basin-scale demographics of coho salmon inferred from pit-tags

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  6. Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  7. Web-based Surveillance and Global Salmonella Distribution, 2000–2002

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Danilo M.A. Lo Fo; Patrick, Mary E.; Binsztein, Norma; Cieslik, Anna; Chalermchaikit, Thongchai; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Ellis, Andrea; Angulo, Frederick J.; Wegener, Henrik C.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, S. Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman isolates, although no serotype predominated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was reported most frequently. Several serotypes were reported from only 1 region of the world. The WHO Global Salm-Surv country databank is a valuable public health resource; it is a publicly accessible, Web-based tool that can be used by health professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide. PMID:16704773

  8. Depressed Exercise Peak Ejection Rate Detected on Ambulatory Radionuclide Monitoring Reflects End-Stage Cardiac Inotropic Reserve and Predicts Mortality in Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Carboni, Gian Piero

    2012-01-01

    Background Fifteen patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and inducible ischaemia were studied to determine the mechanisms of mortality. Failure of the contractile reserve during daily life activities may reflect a prognostic index. Methods Single photon emission cardiac tomography and radionuclide ambulatory monitoring (Vest) data were analysed in all patients with a 7-year follow-up. Results At peak exercise on Vest, the 7 non-survivors (N-SURV) showed worse peak ejection rates (PERs) and ejection fractions (EFs) compared with the 8 survivors (SURV), (2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.3 ± 0.7; end-diastolic volumes (EDVs), P < 0.003), and (34 ± 10% vs. 50 ± 13%; P < 0.02), respectively. However, exercise peak filling rates (PFRs) (1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 2.7 ± 0.9; EDVs/s) and exercise heart rates (HRs), (97 ± 17 vs. 106 ± 10), did not differ between the two groups (P > 0.05). In SURV, exercise PERs, which represented rapid left ventricular (LV) emptying, were significantly correlated with exercise PFRs, representing rapid LV filling, (r = 0.71, P < 0.04) but not in N-SURV (r = 0.66, P > 0.05). Among SURV, the Frank-Starling mechanism was thus preserved but not in N-SURV. Upon Cox analysis, overall LV function parameters, exercise PER was the only predictive measure associated with mortality (b = - 0.018, relative hazard ratio = 0.98, P = 0.02). Conclusions Exercise PER reduced values reflected failure of the Frank-Starling mechanism, the incapacity of the heart to perform rapid contractile adaptations to daily life activities and a poor prognosis.

  9. Hydrological Parameter Estimations from a Conservative Tracer Test With Variable-Density Effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    MODFLOW [Harbaugh et al., 2000], MT3DMS [Zheng and Wang, 1999; Zheng, 2005], and SEAWAT [e.g., Guo and Langevin, 2002; Langevin et al., 2003, 2007...which are fully public- domain codes for 3-D flow and variable-density transport modeling. SEAWAT combines a modified version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS...Surv., Reston, Va. Harbaugh, A. W., E. R. Banta, M. C. Hill, and M. G. McDonald (2000), MODFLOW -2000, The U.S. Geological Surv. modular ground-water

  10. Tactical Application of an Atmospheric Mixed-Layer Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    model. accuracy. Ste swar (1981) :epor-ts the following satellize measurement capabilit _y has oee. ahieed: NOA-6 (VRR nfrared radiometer: SST -o .6 0 C...Airborne surve’llance assets, freed from task of surface surv-il-1 Ian ce, could concentrat-e their efforts to)ward detsctirg and airakn~~r targets ...by anabl.ing them to 1.se Predicted holes d’ust above? the duct 4.o penetrate enemy su’eiJ.a:.ce and to use the luct- for targeting and jamming

  11. Wheat landraces: A mini review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farmers developed and utilized diverse wheat landraces to meet the complexity of a multitude of spatio-temporal, agro-ecological systems and to provide reliable sustenance and a sustainable food source to local communities. The genetic structure of wheat landraces is an evolutionary approach to surv...

  12. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

  13. Genetic correlation of longevity with growth, post-mortem, docility and some morphological traits in the Pirenaica beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Moreno, C; Altarriba, J

    2012-06-01

    Survival or longevity is an economically relevant trait in cattle. However, it is not currently included in cattle selection criteria because of the delayed recording of phenotypic data and the high computational demand of survival techniques under proportional hazard models. The identification of longevity-correlated traits that can be early registered in lifetime would therefore be very useful for beef cattle selection processes. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic correlation of survival (SURV) with: growth - birth weight (BW), weight at 120 days (W120), weight at 210 days (W210); carcass - cold carcass weight (CCW), conformation (CON), fatness (FAT) and meat colour (COL); teat morphology - teat thickness (TT), teat length (TL) and udder depth (UD); leg morphology - forward (FL) and backward legs (BL); milk production (MILK) and docility (DOC). In the statistical analysis, SURV was measured in discrete-time intervals and modelled via a sequential threshold model. A series of independent bivariate Bayesian analyses between cow survival and each recorded trait were carried out. The posterior mean estimates (and posterior standard deviation) for the heritability of SURV was 0.05 (0.01); and for the relevant genetic correlations with SURV were 0.07 (0.04), 0.12 (0.05), 0.10 (0.05), 0.15 (0.05), -0.18 (0.06), 0.33 (0.06) and 0.27 (0.15) for BW, W120, W210, CCW, CON, FAT and COL, respectively.

  14. National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...

  15. ENDANGERED AQUATIC VERTEBRATES: COMPARATIVE AND PROBABILISTIC-BASED TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has previously been assumed that endangered, threatened, and candidate endangered species (collectively known as “listed” species) are uniquely sensitive to chemicals. The purpose of this cooperative research effort (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Surve...

  16. Old moms with new tricks: modeling the effects of age-specific spawning behaviors in Pacific Ocean perch

    EPA Science Inventory

    In commercially exploited, long-lived fish species, age structure plays an important role in determining population stability and resilience to human and environmental impacts. The often observed increase in energy allocation per offspring by older females can improve larval surv...

  17. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Pensacola Bay, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R848).

    We conducted surve...

  18. ENDANGERED AQUATIC VERTEBRATES: COMPARATIVE AND PROBABILISTIC-BASED TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has previously been assumed that endangered, threatened, and candidate endangered species (collectively known as “listed” species) are uniquely sensitive to chemicals. The purpose of this cooperative research effort (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Surve...

  19. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

  20. THE ABRF-MARG MICROARRAY SURVEY 2004: TAKING THE PULSE OF THE MICROARRAY FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. The goal of the surve...

  1. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Pensacola Bay, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R848).

    We conducted surve...

  2. 42 CFR 37.93 - Approval of spirometry facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF COAL MINERS Spirometry Examinations § 37.93 Approval of...; and communicating with miners as required for scheduling, testing, and notification of results.../NIOSH (M)2.14), available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/surveillance/ords/CoalWorkersHealthSurv...

  3. Loss of microbial (pathogen) infections associated with recent invasions of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Loss of natural enemies during colonization is a prominent hypothesis explaining enhanced performance of invasive species in introduced areas. Numerous studies have tested this enemy release hypothesis in a wide range of taxa but few studies have focused on invasive ants. We conducted extensive surv...

  4. Expatriate Parents and Supplementary Education in Japan: Survival Strategy or Acculturation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Melodie

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the use of supplementary education, or "juku," in Japan by Japanese families in order to augment their children's chances of success in entering prestigious pre-tertiary and tertiary institutions is documented (Blumenthal in "Asian Surv" 32(5):448-460, 1992; Bray and Lykins in "Shadow education; private…

  5. Old moms with new tricks: modeling the effects of age-specific spawning behaviors in Pacific Ocean perch

    EPA Science Inventory

    In commercially exploited, long-lived fish species, age structure plays an important role in determining population stability and resilience to human and environmental impacts. The often observed increase in energy allocation per offspring by older females can improve larval surv...

  6. National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...

  7. THE ABRF-MARG MICROARRAY SURVEY 2004: TAKING THE PULSE OF THE MICROARRAY FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. The goal of the surve...

  8. Expatriate Parents and Supplementary Education in Japan: Survival Strategy or Acculturation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Melodie

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the use of supplementary education, or "juku," in Japan by Japanese families in order to augment their children's chances of success in entering prestigious pre-tertiary and tertiary institutions is documented (Blumenthal in "Asian Surv" 32(5):448-460, 1992; Bray and Lykins in "Shadow education; private…

  9. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  10. Genetic relationship of discrete-time survival with fertility and production in dairy cattle using bivariate models

    PubMed Central

    González-Recio, Oscar; Alenda, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Bivariate analyses of functional longevity in dairy cattle measured as survival to next lactation (SURV) with milk yield and fertility traits were carried out. A sequential threshold-linear censored model was implemented for the analyses of SURV. Records on 96 642 lactations from 41 170 cows were used to estimate genetic parameters, using animal models, for longevity, 305 d-standardized milk production (MY305), days open (DO) and number of inseminations to conception (INS) in the Spanish Holstein population; 31% and 30% of lactations were censored for DO and INS, respectively. Heritability estimates for SURV and MY305 were 0.11 and 0.27 respectively; while heritability estimates for fertility traits were lower (0.07 for DO and 0.03 for INS). Antagonist genetic correlations were estimated between SURV and fertility (-0.78 and -0.54 for DO and INS, respectively) or production (-0.53 for MY305), suggesting reduced functional longevity with impaired fertility and increased milk production. Longer days open seems to affect survival more than increased INS. Also, high productive cows were more problematic, less functional and more liable to being culled. The results suggest that the sequential threshold model is a method that might be considered at evaluating genetic relationship between discrete-time survival and other traits, due to its flexibility. PMID:17612479

  11. Resistance of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) Seeds to Harsh Environments and the Implications for Dispersal by Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) in Georgia, U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential dispersal of Benghal dayflower seeds by mourning doves was studied in southern Georgia, U.S.A. The gut contents (both crop and gizzard) of mourning doves harvested in the autumn months were investigated to determine if mourning doves fed on Benghal dayflower and whether seeds can surv...

  12. Classifying Exercise Activities According to Motivation, Self-Objectification, and Disordered Eating: How Can We Target Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupski, Allison

    2009-01-01

    SurvObjectification theorists suggest that one way for women to combat self-objectification is through participation in sport and exercise activities that encourage body competence. This two-part study investigates the impact of (a) motivation for physical activity and (b) type of physical activity on the outcomes of self-objectification, body…

  13. Long-term snow distribution observations in a mountain catchment: assessing variability, time stability, and the representativeness of an index site

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study presents an analysis of snow distribution heterogeneity and the factors affecting this variability. The analysis focuses on manually-sampled data from 21 snow surveys covering 11 years at the drift-dominated Reynolds Mountain East catchment (0.36 km2) in southwestern Idaho, U.S.A. Surve...

  14. Classifying Exercise Activities According to Motivation, Self-Objectification, and Disordered Eating: How Can We Target Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupski, Allison

    2009-01-01

    SurvObjectification theorists suggest that one way for women to combat self-objectification is through participation in sport and exercise activities that encourage body competence. This two-part study investigates the impact of (a) motivation for physical activity and (b) type of physical activity on the outcomes of self-objectification, body…

  15. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  16. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  17. HL7 Middleware Framework for Laboratory Notifications for Notifiable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    LabSurv is an electronic notification system developed to support laboratories to directly notify the results of notifiable disease testing to public health services in New Zealand. A direct laboratory notification middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between laboratories and public health services. The framework uses an HL7 messaging standard to receive the laboratory results and windows services to integrate the results with the cases of notifiable diseases within a national electronic surveillance system. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of direct laboratory notification system in LabSurv. It presents the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. Finally, the performance of the system based on implemented framework is analysed and presented to evaluate the efficiency of our design.

  18. Placental Vascular Tree as Biomarker of Autism/ASD Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    This, combined with ill-fitting non-air-tight bucket lids, resulted in formalin evaporation and pigment deposition on histology slides created from...with a “present/absent” system 7 but such a system must blur the subtleties of the complex mix of genes, cytokines, specific bacterial and other...thrombophilias, viral and bacterial infection, and inherited susceptibility to infection. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003;58(3):209–20. [PubMed: 12612461] 6. Holzman C

  19. A Survey of the Environmental and Cultural Resources of the Trinity River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-01

    with notes on volcanic ash an;! bentonitic clays . Bur. Econ. Geology, Min. Resout "- Surv., Circular 41, 9 p. Stephen F. Austin State xniversiry. 1972...1943 (Sam Houston State Teachers College Huntsville) "Navigation of the Trinity River,>" (47 pp.) Contents: Four chapters deal with such topics as...Myers, Noyes, and Forrest, Engineers. Contents: The thesis is in 2 vols. Five chapters in Vol. I deal with the following topics -- B. F. Williams

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of BRCA1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    1985) Jama 253(13), 1908-13 2. Easton, D., Ford, D., and Peto, J. ( 1993 ) Cancer Surv 18, 95-113 3. Rahman, N., and Stratton, M. R. (1998) Annu Rev...and White, R. L. (1998) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(22), 12983-8 44. Maul, G. G., Jensen, D. E., Ishov, A. M., Herlyn, M., and Rauscher , F. J., 3rd

  1. Genetic changes of survival traits over the past 25 yr in Dutch dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, M L; Ducrocq, V; de Jong, G; Calus, M P L; Veerkamp, R F

    2016-12-01

    Genetic correlations and heritabilities for survival were investigated over a period of 25 yr to evaluate if survival in first lactation has become a different trait and if this is affected by adjusting for production level. Survival after first calving until 12mo after calving (surv_12mo) and survival of first lactation (surv_1st_lac) were analyzed in Dutch black-and-white cows. The data set contained 1,108,745 animals for surv_12mo and 1,062,276 animals for surv_1st_lac, with first calving between 1989 and 2013. The trait survival as recorded over 25 yr was split in five 5-yr intervals to enable a multitrait analysis. Bivariate models using subsets of the full data set and multitrait and autoregressive models using the full data set were used. Survival and functional survival were analyzed. Functional survival was defined as survival adjusted for within-herd production level for 305-d yield of combined kilograms of fat and protein. Mean survival increased over time, whereas genetic variances and heritability decreased. Bivariate models yielded large standard errors on genetic correlations due to poor connectedness between the extreme 5-yr intervals. The more parsimonious models using the full data set gave nonunity genetic correlations. Genetic correlations for survival were below 0.90 between intervals separated by 1 or more 5-yr intervals. Genetic correlations for functional survival did not indicate that definition of survival changed (≥0.90). The difference in genetic correlations between survival and functional survival is likely explained by lower emphasis of dairy farmers on culling in first lactation for low yield in more recent years. This suggests that genetic evaluation for longevity using historical data should analyze functional survival rather than survival. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Locally Learning Biomedical Data Using Diffusion Frames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    multispectral retinal images of age- related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. All eye-related data were collected by our collaborators at the...in Table 2. 6.2. Age-related macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration is the most common cause of blindness among the elderly population...maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration . The international ARM epidemiological study group. Surv. Ophthalmol. 39, 367–374. Chew, E.Y., Lindblad, A.S

  3. Preclinical development of HIvax: Human survivin highly immunogenic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Peter R; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Terry, Frances; Bandar, Ivo Sah; Napolitano, Andrea; Rose, Aaron H; Hoffmann, Fukun W; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Belcaid, Mahdi; Moise, Lenny; De Groot, Anne S; Carbone, Michele; Gaudino, Giovanni; Matsui, Takashi; Siccardi, Antonio; Bertino, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work involved the development of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding survivin (FP-surv) vaccine that was evaluated for efficacy in mesothelioma mouse models. Results showed that FP-surv vaccination generated significant immune responses, which led to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. We have extended those previous findings in the current study, which involves the pre-clinical development of an optimized version of FP-surv designed for human immunization (HIvax). Survivin-derived peptides for the most common haplotypes in the human population were identified and their immunogenicity confirmed in co-culture experiments using dendritic cells and T cells isolated from healthy donors. Peptides confirmed to induce CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells activation in humans were then included in 2 transgenes optimized for presentation of processed peptides on MHC-I (HIvax1) and MHC-II (HIvax2). Fowlpox vectors expressing the HIvax transgenes were then generated and their efficacy was evaluated with subsequent co-culture experiments to measure interferon-γ and granzyme B secretion. In these experiments, both antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were activated by HIvax vaccines with resultant cytotoxic activity against survivin-overexpressing mesothelioma cancer cells. These results provide a rationale for clinical testing of HIvax1 and HIvax2 vaccines in patients with survivin-expressing cancers.

