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Sample records for katangan copperbelt democratic

  1. Anhydrite pseudomorphs and the origin of stratiform Cu-Co ores in the Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Vanderhaeghen, P.; El Desouky, H.; Schneider, J.; Boyce, A.; Dewaele, S.; Cailteux, J.

    2008-07-01

    The stratiform Cu-Co ore mineralisation in the Katangan Copperbelt consists of dispersed sulphides and sulphides in nodules and lenses, which are often pseudomorphs after evaporites. Two types of pseudomorphs can be distinguished in the nodules and lenses. In type 1 examples, dolomite precipitated first and was subsequently replaced by Cu-Co sulphides and authigenic quartz, whereas in type 2 examples, authigenic quartz and Cu-Co sulphides precipitated prior to dolomite and are coarse-grained. The sulphur isotopic composition of the copper-cobalt sulphides in the type 1 pseudomorphs is between -10.3 and 3.1‰ relative to the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite, indicating that the sulphide component was derived from bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR). The generation of {text{HCO}}_3^ - during this process caused the precipitation and replacement of anhydrite by dolomite. A second product of BSR is the generation of H2S, resulting in the precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides from the mineralising fluids. Initial sulphide precipitation occurred along the rim of the pseudomorphs and continued towards the core. Precipitation of authigenic quartz was most likely induced by a pH decrease during sulphide precipitation. Fluid inclusion data from quartz indicate the presence of a high-salinity (8-18 eq. wt.% NaCl) fluid, possibly derived from evaporated seawater which migrated through the deep subsurface. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dolomite in type 1 nodules range between 0.71012 and 0.73576, significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7056-0.7087). This suggests intense interaction with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and/or the granitic basement. The low carbon isotopic composition of the dolomite in the pseudomorphs (-7.02 and -9.93‰ relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, V-PDB) compared to the host rock dolomite (-4.90 and +1.31‰ V-PDB) resulted from the oxidation of organic matter during BSR.

  2. Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper-cobalt mineralization at Luiswishi and Kamoto, Katanga Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Desouky, Hamdy A.; Muchez, Philippe; Boyce, Adrian J.; Schneider, Jens; Cailteux, Jacques L. H.; Dewaele, Stijn; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2010-12-01

    The sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co mineralization of the Luiswishi and Kamoto deposits in the Katangan Copperbelt is hosted by the Neoproterozoic Mines Subgroup. Two main hypogene Cu-Co sulfide mineralization stages and associated gangue minerals (dolomite and quartz) are distinguished. The first is an early diagenetic, typical stratiform mineralization with fine-grained minerals, whereas the second is a multistage syn-orogenic stratiform to stratabound mineralization with coarse-grained minerals. For both stages, the main hypogene Cu-Co sulfide minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite, carrollite, and chalcocite. These minerals are in many places replaced by supergene sulfides (e.g., digenite and covellite), especially near the surface, and are completely oxidized in the weathered superficial zone and in surface outcrops, with malachite, heterogenite, chrysocolla, and azurite as the main oxidation products. The hypogene sulfides of the first Cu-Co stage display δ34S values (-10.3‰ to +3.1‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT)), which partly overlap with the δ34S signature of framboidal pyrites (-28.7‰ to 4.2‰ V-CDT) and have ∆34SSO4-Sulfides in the range of 14.4‰ to 27.8‰. This fractionation is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). The hypogene sulfides of the second Cu-Co stage display δ34S signatures that are either similar (-13.1‰ to +5.2‰ V-CDT) to the δ34S values of the sulfides of the first Cu-Co stage or comparable (+18.6‰ to +21.0‰ V-CDT) to the δ34S of Neoproterozoic seawater. This indicates that the sulfides of the second stage obtained their sulfur by both remobilization from early diagenetic sulfides and from thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The carbon (-9.9‰ to -1.4‰ Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (V-PDB)) and oxygen (-14.3‰ to -7.7‰ V-PDB) isotope signatures of dolomites associated with the first Cu-Co stage are in agreement with the interpretation that these dolomites are by-products of BSR. The carbon

  3. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  4. Geochemical characterisation, provenance, source and depositional environment of ‘Roches Argilo-Talqueuses’ (RAT) and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks in the Neoproterozoic Katangan Belt (Congo): Lithostratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampunzu, A. B.; Cailteux, J. L. H.; Moine, B.; Loris, H. N. B. T.