  4. Estimating Trends in the Proportion of Transmitted and Acquired HIV Drug Resistance in a Long Term Observational Cohort in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Daniel; Kollan, Christian; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Schülter, Eugen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Noah, Christian; Jensen, Björn-Erik Ole; Stoll, Matthias; Bogner, Johannes R.; Eberle, Josef; Meixenberger, Karolin; Kücherer, Claudia; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed trends in the proportion of transmitted (TDR) and acquired (ADR) HIV drug resistance and associated mutations between 2001 and 2011 in the German ClinSurv-HIV Drug Resistance Study. Method The German ClinSurv-HIV Drug Resistance Study is a subset of the German ClinSurv-HIV Cohort. For the ClinSurv-HIV Drug Resistance Study all available sequences isolated from patients in five study centres of the long term observational ClinSurv-HIV Cohort were included. TDR was estimated using the first viral sequence of antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve patients. One HIV sequence/patient/year of ART experienced patients was considered to estimate the proportion of ADR. Trends in the proportion of HIV drug resistance were calculated by logistic regression. Results 9,528 patients were included into the analysis. HIV-sequences of antiretroviral naïve and treatment experienced patients were available from 34% (3,267/9,528) of patients. The proportion of TDR over time was stable at 10.4% (95% CI 9.1–11.8; p for trend = 0.6; 2001–2011). The proportion of ADR among all treated patients was 16%, whereas it was high among those with available HIV genotypic resistance test (64%; 1,310/2,049 sequences; 95% CI 62–66) but declined significantly over time (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.77–0.83; p for trend<0.001; 2001–2011). Viral load monitoring subsequent to resistance testing was performed in the majority of treated patients (96%) and most of them (67%) were treated successfully. Conclusions The proportion of TDR was stable in this study population. ADR declined significantly over time. This decline might have been influenced by broader resistance testing, resistance test guided therapy and the availability of more therapeutic options and not by a decline in the proportion of TDR within the study population. PMID:25148412

  5. Human Survivin and Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Act in Synergy against a Murine Melanoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Guzmán, Lorena; Lobos-González, Lorena; Rosas, Carlos; Vallejos, Gerardo; Falcón, Cristián; Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Coddou, Francisca; Leyton, Lisette; Lemus, David; Quest, Andrew F. G.; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Immune-based anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. The first approach seeks to activate tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes while, the second, delays tumor growth by interfering with blood supply. Tumor Associated Antigens are often employed to target tumors with therapeutic drugs, but some are also essential for tumor viability. Survivin (Surv) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that is considered a Tumor Associated Antigen important for cancer cell viability and proliferation. On the other hand, Trypanosoma cruzi (the agent of Chagas’ disease) calreticulin (TcCRT) displays remarkable anti-angiogenic properties. Because these molecules are associated with different tumor targets, we reasoned that immunization with a Surv-encoding plasmid (pSurv) and concomitant TcCRT administration should generate a stronger anti-tumor response than application of either treatment separately. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with pSurv and challenged with an isogenic melanoma cell line that had been pre-incubated with recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT). Following tumor cell inoculation, mice were injected with additional doses of rTcCRT. For the combined regimen we observed in mice that: i). Tumor growth was impaired, ii). Humoral anti-rTcCRT immunity was induced and, iii). In vitro rTcCRT bound to melanocytes, thereby promoting the incorporation of human C1q and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells. These observations are interpreted to reflect the consequence of the following sequence of events: rTcCRT anti-angiogenic activity leads to stress in tumor cells. Murine CRT is then translocated to the external membrane where, together with rTcCRT, complement C1 is captured, thus promoting tumor phagocytosis. Presentation of the Tumor Associated Antigen Surv induces the adaptive anti-tumor immunity and, independently, mediates anti-endothelial cell immunity leading to an

  6. Human survivin and Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin act in synergy against a murine melanoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Guzmán, Lorena; Lobos-González, Lorena; Rosas, Carlos; Vallejos, Gerardo; Falcón, Cristián; Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Coddou, Francisca; Leyton, Lisette; Lemus, David; Quest, Andrew F G; Ferreira, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Immune-based anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. The first approach seeks to activate tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes while, the second, delays tumor growth by interfering with blood supply. Tumor Associated Antigens are often employed to target tumors with therapeutic drugs, but some are also essential for tumor viability. Survivin (Surv) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that is considered a Tumor Associated Antigen important for cancer cell viability and proliferation. On the other hand, Trypanosoma cruzi (the agent of Chagas' disease) calreticulin (TcCRT) displays remarkable anti-angiogenic properties. Because these molecules are associated with different tumor targets, we reasoned that immunization with a Surv-encoding plasmid (pSurv) and concomitant TcCRT administration should generate a stronger anti-tumor response than application of either treatment separately. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with pSurv and challenged with an isogenic melanoma cell line that had been pre-incubated with recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT). Following tumor cell inoculation, mice were injected with additional doses of rTcCRT. For the combined regimen we observed in mice that: i). Tumor growth was impaired, ii). Humoral anti-rTcCRT immunity was induced and, iii). In vitro rTcCRT bound to melanocytes, thereby promoting the incorporation of human C1q and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells. These observations are interpreted to reflect the consequence of the following sequence of events: rTcCRT anti-angiogenic activity leads to stress in tumor cells. Murine CRT is then translocated to the external membrane where, together with rTcCRT, complement C1 is captured, thus promoting tumor phagocytosis. Presentation of the Tumor Associated Antigen Surv induces the adaptive anti-tumor immunity and, independently, mediates anti-endothelial cell immunity leading to an

  7. Optimizing Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) Processing Parameters to Improve Part Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polowick, Christopher

    The Low Cost Composites (LCC) group at Carleton University is studying out-of-autoclave composite manufacturing processes such as Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) and Closed Cavity Bag Moulding (CCBM). These processes are used to produce inexpensive and high performance components for the GeoSurv II, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) being developed at Carleton University. This research has focused on optimizing VARTM processing parameters to reduce the weight and improve the strength and surface finish of GeoSurv II composite components. A simulation was developed to model resin flow through in VARTM infusions and was used to simulate mould filling and resin emptying of the GeoSurv II inverted V-empennage and mission avionics hatch. The resin infusion schemes of these parts were designed to ensure full preform resin saturation, and minimize thickness variations. An experimental study of the effects of the presence of a corner on composite thickness, void content, and strength was conducted. It was found that inside corners result in local increases in thickness and void content due to poor preform compaction. A novel bagging technique was developed to improve corner compaction, and this technique was shown to reduce thickness variability and void content. The strength, void content, and thickness variation were found to be heavily dependent on corner radius, with corner radii greater than 6.4 mm displaying the greatest improvement in performance for the layups considered. The design of the empennage and hatch mould incorporated the results of this study to improve the quality of these components.

  8. An approach to addressing selection bias in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Caroline S; Solid, Craig A

    2014-10-15

    This work proposes a frailty model that accounts for non-random treatment assignment in survival analysis. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we found that estimated treatment parameters from our proposed endogenous selection survival model (esSurv) closely parallel the consistent two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) results, while offering computational and interpretive advantages. The esSurv method greatly enhances computational speed relative to 2SRI by eliminating the need for bootstrapped standard errors and generally results in smaller standard errors than those estimated by 2SRI. In addition, esSurv explicitly estimates the correlation of unobservable factors contributing to both treatment assignment and the outcome of interest, providing an interpretive advantage over the residual parameter estimate in the 2SRI method. Comparisons with commonly used propensity score methods and with a model that does not account for non-random treatment assignment show clear bias in these methods, which is not mitigated by increased sample size. We illustrate using actual dialysis patient data comparing mortality of patients with mature arteriovenous grafts for venous access to mortality of patients with grafts placed but not yet ready for use at the initiation of dialysis. We find strong evidence of endogeneity (with estimate of correlation in unobserved factors ρ^=0.55) and estimate a mature-graft hazard ratio of 0.197 in our proposed method, with a similar 0.173 hazard ratio using 2SRI. The 0.630 hazard ratio from a frailty model without a correction for the non-random nature of treatment assignment illustrates the importance of accounting for endogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Losses to Workers Displaced by Plant Closure or Layoff: A Survey of the Literature,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    AO-AU 137 PULIC RESEARCH INST ALEXANDRIA VA F/6 5/9 LOSSES 0 WOKERS DISPL CED BY PLANT CLOSURE OR LAYOFF : A SURVE_-ETC CU) NCOV 76 A NOLEN DL-75-8...NCLASSIFIED CRC-313 NL C RC 313LE E LOSSES TO WORKERS DISPLACED BY PLANT CLOSURE OR LAYOFF : A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE La 1401 Wilson Boulevard <C...effects of job loss, in which control groups are ti.-;Ck to estimate losses in earnings over a number of years after layoff . Methods of analysis range

  10. Hypermetabolic Low Triiodothyronine Syndrome of Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    with either CONT 8 4.5 2-7.5 placebo or T:, 200 pg/day orally or by nasogastric tube SURV 10 44.3 18-82 3 31-104 in 4 divided doses until their...thyrotropin- care facility, those with a low total T4 had a subsequent releasing hormone (TRH) between postburn days (PBD) mortality (63%) of more than 4...CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE DECEMBER. 1982 TAHi.Im 3. Regression analyses of hormonal variables and MR RESULTS ___ _ Analysis" n r-’ Figure I shows the comparison

  11. Analysis of Tactical Intelligence Experience in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    UNATTENDED (UGS) NA 1 2 SURV. RADARS 3 NA 2 LLTV 2 2 2 IMAGE INT. STARLIGHT SCOPE 3 2 2 SENSOR NOD (ACTIVE/PASSIVE) 2 1 2 SLAR 2 2 3 IR 3 2 2 , BLACK/WIIITE...dissemination. (C) IR and SLAR were of limited usefulness, primarily because of the lack of an effective in-flight readout capability, but had value in...enough to warrant continued explore- tory research and development. "I (C) The airborne side looking radars ( SLAR ) were the AN/APS-94u instal].ed in the

  12. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  13. Validation of an Active Multimedia Courseware Package for the Integrated Damage Control Training Technology (IDCTT) Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    versa. Yet others feel that effort or feelings of frustration are the most important factors in workload; and so on. The results of previous studies ...the te-.i and e~ aluatuoi results of the Integrated Damage Control Training Te.- it ilog ý I DX1’T Traine r This, dce ice - - the pn’dut. of a four ye...The tiev% trainer \\X&s iom~prehCiiSi1.eI\\ esaluated using performance data and surve’N results collected from~ -students and iiistnkor’s dunnte a

  14. Cost Data Analysis Methodology for Defense Nuclear Agency Life Cycle Cost Programs. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    8217., " 17, r" d7* ~f7. - pp.~A( irrdAC- Figue 3:The eneal RD S-urv Accrdig t Wiure 3the general c & -urve b ecie ytl following equations: ’Y=-0.0124...of return on private investment before corporate taxes and after adjusting for 19 ’S’ S.5 i "- "S - -i - ’ .i . .i - - , . . ’ - , - - - inflation...expected vylue of each cash amount and its associated uncertainty, or risk . The essential characteristics of the risk adjusted present value equation are

  15. Ready Reserve Civilian Skills Utilization Study (RESCON).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-10

    MOM~ A PAG.C, L.AW "O LAWV02 DA-A ASWtI E STArI.TU.AL DAMA SF𔄀LJAL :%V(L RI󈧰TS S(44RT r s wAS PtwbCLO ANLP keLe5 A LAW VTb6. 70 T0 PiLE O~CAT4OY...Economists 32 Historians 33 Political Scientists 34 Sociologists 35 Intelligence Analysists 39 Law Students 40 Lawyers 41 Law Enforcement 42 Civil...SURVE Y OR ANALYSIS2 Tito ianagement Engineering Brancal, AdMistrative Division continually performs management surveys or analyses for requesting

  16. One-Carbon Metabolism and Breast Cancer Survival in a Population-Based Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    1. All genotype distributions at these three loci were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. In addition, genotyping for the MTHFR 677C>T...95%CI 1.04-2.06). MTHFR 677 C-- > T GENOTYPF AND BC SURV’,[VAL HR: 1.46 (1.04 -- 2.06) MTHFR 677 C->T Genotype------ TT or CT CC Overall survival ofthe...BC cases in the LIBCSP affected by MTHFR 677 C-.T genotypes: CC versus TT or CT c. Study associations of one-carbon metabolism (diet and polymorphism

  17. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28

  18. Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-6 expression independently predicts poor overall survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma after curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Yamada, Sohsuke; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ke-Yong; Liu, Yun-Peng; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) are important glycosyltransferases in cancer, but the clinical role of its individual isoforms is unclear. We investigated the clinical significance and survival relevance of one isoform, GalNAc-T6 in lung adenocarcinoma after curative resection. Results GalNAc-T6 was identified in 27.8% (55/198) of patients, and statistically indicated advanced TNM stage (P = 0.069). Multivariate analysis showed GalNAc-T6 to be an independent predictor for reduced overall survival of patients (P = 0.027), and the result was confirmed with bootstraping techniques, and on line “Kaplan-Meier Plotter” and “SurvExpress” database analysis, respectively. Moreover, ROC curve demonstrated that GalNAc-T6 expression significantly improved the accuracy of survival prediction. Methods With 198 paraffin-embedded tumor samples from lung adenocarcinoma patients, GalNAc-T6 expression was immunohistochemically assessed for the association with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with 1000 bootstraping. “Kaplan-Meier Plotter”, “SurvExpress” database analysis, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to provide further validation. Conclusions GalNAc-T6 expression correlated significantly with advanced TNM stage, and independently predicted worse OS for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27276675

  19. The effects of low dose rate irradiation and thermal aging on reactor structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Trybus, C. L.; Cole, J. I.

    As part of the EBR-II reactor materials surveillance program, test samples of fifteen different alloys were placed into EBR-II in 1965. The surveillance (SURV) program was intended to determine property changes in reactor structural materials caused by irradiation and thermal aging. In this work, the effect of low dose rate (approximately 2 × 10 -8 dpa/s) irradiation at 380-410°C and long term thermal aging at 371°C on the properties of 20% cold worked 304 stainless steel, 420 stainless steel, Inconel X750, 304/308 stainless weld material, and 17-4 PH steel are evaluated. Doses of up to 6.8 dpa and thermal aging to 2994 days did not significantly affect the density of these alloys. The strength of 304 SS, X750, 17-4 PH, and 304/308 weld material increased with irradiation. In contrast, the strength of 420 stainless steel decreased with irradiation. Irradiation decreased the impact energy in both Inconel X750 and 17-4 PH steel. Thermal aging decreased the impact energy in 17-4 PH steel and increased the impact energy in Inconel X750. Tensile property comparisons of 304 SURV samples with 304 samples irradiated in EBR-II at a higher dose rate show that the higher dose rate samples had greater increases in strength and greater losses in ductility.

  20. Extending information retrieval methods to personalized genomic-based studies of disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuyun; Dawson, John A; Kendziorski, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Genomic-based studies of disease now involve diverse types of data collected on large groups of patients. A major challenge facing statistical scientists is how best to combine the data, extract important features, and comprehensively characterize the ways in which they affect an individual's disease course and likelihood of response to treatment. We have developed a survival-supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (survLDA) modeling framework to address these challenges. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models have proven extremely effective at identifying themes common across large collections of text, but applications to genomics have been limited. Our framework extends LDA to the genome by considering each patient as a "document" with "text" detailing his/her clinical events and genomic state. We then further extend the framework to allow for supervision by a time-to-event response. The model enables the efficient identification of collections of clinical and genomic features that co-occur within patient subgroups, and then characterizes each patient by those features. An application of survLDA to The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian project identifies informative patient subgroups showing differential response to treatment, and validation in an independent cohort demonstrates the potential for patient-specific inference.

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved

  2. Evaluation of completeness of case ascertainment in Swiss cancer registration.

    PubMed

    Lorez, Matthias; Bordoni, Andrea; Bouchardy, Christine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Camey, Bertrand; Dehler, Silvia; Frick, Harald; Konzelmann, Isabelle; Maspoli, Manuela; Mousavi, Seyed M; Rohrmann, Sabine; Arndt, Volker

    2017-09-01

    This is the first comprehensive evaluation of completeness of case ascertainment in Swiss cancer registration. There is currently no method available that is considered to be the gold standard. Apart from simple measures such as the proportion of cases where registration was initiated by a death certificate and the proportion of diagnoses on the basis of histology or cytology/haematology, we applied two dedicated approaches: (i) the semiquantitative method of comparing the mortality to incidence rate ratio with relative survival (MI-Surv method) and (ii) the Flow method, which provides a quantitative estimate for the completeness depending on time since diagnosis. All 10 Swiss cancer registries in operation since at least 2006 and providing the required parameters were included. Simple and dedicated methods showed high completeness across all cancer registries and for most cancer types tested, with the notable exception of lymphoid leukaemia.

  3. Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999�?"2012

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Joanne; Barclay, Leslie; Ahmed, Sharia; Lake, Rob; Hall, Aron J.; Lopman, Ben; Kroneman, Annelies; Vennema, Harry; VinjA(c), Jan; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%%�?"11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%�?"30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%%�?"52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that �%^14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food. PMID:25811368

  4. Phenotyping transgenic wheat for drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Saint Pierre, Carolina; Crossa, José L; Bonnett, David; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2012-03-01

    Realistic experimental protocols to screen for drought adaptation in controlled conditions are crucial if high throughput phenotyping is to be used for the identification of high performance lines, and is especially important in the evaluation of transgenes where stringent biosecurity measures restrict the frequency of open field trials. Transgenic DREB1A-wheat events were selected under greenhouse conditions by evaluating survival and recovery under severe drought (SURV) as well as for water use efficiency (WUE). Greenhouse experiments confirmed the advantages of transgenic events in recovery after severe water stress. Under field conditions, the group of transgenic lines did not generally outperform the controls in terms of grain yield under water deficit. However, the events selected for WUE were identified as lines that combine an acceptable yield-even higher yield (WUE-11) under well irrigated conditions-and stable performance across the different environments generated by the experimental treatments.

  5. Privacy Sensitive Surveillance for Assisted Living - A Smart Camera Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Sven; Straßer, Wolfgang

    An elderly woman wanders about aimlessly in a home for assisted living. Suddenly, she collapses on the floor of a lonesome hallway. Usually it can take over two hours until a night nurse passes this spot on her next inspection round. But in this case she is already on site after two minutes, ready to help. She has received an alert message on her beeper: "Inhabitant fallen in hallway 2b". The source: the SmartSurv distributed network of smart cameras for automated and privacy respecting video analysis.Welcome to the future of smart surveillance Although this scenario is not yet daily practice, it shall make clear how such systems will impact the safety of the elderly without the privacy intrusion of traditional video surveillance systems.

  6. Utilization of waste tires in asphaltic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amirkhanian, S.N.; Burati, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The research project was divided into two sections: laboratory phase and field phase. In the laboratory phase the use of crumb rubber utilizing the `wet` method was investigated. A total of 360 laboratory-prepared Marshall specimens were made and tested. The materials used to prepare the specimens were typical of those used for Type 1A Surve mixtures used by SC DOT. The experimental design consisted of using three aggregate sources, three antistrip additives, and four rubber percentages (i.e., 0%, 12%, 15%, and 18% by weight of asphalt cement). The indirect tensile strengths, tensile strength ratio, visual strip rating, percent air voids, and bulk specific gravities were determined and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that, in general, as the rubber percentage increased, the strength decreased. However, the specimens containing antistrip additives had a higher increase in strength compared to that of the virgin materials. In addition, the optimum asphalt content generally increased as the rubber percentage increased.

  7. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  8. The nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas: A chaotic model with flat obstacles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carlo; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the nonequilibrium version of the Lorentz gas (a billiard with dispersing obstacles [Ya. G. Sinai, Russ. Math. Surv. 25, 137 (1970)], electric field, and Gaussian thermostat) is hyperbolic if the field is small [N. I. Chernov, Ann. Henri Poincare 2, 197 (2001)]. Differently the hyperbolicity of the nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas constitutes an open problem since its obstacles are rhombi and the techniques so far developed rely on the dispersing nature of the obstacles [M. P. Wojtkowski, J. Math. Pures Appl. 79, 953 (2000)]. We have developed analytical and numerical investigations that support the idea that this model of transport of matter has both chaotic (positive Lyapunov exponent) and nonchaotic steady states with a quite peculiar sensitive dependence on the field and on the geometry, not observed before. The associated transport behavior is correspondingly highly irregular, with features whose understanding is of both theoretical and technological interests.

  9. NPHMC: an R-package for estimating sample size of proportional hazards mixture cure model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Wang, Songfeng; Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in medical research, more and more diseases can be cured nowadays, which largely increases the need for an easy-to-use software in calculating sample size of clinical trials with cure fractions. Current available sample size software, such as PROC POWER in SAS, Survival Analysis module in PASS, powerSurvEpi package in R are all based on the standard proportional hazards (PH) model which is not appropriate to design a clinical trial with cure fractions. Instead of the standard PH model, the PH mixture cure model is an important tool in handling the survival data with possible cure fractions. However, there are no tools available that can help design a trial with cure fractions. Therefore, we develop an R package NPHMC to determine the sample size needed for such study design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NPHMC: An R-package for Estimating Sample Size of Proportional Hazards Mixture Cure Model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chao; Wang, Songfeng; Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Jiajia

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in medical research, more and more diseases can be cured nowadays, which largely increases the need for an easy-to-use software in calculating sample size of clinical trials with cure fractions. Current available sample size software, such as PROC POWER in SAS, Survival Analysis module in PASS, powerSurvEpi package in R are all based on the standard proportional hazards (PH) model which is not appropriate to design a clinical trial with cure fractions. Instead of the standard PH model, the PH mixture cure model is an important tool in handling the survival data with possible cure fractions. However, there are no tools available that can help design a trial with cure fractions. Therefore, we develop an R package NPHMC to determine the sample size needed for such study design. PMID:24199658

  11. Stratigraphical evidence of late Amazonian periglaciation and glaciation in the Astapus Colles region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Richard J.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2009-07-01

    Recent modeling of the meteorological conditions during and following times of high obliquity suggests that an icy mantle could have been emplaced in western Utopia Planitia by atmospheric deposition during the late Amazonian period [Costard, F.M., Forget, F., Madeleine, J.B., Soare, R.J., Kargel, J.S., 2008. Lunar Planet. Sci. 39. Abstract 1274; Madeleine, B., Forget, F., Head, J.W., Levrard, B., Montmessin, F., 2007. Lunar Planet. Sci. 38. Abstract 1778]. Astapus Colles (ABa) is a late Amazonian geological unit - located in this hypothesized area of accumulation - that comprises an icy mantle tens of meters thick [Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888]. For the most part, this unit drapes the early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis interior unit (ABvi); to a lesser degree it overlies the early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis marginal unit (ABvm) and the early to late Hesperian UP plains unit HBu2 [Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888]. Landscapes possibly modified by late-Amazonian periglacial processes [Costard, F.M., Kargel, J.S., 1995. Icarus 114, 93-112; McBride, S.A., Allen, C.C., Bell, M.S., 2005. Lunar Planet. Sci. 36. Abstract 1090; Morgenstern, A., Hauber, E., Reiss, D., van Gasselt, S., Grosse, G., Schirrmeister, L., 2007. J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002869. E06010; Seibert, N.M., Kargel, J.S., 2001. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 899-902; Soare, R.J., Kargel, J.S., Osinski, G.R., Costard, F., 2007. Icarus 191, 95-112; Soare, R.J., Osinski, G.R., Roehm, C.L., 2008. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 272, 382-393] and glacial processes [Milliken, R.E., Mustard, J.F., Goldsby, D.L., 2003. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (E6), doi:10.1029/2002JE002005. 5057; Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K., 2001. Nature 412, 411-414; Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Hare, T.M., 2005. US Geol. Surv. Sci. Invest., Map 2888] have been reported within the region. Researchers have assumed that the

  12. Tissue microarray-based study of hepatocellular carcinoma validating SPIB as potential clinical prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Jung; Lin, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yen-Chi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Liang-In; Lu, Jeng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the prognostic significance of SPIB protein overexpression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of SPIB expression in human HCC in order to determine possible correlations between SPIB expression and clinicopathological findings. The expression of SPIB proteins was detected using immunohistochemical staining in commercial multiple-tissue microarrays as a means of examining expression profiles in patients. Using online biomarker validation tool SurvExpress, we focused on the correlation between SPIB overexpression and survival as well as relapse-free survival (RFS). Results show that SPIB protein expression levels were significantly higher in colon, liver, and stomach tumors than in non-tumor tissues (p<0.05). SPIB overexpression in patients with HCC was also significantly higher than that of the normal samples (p<0.001). Among patients with liver disease, SPIB protein expression levels differ significantly according to the stage of liver disease, specifically between stages I, II, and III of HCC (p<0.05). SPIB expression was also shown to be significantly correlated with age (p=0.046) and histological grade (p=0.027). Furthermore, the SurvExpress analysis suggested that high SPIB and KI-67 mRNA expression were significantly associated with the poor survival of patients with HCC (p<0.05). Our results indicate that cross-talk in the expression of SPIB and KI-67 may be associated with poor prognosis and may potentially serve as a clinical prognostic indicator of HCC. This is the first time that such an association has been reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and temporal trends of crack injection among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Arruda, Nelson; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about crack injection and its temporal trends in North America. This article describes the extent of crack injection and examines temporal trends among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from 2003 to 2010 in the SurvUDI network. IDUs who injected recently (past 6 months) were recruited in harm reduction and health programs in eastern central Canada. Trend analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations. Some IDUs participated multiple times; first interview was retained for the descriptive analyses, while first interview per year was retained for the trend analyses. Of the 4088 IDUs recruited, 15.2% (621) reported crack injection; large variations across sites were noted (range: 0.3-39.5%). Trend analyses were limited to Ottawa (449 crack injectors) and Montréal (121). For Ottawa, a significant decline was observed, from 48.3% to 36.9%, with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.97 per year (95% CI: 0.94-0.99). For Montréal, a significant rise was observed, from 6.0% to 18.4%, with a PR of 1.29 per year (95% CI: 1.19-1.40). Strong variations in crack injection exist throughout the SurvUDI network, and reversed temporal trends have been observed in Ottawa and Montréal. These data will be useful to local harm reduction programs to evaluate the need to distribute items required by crack injectors and to develop prevention messages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  15. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women in France, 1980-2020: model-based estimation.

    PubMed

    Nogareda, F; Le Strat, Y; Villena, I; De Valk, H; Goulet, V

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis due to Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals including humans. In pregnant women, primary infection can cause congenital toxoplasmosis resulting in severe malformations in the newborn. Since 1978, public health authorities in France have implemented a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention programme, including monthly serological screening of all seronegative pregnant women, and treatment in case of seroconversion. However, this programme does not produce systematic surveillance data on incidence and prevalence. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of T. gondii infection, and the incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in women in France. We used a catalytic model to estimate incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between 1980 and 2020 in women of childbearing age. We used age- and time-specific seroprevalence data obtained from the National Perinatal Surveys (NPS) conducted in 1995, 2003 and 2010. We assumed that incidence depends both on age and calendar time, and can be expressed as the product of two unknown functions. We also estimated incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 from the NPS and the National Surveillance of Congenital Toxoplasmosis (ToxoSurv). We combined data of 42208 women aged 15-45 years with serology available from the three NPS. For women aged 30 years the modelled incidence decreased from 7·5/1000 susceptible women in 1980 to 3·5/1000 in 2000. In 2010 the incidence was 2·4/1000. The predicted incidence and prevalence for 2020 was 1·6/1000 and 27%, respectively. The incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 was estimated at 2·1/1000 susceptible pregnant women (95% CI 1·3-3·1) from the NPS and 1·9 (95% CI 1·8-2·1) from ToxoSurv. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection has decreased markedly during the last 30 years. This decrease may be explained by a lower exposure to the parasite by changes

  16. Lose to win: marT pseudogenization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival to H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A P; Villagra, N A; Urrutia, I M; Valenzuela, L M; Talamilla-Espinoza, A; Hidalgo, A A; Rodas, P I; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Paredes-Sabja, D; Mora, G C; Fuentes, J A

    2016-11-01

    The difference in host range between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) can be partially attributed to the gain of functions, to the loss of functions (i.e. pseudogenization), or to a combination of both processes. As previously reported, the loss of functions by pseudogenization may play a role in bacterial evolution, especially in host-restricted pathogens such as S. Typhi. The marT-fidL operon, located at the SPI-3, encodes the MarT transcriptional regulator and a hypothetical protein (i.e. FidL) with no significant similarities to known proteins, respectively. Even though predicted S. Typhimurium FidL exhibit 99.4% identity with S. Typhi FidL, marT has been annotated as a pseudogene in S. Typhi. In this work, we found that S. Typhi expressing S. Typhimurium marT-fidL exhibited an increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a decreased survival in presence of H2O2. Moreover, we found that that the presence of a functional copy of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi resulted in a repression of surV (STY4039), an ORF found in the S. Typhi SPI-3 but absent from S. Typhimurium SPI-3, that contribute to the resistance to H2O2 by decreasing the accumulation of ROS. Finally, we observed that the presence of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi negatively affected the survival inside macrophage-like cells, but not in epithelial cells, after 24h post infection. Therefore, this work provides evidence arguing that marT pseudogenization in Salmonella Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival against H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells. This is a good example of how the loss of functions (marT pseudogenization) and the gain of functions (presence of surV) might contribute to phenotypic changes improving virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Komen, H; Kause, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Barfoot, A J; Martin, K E; Parsons, J E

    2012-06-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding and to study whether breeding trait preferences vary depending on commercial products and farming environments. Two questionnaires were sent out. Questionnaire-A (Q-A) was distributed to 178 farmers from 5 continents and used to collect information on commercial products and farming environments. In this questionnaire, farmers were asked to rank the 6 most important traits for genetic improvement from a list of 13 traits. Questionnaire B (Q-B) was sent to all farmers who responded to Q-A (53 in total). For Q-B, preferences of the 6 traits were obtained using pairwise comparison. Preference intensity was given to quantify (in % of a trait mean; G%) the degree to which 1 trait is preferred over the other. Individual preferences, social preferences, and consensus preferences (Con-P) were estimated using AHP and WGP. Desired gains were constructed by multiplying Con-P by G%. The analysis revealed that the 6 most important traits were thermal growth coefficient (TGC), survival (Surv), feed conversion ratio (FCR), condition factor (CF), fillet percentage (FIL%), and late maturation (LMat). Ranking of traits based on average Con-P values were Surv (0.271), FCR (0.246), TGC (0.246), LMat (0.090), FIL% (0.081), and CF (0.067). Corresponding desired genetic gains (in % of trait mean) were 1.63, 1.87, 1.67, 1.29, 0.06, and 0.33%, respectively. The results from Con-P values show that trait preferences may vary for different types of commercial production or farming environments. This study demonstrated that combination of AHP and WGP can

  18. Does Influenza Vaccination Modify Influenza Severity? Data on Older Adults Hospitalized With Influenza During the 2012−2013 Season in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Anderson, Evan J.; Baumbach, Joan; Bennett, Nancy; Bohm, Susan; Hill, Mary; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista; Meek, James; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Monroe, Maya L.; Morin, Craig; Oni, Oluwakemi; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Finelli, Lyn; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some studies suggest that influenza vaccination might be protective against severe influenza outcomes in vaccinated persons who become infected. We used data from a large surveillance network to further investigate the effect of influenza vaccination on influenza severity in adults aged ≥50 years who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Methods. We analyzed influenza vaccination and influenza severity using Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) data for the 2012−2013 influenza season. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, death, diagnosis of pneumonia, and hospital and ICU lengths of stay served as measures of disease severity. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, parametric survival models, and propensity score matching (PSM). Results. Overall, no differences in severity were observed in the multivariable logistic regression model. Using PSM, adults aged 50−64 years (but not other age groups) who were vaccinated against influenza had a shorter length of ICU stay than those who were unvaccinated (hazard ratio for discharge, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−3.01). Conclusions. Our findings show a modest effect of influenza vaccination on disease severity. Analysis of data from seasons with different predominant strains and higher estimates of vaccine effectiveness are needed. PMID:25821227

  19. Unbiased Prediction and Feature Selection in High-Dimensional Survival Regression

    PubMed Central

    Laimighofer, Michael; Krumsiek, Jan; Theis, Fabian J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With widespread availability of omics profiling techniques, the analysis and interpretation of high-dimensional omics data, for example, for biomarkers, is becoming an increasingly important part of clinical medicine because such datasets constitute a promising resource for predicting survival outcomes. However, early experience has shown that biomarkers often generalize poorly. Thus, it is crucial that models are not overfitted and give accurate results with new data. In addition, reliable detection of multivariate biomarkers with high predictive power (feature selection) is of particular interest in clinical settings. We present an approach that addresses both aspects in high-dimensional survival models. Within a nested cross-validation (CV), we fit a survival model, evaluate a dataset in an unbiased fashion, and select features with the best predictive power by applying a weighted combination of CV runs. We evaluate our approach using simulated toy data, as well as three breast cancer datasets, to predict the survival of breast cancer patients after treatment. In all datasets, we achieve more reliable estimation of predictive power for unseen cases and better predictive performance compared to the standard CoxLasso model. Taken together, we present a comprehensive and flexible framework for survival models, including performance estimation, final feature selection, and final model construction. The proposed algorithm is implemented in an open source R package (SurvRank) available on CRAN. PMID:26894327

  20. Generalized accelerated failure time spatial frailty model for arbitrarily censored data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Zhang, Jiajia

    2016-03-18

    Flexible incorporation of both geographical patterning and risk effects in cancer survival models is becoming increasingly important, due in part to the recent availability of large cancer registries. Most spatial survival models stochastically order survival curves from different subpopulations. However, it is common for survival curves from two subpopulations to cross in epidemiological cancer studies and thus interpretable standard survival models can not be used without some modification. Common fixes are the inclusion of time-varying regression effects in the proportional hazards model or fully nonparametric modeling, either of which destroys any easy interpretability from the fitted model. To address this issue, we develop a generalized accelerated failure time model which allows stratification on continuous or categorical covariates, as well as providing per-variable tests for whether stratification is necessary via novel approximate Bayes factors. The model is interpretable in terms of how median survival changes and is able to capture crossing survival curves in the presence of spatial correlation. A detailed Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is presented for posterior inference and a freely available function frailtyGAFT is provided to fit the model in the R package spBayesSurv. We apply our approach to a subset of the prostate cancer data gathered for Louisiana by the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program of the National Cancer Institute.

  1. Is the Bangweulu Basin in Zambia the Eroded Remnant of a Large, Multiring Impact Crater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, S.

    1993-07-01

    , surrounded by an arcuate high south of the Luongo Fold Belt [7,8]. There are few heat flow measurements in Zambia [9], but there is no indication that the Bangweulu Basin has abnormally high heat flow, which is present in the Luangwaand Upper Zambezi rifts, as evidenced by numerous hot springs and historical geysers [10]. Satellite imagery of Central Africa clearly shows a roughly circular outline of the Bangweulu Basin, including the lakes and swamps, surrounded by a concentric ring of uplifts. The concentric islands in Lake Bangweulu are reminiscent of the multiple concentric rings around impact basins in other planetary bodies, e.g., Valhalla and Asgard structures on the jovian moon of Callisto. Lunar craters Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and others also have similar terraced morphologies with concentric rings. Based on the above geomorphological and geophysical features, it is postulated that the Bangweulu Basin represents the eroded remnant of a large multiring impact structure that postdates the Katangan Supergroup. Any possible connection between the Bangweulu structure and the Lukanga swamp (a postulated astrobleme in central Zambia [11]) is unknown at this stage. Ground search for macro- and microscopic shock features in the Bangweulu Basin is planned for 1994. References: [1] Debenham F. (1947) Geog. Rev., 37, 351-368. [2] Thieme J. G. and Johnson R. L. (1976) The 1:1,000,000 Scale Geological Map of the Republic of Zambia, Geol. Surv. Zambia. [3] Andersen L. S. and Unrug R. (1984) Precambrian Res., 25, 187-212. [4] Bram K. (1972). Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 62, 1211-1216. [5] Fairhead J. D. and Henderson N. B. (1977) Tectonophysics, 41, 19-26. [6] Saviaro K. (1979) Bull. Geol. Surv. Botswana, 22, 159-181. [7] Mazac O. (1974) Tech. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 76, 40 pp. [8] Cowan I. M. and Pollack H. N. (1977) Nature, 266, 615-617. [9] Chapman D. S. and Pollack H. N. (1975) Nature, 256, 28-30. [10] Legg C. A. (1974) Econ. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 50, 60 pp. [11] Vrana S

  2. Influence of the surface permeability on the GRACE water mass variations. Case of the Lake Chad basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Ramillien, Guillaume; Antoine, Raphaël; Rabinowicz, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2002, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) has been measured the tiny variations of the gravity field due to redistributions of water mass in the surface envelops of Earth. At a spatial resolution of 400 km, these satellite data offer a unique perspective to understand the evolution of continental water storage at regional and global scales, and therefore they enable the monitoring of the hydrological systems such as river basins. It is well known that seasonal cycle, droughts, vegetation and human extractions are the main contributors of the hydrology signals sensed by GRACE. However, the coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is important in semi-arid and arid regions, in particular in West Africa. We propose to quantify the surface water fluxes in the Lake Chad region by using the daily (and 10-day) water mass solutions of the GRACE mission in the context of the regular West African monsoon. Alternation of the evaporation/condensation cycles during the recent period are interpreted in terms of surface vertical permeability changes that control the thermal evolution in this region [2]. GRACE solutions reveal an interannual increase of surface water mass during dry seasons, especially in 2005 and 2007. We propose that this gain of surface water mass is caused by a seasonal cycle of clay fracturing. [1] Koster et al. (2004). Science, 305, 1138-1140. [2] Lopez et al. (2016). Surv. Geophys., 37 (2), 471-502.