    2005-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks provide important clues to their provenance and depositional environments. Chemical analyses of 192 samples of Katangan sedimentary rocks from Kolwezi, Kambove-Kabolela and Luiswishi in the central African Copperbelt (Katanga, Congo) are used to constrain (1) the source and depositional environment of RAT and Mines Subgroup sedimentary rocks and (2) the geochemical relations between the rocks from these units and the debate on the lithostratigraphic position of the RAT Subgroup within the Katangan sedimentary succession. The geochemical data indicate that RAT, D. Strat., RSF and RSC are extremely poor in alkalis and very rich in MgO. SD are richer in alkalis, especially K 2O. Geochemical characteristics of RAT and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks indicate deposition under an evaporitic environment that evolved from oxidizing (Red RAT) to reducing (Grey RAT and Mines Subgroup) conditions. There is no chemical difference between RAT and fine-grained clastic rocks from the lower part of the Mines Subgroup. The geochemical data preclude the genetic model that RAT are syn-orogenic sedimentary rocks originating from Mines Group rocks by erosion and gravity-induced fragmentation in front of advancing nappes.

  5. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  6. Origin of the Nchanga copper-cobalt deposits of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Ross R.; Roberts, Stephen; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    The Zambian Copperbelt forms the southeastern part of the 900-km-long Neoproterozoic Lufilian Arc and contains one of the world’s largest accumulations of sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization. The Nchanga deposit is one of the most significant ore systems in the Zambian Copperbelt and contains two major economic concentrations of copper and cobalt, hosted within the Lower Roan Group of the Katangan Supergroup. A Lower Orebody (copper only) and Upper Orebody (copper and cobalt) occur towards the top of arkosic units and within the base of overlying shales. The sulfide mineralogy includes pyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite, and chalcocite, although in the Lower Orebody, sulfide phases are partially or completely replaced by malachite and copper oxides. Carrollite is the major cobalt-bearing phase and is restricted to fault-propagation fold zones within a feldspathic arenite. Hydrothermal alteration minerals include dolomite, phlogophite, sericite, rutile, quartz, tourmaline, and chlorite. Quartz veins from the mine sequence show halite-saturated fluid inclusions, ranging from ~31 to 38 wt% equivalent NaCl, with homogenisation temperatures (ThTOT) ranging between 140 and 180°C. Diagenetic pyrites in the lower orebody show distinct, relatively low δ 34S, ranging from -1 to -17‰ whereas arenite- and shale-hosted copper and cobalt sulfides reveal distinctly different δ 34S from -1 to +12‰ for the Lower Orebody and +5 to +18‰ for the Upper Orebody. There is also a clear distinction between the δ 34S mean of +12.1±3.3‰ ( n=65) for the Upper Orebody compared with +5.2±3.6‰ ( n=23) for the Lower Orebody. The δ 13C of dolomites from units above the Upper Orebody give δ 13C values of +1.4 to +2.5‰ consistent with marine carbon. However, dolomite from the shear-zones and the alteration assemblages within the Upper Orebody show more negative δ 13C values: -2.9 to -4.0‰ and -5.6 to -8.3‰, respectively. Similarly, shear zone and Upper Orebody

  7. PIXE investigation of aerosol composition over the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meter, S. L.; Formenti, P.; Piketh, S. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Atmospheric sulphate aerosol concentrations are of interest in climate change studies because of their negative climate forcing potential. Quantification of their forcing strength requires the compilation of global sulphur emission inventories to determine the magnitude of regional sources. We report on measurements of the ambient aerosol concentrations in proximity to a copper refinery in the central African Copperbelt, along the border of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This region is historically regarded as one of the largest African sources of sulphate aerosols. Sulphate is produced by oxidation in the atmosphere of SO 2 emitted during the pyrometallurgical processing of Cu-Co sulphide ores. Since the last quantification of sulphur emissions (late 1960s), there has been large-scale reduction in copper production and more frequent use of the leaching technique with negligible sulphur emissions. Samples were collected over four weeks, November-December 1996, at Kitwe, Zambia. A low volume two-stage time-resolving aerosol sampler (streaker) was used. Coarse and fine mode aerosols were separated at >2.5 and >10 μmad. Hourly elemental concentrations were determined by 3.2 MeV PIXE, and routinely yielded Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, above detection limits. Si, K, Ca and Fe (major crustal components) dominated the coarse elemental mass. In the fine stage, S and Si accounted for up to 80% of the measured mass, and S alone up to 60%. Time series analysis allowed the division of sulphur and crustal elements (Si, K, Ca, Fe) between (i) background concentrations representative of synoptic scale air masses; and (ii) contributions from local sources, i.e., copper smelter and re-suspended soil dust. Short duration episodes of S concentrations, up to 26 μg/m 3, were found simultaneously with enhanced Cu, Fe and Zn. Contributions from individual pyrometallurgic processes and the cobalt slag dump could be distinguished from the elemental signatures