  3. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude and Utilization Survey

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Matthew; Bussières, Andre; Evans, Roni; Schneider, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Most health professions recognize the value of evidence-based practice (EBP), yet the uptake of EBP across most health disciplines has been suboptimal. To improve EBP uptake, it is important to first understand the many dimensions that affect EBP use. The Evidence-Based practice Attitude and utilization SurvEy (EBASE) was designed to measure the attitudes, skills, and use of EBP among practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); however, the dimensionality of the instrument is not well understood. The aim of the current research was to examine the psychometric properties of the attitudes, skills, and use subscales of EBASE. Design: This was a secondary analysis of data obtained from the administration of EBASE. Data were examined using principal components analyses and confirmatory methods. Internal consistency reliabilities of resultant subscales were also computed. Participants: 1314 U.S. chiropractors and 554 Canadian chiropractors. Results: A unidimensional structure best fit the attitudes and use subscales. Skills subscale items were best represented by subscales with a multidimensional structure. Specifically, the skills construct was best modeled with three dimensions (identification of the research question, locating research, and application of EBP). All subscales had acceptable internal consistency reliability estimates. Conclusions: The findings support the modification of the scoring guidelines for the original EBASE. These changes are likely to result in a more accurate measure of EBP attitudes, skills, and use among chiropractors, and possibly CAM providers more generally. PMID:26982906

  4. Self-reported attitudes, skills and use of evidence-based practice among Canadian doctors of chiropractic: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, André E.; Terhorst, Lauren; Leach, Matthew; Stuber, Kent; Evans, Roni; Schneider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify Canadian chiropractors’ attitudes, skills and use of evidence based practice (EBP), as well as their level of awareness of previously published chiropractic clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Methods: 7,200 members of the Canadian Chiropractic Association were invited by e-mail to complete an online version of the Evidence Based practice Attitude & utilisation SurvEy (EBASE); a valid and reliable measure of participant attitudes, skills and use of EBP. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 554 respondents. Most respondents (>75%) held positive attitudes toward EBP. Over half indicated a high level of self-reported skills in EBP, and over 90% expressed an interest in improving these skills. A majority of respondents (65%) reported over half of their practice was based on evidence from clinical research, and only half (52%) agreed that chiropractic CPGs significantly impacted on their practice. Conclusions: While most Canadian chiropractors held positive attitudes towards EBP, believed EBP was useful, and were interested in improving their skills in EBP, many did not use research evidence or CPGs to guide clinical decision making. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the low response rate. PMID:26816412

  5. Parametric regression model for survival data: Weibull regression model as an example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Weibull regression model is one of the most popular forms of parametric regression model that it provides estimate of baseline hazard function, as well as coefficients for covariates. Because of technical difficulties, Weibull regression model is seldom used in medical literature as compared to the semi-parametric proportional hazard model. To make clinical investigators familiar with Weibull regression model, this article introduces some basic knowledge on Weibull regression model and then illustrates how to fit the model with R software. The SurvRegCensCov package is useful in converting estimated coefficients to clinical relevant statistics such as hazard ratio (HR) and event time ratio (ETR). Model adequacy can be assessed by inspecting Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by categorical variable. The eha package provides an alternative method to model Weibull regression model. The check.dist() function helps to assess goodness-of-fit of the model. Variable selection is based on the importance of a covariate, which can be tested using anova() function. Alternatively, backward elimination starting from a full model is an efficient way for model development. Visualization of Weibull regression model after model development is interesting that it provides another way to report your findings. PMID:28149846

  6. Phosphorus zoning in olivine of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrizio, Alessandro; Beckett, John R.; Baker, Michael B.; Stolper, Edward M.

    2010-05-01

    low P chambers and P enriched zones were also observed; near the margins of the crystals is possible to find the presence of discontinuous sets of P-enriched bands that generally outline euhedral crystal forms; some crystals are characterized by P-enriched ghosts of relict crystals in their interior that are associated with probable undercooling and/or with an initial pulse of rapid crystal growth [8, 10]. Phenocrysts and microphenocrysts are frequently unzoned in major and minor divalent cations (Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ni), but all are zoned in P. Variations in Cr and Al correlate spatially with P but are much fainter or absents, in some crystal the P-enriched bands are superimposed with small crystals of chromite (≤1 μm) aligned along the P zoning. Probably these chromites were formed by precipitation from the original Cr and Al bands. In no case was observed Ti zoning. [1] Richter D.H. et al. (1970) US Geol Surv Prof Pap 537-E, 73 p. [2] Richter D.H., Moore J.G. (1966) US Geol Surv Prof Pap 537-B, 26 p. [3] Helz R.T. (1980) Bull Volcanol 43-4, 675-701. [4] Helz R.T. et al. (1984) US Geol Surv Open File Rep 84-484, 72 p. [5] Hardee H.C. et al. (1981) Geophys Res Lett 8, 1211-1214. [6] Helz R.T., Wright T.L. (1983) US Geol Surv Open File Rep 83-326, 66 p. [7] Helz R.T. (1987) Geochem Soc Spec Pub 1, 241-258. [8] Beckett J.R. et al. (2008) LPSC abs. 1726. [9] Mccanta M.C. et al. (2008) LPSC abs. 1807. [10] Milmann-Barris M.S. et al. (2008) CMP 155, 739-765. [11] Mccanta M.C. et al. (2008) GCA 72-12, S1, A610.

  7. Marginal Bayesian nonparametric model for time to disease arrival of threatened amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Knapp, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. It has become increasingly important to be able to precisely predict time to Bd arrival in a population. The data analyzed herein present a unique challenge in terms of modeling because there is a strong spatial component to Bd arrival time and the traditional proportional hazards assumption is grossly violated. To address these concerns, we develop a novel marginal Bayesian nonparametric survival model for spatially correlated right-censored data. This class of models assumes that the logarithm of survival times marginally follow a mixture of normal densities with a linear-dependent Dirichlet process prior as the random mixing measure, and their joint distribution is induced by a Gaussian copula model with a spatial correlation structure. To invert high-dimensional spatial correlation matrices, we adopt a full-scale approximation that can capture both large- and small-scale spatial dependence. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with delayed rejection is proposed for posterior computation, and an R package spBayesSurv is provided to fit the model. This approach is first evaluated through simulations, then applied to threatened frog populations in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park.

  8. Injection parameters and virus dependent choice of promoters to improve neuron targeting in the nonhuman primate brain.

    PubMed

    Lerchner, W; Corgiat, B; Der Minassian, V; Saunders, R C; Richmond, B J

    2014-03-01

    We, like many others, wish to use modern molecular methods to alter neuronal functionality in primates. For us, this requires expression in a large proportion of the targeted cell population. Long generation times make germline modification of limited use. The size and intricate primate brain anatomy poses additional challenges. We surved methods using lentiviruses and serotypes of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to introduce active molecular material into cortical and subcortical regions of old-world monkey brains. Slow injections of AAV2 give well-defined expression of neurons in the cortex surrounding the injection site. Somewhat surprisingly we find that in the monkey the use of cytomegalovirus promoter in lentivirus primarily targets glial cells but few neurons. In contrast, with a synapsin promoter fragment the lentivirus expression is neuron specific at high transduction levels in all cortical layers. We also achieve specific targeting of tyrosine hydroxlase (TH)- rich neurons in the locus coeruleus and substantia nigra with a lentvirus carrying a fragment of the TH promoter. Lentiviruses carrying neuron specific promoters are suitable for both cortical and subcortical injections even when injected quickly.

  9. In silico evaluation of DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 4 gene (DDIT4) as prognostic biomarker in several malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Joseph A; Rolfo, Christian; Raez, Luis E; Prado, Alexandra; Araujo, Jhajaira M; Bravo, Leny; Fajardo, Williams; Morante, Zaida D; Aguilar, Alfredo; Neciosup, Silvia P; Mas, Luis A; Bretel, Denisse; Balko, Justin M; Gomez, Henry L

    2017-05-08

    DDIT4 gene encodes a protein whose main action is to inhibit mTOR under stress conditions whilst several in vitro studies indicate that its expression favors cancer progression. We have previously described that DDIT4 expression is an independent prognostic factor for tripe negative breast cancer resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We herein report that high DDIT4 expression is related to the outcome (recurrence-free survival, time to progression and overall survival) in several cancer types. We performed in silico analysis in online platforms, in pooled datasets from KM Plotter and meta-analysis of individual datasets from SurvExpress. High levels of DDIT4 were significantly associated with a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, colon, skin and lung cancer. Conversely, a high DDIT4 expression was associated with an improved prognostic in gastric cancer. DDIT4 was not associated with the outcome of ovarian cancers. Analysis with data from the Cell Miner Tool in 60 cancer cell lines indicated that although rapamycin activity was correlated with levels of MTOR, it is not influenced by DDIT4 expression. In summary, DDIT4 might serve as a novel prognostic biomarker in several malignancies. DDIT4 activity could be responsible for resistance to mTOR inhibitors and is a potential candidate for the development of targeted therapy.

  10. Ternary Nucleation of Sulfuric Acid, Water and Dimethylamine in the Cloud Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praplan, A. P.; Bianchi, F.; Riccobono, F.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Laboratory Of Atmospheric Chemistry; Cloud Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) variations were found to correlate with several past climate reconstructions. However, the microphysical mechanism responsible for this link remains mysterious. GCRs are thought to influence the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN): an increased GCR flux could modify cloud properties, and therefore induce a cooling effect on the climate [Kirkby, 2007]. The formation of new particles from the cluster size and their growth to CCN has been investigated at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) facility at CERN, which consists of a 26 m3 aerosol chamber exposed to an adjustable particle beam, reproducing GCR at different altitudes or latitudes. With state of the art instrumentation for particles of a few nanometers diameter as well as for trace gases, the nucleation of the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) - water (H2O) system, as well as the influence of ammonia (NH3) was already examined in the first experiments [Kirkby et al., 2011]. This paper presents the results on the nucleation of sulfuric acid in the presence of dimethylamine. Kirkby, J. (2007), Cosmic Rays and Climate, Surv Geophys, 28(5-6), 333-375, doi:10.1007/s10712-008-9030-6. Kirkby, J. et al. (2011), Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation, Nature, in press.

  11. Late Pleistocene eolian features in southeastern Maryland and Chesapeake Bay region indicate strong WNW-NW winds accompanied growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Litwin, R.J.; Pavich, M.J.; Brook, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inactive parabolic dunes are present in southeastern Maryland, USA, along the east bank of the Potomac River. More elongate and finer-grained eolian deposits and paha-like ridges characterize the Potomac River-Patuxent River upland and the west side of Chesapeake Bay. These ridges are streamlined erosional features, veneered with eolian sediment and interspersed with dunes in the low-relief headwaters of Potomac- and Patuxent-river tributaries. Axis data for the dunes and ridges indicate formation by WNW-NW winds. Optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon age data suggest dune formation from ??? 33-15??ka, agreeing with the 30-13??ka ages Denny, C.S., Owens, J.P., Sirkin, L., Rubin, M., 1979. The Parsonburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1067-B, 16??pp. suggested for eolian deposits east of Chesapeake Bay. Age range and paleowind direction(s) for eolian features in the Bay region approximate those for late Wisconsin loess in the North American midcontinent. Formation of midcontinent loess and Bay-region eolian features was coeval with rapid growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and strong cooling episodes (??18O minima) evident in Greenland ice cores. Age and paleowind-direction coincidence, for eolian features in the midcontinent and Bay region, indicates strong mid-latitude WNW-NW winds for several hundred kilometers south of the Laurentide glacial terminus that were oblique to previously simulated anticyclonic winds for the last glacial maximum.

  12. Genetic parameters and genetic trends in the Chinese × European Tiameslan composite pig line. I. Genetic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siqing; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Burlot, Thierry; Legault, Christian; Naveau, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Genetic parameters of body weight at 4 (W4 w), 8 (W8 w) and 22 (W22 w) weeks of age, days from 20 to 100 kg (DT), average backfat thickness at 100 kg (ABT), teat number (TEAT), number of good teats (GTEAT), total number of piglets born (TNB), born alive (NBA) and weaned (NW) per litter, and birth to weaning survival rate (SURV) were estimated in the Chinese × European Tiameslan composite line using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model. Performance data from a total of 4 881 males and 4 799 females from 1 341 litters were analysed. Different models were fitted to the data in order to estimate the importance of maternal effects on production traits, as well as genetic correlations between male and female performance. The results showed the existence of significant maternal effects on W4w, W8w and ABT and of variance heterogeneity between sexes for W22w, DT, ABT and GTEAT. Genetic correlations between sexes were 0.79, 0.71 and 0.82, respectively, for W22w, DT and ABT and above 0.90 for the other traits. Heritability estimates were larger than (ABT and TEAT) or similar to (other traits) average literature values. Some genetic antagonism was evidenced between production traits, particularly W4w, W8w and ABT, and reproductive traits. PMID:14736406

  13. Hf Isotope Systematics of Archean Anorthosites: Manfred Complex, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.

    2016-12-01

    Archean anorthosite complexes represent a minor, yet distinct rock type found within many Archean terranes. These mantle-derived melts are commonly found in layers withassociated leucogabbro, gabbro, and ultramafic units of similar origin. Most Archean anorthosites are intensely deformed and metamorphosed yet preserved igneous minerals have been identified within several complexes. It has become obvious that Archean anorthosites contain zircon crystals, which can be used to establish robust crystallization ages for anorthosite complexes. These minerals are also ideal targets for in situ Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to further characterize the source of Archean anorthosites and provide insight into the formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Archean. The ca. 3.7 Ga Manfred Complex is exposed northeast of Mount Narryer within the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The layered anorthosite gabbro-ultramafic intrusion outcrops in pods and lenses, engulfed by granitic gneisses [1, 2, 3]. We have sampled anorthosites, leucogabbros and gabbros from the Manfred Complex and determined their age by LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology. Zircons separated from these rocks give ages of 3.63 Ga to 3.73 Ga. LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope analyses were performed by focusing the laser spot directly on top of the U-Pb analysis location for each zircon grain. Initial Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains from the Manfred complex range from ca. ɛHf +2 to -3. This range suggests contributions from both depleted mantle and more ancient crustal sources to the parent magma of the Manfred Complex. [1] Kinny et al. (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 325-341. [2] Myers (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 309-323. [3] Williams & Myers (1987) WA Geol. Surv. Rpt. 22, 32 pp.

  14. Frequent eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last ∼2,600 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Field, geochronologic, and geochemical evidence from proximal fine-grained tephras, and from limited exposures of Holocene lava flows and a small pyroclastic flow document ten–12 eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last 2,600 years, contrasting with previously published evidence for only 11–12 eruptions of the volcano for all of the Holocene. Except for the pumiceous subplinian C event of 2,200 cal year BP, the late-Holocene eruptions were weakly explosive, involving lava effusions and at least two block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Eruptions were clustered from ∼2,600 to ∼2,200 cal year BP, an interval referred to as the Summerland eruptive period that includes the youngest lava effusion from the volcano. Thin, fine-grained tephras are the only known primary volcanic products from eruptions near 1,500 and 1,000 cal year BP, but these and earlier eruptions were penecontemporaneous with far-traveled lahars, probably created from newly erupted materials melting snow and glacial ice. The most recent magmatic eruption of Mount Rainier, documented geochemically, was the 1,000 cal year BP event. Products from a proposed eruption of Mount Rainier between AD 1820 and 1854 (X tephra of Mullineaux (US Geol Surv Bull 1326:1–83, 1974)) are redeposited C tephra, probably transported onto young moraines by snow avalanches, and do not record a nineteenth century eruption. We found no conclusive evidence for an eruption associated with the clay-rich Electron Mudflow of ∼500 cal year BP, and though rare, non-eruptive collapse of unstable edifice flanks remains as a potential hazard from Mount Rainier.

  15. Renal and cardiovascular risk predictive value of two different microalbuminuria screening methods in patients with hypertension with/without diabetes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Polónia, J; Carvalho, D; Nazaré, J; Martins, L; da Silva, P M; Aguiar, C; Manso, M C; Carqueja, T

    2016-11-01

    MicRoAlbuminuria sCreening survEy (RACE) was a multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study conducted in primary health-care settings of Portugal. Here, we present a post-hoc analysis from the RACE study, assessing the renal and cardiovascular (CV) risk predictive value of two different microalbuminuria (MA) screening methods, nephelometry with 24-h urine (MA-24 h) and Micral test with occasional urine (MicralA) in patients with hypertension (HTN) with/without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Out of 3065 patients, 1173 (38.3%) were in the HTN group without T2DM (HTN) and 1892 (61.7%) in the HTN group with T2DM (HTN+T2DM). The overall prevalence of MA was 50.6% determined by MicralA and 22.1% with MA-24 h. Urinary albumin excretion data obtained by both techniques correlated significantly (rs=0.586; P<0.001). In all subjects, MicralA showed a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 62% for detection of MA, with a positive predictive value of 41% and negative predictive value of 97%. With both methods, the presence of MA was independently associated with a higher risk (1.5- to 2.9-fold) of CV and renal organ damage in both HTN and HTN+T2DM groups. MicralA, due to its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, can be considered as a valid and reliable method for MA screening in patients with HTN with/without T2DM.

  16. Understanding North American yoga therapists' attitudes, skills and use of evidence-based practice: A cross-national survey.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marlysa; Leach, Matthew; Snow, James; Moonaz, Steffany

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) by yoga therapists (YTs). To determine the attitudes, skills, training, use, barriers and facilitators to the use of EBP amongst North American YTs DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive survey METHODS: Self-identified YTs practicing in North America were invited to participate in an online survey. YT attitudes, skills, training, utilisation, barriers to use, and facilitators of EBP use were measured using the 84-item Evidence-Based practice Attitude and utilization SurvEy (EBASE). 367 members responded (∼20% of eligible participants). Attitudes towards EBP were generally positive with 88% agreeing that professional literature and research findings were useful for the practice of yoga therapy. Most (80%) were interested in improving their skills and the majority agreed that EBP improves the quality of care (68%), assists in making decisions (74%) and takes into account the YTs clinical experience when making clinical decisions (59%). Moderate to moderately-high levels of perceived skill in EBP were reported mostly utilizing online search engines (51%). Lack of clinical evidence was the only notable barrier to uptake reported by YTs (48%). Facilitators to EBP included access to online EBP education materials (70.6%), ability to download full-text journal articles and access to free online databases in the workplace (67.3%). North American YTs report positive attitudes, moderate to moderately-high levels of perceived skill and moderate uptake of EBP. This aligns them with other complementary and integrative health practitioners. Initiatives to support the adoption of EBP are proposed as a means of improving best practice in yoga therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Poverty Levels - United States, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Pérez, Alejandro; Anderson, Evan J; Bargsten, Marisa; Bohm, Susan R; Hill, Mary; Hogan, Brenna; Laidler, Matt; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista L; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Morin, Craig; Parker, Erin; Zansky, Shelley M; Chaves, Sandra S

    2016-02-12

    Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months in the United States, with recognition that some persons are at risk for more severe disease (1). However, there might be previously unrecognized demographic groups that also experience higher rates of serious influenza-related disease that could benefit from enhanced vaccination efforts. Socioeconomic status (SES) measures that are area-based can be used to define demographic groups when individual SES data are not available (2). Previous surveillance data analyses in limited geographic areas indicated that influenza-related hospitalization incidence was higher for persons residing in census tracts that included a higher percentage of persons living below the federal poverty level (3-5). To determine whether this association occurs elsewhere, influenza hospitalization data collected in 14 FluSurv-NET sites covering 27 million persons during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 influenza seasons were analyzed. The age-adjusted incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years in high poverty (≥20% of persons living below the federal poverty level) census tracts was 21.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7-22.4), nearly twice the incidence in low poverty (<5% of persons living below the federal poverty level) census tracts (10.9, 95% CI: 10.3-11.4). This relationship was observed in each surveillance site, among children and adults, and across racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that persons living in poorer census tracts should be targeted for enhanced influenza vaccination outreach and clinicians serving these persons should be made aware of current recommendations for use of antiviral agents to treat influenza (6).

  18. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  19. Aminopeptidase A initiates tumorigenesis and enhances tumor cell stemness via TWIST1 upregulation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yu; Jiang, Jeng-Kae; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Li, Ming-Chun; Tsai, Chan-Yen; Jhang, Yau-Yun; Huang, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for the high mortality rate associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but metastasis regulators are not fully understood. To identify a novel gene involved in tumor metastasis, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, transcriptome distance analyses, and machine learning algorithms to determine links between primary and metastatic colorectal cancers. Aminopeptidase A (APA; also known as ENPEP) was selected as our focus because its relationship with colorectal cancer requires clarification. Higher APA mRNA levels were observed in patients in advanced stages of cancer, suggesting a correlation between ENPEP and degree of malignancy. Our data also indicate that APA overexpression in CRC cells induced cell migration, invasion, anchorage-independent capability, and mesenchyme-like characteristics (e.g., EMT markers). We also observed TWIST induction in APA-overexpressing SW480 cells and TWIST down-regulation in HT29 cells knocked down with APA. Both APA silencing and impaired APA activity were found to reduce migratory capacity, cancer anchorage, stemness properties, and drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. We therefore suggest that APA enzymatic activity affects tumor initiation and cancer malignancy in a TWIST-dependent manner. Results from RT-qPCR and the immunohistochemical staining of specimens taken from CRC patients indicate a significant correlation between APA and TWIST. According to data from SurvExpress analyses of TWIST1 and APA mRNA expression profiles, high APA and TWIST expression are positively correlated with poor CRC prognosis. APA may act as a prognostic factor and/or therapeutic target for CRC metastasis and recurrence. PMID:28177885

  20. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  1. A 1985-2015 data-driven global reconstruction of GRACE total water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Vincent; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    After thirteen years of measurements, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has enabled for an unprecedented view on total water storage (TWS) variability. However, the relatively short record length, irregular time steps and multiple data gaps since 2011 still represent important limitations to a wider use of this dataset within the hydrological and climatological community especially for applications such as model evaluation or assimilation of GRACE in land surface models. To address this issue, we make use of the available GRACE record (2002-2015) to infer local statistical relationships between detrended monthly TWS anomalies and the main controlling atmospheric drivers (e.g. daily precipitation and temperature) at 1 degree resolution (Humphrey et al., in revision). Long-term and homogeneous monthly time series of detrended anomalies in total water storage are then reconstructed for the period 1985-2015. The quality of this reconstruction is evaluated in two different ways. First we perform a cross-validation experiment to assess the performance and robustness of the statistical model. Second we compare with independent basin-scale estimates of TWS anomalies derived by means of combined atmospheric and terrestrial water-balance using atmospheric water vapor flux convergence and change in atmospheric water vapor content (Mueller et al. 2011). The reconstructed time series are shown to provide robust data-driven estimates of global variations in water storage over large regions of the world. Example applications are provided for illustration, including an analysis of some selected major drought events which occurred before the GRACE era. References Humphrey V, Gudmundsson L, Seneviratne SI (in revision) Assessing global water storage variability from GRACE: trends, seasonal cycle, sub-seasonal anomalies and extremes. Surv Geophys Mueller B, Hirschi M, Seneviratne SI (2011) New diagnostic estimates of variations in terrestrial water storage

  2. The binary fraction, separation distribution, and merger rate of white dwarfs from SPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan; Hallakoun, Na'ama

    2017-01-01

    From a sample of spectra of 439 white dwarfs (WDs) from the ESO-VLT Supernova-Ia Progenitor surveY (SPY), we measure the maximal changes in radial-velocity (ΔRVmax) between epochs (generally two epochs, separated by up to 470 d), and model the observed ΔRVmax statistics via Monte-Carlo simulations, to constrain the population characteristics of double WDs (DWDs). The DWD fraction among WDs is fbin=0.100 ± 0.020 (1σ, random) +0.02 (systematic), in the separation range ≲ 4 AU within which the data are sensitive to binarity. Assuming the distribution of binary separation, a, is a power-law, dN/da∝aα, at the end of the last common-envelope phase and the start of solely gravitational-wave-driven binary evolution, the constraint by the data is α = -1.3 ± 0.2 (1σ) ±0.2 (systematic). If these parameters extend to small separations, the implied Galactic WD merger rate per unit stellar mass is Rmerge = (1 - 80) × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_⊙ ^{-1} (2σ), with a likelihood-weighted mean of Rmerge = (7 ± 2) × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_⊙ ^{-1} (1σ). The Milky Way's specific Type-Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate is likely RIa ≈ 1.1 × 10-13 yr^{-1} M_⊙ ^{-1} and therefore, in terms of rates, a possibly small fraction of all merging DWDs (e.g. those with massive-enough primary WDs) could suffice to produce most or all SNe Ia.

  3. Ionization of H atoms in a strong (static + microwave) field: Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, E.; Koch, P.; Smith, L.; Zelazny, S.

    1998-05-01

    A beam (typically E_b=14 keV) of H atoms with one n-value between 40-70 flew through a cylindrical, brass cavity: L=2.758 cm; D=6.501 cm; 2 mm dia. axial holes in each 6.4 mm thick, electrically isolated endcap, biased to produce collinear static and microwave electric fields (amplitudes Fs and F_ω, respectively) for the TM_0p0 modes used (8.105 GHz, p=2; 12.701 GHz, p=3). By designfootnote http://www-laacg.atdiv.lanl.gov/services/possup/html the ``flat top" pulse shapes of Fs and F_ω were very close. We measured the surviving atom probability P_surv vs. Fs (up to 300 V/cm, much larger than in (P.M. Koch and K.A.H. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rep. 255), 289 (1995)) at various fixed F_ω, though either field alone was too weak to cause ionization. Changing Eb varied the interaction time. Our data reveal abundant features, including (i) sharp resonances that can involve a whole n-manifold of Stark substates, and, at relatively large F_ω, (ii) striking oscillatory structure with a small number of Fourier peaks. We demonstrate that (i) can be used to resolve adjacent values of n_0. This will lead to a practical, n-sensitive detector for ``3d" H atoms that will be widely useful.

  4. Frequent eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last ˜2,600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Vallance, J. W.

    2009-08-01

    Field, geochronologic, and geochemical evidence from proximal fine-grained tephras, and from limited exposures of Holocene lava flows and a small pyroclastic flow document ten-12 eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last 2,600 years, contrasting with previously published evidence for only 11-12 eruptions of the volcano for all of the Holocene. Except for the pumiceous subplinian C event of 2,200 cal year BP, the late-Holocene eruptions were weakly explosive, involving lava effusions and at least two block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Eruptions were clustered from ˜2,600 to ˜2,200 cal year BP, an interval referred to as the Summerland eruptive period that includes the youngest lava effusion from the volcano. Thin, fine-grained tephras are the only known primary volcanic products from eruptions near 1,500 and 1,000 cal year BP, but these and earlier eruptions were penecontemporaneous with far-traveled lahars, probably created from newly erupted materials melting snow and glacial ice. The most recent magmatic eruption of Mount Rainier, documented geochemically, was the 1,000 cal year BP event. Products from a proposed eruption of Mount Rainier between AD 1820 and 1854 (X tephra of Mullineaux (US Geol Surv Bull 1326:1-83, 1974)) are redeposited C tephra, probably transported onto young moraines by snow avalanches, and do not record a nineteenth century eruption. We found no conclusive evidence for an eruption associated with the clay-rich Electron Mudflow of ˜500 cal year BP, and though rare, non-eruptive collapse of unstable edifice flanks remains as a potential hazard from Mount Rainier.

  5. Attitudes, skill and use of evidence-based practice among US Western herbal medicine providers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Snow, James E; Leach, Matthew J; Clare, Bevin A

    2017-03-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been the focus of increasing attention in the teaching and delivery of both complementary and conventional healthcare. Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a system of complementary healthcare rooted in tradition. How WHM practitioners perceive, are prepared for, and use EBP, has to date been largely ignored. We therefore examined the use, opinion, skills, and training in EBP, and barriers and facilitators of EBP uptake, among herbal practitioners in the United States (US). Methods The study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A sample of US clinical herbalists was invited to complete a validated online questionnaire, the Evidence-Based practice Attitude and utilization SurvEy (EBASE). Results Seventy-four US herbal practitioners completed the survey (response rate=35 %). Participants demonstrated a generally positive attitude toward EBP (median attitude subscore 31 [possible range=8-40]), a moderate to high level of self-assessed skill in EBP (median skill subscore 46 [13-65]) and a moderate level of EBP uptake (median use subscore 12 [0-24]). Apart from a lack of clinical evidence in herbal medicine, there were few perceived barriers to EBP uptake among herbal practitioners. Access to the Internet, online databases and full-text journal articles were considered most useful in facilitating the uptake of EBP in WHM practice. Conclusions Respondents' attitudes, skill level, and uptake of EBP were generally consistent with other complementary and alternative medicine providers. Educational initiatives, including those focused on the appraisal and application of evidence, may help to optimize the use of EBP among WHM practitioners.

  6. Whooping cough—where are we now? A review.

    PubMed

    Kiedrzynski, Tomasz; Bissielo, Ange; Suryaprakash, Mishra; Bandaranayake, Don

    2015-06-12

    This paper describes the recent trends of pertussis and vaccine uptake in New Zealand based on notifications and immunisation registration information since 2011. It highlights the current risk for the infant in the first months after birth and the crucial role a pertussis booster in pregnancy could play. It also aims to show that protection of infants by the acellular pertussis vaccine can be improved by timely immunisation even in a situation of improving overall uptake rates that are nearing the national target of 95%. We analysed New Zealand notification data for pertussis, extracted from EpiSurv between August 2011 and December 2013, which included the period of the last epidemic. Pertussis immunisation coverage data were extracted from the National Immunisation Register (NIR). Population estimates were based on 2006 census data. Deprivation was analysed using the New Zealand Deprivation Index 2006. Despite immunisation coverage at 12 months having exceeded 90% New Zealand experienced a large epidemic from 2011 to 2014, with several hundred infant hospitalisations and three deaths. Notification data indicated an average annual rate of pertussis in the New Zealand population of 102 per 100,000 with the highest rates in the youngest age groups. While an overall increase in immunisation coverage in New Zealand was evident and the timeliness showed improvement across ethnic groups and deprivation deciles, there was a marked geographical variation within DHBs and between ethnic groups. Given the recent published evidence, pertussis vaccination should be offered to all mothers between weeks 28 and 38 of pregnancy. Further improvements are still possible in coverage at 6 months, particularly in Māori and but also in Pacific populations, as well as in more deprived populations. DHBs work towards achieving the 95% target can contribute to the improvement in the timeliness of immunisation.

  7. One year analysis of time-lapse electrical data on a clayey landslide: identification of elementary hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, Julien; Sailhac, Pascal; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Supper, Robert; Jochum, Birgit; Ottowittz, David; Grandjean, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    Water infiltration, evaporation and runoff are responsible of changes in the topsoil water content and can influence slope stability which is very often the main controlling factor of landslide triggering. In this work, time-lapse monitoring of electrical conductivity is used to observe variations in soil water contents. Based on recent work which demonstrated the possibility of monitoring the hydrological response of a clayey slope to controlled rainfall experiments, we installed an electrical monitoring system at the Super-Sauze landslide for long-term observation. We used the GEOMON4D resistivimeter (developed by the Austrian Geological Surve) and specifically designed for experiments needing high rate of data acquisition, records of full signal samples for noise detection, remote controlled management and automatic data transfer. The electrode positions varying with time, we installed two cameras to control the position of the electrodes. Several hydrological sensors were also installed along the profile to measure soil temperature, groundwater temperature, groundwater level, groundwater conductivity and soil humidity. The challenge is the processing of 4.2 million of electrical resistivity data. In this difficult context, the possible factors controlling changes in resistivity values are the movement of the electrodes, the soil and water temperature, the change of porosity due to compaction and the soil degree of saturation. Therefore, before any inversion, the presence of possible 3D effects, and the measurement accuracy and uncertainty are assessed. A threshold in apparent resistivity change that could correspond to a change in soil saturation is determined. From those results, we investigate variations in the apparent resistivity. Responses to different hydrological processes (soil freezing/thawing, snow-melting, intense rainfall) occurring during the period of study are detected on resistivity values inversed on short periods.

  8. Episodic tectonic plate reorganizations driven by mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Scott D.; Lowman, Julian P.; Gable, Carl W.

    2002-10-01

    Periods of relatively uniform plate motion were interrupted several times throughout the Cenozoic and Mesozoic by rapid plate reorganization events [R. Hey, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 88 (1977) 1404-1420; P.A. Rona, E.S. Richardson, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 40 (1978) 1-11; D.C. Engebretson, A. Cox, R.G. Gordon, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 206 (1985); R.G. Gordon, D.M. Jurdy, J. Geophys. Res. 91 (1986) 12389-12406; D.A. Clague, G.B. Dalrymple, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1350 (1987) 5-54; J.M. Stock, P. Molnar, Nature 325 (1987) 495-499; C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, M.A. Richards, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 (1995) 1317-1320; M.A. Richards, C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 137 (1996) 19-27; C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, M.A. Richards, Rev. Geophys. 36 (1998) 27-78]. It has been proposed that changes in plate boundary forces are responsible for these events [M.A. Richards, C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 137 (1996) 19-27; C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, M.A. Richards, Rev. Geophys. 36 (1998) 27-78]. We present an alternative hypothesis: convection-driven plate motions are intrinsically unstable due to a buoyant instability that develops as a result of the influence of plates on an internally heated mantle. This instability, which has not been described before, is responsible for episodic reorganizations of plate motion. Numerical mantle convection experiments demonstrate that high-Rayleigh number convection with internal heating and surface plates is sufficient to induce plate reorganization events, changes in plate boundary forces, or plate geometry, are not required.

  9. Late Oligocene OIB-like lavas in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, S.; Wolff, J. A.; Hart, G. L.

    2008-12-01

    The 26.3 to 25.3 Ma Potlatch volcanics in northern Idaho (Kuffman et al., 2006) consist of a suite of basalts, hawaiites, mugearites, benmoreites, trachytes and nepheline trachytes. The volcanic field was erupted on North American cratonic basement well to the northeast of the regional crustal suture with Phanerozoic terranes accreted during the Mesozoic, and predates Columbia River flood basalt activity in the area by 9 million years. The most primitive Potlatch lavas are porphyritic olivine basalts with 6 percent MgO and strongly OIB-like chemical affinities (La/Nb = 0.69 - 0.76, Th/Ta = 0.92 to 1.08, Pb/Ce = 0.029 to 0.033, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70367 to 0.70476, 206Pb/204Pb = 19.254 to 19.504). Similarly, intermediate and felsic lavas and pyroclastics closely resemble differentiated members of typical sodic ocean island suites, but have additionally been affected by AFC involving small amounts of regional continental crust, which has acted to increase 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.70516. The Potlatch volcanics are geochemically unlike other regional Cenozoic volcanic suites including Eocene Challis rocks, basalts and rhyolites of the John Day Formation and other volcanic fields around the Blue Mountains to the south and southwest, and the later Columbia River basalts. Their occurrence represents a modification to the southward retreat pattern of early to mid-Cenozoic magmatism in northwestern North America. Kauffman, Bush, and Lewis (2006) ID Geol. Surv. Tech. Rep. 06-7, 11 pp.

  10. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  11. Late Pleistocene eolian features in southeastern Maryland and Chesapeake Bay region indicate strong WNW-NW winds accompanied growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Litwin, Ronald J.; Pavich, Milan J.; Brook, George A.

    2009-05-01

    Inactive parabolic dunes are present in southeastern Maryland, USA, along the east bank of the Potomac River. More elongate and finer-grained eolian deposits and paha-like ridges characterize the Potomac River-Patuxent River upland and the west side of Chesapeake Bay. These ridges are streamlined erosional features, veneered with eolian sediment and interspersed with dunes in the low-relief headwaters of Potomac- and Patuxent-river tributaries. Axis data for the dunes and ridges indicate formation by WNW-NW winds. Optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon age data suggest dune formation from ˜ 33-15 ka, agreeing with the 30-13 ka ages Denny, C.S., Owens, J.P., Sirkin, L., Rubin, M., 1979. The Parsonburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1067-B, 16 pp. suggested for eolian deposits east of Chesapeake Bay. Age range and paleowind direction(s) for eolian features in the Bay region approximate those for late Wisconsin loess in the North American midcontinent. Formation of midcontinent loess and Bay-region eolian features was coeval with rapid growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and strong cooling episodes (δ 18O minima) evident in Greenland ice cores. Age and paleowind-direction coincidence, for eolian features in the midcontinent and Bay region, indicates strong mid-latitude WNW-NW winds for several hundred kilometers south of the Laurentide glacial terminus that were oblique to previously simulated anticyclonic winds for the last glacial maximum.

  12. A Reassessment of 20th Century Global Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic change in the 20th century is directly and indirectly observable in multiple aspects of the climate system. Some of these changes, such as global mean surface temperature, are widely studied and understood, while others, such as global mean sea-level change (GMSL), remain uncertain. Until the mid-1990s, with the advent of satellite altimeter observations of a significant percentage of the global ocean, point observations of global sea-level change through tide gauges were the primary means of monitoring the changing height of the sea surface relative to the sea floor. Traditionally, there have been two approaches for estimating GMSL from these temporally and spatially sparse tide gauge records. The first approach uses such records to obtain a global mean value by computing and summing representative regional averages through time (e.g., Jevrejeva et al., GRL, 2008). The second approach uses the dominant spatial patterns of sea surface heights from 20 years of satellite altimetry data to interpolate between tide gauge records to reconstruct global sea level over the century (e.g., Church and White, Surv. Geophys., 2011). However, the GMSL estimates obtained using these two methods differ by ~0.5 mm/yr from the mean global rate achieved by summing the data- and model-derived estimates of the underlying contributions (e.g., thermal expansion, mass flux from land ice, etc.) (IPCC, 2014). Here we describe a third approach that estimates GMSL using two probabilistic approaches based on fingerprinting the underlying source contributions from the spatiotemporal patterns of sea-level change captured by the tide gauge records (Hay et al., Nature, 2015). Our revised GMSL rate estimate of 1.2 ± 0.2 mm/yr over 1901-1990 closes the sea-level budget and maintains a good fit with the tide gauge record over the 20th century.