  8. Geochemistry and geotectonic setting of Late Proterozoic Katangan basic rocks from Kibambale in central Shaba (Zaire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampunzu, A. B.; Kanika, M.; Kapenda, D.; Tshimanga, K.

    1993-12-01

    The Late Proterozoic Katangan basic rocks (dolerites and basalts) outcropping at Kibambale in central Shaba (Zaire) are classified as extension-related tholeiites. The concentrations of immobile major and trace elements resemble those encountered in Phanerozoic enriched oceanic ridge basalts (E-MORB) emplaced in incipient oceanic rifts such as Red Sea and Tadjura Gulf troughs. This conclusion is also sustained by: elemental ratios which are MORB-like; multielement chondrite- and MORB-normalized patterns; sedimentological data, especially the shallow water conditions which prevailed during the deposition of lower Kundelungu tillite in which these basic rocks are interstratified; and the geological and structural framework, notably the emplacement of these igneous rocks in a basin not distant from the Kibaran continental land mass. In this area the geological units containing the igneous rocks are not affected by significant tangential tectonism and so the present structural relationships are relatively undisturbed compared with those which prevailed during the emplacement of the igneous rocks.

  9. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  10. Lithostratigraphic position and petrographic characteristics of R.A.T. (“Roches Argilo-Talqueuses”) Subgroup, Neoproterozoic Katangan Belt (Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailteux, J. L. H.; Kampunzu, A. B. H.; Batumike, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    The Neoproterozoic Katangan R.A.T. ("Roches Argilo-Talqueuses") Subgroup is a sedimentary sequence composed of red massive to irregularly bedded terrigenous-dolomitic rocks occurring at the base of the Katangan succession in Congo. Red R.A.T. is rarely exposed in a continuous section because it was affected by a major layer-parallel décollement during the Lufilian thrusting. However, in a number of thrust sheets, Red R.A.T. is in conformable sedimentary contact with Grey R.A.T which forms the base of the Mines Subgroup. Apart from the colour difference reflecting distinct depositional redox conditions, lithological, petrographical and geochemical features of Red and Grey R.A.T. are similar. A continuous sedimentary transition between these two lithological units is shown by the occurrence of variegated to yellowish R.A.T. The D. Strat. "Dolomies Stratifiées" formation of the Mines Subgroup conformably overlies the Grey R.A.T. In addition, a transitional gradation between Grey R.A.T. and D. Strat. occurs in most Cu-Co mines in Katanga and is marked by interbedding of Grey R.A.T.-type and D. Strat.-type layers or by a progressive petrographic and lithologic transition from R.A.T. to D. Strat. Thus, there is an unquestionable sedimentary transition between Grey R.A.T. and D. Strat. and between Grey R.A.T. and Red R.A.T. The R.A.T. Subgroup stratigraphically underlies the Mines Subgroup and therefore R.A.T. cannot be comprised of syn-orogenic sediments deposited upon the Kundelungu (formerly "Upper Kundelungu") Group as suggested by Wendorff (2000). As a consequence, the Grey R.A.T. Cu-Co mineralisation definitely is part of the Mines Subgroup Lower Orebody, and does not represent a distinct generation of stratiform Cu-Co sulphide mineralisation younger than the Roan orebodies.

  11. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, C.; Vanbrabant, Y.; Goethals, H.; Thys, T.; Dupin, L.

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response.

  12. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterize heterogenite (CoO·OH) (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Burlet, C; Vanbrabant, Y; Goethals, H; Thys, T; Dupin, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural heterogenite (CoO·OH) samples were studied by Raman microspectroscopy, electronic microprobe and Electronic BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD). Raw samples and polished sections were made from 10 mines covering the Katanga copperbelt (Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo). Four typical Raman responses have been obtained leading to investigate the laser-induced dehydroxylation of heterogenite into a Co-spinel structure. The results are also compared with EBSD patterns from oven heated heterogenite samples. A close relationship was established between the chemical substitutions of Co by mainly Cu, Ni, Mn and Al and their impact on the mineral Raman response. PMID:21497546

  13. New correlations and tectonic setting of the Kalahari Copperbelt in Namibia and Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jeremie; Master, Sharad; Rankin, William; Kinnaird, Judith A.

    2014-05-01

    The Kalahari Copperbelt, a 1000 km long by up to 250 km wide NE-trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt occurs discontinuously from western Namibia (Sinclair Supergroup) to northern Botswana (Kgwebe Formation and Ghanzi Group) along the NW edge of the Palaeoproterozoic Kalahari Craton. Copper-silver deposits are generally stratabound and hosted in Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that have been folded, cleaved and faulted and metamorphosed to greenschist facies during the Pan-African Damara Orogeny. Whereas the belt in western and central Namibia is relatively well exposed, eastern Namibia and most of Botswana are covered by the Cenozoic Kalahari sands, precluding direct correlations with pre-Cambrian rocks exposed in Namibia. Because of the lack of exposure and also because of paucity in age constraints on the sedimentation, linking host-rocks to the mineralisations across the international Namibia/Botswana state border has been previously hampered. In this contribution, we present an integrated multidisciplinary study in both countries based on exhaustive compilation of published zircon ages of magmatic and sedimentary rocks and thorough summary of existing lithostratigraphic descriptions that are modified by new field observations of key sedimentological features. The age of sedimentation is also constrained by recently published isotope chemostratigraphic data. The spatial continuity of newly defined lithotectonic domains below cover and across the state border was inferred using processed 50 metre resolution aeromagnetic maps. In Namibia, the Sinclair Supergroup unconformably overlaps Palaeoproterozoic graniti-gneissic basement and is marked at its base by ~1200 Ma old arc-related magmatic rocks. These rocks are overlain by a ~1100 Ma several km thick package of volcanic-plutonic bimodal continental tholeiites alternating with volcaniclastic marginal marine and/or continental sediments. This lithotectonic domain is virtually identical in age, rock-type and

  14. Evolution of Cu-Co mineralizing fluids at Nkana Mine, Central African Copperbelt, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Brems, D.; Clara, E.; De Cleyn, A.; Lammens, L.; Boyce, A.; De Muynck, D.; Mukumba, W.; Sikazwe, O.

    2010-10-01

    The Central African Copperbelt hosts numerous world class stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup (<880 to ± 500 Ma). These high grade deposits resulted from multiple mineralization and remobilization stages. The Nkana Cu-Co deposit in the Zambian part of the Copperbelt is such a stratiform deposit but the location of the rich ore bodies is structurally controlled, i.e. occurring in the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds. Late stage mineralization and/or remobilization caused this enrichment. Three major mineralization/remobilization stages have taken place during the Lufilian orogeny. They are characterized by folded layer parallel veins, highly irregular veins crosscutting the folds, and finally unfolded massive veins. An evolution in the oxygen, carbon and sulphur isotopic composition is present from the layer parallel and irregular to the massive veins. The more negative δ 18O values in the carbonates from the massive veins most likely reflect a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ambient, metamorphic fluids. The δ 13C values range between -25‰ and -5‰ V-PDB with a trend towards less negative values in the massive veins, possibly reflecting an ongoing oxidation of organic matter in a relatively closed system. Early framboidal and massive pyrites disseminated in the host rock have distinctly negative δ 34S values, i.e. between -16‰ and -9.7‰ V-CDT. The sulphur isotopic composition increases from these early diagenetic pyrites to sulphides in the successive vein generations. The δ 34S values of the massive veins are positive and cluster between 1.3‰ and 2.0‰ V-CDT. This enrichment in heavy sulphur is interpreted as a result of the mixing of S remobilized from early sulphides, with S derived from the thermochemical reduction of sulphate. With time, the sulphur derived from TSR became more important. The Sr isotopic composition of the carbonates in all three vein generations shows a wide range between

  15. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Cu and Co in mine tailings at the Copperbelt, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Veselovský, F.