  13. Study of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Agricultural Use in Yawal Taluka, Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baride, M. V.; Patil, S. N.; Baride, Arti

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper, 35 water samples representing dug/bore well surface water were analyzed to determine the quality of water. The samples were collected for two years: pre-monsoon, i.e., summer (May 2000 and May 2001) and post-monsoon, i.e., winter (November 2000 and November 2001). The standard analytical procedures of APHA, AWWA and WPCF (Standard Methods (19th Edn.), American Public Health Association, 1995) were adopted for the determination of dissolved constituents. Using titrimetric methods calcium; chlorides, total alkalinity, carbonates, bicarbonates, and total hardness were analyzed. Whereas sulfate, phosphate, nitrate (as NO3), and silica (SiO2) were analyzed by spectro-photometric methods. The sodium and potassium were determined with the help of Corning 400 flame photometer. Fe and Mg were determined by using colorimetric techniques. The total dissolved solids (TDS) were obtained using Hem's factor (J. D. Hem, U. S. Geol. Surv. water supply paper 1473 (1970)). Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater shows a wider range in parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, total hardness, total alkalinity, (CO3, HCO3) Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cl, SO4, PO4, NO3, SiO2. The hydrochemical facies suggest that the samples representing wells from basalt and piedmont aquifers are of Na + K, Ca + Mg, and HCO3, Cl + SO4 types. The bore well samples represent Ca + Mg, Na + K cations facies and HCO3, Cl + SO4 anion facies. Other various characteristic ratios such as sodium absorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, soluble sodium percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, permeability index, and indices were calculated to ascertain the groundwater quality for agricultural use.

  14. Temporal changes in risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Richer, Isabelle; Morissette, Carole; Leclerc, Pascale; Parent, Raymond; Claessens, Christiane; Blanchette, Caty; Alary, Michel

    2011-09-24

    To investigate temporal trends in HIV incidence rates and to assess changes over time in associated risk factors. Since 1995, the SurvUDI network has conducted surveillance among IDUs recruited in harm reduction programmes in eastern central Canada. Among the 11,731 participants, 2903 repeaters were initially HIV-negative. HIV incidence was calculated and compared for two time periods (1995-2002 vs. 2003-2009). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to assess risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Interactions between covariates and time periods were examined. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.7 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.1]. It significantly decreased from 3.1 per 100 person-years in 1995-2002 to 2.2 person-years in 2003-2009. Sex, needle borrowing, and cocaine as most often injected drug were independent and stable determinants of HIV seroconversion. Age, daily injection, sex work and being recruited in an urban area showed significant interactions with time. Being aged 25 years and older, injecting daily and being recruited in an urban area predicted HIV incidence in 1995-2002 but were no longer risk factors in 2003-2009. HIV incidence increased significantly among younger IDUs and sex work emerged as a new determinant of HIV incidence in 2003-2009. HIV incidence has decreased over time but remains high among IDUs in eastern central Canada. Associations between risk factors and HIV incidence have changed. Further research is needed to better understand HIV transmission among younger IDUs and IDU sex workers.

  15. IAP Position Paper on Burden of Mumps in India and Vaccination Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Yadav, Sangeeta; Dabas, Aashima; Bansal, C P; Agarwal, Rohit C; Yewale, Vijay N; Thacker, Naveen; Kamath, S S; Mehta, Pravin J

    2015-06-01

    Mumps, despite being a widely prevalent disease in the country, is considered as an insignificant public health problem mainly because of poor documentation of clinical cases and lack of published studies. In the absence of adequate published data on disease burden, Government of India has recently decided to introduce measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in its National Immunization Program and neglected mumps component. Following an IAP ACVIP meeting on December 6 and 7, 2014, a detailed review of burden of mumps in India along with vaccination strategies to control the disease was prepared. The draft was circulated amongst the members of the committee for review and approval. Revised final draft was later approved by IAP executive board in January 2015. To provide a review of community burden of mumps in India; and to discuss the vaccination strategies to impress upon policymakers to include mumps vaccination in National immunization program. A total of 14 studies and two media reports on mumps outbreak were retrieved. The outbreaks were reported from all the regions of the country. Mumps meningoencephalitis was responsible for 2.3% to 14.6% of all investigated hospitalized acute encephalitis syndrome or viral encephalitis cases in different studies. Data from Infectious Disease Surveillance (ID Surv) portal of IAP and Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) of Government of India (GoI) were also reviewed. While a total of 1052 cases were reported by the IDSurv, IDSP had investigated 72 outbreaks with 1564 cases in 14 states during different time periods. Genotypes G (subtype G2) and C were found to be main genotypes of the mumps virus circulating in the country. Three studies studied serological status of young children and adolescents against mumps, and found susceptibility rates ranging from 32% to 80% in different age groups. Mumps poses a significant disease burden in India. This calls for inclusion of mumps vaccine in the National immunization program.

  16. Contribution of thermal infrared images on the understanding of the subsurface/atmosphere exchanges on Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Baratoux, David; Rabinowicz, Michel

    2017-04-01

    not the evaporation/condensation cycle. [1] Antoine et al. (2009). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 183(3-4), 228-1140. [2] Antoine et al. (2017). Geothermics, 65, 81-98. [3] Lopez et al. (2016). Surv. Geophys., 37 (2), 471-502.

  17. Redox effect on the Cr isotope proxy: transitional signal of associated cap-carbonates, BIF and black shale, Chuos Formation (Namibia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodler, A.; Frei, R.; Gaucher, C.

    2013-12-01

    -rich, ferruginous sediments with dropstones and higher TiO2 and Al2O3 due to enhanced terrigenous sedimentary input. [1] Hoffman et al. (1996) Communs Geol. Surv. Namibia 11, 47-52. [2] Schoenberg et al. (2008) Chemical Geology 249, 294-306. [3] Døssing et al. (2011) Chemical Geology 285, 157-166.

  18. Observing terrestrial water storage and land-atmosphere dynamics from space: Implications for forecasting and climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Humphrey, V.; Nicolai-Shaw, N.; Gudmundsson, L.; Guillod, B.; Hirschi, M.; Michel, D.; Orth, R.; Zscheischler, J.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, several new satellite products have been derived which allow an unprecendented assessment of terrestrial water storage and land-atmosphere dynamics. This presentation will review some of these new developments, with a focus on drought dynamics, plant-water interactions, and soil moisture-atmosphere feedbacks. Results derived based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, Humphrey et al. 2016) and the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) Soil Moisture dataset (Nicolai-Shaw et al. 2015, 2016; Hirschi et al. 2014) will be highlighted, as well as assessments using satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration (Mueller and Seneviratne 2014, Michel et al. 2016), vegetation activity (Zscheischler et al. 2015), and combined soil moisture and precipitation analyses (Guillod et al. 2015). These findings provide new insights on the development of prediction capabilities for droughts, precipitation events, and heat waves, and the reduction of uncertainties in climate model projections. References: Guillod, B.P., B. Orlowsky, D.G. Miralles, A.J. Teuling, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2015. Nature Communications, 6:6443, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7443 Hirschi, M., B. Mueller, W. Dorigo, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2014. Remote Sensing of Environment, 154, 246-252. Humphrey, V., L. Gudmundsson, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2016. Surv. Geophysics, 37, 357-395, DOI 10.1007/s10712-016-9367-1. Michel, D., et al. 2016. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 20, 803-822, doi:10.5194/hess-20-803-2016. Mueller, M., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2014. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1-7, doi:10.1002/2013GL058055. Nicolai-Shaw, N., L. Gudmundsson, M. Hirschi, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2016. Geophys. Res. Lett., in review. Nicolai-Shaw, N., M. Hirschi, H. Mittelbach, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2015. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023305. Zscheischler, J., R. Orth, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2015. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 9816-9824, doi:10.1002/2015GL066563.

  19. Le POSSUM: un bon score pour prédire la mortalité du sujet âgé opéré en urgence?

    PubMed Central

    Mzoughi, Zeineb; Bayar, Rached; Djebbi, Achref; Talbi, Ghofrane; Romdhane, Hayfa; Aloui, Wafa; Lassaad, Gharbi; Khalfallah, Mohamed Taher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) est un score prédictif de mortalité qui est largement utilisé en chirurgie aortique élective et abdominale. Le but de notre étude est une validation du POSSUM chez le sujet âgé (>70 ans) opéré pour une urgence digestive. Nous nous proposons d'étudier les meilleurs seuils du POSSUM, composé d'un score physiologique et d'un score opératoire, pour prédire la mortalité dans cette population. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective analytique de type cas témoin à partir d'une série de 291 patients d'âge ≥ 70 ans opérés pour une urgence digestive. Ces patients étaient répartis en deux groupes comportant 50 patients chacun. Le groupe "DC": patients décédés en post opératoire immédiat et le Groupe témoin "SURV" choisis par tirage au sort. Nous avons analysé la fiabilité du POSSUM pour prédire la mortalité et la morbidité. Par la suite, nous avons établi des courbes de ROC pour définir les seuils qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité. Résultats Le score physiologique, le score opératoire et les taux de morbidité et mortalité prédits par POSSUM et la mortalité prédit par P-POSSUM représentaient des facteurs prédictifs de mortalité (P <0,0001). Les valeurs seuils du score physiologique et du score opératoire qui donnent le meilleur couple sensibilité/spécificité, étaient respectivement de 23 et 15. Conclusion Prédire la mortalité permet de cibler la prise en charge et d'informer le patient et sa famille des risques encourus. PMID:27795763

  20. Cost-effectiveness of eplerenone in NYHA class II chronic heart failure patients with reduced LVEF: an analysis for Greece

    PubMed Central

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Bilitou, Aikaterini; Lee, Dawn; Karampli, Eleftheria; Karavidas, Apostolos; Parissis, John; Sykara, Georgia; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of treatment with eplerenone versus standard care in adult patients with New York Heart Association class II chronic heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction from the perspective of the Greek national health care payer. Methods A discrete-event model simulating the clinical course and respective outcomes of eplerenone as an add-on to standard therapy versus standard therapy alone based on the pivotal Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and SurvIval Study in Heart Failure (EMPHASIS-HF) trial was locally adapted for the Greek setting. Data on medications followed the resource use from eplerenone in mild patients hospitalization and survival study in heart failure and were estimated on a lifetime basis (or until discontinuation). Cost calculations were based on year 2014, event costs (cardiovascular hospitalizations, adverse events, and devices) were sourced from published diagnosis-related groups. A 3% discount rate was applied. In order to test the robustness of the model projections, a range of deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results Over a patient’s lifetime, the addition of eplerenone to standard care compared to standard care alone led to an incremental gain of 1.33 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (6.53 vs 5.20 QALYs, respectively) as well as an increase in the cost of treatment by €2,160; these outcomes produced an incremental CE ratio of €1,624/QALY for the Greek setting. On the basis of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, there was a 100% likelihood of eplerenone being cost-effective versus standard care at a threshold of €3,500/QALY. Conclusion This analysis indicates that eplerenone may be a cost-effective option versus standard care accompanied by additional clinical benefits and an added incremental cost at an acceptable, if not low, CE ratio. The results are consistent with the previously published

  1. Revisiting Baarda's concept of minimal detectable bias with regard to outlier identifiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, W.

    2015-10-01

    The concept of minimal detectable bias (MDB) as initiated by Baarda (Publ Geod New Ser 2(5), 1968) and later developed by Wang and Chen (Acta Geodaet et Cartograph Sin Engl Edn 42-51, 1994), Schaffrin (J Eng Surv 123:126-137, 1997), Teunissen (IEEE Aerosp Electron Syst Mag 5(7):35-41, 1990, J Geod 72:236-244 1998, Testing theory: an introduction. Delft University Press, Delft, 2000) and others, refers to the issue of outlier detectability. A supplementation of the concept is proposed for the case of correlated observations contaminated with a single gross error. The supplementation consists mainly of an outlier identifiability index assigned to each individual observation in a network and a mis-identifiability index being the maximum probability of identifying a wrong observation. To those indices there can also be added the MDB multiplying factor to increase the identifiability index to a satisfactory level. As auxiliary measures there are indices of partial identifiability concerning pairs of observations. The indices were derived assuming the generalized outlier identification procedure as in Knight et al. (J Geod. doi: 10.1007/s00190-010-0392-4, 2010), which with one outlier case being assumed is similar to Baarda's w-test (Baarda in Publ Geod New Ser 2(5), 1968). The following two options of identifiability indices and partial identifiability indices are distinguished: I. the indices related to identification of a contaminated observation within a set of observations suspected of containing a gross error (identifiability), II. the indices related to identification of a contaminated observation within a whole set of observations (pseudo-identifiability). To characterize the proposed approach in the context of the existing solutions of similar topic being the separability testing, the properties of both types of identifiability indices are discussed with reference to the concept of Minimal Separable Bias (Wang and Knight in J Glob Position Syst 11(1):46-57, 2012

  2. Crater size distributions on Ganymede and Callisto: fundamental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Schmedemann, Nico; Werner, Stefanie; Ivanov, Boris; Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Crater size distributions on the two largest Jovian satellites Ganymede and Callisto and the origin of impactors are subject of intense and controversial debates. In this paper, we reinvestigate crater size distributions measured in surface units derived from a recently published global geologic map, based on Voyager and Galileo SSI images at a scale of 1 km/pxl (Collins G. C. et al. (2013), U. S. Geol. Surv., Sci. Inv. Map 3237). These units are used as a context to units mapped in more detail at higher resolution in Galileo SSI images. We focus on the following fundamental issues: (1) Similarity between shapes of crater distributions on the Galilean satellites and on inner solar system bodies; (2) production versus equilibrium distributions; (3) apex/antapex variations in crater distributions. First, our results show a strong similarity in shape between the crater distributions on the most densely cratered regions on Ganymede and Callisto with those in the lunar highlands. We conclude that the shape of the crater distributions on these two Jovian satellites implies the craters were preferentially formed from members of a collisionally evolved projectile family, derived either from Main Belt asteroids as candidates of impactors on the Jovian satellites, or from projectiles stemming from the outer solar system which have undergone collisional evolution, resulting in a size distribution similar to those of Main Belt asteroids. Second, the complex shape of the crater distributions on Ganymede and Callisto indicates they are mostly production distributions and can be used to infer the underlying shape of the projectile size distribution. Locally, equilibrium distributions occur, especially at smaller sub-kilometer diameters. Third, the most densely cratered regions on both satellites do not show apex-antapex variations in crater frequency, as inferred for bodies from heliocentric orbits (e.g., Zahnle K. et al. (2003), Icarus 163, 263-289). This indicates that these

  3. Drug use practices among people who inject drugs in a context of drug market changes: Challenges for optimal coverage of harm reduction programs.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Until the early 2000s, people who inject drugs (PWID) in Québec had mainly been injecting powder cocaine and heroin. Since then, ethnographic studies have shown that the drug market has diversified, with crack and prescription opioids (PO) becoming increasingly available. This could have led to changes in drug use practices among PWID. The objectives of our study were to examine annual trends in injection of different drugs, crack smoking and frequent injection (FI), as well as relationships between injected drugs and FI. PWID are participants in the ongoing Québec SurvUDI surveillance system. PWID (past 6 months) were recruited in 2 urban and 6 semi-urban/rural sites. Each visit included a structured interview addressing drug use behaviours. Analyses were carried out using GEE methods. For trend analyses (2003-2014) on drugs and FI (number of injections≥upper quartile, previous month), the first annual interview was selected for PWID with multiple participations per year. Analyses on associations between FI and types of injected drugs were based on all interviews (2004-2014). Crack/cocaine and heroin injection declined significantly, with prevalence ratios (PR) per year of 0.983 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.980-0.986] and 0.979 (95% CI: 0.969-0.990), while PO injection [PR=1.052 (1.045-1.059)], crack smoking [PR=1.006 (1.001-1.012)], and FI (≥120 injections, previous month) significantly increased [PR=1.015 (1.004-1.026)]. Compared to PWID who injected crack/cocaine±other drugs, the proportion of PWID reporting FI was higher among those who injected PO+heroin/speedball, crack/cocaine or other drugs (adjusted PR 2.29; 95% CI: 2.07-2.53) or PO only (aPR 1.72; 95%CI: 1.47-2.01). Changes that have occurred in the drug market are reflected in PWID's practices. The high frequency of injection observed among PO injectors is of particular concern. Drug market variations are a challenge for health authorities responsible for harm reduction programs. Copyright

  4. Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow

  5. Constraints on the hydrology of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV from three-dimensional models of chloride and strontium geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1999-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of the spatial and temporal variations in chloride and strontium concentrations in porewaters were performed to constrain infiltration rates, flow paths, and mixing processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, NV. Chloride concentrations in infiltrating water were calculated from aerial distributions of precipitation and infiltration rates for the current climatic conditions and for the last glacial maximum, combined with effective chloride concentrations in precipitation. Modeled concentrations are roughly similar to measured porewater chloride concentrations from the Paintbrush nonwelded tuffs in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel and in boreholes suggesting that the mean infiltration rate over the site is unlikely to be higher than the calculated mean infiltration rate for the modern climate (˜5 mm/year; [Flint, A.L., Hevesi, J.A., Flint, L.E., 1996. Conceptual and Numerical Model of Infiltration for the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada. Milestone 3GU1623M. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Res. Invest. Rep. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO]). Porewaters from the late Pleistocene (>10 ka) could be present in the Paintbrush bedded tuffs and in the underlying Topopah Spring welded tuffs (TSw), predominately under regions of thick alluvium having little infiltration. However, porewaters at the potential repository level may have a higher proportion of Holocene recharge due to the higher calculated infiltration rate in this region. Dual-permeability simulations show that in low infiltration regions chemical disequilibrium can exist between fracture and matrix porewaters, as a result of the climate change 10,000 years ago. Below the potential repository level, simulations show significant mixing due to lateral flow on top of the low permeability basal vitrophyre in the Topopah Spring unit and on zeolitized tuffs in the Calico Hills unit. Perched water chloride concentrations are closely matched using the calculated

  6. Sequential interim analyses of survival data in DNA microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    long-term survival studies. The developed simulation framework, which we also offer as a new R package 'SurvGenesInterim' available at http://survgenesinter.R-Forge.R-Project.org, can be used for sample size planning of the evaluated study design. PMID:21527044

  7. Comparing the topographic long profiles of gullies on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Susan; Balme, Matthew; Murray, John; Towner, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Planet. Sci. Conf. 35, (2004),no. 1556. [6] C.H. Hugenholtz, Icarus, (2008), 197,65-72. [7] J.L. Dickson and J.W. Head, Icarus, (2009), 204,63-86. [8] C.J. Gallagher and M.R. Balme, Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ., (2011), 356,87-110. [9] J.T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., (1957), 294-B,45-97. [10] M.A. Kreslavsky, Workshop Martian Gullies, (2008),abs.#1301.