    2010-04-01

    Two sulfidic mine tailings within the Zambian Copperbelt in the north of Zambia have been studied: Chambishi, representing an old site (age about 40 y) and Mindolo, which represents a relatively recent site (age less than 10 y). The neutralization capacity based on solid phase carbonates at both sites remains high, thus neutral to alkaline conditions (paste pH up to 8.5 at Chambishi and up to 6.9 at Mindolo) predominate. Pore water at Chambishi has 568 mg/l of Ca and 1820 mg/l of sulfate, but concentrations of Fe and Mn are below 0.1 mg/l and concentrations of Cu and Co are below 0.05 mg/l. The principal secondary minerals at both sites are gypsum, poorly crystalline Fe(III) phases and hematite. Secondary Fe(III) phases are found as mineral coatings or completely replaced primary sulfides like pyrite and chalcopyrite and include large quantities of copper and cobalt in surface rims (up to 7.0 wt.% of Cu and up to 2.0 wt.% of Co). The presence of Fe(III) phases is marked by red color of mine tailings material, which is observed even below the expected penetration of the sulfide oxidation front. This may be explained by reductive dissolution of Fe(III) phases caused by flooding of tailings and temporarily reducing conditions during rainy period, when dissolved iron is transported by infiltrating water to the deeper zone of mine tailings, where it re-precipitates later. At the Chambishi site, precipitation of secondary minerals resulted in an early stage of hardpan formation at 0.6-0.9 m depth, composed mostly of gypsum and hematite. This zone also corresponds to maximum solid phase contents of Cu and Co. No such hardpans were found at the relatively young Mindolo site, where red tailings material, which includes poorly crystalline Fe(III) phases and hematite, is present only in discrete banded zones at several depth levels. Based on geochemical modeling results at the Mindolo site, precipitation of secondary Cu phases such as brochantite and malachite is likely in

  16. Democratization of the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvorova, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that school democratization efforts in Russia have resulted in students and their interests becoming more important than government-appointed school inspectors. Contends that teacher-student relations have become democratized as teachers have abandoned the authoritarian methods of the past. (CFR)

  17. The Democratization of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Groves, James

    2009-01-01

    Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

  18. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  19. Democratic Citizenship Education in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltsounis, Theodore

    1999-01-01

    Considers the forces contributing to the development of democratic citizenship education in Albania and reviews the progress that has been made. Explores the barriers to democratic citizenship education, such as the centralization in Albanian schools and the lack of resources for running a program. Ponders the future of democratic citizenship…

  20. Democratic Postsecondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation offers a critique of current approaches to postsecondary vocational education. It concludes that the traditional apprenticeship and didactic model leads to inadequate preparation of students for independent thinking and problem solving. An alternative model is proposed that uses "democratic education" principles. These include…

  1. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his reflections on the political climate experienced during the pre-election season of 2004 and what he expected from "Homegrown Democracy." Denzin states that the values expected were opposite from the "homegrown democratic values of the hard-working, God-fearing people of Lake Wobegon, and…

  2. Jefferson and Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holowchak, M. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This essay is a reply to James Carpenter's "Thomas Jefferson and the Ideology of Democratic Schooling." In it, I argue that there is an apophatic strain in the essay that calls into question the motivation for the undertaking.

  3. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  4. Reunification, democratization and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  5. Evolution of HIV and AIDS Programmes in an African Institution of Higher Learning: The Case of the Copperbelt University in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sanjobo, Nawa; Lukwesa, Matilda; Kaziya, Charity; Tepa, Cornwell; Puta, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Universities present the foundation for socio-economic and political development. Without structures and processes to fight HIV, there is no prospect of enhancing treatment, prevention, care and support services. Copperbelt University HIV and AIDS response was initiated in 2003 with the aim of building capacity of students and employees in HIV and AIDS. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the CBU HIV response has evolved over time and provide a timeline of important milestones in the development process. Method: Peer educators and counsellors conduct sensitization campaigns through one on one discussion, workshops, and drama performances, distribution of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials. Results: HIV Programme has been set up with players from policy, programme and community levels. Strategic processes, collaborations, funding, medical insurance schemes, prevention, treatment, care and support services, training of peer educators and counsellors have been established. Conclusion: Copperbelt University HIV initiative has demonstrated potential to reduce new infections in the university, and is currently expanding her programme to encompass wellness and also spearhead the integration of HIV in the university curriculum. PMID:27347269

  6. A "Democratic Authority" for Bureaucracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Margaret D.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses recent augmentations to the bureaucratic model and examines one sample of recent trends toward personalization and democratization in bureaucracy -- the Catholic Church in Australia. (Author/JF)

  7. Democratic Parenting: Paradoxical Messages in Democratic Parent Education Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-01-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…

  8. The Democratic System of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    Different researchers have suggested a variety of definitions for democratic leadership. As there is no one generally accepted definition, it is difficult to categorically characterize a style as democratic. Democracy in a pure form is based on the assumption that no member of the group is superior to other members. In operation, no organization…

  9. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  10. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen’s and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl’s seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation. PMID:21258634

  11. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    PubMed

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation. PMID:21258634

  12. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  13. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern.

  14. Democratizing the world health organization.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. PMID:24417900

  15. Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

  16. Teacher Education in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Members of a democratic polity should be prepared to participate in the practices of democratic governance if they are fully to enjoy their rights as citizens and discharge their civic responsibilities. This article highlights three fundamental practices of democratic life: (1) the capacity for deliberation with others about matters of public…

  17. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  18. Surprisingly contrasting metal distribution and fractionation patterns in copper smelter-affected tropical soils in forested and grassland areas (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt).

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Konečný, Ladislav; Kovářová, Lucie; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sebek, Ondřej; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Veselovský, František; Penížek, Vít; Vaněk, Aleš; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-03-01

    Six soil profiles located near Mufulira (Zambian Copperbelt) were studied to evaluate and compare the extent of environmental pollution of Cu-ore mining and smelting in both forested and grassland areas. The highest metal concentrations were detected in the uppermost soil layers with the following maxima: Co 45.8 mg kg(-1), Cu 8,980 mg kg(-1), Pb 41.6 mg kg(-1), and Zn 97.0 mg kg(-1). Numerous anthropogenic metal-bearing particles were detected in the most polluted soil layers. The spherical smelter-derived particles were mainly composed of covellite (CuS) and chalcocite (Cu2S), while the angular mining-derived particles were mostly composed of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Additionally, Fe-Cu oxide particles predominantly corresponding to tenorite (CuO) and delafossite (Cu(1+)Fe(3+)O2), along with hydrated Fe-oxides corresponding to secondary weathering products, were detected. In contrast to smelter-affected soils in temperate climates, where forest soils are significantly more enriched in metals than tilled soils due to high canopy interception, our data indicate a higher proportion of metal-bearing anthropogenic particles and higher metal concentrations in soils from unforested sites. This phenomenon is probably related to the more frequent and intense bushfires in forested areas, leading to the mobilization of pollutants contained in the biomass-rich surface soils back into the atmosphere. PMID:24365587

  19. Surprisingly contrasting metal distribution and fractionation patterns in copper smelter-affected tropical soils in forested and grassland areas (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt).

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Konečný, Ladislav; Kovářová, Lucie; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sebek, Ondřej; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Veselovský, František; Penížek, Vít; Vaněk, Aleš; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-03-01

    Six soil profiles located near Mufulira (Zambian Copperbelt) were studied to evaluate and compare the extent of environmental pollution of Cu-ore mining and smelting in both forested and grassland areas. The highest metal concentrations were detected in the uppermost soil layers with the following maxima: Co 45.8 mg kg(-1), Cu 8,980 mg kg(-1), Pb 41.6 mg kg(-1), and Zn 97.0 mg kg(-1). Numerous anthropogenic metal-bearing particles were detected in the most polluted soil layers. The spherical smelter-derived particles were mainly composed of covellite (CuS) and chalcocite (Cu2S), while the angular mining-derived particles were mostly composed of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Additionally, Fe-Cu oxide particles predominantly corresponding to tenorite (CuO) and delafossite (Cu(1+)Fe(3+)O2), along with hydrated Fe-oxides corresponding to secondary weathering products, were detected. In contrast to smelter-affected soils in temperate climates, where forest soils are significantly more enriched in metals than tilled soils due to high canopy interception, our data indicate a higher proportion of metal-bearing anthropogenic particles and higher metal concentrations in soils from unforested sites. This phenomenon is probably related to the more frequent and intense bushfires in forested areas, leading to the mobilization of pollutants contained in the biomass-rich surface soils back into the atmosphere.