  8. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.

    2007-04-01

    The northern end of the 650-km-long Nemaha Uplift (Nebraska and Kansas, USA) is an important example of basin-margin sedimentation in the North American Midcontinent. An apron of coarse, basal Pennsylvanian arkosic clastic sediments (BPC) was deposited on the flanks of the uplift while marine cyclothems were encroaching from the east. Small-scale fining-upward intervals, many with demonstrably erosional bases, dominate the BPC and are interpreted as overridingly fluvial in origin. Weak paleosols, desiccation cracks, and reddened intervals in the BPC record episodic subaerial exposure. Multiple, burrowed horizons and heterolithic strata of probable tidal origin and rare marine fossils also indicate episodic marine influence. The BPC appear to have been deposited as a thin apron of coalesced, alluvial fans and fan deltas. Deposition of the BPC occurred during the waning of uplift and subsequent quiescence. The comparative thinness and large-scale packaging of the BPC are compatible with the controlling effects of relict relief, regional subsidence, and eustasy, rather than ongoing, major vertical displacements along active faults. A strong autocyclic influence on sedimentation is evidenced by stacked fining-upward intervals of poorly-sorted conglomerates, sandstones, and sandy mudstones. Correlations demonstrate that the accumulation of the BPC took place over more than seven major sea-level cycles, beginning in Cherokee Group times (middle Moscovian/middle Pennsylvanian) and ending only when the eroded uplift was inundated and buried by marine cyclothems. On the basis of local correlations with marine cyclothems, and using black phosphatic shales (so-called "core shales" of Heckel, P.H., 1986. Sea-level surve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along Midcontinent outcrop belt, North America: Geology 14, 330-334., Heckel, P.H., 1994. Evaluation of evidence for glacio-eustatic control over marine Pennsylvanian cyclothems in

  9. Predictions for ASKAP neutral hydrogen surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Alan R.; Meyer, Martin J.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Bernyk, Maksym; Croton, Darren J.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Gerstmann, Derek; Westerlund, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will revolutionize our knowledge of gas-rich galaxies in the universe. Here we present predictions for two proposed extragalactic ASKAP neutral hydrogen (H I) emission-line surveys, based on semi-analytic models applied to cosmological N-body simulations. The ASKAP H I All-Sky Survey, known as Widefield ASKAP L-band Legacy All-sky Blind surveY (WALLABY), is a shallow 3 π survey (z = 0-0.26) which will probe the mass and dynamics of over 6 × 105 galaxies. A much deeper small-area H I survey, called Deep Investigation of Neutral Gas Origins (DINGO), aims to trace the evolution of H I from z = 0 to 0.43, a cosmological volume of 4 × 107 Mpc3, detecting potentially 105 galaxies. The high-sensitivity 30 antenna ASKAP core (diameter ˜2 km) will provide an angular resolution of 30 arcsec (at z = 0). Our simulations show that the majority of galaxies detected in WALLABY (87.5 per cent) will be resolved. About 5000 galaxies will be well resolved, i.e. more than five beams (2.5 arcmin) across the major axis, enabling kinematic studies of their gaseous discs. This number would rise to 1.6 × 105 galaxies if all 36 ASKAP antennas could be used; the additional six antennas provide baselines up to 6 km, resulting in an angular resolution of 10 arcsec. For DINGO this increased resolution is highly desirable to minimize source confusion, reducing confusion rates from a maximum of 10 per cent of sources at the survey edge to 3 per cent. We estimate that the sources detected by WALLABY and DINGO will span four orders of magnitude in total halo mass (from 1011 to 1015 M⊙) and nearly seven orders of magnitude in stellar mass (from 105 to 1012 M⊙), allowing us to investigate the process of galaxy formation across the last four billion years.

  10. Testing earthquake prediction algorithms: Statistically significant advance prediction of the largest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Healy, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Algorithms M8 and MSc (i.e., the Mendocino Scenario) were used in a real-time intermediate-term research prediction of the strongest earthquakes in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt. Predictions are made by M8 first. Then, the areas of alarm are reduced by MSc at the cost that some earthquakes are missed in the second approximation of prediction. In 1992-1997, five earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above occurred in the test area: all of them were predicted by M8 and MSc identified correctly the locations of four of them. The space-time volume of the alarms is 36% and 18%, correspondingly, when estimated with a normalized product measure of empirical distribution of epicenters and uniform time. The statistical significance of the achieved results is beyond 99% both for M8 and MSc. For magnitude 7.5 + , 10 out of 19 earthquakes were predicted by M8 in 40% and five were predicted by M8-MSc in 13% of the total volume considered. This implies a significance level of 81% for M8 and 92% for M8-MSc. The lower significance levels might result from a global change in seismic regime in 1993-1996, when the rate of the largest events has doubled and all of them become exclusively normal or reversed faults. The predictions are fully reproducible; the algorithms M8 and MSc in complete formal definitions were published before we started our experiment [Keilis-Borok, V.I., Kossobokov, V.G., 1990. Premonitory activation of seismic flow: Algorithm M8, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 61, 73-83; Kossobokov, V.G., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Smith, S.W., 1990. Localization of intermediate-term earthquake prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 19763-19772; Healy, J.H., Kossobokov, V.G., Dewey, J.W., 1992. A test to evaluate the earthquake prediction algorithm, M8. U.S. Geol. Surv. OFR 92-401]. M8 is available from the IASPEI Software Library [Healy, J.H., Keilis-Borok, V.I., Lee, W.H.K. (Eds.), 1997. Algorithms for Earthquake Statistics and Prediction, Vol. 6. IASPEI Software Library]. ?? 1999 Elsevier

  11. Can we use only Grain Size Data for Paleo-Flow Reconstructions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, M. M.; Pohl, F.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Fedele, J.; Hoyal, D. C. J. D.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    velocity, and whether this inverted shear velocity is in accordance with the experimental flow conditions. Preliminary application of this method to outcrop work will be given. Bagnold, R. (1966), U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 422-I, 37 pp. Eastwood, E. N., G. Kocurek, D. Mohrig, and T. Swanson (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03035, doi:10.1029/2012JF002368.

  12. Cloud Fraction: Can it be Defined and Measured? And if we Knew it Would it be of any use to us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    several techniques over a 2-day period in May, 2009. ARSCL (Clothiaux, JAM, 2000), is time-average based on vertically pointing lidars and millimeter cloud radars; SIRS (Long, JGR, 2006) is time-average based on downwelling SW irradiance. TSI is based on fraction of cloudy pixels within 50° cone about vertical. GOES is based on average of all pixels (4-km size; satellite) within 20 km of the surface measurement site (Genkova, 14th ARM STM, 2004). Gray denotes nighttime; TSI and SIRS not available. Modified from Stevens and Schwartz (Surv. Geophys., 2012).

  13. [Respective analysis of dead patients with cirrhosis by Child-Pugh score and model of end-stage liver disease score].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Fanggen; Ouyang, Chunhui; Cheng, Zongyong; Wang, Xuehong; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-10-01

    To understand the value of Child-Pugh (CP) classification and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for patients with cirrhosis and their prognosis by retrospectively analyzing the two methods in hemorrhage death and non-hemorrhage death in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 72 patients who died of cirrhosis (the death group) were analyzed retrospectively, and the initial data in the hospital before death were collected. The initial information of the control group (88 patients) at the same time was also obtained. The death group was divided into two subgroups: esophagus varicosity burst massive hemorrhage death group and non-hemorrhage death group. MELD score and CP score of the death group (22.230±13.451, 10.264±2.028) were significantly higher than those of the control group (15.370±6.201, 9.318±1.644; P<0.05). The MELD score and CP score for the massive bleeding death group were close to those of the control group. There was significant difference between the non-hemorrhage death group and the control group. The ratio of patients with CP grade A and MELD scores<20 died for massive bleeding in the death group was more than 70%, and that of CP grade C and MELD scores ≥ 30 in the death group was higher. ROC surve analysis found the accuracy of short-term predication of survival by MELD score and CP classification was improved after eliminating the risk factors of hemorrage. MELD and CP play a role in evaluating the state and prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. MELD score and CP classification predict the short-term survival efficiently on the premise of excluding the risk factors of esophagus and/or stomach bottom varicosity burst massive bleeding. CP and MELD scores are deficiencies, especially for low MELD score (<20) and CP level A patients. The prognostic accuracy may be improved when combining esophageal gastric fundal varices.

  14. Epidemiology of reported Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Germany, 2001-2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yersiniosis is the third most common zoonotic bacterial disease in Germany and the European Union. Sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections, such as reactive arthritis, have been reported. Consumption of pork and its products, especially eaten raw or undercooked, is an important risk factor of yersiniosis. Infection with Y. enterocolitica is notifiable through the national surveillance system for infectious diseases in Germany and several thousands of cases are being reported each year. We present recent data on the epidemiology of reported yersiniosis in Germany. Methods Surveillance data on yersiniosis, accessed through the national level database (SurvNet), were analyzed with regard to time trends, demographical and geographical distribution, serotypes, and hospitalization, for the time period 2001-2008. Results A total of 47,627 cases of yersiniosis were reported. The mean annual incidence of yersiniosis was 7.2/100,000 population. A downward trend in the number of reportable cases has occurred since 2002. Almost all Y. enterocolitica infections were reported as single cases, i.e., with no apparent links to other cases. The number of reported infections showed substantially less seasonal variation than in other zoonotic enteric diseases. The incidence was highest in children under five years (58/100,000 population), in particular in one-year-old children (108/100,000 population). Almost 97% of infections were acquired domestically. High incidences occurred in the eastern German federal states Thuringia, Saxony, and Saxony-Anhalt. Differences in incidences across federal states were driven primarily by incidence differences in children under five years. Hospitalization was reported for 17% of cases, the proportion being highest among teenagers. Almost 90% of Y. enterocolitica strains were diagnosed as serotype O:3, which is the serotype most frequently isolated from pigs. Conclusions Yersiniosis is a zoonotic foodborne disease of relevance to

  15. Effects of a flood pulse on exchange flows along a sinuous stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, D.; Brunner, P.; Renard, P.; Perrochet, P.; Schirmer, M.; Hunkeler, D.

    2012-04-01

    typically assume a straight channel. The discussion covers an evaluation of this work with respect to previous studies that considered the influence of sinuosity on interfacial exchange flows. It addresses the issue of steady vs. transient exchanges, which is of uppermost importance at the operational scale of river restoration schemes. Langbein WB, Leopold LB. 1966. River meanders - theory of minimum variance. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 422-H: 15 p.

  16. Aeolian processes and dune morphology in the Gobi and Badain Jaran Desert using LandSat Imagery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Marco; Cannito, Arturo; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Global Sand Sea. (1979) [2] Yang, X. Chinese Science Bulletin 46, 6-11, (2000). [3] Yang, X., et al. Quaternary International 104 ( 2003). 99-112. [4] NASA Landsat Program (2003) Landsat ETM+scene, p129r031_7t20000713, SLC-Off, USGS, Sioux Falls, 10/26/2003. [5] Tachikawa, T., et al. The characteristics of ASTER GDEM version 2, IGARSS, July 2011. [6] McKee E. D. (1979) U.S.Geol. Surv.Prof. Pap., 1052, 3-17. [7] Werner, B.T. 1995. Eolian dunes: Computer simulations and attractor interpretation. Geology 23: 1107-1110.

  17. The implications of Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer in-situ analysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping

    2015-04-01

    believe that at least the identification of the minerals gives us valuable imformation about the landing site. References: [1] Liu B. (2014). RAA, 14, 1578-1594. [2] Thiessen F. et al., (2014). Planetary and Space Science, 104, 244-252. [3]Yamamoto S. et al., (2010). Nat. Geosci. 3, 533-536. [4] Tong S. et al,. (2013). Icarus 222, 401-410. [5] Wilhelm D.E., and McCauley J.F. (1971). 1-703. U.S. Geol. Surv., Washington D.C. [6] Li C.L. et al., (2014). RAA, 14, 1514-1529. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the CHANG'E-3 funding from Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, undertaken by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). This work is also supported by the NSFC program (41490633).

  18. P and S automatic picks for 3D earthquake tomography in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovisa, L.; Bragato, P.; Gentili, S.

    2006-12-01

    quantity of recordings must by quickly analyzed to provide some preliminary results (e.g., to decide about further data acquisition when using temporary networks) or when a sort of "real-time tomography" is required (e.g., continuous imaging of volcanoes during their activity). References Evans J.R., Eberhart-Phillips D., and Thurber C.H. (1994). User's manual for simulps12 for imaging vp and vp/vs: a derivative of the Thurber tomographic inversion simul3 for local earthquakes locations and explosions, U.S.Geol. Surv. Open File Report, 7 pp. Gentile, G. F., Bressan, G., Burlini, L., De Franco, R., 2000, Three - dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs models of the upper crust in the Friuli area (Northeastern Italy)., Geophys. Journ. Int., 141, 457-478. Gentili S. and Bragato P. L., 2006,"A neural-tree-based system for automatic location of earthquakes in Northeastern Italy" Journal of Seismology, Volume 10, Number 1, pp.73-89. Michelini, A., Mcevilly, T. V., 1991, "Seismological studies at Parkfield; I, Simultaneous inversion for velocity structure and hypocenters using cubic B-splines parameterization.", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 81, 2, 524-552.

  19. Towards understanding the nature of any relationship between Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays with thunderstorm activity and lightning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, J.; Muller, J.-P.; Matthews, S.

    2012-04-01

    both sign and significance over small geographic distances, similar to previous results [3,4,6], highlighting the complexity of the atmospheric processes contributing to the mechanism of thunderstorm generation and lightning discharge. We find correlations are generally more significant over larger timescales, as daily meteorological variability is smoothened out, suggesting a role for changing Solar activity levels in influencing thunderstorm development and onset of lightning discharge. Comparisons of small-scale correlation results to planetary wave patterns suggests an influence over the correlations of lightning activity to the above indices, as proposed by Schlegel et al. [6], and previously suggested by the results of Fritz [3] and Brooks [4]. Our results show agreement with Schlegel et al. [6] for the same region over Germany, but are in disagreement with their results for Austria. This lends support to the idea of the theory of planetary waves influence over correlation signs and significance across short geographic distances, as discussed by Schlegel et al. [6]. Acknowledgement: The authors wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (http://wwlln.net), a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions (including MSSL) for providing the lightning location data used in this paper. [1] Ermakov, V.I. and Stozhkov, Yu.I., 2003. Cosmic rays in the mechanism of thundercloud production. 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference, pp. 4157-4160. [2] Kirkby, J., 2007. Cosmic rays and climate. Surv Geophys, vol. 28 (5-6) pp. 333-375. [3] Fritz, H., 1878. Die wichtigsten periodischen Erscheinungen der Meteorologie und Kosmologie. Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem, Deel III, Haarlem. [4] Brooks, C.E.P., 1934. The variation of the annual frequency of thunderstorms in relation to sunspots. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 60, 153-165. [5] Stringfellow, M.F., 1974. Lightning

  20. Variations in Pb concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Woodruff, Laurel; Reimann, Clemens; Flem, Belinda

    2014-05-01

    feldspar content for the same 2500-km portion of the transect from east-central Colorado to the Atlantic coast that shows steadily increasing precipitation. No such correlation exists in the soil C horizon. The data demonstrate the importance of climate and weathering on both Pb concentration and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in soil samples and natural shifts thereof in the soil profile during soil-forming processes. The results of this study demonstrate that often none of above two requirements for the use of Pb isotopes in environmental sciences will be met. REFERENCES Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., Garrett, R.G., Klassen, R., Kilburn, J.E., Horton, J.D., King, H.D., Goldhaber, M.B., Morrison, J.M., 2005. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada. U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 2005-1253.

  1. Asteroid mega-impacts and Precambrian banded iron formations: 2.63 Ga and 2.56 Ga impact ejecta/fallout at the base of BIF/argillite units, Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2007-02-01

    Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 51 (2004) 621-644.]) and lies directly below a thin volcanic tuff (2629 ± 5 Ma, [A.F. Trendall, W. Compston, D.R. Nelson, J.R. deLaeter, V.C. Bennett, SHRIMP zircon ages constraining the depositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 51 (2004) 621-644.]) and banded iron formation (BIF) (upper part of Marra Mamba Iron Formation, 2597 ± 5 Ma [A.F. Trendall, W. Compston, D.R. Nelson, J.R. deLaeter, V.C. Bennett, SHRIMP zircon ages constraining the depositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, Western Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 51 (2004) 621-644.]). The Spherule Marker Bed (SMB) [B.M. Simonson, Geological evidence for an early Precambrian microtektite strewn field in the Hamersley Basin of Western Australia. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 104 (1992) 829-839; B.M. Simonson, S.W. Hassler, K.A. Schubel, Lithology and proposed revisions in stratigraphic nomenclature of the Wittenoom Formation (Dolomite) and overlying formations, Hamersley Group, Western Australia. Geol. Surv. W. Aust. Rep. 345 (1993) 65-79; S.W. Hassler, B.M. Simonson, D.Y. Sumner, D. Murphy, Neoarchaean impact spherule layers in the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Western Australia: stratigraphic and depositional implications of re-correlation. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 52 (2005) 759-772. [5

  2. Copernican tectonic activities in the northwestern Imbrium region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daket, Yuko; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi

    2015-04-01

    area lasted until recently. Those young tectonic activities are too young to be explained by mascon loading hypothesis. Tectonism induced by global cooling or orbital evolution are possible origins for the young horizontal compression. However, they cannot explain the recent extension. Our study area is located in PKT region where the heat-producing elements are more abundant than surrounding areas. Therefore, regional cooling would be a reasonable explanation for the young extensional tectonics. References Ono, T., A. Kumamoto, H. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaguchi, S. Oshigami, A. Yamaji, T. Kobayashi, Y. Kasahara, and H. Oya, 2009, Science, 323, 909--912. Solomon, S.C. and Head, J.W., 1980, Rev. Geophys., 18, 107--141. Trask, N.J., 1971, Geological Survey Research, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 750-D, D138--D144. Watters, T.R., M.S. Robinson, M.E. Banks, T. Tran, and B.W. Denevi, 2012, Nature Geosci., 5, 181--185.