  20. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  1. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  2. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's. "Decent,…

  3. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

  4. The International Telephone Network and Democratization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Su-Lien; Barnett, George A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the international telephone network and democratization through network analysis. Highlights include principles of modern democracy; community and global interactions; a country's pattern of communication and its relationship to democratic development; and a country's position in the international telephone…

  5. For Democrats, Some Nuance on Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This year's presidential campaign offers at least one unequivocal contrast on education issues: The Republican candidate supports private school vouchers, and the Democratic incumbent does not. But at the state and local levels, Democrats' views on vouchers are more diverse and nuanced than what is suggested by the party's national platform, which…

  6. Education for Democratic Citizenship and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    Embedded in political scientists' research findings are three propositions for educators: (1) democracy needs democrats; (2) democrats are created through citizenship education programs emphasizing conflict resolution skills, respect for human rights, good neighborliness and respect for pluralism; and (3) there appears to be a correlation between…

  7. On the Development of Democratic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Jerry M.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War does not necessarily mean the triumph of democracy. Presents contemporary interpretations of the democratic concepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity. Asserts that responsible action in a democratic society requires continued reflection about values education. (CFR)

  8. Democratizing States and the Use of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    2009-01-01

    A pervasive anti-statism often blinds us to the democratic victories in the past and thus to possibilities in our future. This article argues that big government can democratize society and uses historical investigation to make the point. The study of history emancipates us from the tyranny of the present. Progressive social change has come about…

  9. Democrats Seek Education Department "Recovery Czar"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    As congressional Democrats declared last week that federal efforts to help Gulf Coast schools with hurricane recovery aren't working, school officials from the region hit by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita last year urged lawmakers to provide more regulatory flexibility and more money. On April 26, 2006, House Democrats released a report criticizing…

  10. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  11. The School as a Democratic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Brandy

    2011-01-01

    Schools may be able to play a particular role in instilling a strong American identity in young people. They can do this by actively practicing democratic community within the school. This practice of democratic community is key to the development of an individual identity that prioritizes the interdependent relationship between individual and…

  12. Democratic Teaching: An Incomplete Job Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of public education in democratic states is almost beyond dispute. Too often, though, discussions of democratic education focus solely on policies and systems, forgetting the individual teachers who are ultimately responsible for educating future citizens. This paper attempts to illustrate just how complex and significant the role…

  13. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  14. The extent of arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian copperbelt.

    PubMed

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sracek, Ondra; Knésl, Ilja; Ettler, Vojtěch; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2011-08-01

    The extent of arsenic (As) and metal accumulation in fronds of the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and in leaves of Cyperus involucratus, which grow on the surface of an old flotation tailings pond in the Zambian Copperbelt province, was studied. The tailings consist of two types of material with distinct chemical composition: (1) reddish-brown tailings rich in As, iron (Fe), and other metals, and (2) grey-green tailings with a lower content of As, Fe, and other metals, apart from manganese (Mn). P. vittata accumulates from 2350 to 5018 μg g(-1) As (total dry weight [dw]) in its fronds regardless of different total and plant-available As concentrations in both types of tailings. Concentrations of As in C. involucratus leaves are much lower (0.24-30.3 μg g(-1) dw). Contents of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) in fronds of P. vittata (151-237 and 18-38 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) and in leaves of C. involucratus (96-151 and 9-14 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) are high, whereas concentrations of other metals (Fe, Mn, and zinc [Zn]) are low and comparable with contents of the given metals in common plants. Despite great differences in metal concentrations in the two types of deposited materials, concentrations of most metals in plant tissues are very similar. This indicates an exclusion or avoidance mechanism operating when concentrations of the metals in substrate are particularly high. The results of the investigation show that Chinese brake fern is not only a hyperaccumulator of As but has adapted itself to high concentrations of Cu and Co in flotation tailings of the Zambian Copperbelt.

  15. The Real Minority: Intellectuals and Democratic Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schier, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    For a decade, intellectuals have shaped the political dialogue of the country, but their moral absolutism generates a simplistic view of politics that is incompatible with democratic government. (Editor)

  16. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  17. Democratic Bodies: Exemplary Practice and Democratic Education in a K-5 Dance Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights a K-5 dance artist-in-residence as a form of democratic and exemplary dance education that ignited collaboration, promoted equity, fostered student autonomy, and demonstrated rigor in school curriculum. Through examining observation, interview, and performance-based data and calling upon critical, democratic education…