  3. U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon ages of TTG gneisses of the Aravalli Craton of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Hiredya; Saikia, Ashima; Kaulina, Tatiana; Bayanova, Tamara; Ahmad, Talat

    2015-04-01

    zircon types from UD-16 sample yield a U-Pb discordant age of 2680±30 Ma. Two zircon fractions from UD-17 sample show discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2506 and 2577 Ma. Zircons in our samples have moderate to high U contents (180-770 ppm) with low Th/U ratios (0.2-0.5) in the sample UD-16, characteristic for magmatic zircons from TTG rocks. Thus the obtained age of 2680±30 Ma is interpreted as an age of magmatic crystallization of tonalites. Gopalan, K. et al., (1990): Precambrian Res., 48, 287-297. Ludwig, K.R. (1991): PBDAT program. US. Geol. Surv. Open-file report 88-542, 38 p. Ludwig, K. R. (2008): Isoplot/Ex, version 3.6, Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication no. 4. Upadhyaya, R. et al., (1992): Current Sci., 62(2): 87-92. Wiedenbeck, M. et al., (1996): Chem Geol. 129: 325-340.

  4. Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    scenarios and v) Evaluation of diffusion and retention parameters for long-lived radionuclides. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations are focused on: i) Influence of rock liner on the disposal system and the buffering potential of the host rock; ii) Self-sealing processes in the excavation damaged zone; iii) Hydro-mechanical coupled processes (e.g. stress redistributions and pore pressure evolution during excavation); iv) Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes (e.g. heating of bentonite and host rock) and v) Gas-induced transport of radionuclides in porewater and along interfaces in the engineered barrier system. A third research direction is to demonstrate the feasibility of repository construction and long-term safety after repository closure. Demonstration experiments can contribute to improving the reliability of the scientific basis for the safety assessment of future geological repositories, particularly if they are performed on a large scale and with a long duration. These experiments include the construction and installation of engineered barriers on a 1:1 scale: i) Horizontal emplacement of canisters; ii) Evaluation of the corrosion of container materials; repository re-saturation; iii) Sealing of boreholes and repository access tunnels and iv) Long-term monitoring of the repository. References Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2008): Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Project, Programme 1996 to 2007 and Results. - Rep. Swiss Geol. Surv. 3.

  5. In search of the noble gas 3.52 Ga atmospheric signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, M.; Marty, B.; Philippot, P.

    2008-12-01

    nuclear reactions on Xe isotope production, barite from 30m shallower depth in the same core were analyzed. Variable excesses can be linked to spallogenic and cosmogenic reactions ([4] [5] [6]) which allow the primitive Xe isotopic signature to be isolated from subsequent secondary production. Models of the archaean atmospheric noble gas signature can thereby be compared with different theories on primitive atmospheric composition. [1] Staudacher T. Allègre C.J. (1982) EPSL 60, p 389-406 [2] Van Kranendonk MJ., Hickman A.H., Williams I.R. and Nijman W. (2001) Rec.-Geol. Surv. West. Aust. 2001/9, 134 [3] Foriel J., Philippot P., Rey P., Somogyi A., Banks D. and Ménez B. (2004) EPSL, 228, 451-463 [4]Srinivasan B. (1976) EPSL, 31, 129-141 [5]Charalambus S. (1971) Nuclear Physics, A166, 145 [6]Meshik A. P., Hohenberg C. M., Pravdivtseva O. V. and Kapusta Y. (2001) Phys. Rev., C 64, 035205-1 035205-6

  6. X-Ray Data on Extraterrestrial CA Dialuminate (CaAl4O7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, D.; Ross, C. R., II; Bischoff, A.

    1993-07-01

    volume, are slightly higher in Ca-dialuminate from Acfer 182 than from synthetic CaAl4O7. This may be due to the incorporation of traces of refractory elements (REE) with large ionic radii, which were analyzed within inclusion 022/9 [10]. With the determination of the cell constants of natural Ca-dialuminate combined with data on synthetic CaAl4O7, sufficient X-ray data should be available required to nominate this mineral. References: [1] Christophe Michel-Levy M. et al. (1982) EPSL, 61, 13-22. [2] Kimura M. et al. (1993) GCA, in press. [3] Weber D. and Bischoff A. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 304-305. [4] Weber D. and Bischoff A. (1993) GCA, submitted. [5] Boyko E. R. and Wisnyi L. G. (1958) Acta Cryst., 11, 444-445. [6] Goodwin D. W. and Lindop A. J. (1970) Acta Cryst., B26, 1230-1235. [7] Baldock P. J. et al. (1970) J. Appl. Cryst., 3, 188-191. [8] Geiger C. A. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1729-1736. [9] Gross S. (1977) Geol. Surv. Israel Bull. 70, 1-80. [10] Bischoff A. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 204. Table 1, which appears in the hard copy, shows unit-cell constants of Ca- dialuminate (monocline; space group C2/c) and X-ray powder diffraction data (CrK-alpha (Ni-beta), 45 kV, 30 mA) on extraterrestrial CaAl4O7 in comparison to JCPDS data [7]. Numbers in parentheses are uncertainties in last significant figures.

  7. Calorimetric Thermometry of Meteoritic Troilite: Early Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gooding, J. L.

    1993-07-01

    are the consequence of different thermal histories. Multiple samples of Del Norte troilite were used to determine the influence of laboratory-scale thermal histories on DSC signatures by heating and cooling each sample under different programmed conditions. In reconnaissance experiments, maximum temperature achieved during heat treatment appears to be more influential than does either the time maintained at temperature or the heating/cooling rate. The experimentally measured alpha/beta onset temperature shows a systematic decline with maximum temperature achieved during prior heating, suggesting that high onset temperatures are indicative of low maximum temperatures in the natural histories of the troilite samples. That trend is at least qualitatively consistent with the petrologic rankings of the meteorites in which troilite from the relatively unmetamorphosed L3 chondrite shows a higher onset temperature than does troilite from either the highly metamorphosed L7 chondrite or the octahedrite. Additional work should define the limits of a quantitative calibration that might ultimately permit derivation of meteorite thermal histories by calorimetric thermometry of troilite. Samples were kindly provided by E. R. D. Scott (Mundrabilla), C. B. Moore (Del Norte), and the Meteorite Working Group (PAT91501; EET83213 powder from E. Jarosewich). References: [1] Chase M. W. Jr. et al. (1985) JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd ed., 1194. [2] Robie R. A. et al. (1979) Geol. Surv. Bull. 1452, 125. [3] Allton J. H. and Gooding J. L. (1993) LPS XXIV, 21-22. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the thermodynamics of troilite alpha/beta phase transformations measured by DSC during first-heat cycles.

  8. Depth Dependence of the Fault Strength in the Creeping Section of the Atotsugawa Fault, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, K.; Fukuyama, E.; Kitamura, K.; Takahashi, M.; Masuda, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Atotsugawa fault is located along a highly deformed region in central Japan with 60km long, striking to N60°E and dipping to 90° ± 10°. From the laser distance measurement survey, a creeping section (1.5mm/y) was found in the northeastern part [Geogr. Surv. Inst., 1997]. In this section, a low seismicity area down to a depth of 7km was found above the seismically active region down to 15 km [Ito and Wada, 1999]. In order to investigate the depth dependent feature of the fault strength, we conducted tri-axial friction tests of the Atotsugawa fault gouge under the conditions of 1, 3, 5 and 7km depth. The NIED drilled a borehole in the fault zone down to a depth of 350m in this creeping section [Omura et al., 2004] and obtained core samples consisting of fault gouge, fault breccia and fractured host rocks (granitic rocks and hornblende gneiss). The samples are taken in the gouge zone (8.5mm in thickness) located at a depth of 342 m. The samples were disaggregated in distilled water and passed through a 100μm diameter sieve for the friction tests. From the XRD analysis, the gouge sample consists of quartz, feldspar, smectite, kaolinite and micas. The average grain size in the sample was approximately 16.9μm measured by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer. The friction tests were run using a gas-medium tri-axial apparatus at the AIST, Japan [Masuda et al., 2002]. For each run, 0.5g gouge powder was put between 30° sawcut of an alumina ceramic cylinder (20mm in diameter) and sheared at a constant axial slip rate of 0.1μm/s. Each test was done with pore fluid of distilled water at the temperature-pressure conditions of 1-7 km depths assuming a hydrostatic pore-pressure gradient of 10MPa/km, a lithostatic confining pressure gradient of 26MPa/km and a geothermal gradient of 30°C/km. In all experiments, the friction increases rapidly to an axial displacement of about 0.1mm, and then it gradually increases or becomes steady state. We found a strong depth

  9. Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

    2009-04-01

    which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

  10. GIS-based landslide hazard evaluation at the regional scale: some critical points in the permanent displacement approach for seismically-induced landslide maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    local practitioners. Seismically-induced landslide hazard maps have been drawn using the aforementioned three expressions. The preliminary results show Quaternary deposits (including alluvium deposits, slope wash, and terrace deposits) as the lithologies most affected by permanent displacement. Moreover, Towsley and Modelo formations, that are stiffer than the previous rock units, and consist mostly of shales, siltstones and subordinate sandstones, show high hazard value where the slopes increase. The relevant role of local slope in permanent displacement extent is evident where lithologies are characterized by both cohesive and frictional resistance components. Finally, a comparison among the maps produced by using the three expressions for permanent displacements is discussed. References Ambraseys N.N. and Menu J.M. (1988) Earthquake-induced ground displacements. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 16: 985-1006. Harp E.L. and Jibson R.W. (1995) Inventory of landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. US Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 95-213 17 pp. Jibson R. (2007) Regression models for estimating coseismic landslide displacement. Engineering Geology, 91: 209-218. Luzi L. and Pergalani F. (2000) A correlation between slope failures and accelerometric parameters: the 26 September 1997 earthquake (Umbria-Marche, Italy). Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 20: 301-313. Newmark N.M. (1965) Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. Geotechnique 965, 15(2): 139-160. Parise M. and Jibson R.W. (2000) A seismic landslide susceptibility rating of geologic units based on analysis of characteristics of landslides triggered by the 17 January, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. Engineering Geology, 58: 251-270. Romeo R. (2000) Seismically induced landslide displacements: a predictive model. Engineering Geology, 58: 337-351.

  11. Space Shuttle Radar Images of Terrestrial Impact Structures: SIR-C/X-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Blumberg, D. G.; Greeley, R.; Underwood, J. R., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    ; 133 degrees 09'E; largest ca.150 m dia) Although quite small, Henbury crater field [8] appears distinctly radar bright on survey -qualilty imagery. Strong radar backscatter may be due to a combination of impact-disrupted sedimentary horizons and of soil dielectrical properties altered by a significant meteoritic iron content [9]. References: [1] Garvin J. B. and Schnetzler C. C. (1994) GSA Spec. Pap. 293, 249-257. [2] Dietz R. S. and McHone J. F. (1979) Apollo Soyuz Test Proj. Summary Sci. Rept. (2) NASA SP-412, 183-192. [3] Roland N. W. (1976) Geol. Jahrb., Reihe A, 33, 117-131. [4] Becq-Giraudon J. F. et al. (1992) Comptes Rendus de l'Academ. des Sciences, Ser.2, 315, 83-88. [5] Grieve R. A. F. and Therriault A. M. (1995) LPS XXVI, 515-516. [6] Lambert P. et al. (1980) Meteoritics, 15, 157-159. [7] Harms et al. (1980) Nature, 286, 704-706. [8] Milton D. J. (1968) Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 599-C, C1-C16. [9] Hodge P. W. and Wright F. W. (1971) JGR, 76, 3880-3895.

  12. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    . Mon. 82 985 [15] Feigenbaum M J 1978 J. Stat. Phys. 19 25 [16] Oseledets V I 1968 Trans. Moscow Math. Soc. 19 197 [17] Birkhoff G D 1931 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 17 656 [18] von Neumann J 1932 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 18 70 [19] Krylov N S 1979 Works on the Foundations of Statistical Physics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press) [20] Anosov D V and Sinai Y G 1967 Russ. Math. Surv. 22 103 [21] Pesin Y B 1976 Sov. Math. Dokl. 17 196 [22] Sinai Y G 1972 Russ. Math. Surv. 27 21 [23] Ruelle D 1979 Publ. Math. l'IHES 50 27 [24] Bowen R 1975 Equilibrium States and the Ergodic Theory of Anosov Diffeomorphisms (Lecture Notes in Mathematics vol 470) (Berlin: Springer) [25] Bowen R and Ruelle D 1975 Invent. Math. 29 181 [26] Shimada I and Nagashima T 1979 Prog. Theor. Phys. 61 1605 [27] Benettin G, Galgani L, Giorgilli A and Strelcyn J M 1980 Meccanica 15 9 [28] Grassberger P and Procaccia I 1984 Physica D 13 34 [29] Wolf A, Swift J B, Swinney H L and Vastano J A 1985 Physica D 16 285 [30] Takens F 1981 Detecting strange attractors in turbulence Dynamical Systems and Turbulence (Lecture Notes in Mathematics vol 898) ed D A Rand and L S Young (Berlin: Springer) p 366 [31] Eckmann J P and Ruelle D 1985 Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 617 [32] Legras B and Vautard R 1996 A guide to Lyapunov vectors Predictability (ECWF Seminar vol 1) ed T Palmer (Reading: ECMWF) p 141 3Prior to their publication in the West at the end of the 1970s, Krylov's results appeared in his PhD dissertation, published posthumously in 1950.

  13. Genesis Hypotheses Concerning Putative Rootless Cone Groups in Isidis Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pithawala, T. M.; Ghent, R. R.

    2008-09-01

    the non-uniform development of sills [11], such that daughter bodies of a parent sill can vary in size and vertical and horizontal distribution, and thus result in different abutment relationships, causing varying surface manifestations of the hybrid sill tips. A combination of both models is also a likely candidate for the genesis of TPT in Isidis. We are continuing to investigate the details of the two models by analyzing additional datasets and terrestrial analogues. References [1] Kargel et al. (1995) JGR-E, 100, 5351-5368. [2] Pomerantz, W.J and Head III, J.W (2003) LPSC XXXXIII, Abstract 1277. [3] Chapman M. (1994) Icarus, 109(2), 393-406. [4] Head III, J.W and Marchant (2003) LPSC XXXXIII, Abstract 1247. [5] Scott and Underwood (1991) Proceedings of Lunar Planet. Sci, 21, 627-634. [6] Hiesinger, H. and Head III, J.W (2003) 6th Intl Conf. on Mars, Abstract 3061. [7] Ivanov, M.A and Head III, J.W (2003) JGR-E, 108, E6. [8] Greeley, R. and Guest, J.E (1987), US Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser., Map I-1802-B. [9] Cartwright, J. and Hansen, D.M (2006) Geology 34(11), 929-932. [10] Hansen, D.M and Cartwright, J. (2006) Journal Geol. Soc. London 163 (3), 509-523. [11] Thomson, K., and Hutton, D. (2004) Bull Volcanology, 66, 364-375.

  14. Concentric Crater Fill in Utopia Planitia: Timing and Transitions Between Glacial and Periglacial Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Head, J.

    2008-09-01

    those observed on flowing debris-covered glaciers on Earth [20]. Inversion of polygon topography at polygon margins due to differential sublimation would result in the formation of raised mounds and chains of mounds, some of which may preserve the original surface trough (e.g., the axial furrows observed in some BT mound chains). Deposition of thin layers of low-albedo BTC material on ice-cored FBT mounds could result in enhanced sublimation of residual icecores [21], leading to collapse of FBT mounds, and generating HBT features at contacts between BT and BTC units. References. [1] Squyres, S. (1979) JGR, 84, 8087-8096. [2] Squyres, S. & Carr, M. (1986) Sci., 231, 249-252. [3] Lucchita, B. (1984) JGR, 89, 409-418. [4] Zimbelman, J. et al. (1989) LPSC19, 397-407. [5] Mangold, N. & Allemand, P. (2001) GRL, 28, 3407-3410. [6] Head, J. et al. (2006) GRL, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024360. [7] Levy, J. et al. (2007) JGR, doi: 10.1029/ 2006JE002852. [8] Holt, J. et al. (2008) LPSC39, #2441. [9] Plaut, J. et al. (2008) LPSC39, #1391. [9] Dobrea, N. et al. (2007) 7th Mars, #3358. [10] Levy, J. et al. (2008) LPSC39, #1171, [11] Mangold, N. (2003) JGR, doi:10.1029/2002JE001885. [12] Mustard, J. et al. (2001) Nature, 412, 411-414. [13] Head, J. et al. (2003) Nature, 426, 797-802. [14] Kreslavsky, M. & Head, J. (2006) M&PS, 41, 1633-1646. [15] Marchant, D. et al. (2002), GSAB, 114, 718-730. [16] Milliken, R. et al. (2003) JGR, doi: 10.1029/2002JE002005. [17] Pewe, T. (1959) Am. J. Sci., 257, 545-552. [18] Root, J. (1975) Geol. Surv. Can., 75-1B, 181. [19] Garvin, J. et al. (2002) LPSC33, #1255. [20] Levy, J. et al. (2006) Ant. Sci., doi: 10.1017/ S0954102006000435. [21] Williams, K. et al. (2008) Icarus, In Press.

  15. [Tuberculosis in Iceland. 1976].

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2005-01-01

    -specific tuberculosis death rates indicate that in every age-group the disease is more dangerous to women. Between 1941 and 1945, when the combined mortality-rate began to drop sharply, it was the rate for the males, which was first affected. Due to the very steep decline in tuberculosis mortality especially from 1952 tuberculosis mortality figures can no longer be considered the right criterion for the spread and course of the disease. The infection and morbidity rates are from then on the best measures of the prevalence and course of the disease. Tuberculosis infection-rates obtained through tuberculin testing on a comparatively broad scale, especially in school children 7-13 years of age, show a progressive reduction in tuberculosis infection in the country as a whole. These tuberculin surves on school children were initiated by the district health officers in the second decade of the century and therefore now extend over 60 years. The procedure of the tuberculin surveys and the methods used are mentioned. The shortcomings of these surveys and their importance are discussed. The value of the surveys is considered doubtful as long as the examinations are performed without any guidance or coordination. About the year 1930 the total percentage tuberculin tested in the age group 7-13 years was a little over 10 percent. In the year 1935 the director of tuberculosis control sent all the health officers instructions on how to perform the tuberculin testing together with some encouragement to perform such surveys. That year about 43 percent of the 7-13 years population was tested and in 1945 the percentage was 75. Between 1965 and 1970 the attendance percentage was 85. The tested 7-13 years age group showed in 1935 26.1 percent positive reaction, in 1945 10.1 percent, in 1955 5.3 percent and in 1970 0.7 percent. In 1970 0.2 percent of the 7 years old children reacted positively and 1.1 percent of those 13 years of age. the decline of the infection rate in this age group is remarkable. The