  18. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The population of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen grew from 992,000 in 1950 to 1.7 million in 1975, and the total fertility rate has remained relatively constant at 7 since 1950. The Government has not adopted a population policy per se, but has included sectoral policies that have implications for the size, growth, composition, and distribution of the population. The Government maintains that population issues should be viewed comprehensively within the framework of economic and social development. Measures to achieve economic growth, combined with the expansion of health, education, cultural, and social services, as well as the eradication of illiteracy and the emancipation of women, are expected to have a major impact on the society's demographic structure. The Government's main concern with regard to population growth is a reduction in morbidity and mortality. The rate of growth is projected to increase from 2.7% in 1980-85 to 2.9 in the year 2000, at which point it should begin to decline. The crude death rate is presently 18.8/1000 and is expected to drop to 13.1/1000 by 2000. Infant mortality stood at 138/1000 in 1980-85. Morbidity and mortality are unacceptably high among infants, children, nomads, and rural residents. Priorities for the health sector include the development and expansion of health services, intensive preventive health care for mothers and children, development of a safe drinking water system, nutrition and health education campaigns, and training of health personnel. Measures that are expected to decrease fertility include family planning education, an expansion of facilities to rural areas, and improvements in the status of women. Family planning services are freely available from maternal and child health centers, mainly in urban areas. A mass literacy campaign seeks to increase the female literacy rate to 90%, and women's participation in wage labor is being encouraged. A further goal of population policy is to modify spatial

  19. Scientific citizenship in a democratic society.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur

    2013-11-01

    Using the example of the sociological analysis of biological citizenship and literacy, it is argued that a merely descriptive analysis of these phenomena does not capture their distinctive normative features. While such a description realistically demonstrates how citizens respond to and are shaped by biotechnology and biomedical discourse, it provides no critique of the forces moulding the citizen-consumer. Ideas of active citizenship fuel the search for forms of public engagement in the spirit of deliberative democracy. While these attempts are guided by an important vision of policy making in democratic society, they are beset with several practical difficulties. It is argued that the discussion of deliberative practices has focused too much on direct participation of citizens in various dialogical events and its impact on policy and decision making. This approach ignores other important aspects of deliberative democratic theory, emphasizing public accountability and trustworthiness of democratic institutions.

  20. Saving Democratic Education from Itself: Why We Need Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    We need homeschooling to save education in a liberal democracy from taking a religious form--what I call Democratic Education. Democratic Education emerges when the democratic identity and narrative become elevated to the highest priority when thinking about educating human beings. This elevation becomes particularly dangerous when other…

  1. Democratic Learning in U.S. Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amanda; Hyslop-Margison, Emery; Taylor, Josh

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes various U.S. career education programs through a democratic learning framework that adopts three foundational principles: 1) Democratic career education respects student rationality by encouraging student critique and evaluation of course material; 2) Democratic career education includes alternative perspectives on vocationally…

  2. The Promotion of Democratic Behavior and the Role of Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Ahmad Ali; Jan, Farooq; Ahmad, Riaz; Rauf, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to measure the influence of social media over the democratic behavior of the students. Social media is the main component of political participation in democratic societies and the study of democratic behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons that to…

  3. Art Education and a Democratic Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegesmund, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The first purpose of Art Education in public schools, articulated in the eighteenth century, was the ability to shape an imaginatively responsible, empathetic, democratic citizenry; this remains an aim for today, which is hard to achieve. This article explores the continuing tension between this original goal and other versions of Art Education,…

  4. Taking a Democratic Stance toward Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traugh, Cecelia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major priorities that should guide teacher education programs in preparing teachers for their work in a democratic society is to develop a commitment to knowledge that embraces complexity and to place this knowledge into competition with the mainstream vision, which results from a deep reliance on standardized testing and controls much…

  5. Creating Better Schools through Democratic School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of implementing democratic school leadership via advisory school councils in Philippine public secondary schools. Through an experiment with empirical surveys and interviews, this study reveals that the experimental group had higher levels of commitment, empowerment and trust compared with the control group after one…

  6. Theorizing Democratic Education from a Senian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature and general interest in the intersection between the capabilities approach (CA) and education, little work has been done so far to theorize democratic education from a CA perspective. This essay attempts to do so by, first, getting clear about the theory of democracy that has emerged from Amartya Sen's…

  7. Democratic Nation-Building in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoodie, Nic, Ed.; Liebenberg, Ian, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by 50 eminent experts/analysts representing a broad range of ideological perspectives and interest groups. Its aim is to contribute to the process of democratic nation-building and the creation of a culture of tolerance by educating South Africans about the intricacies of community reconciliation and…

  8. 'Democratic Leadership'--A Contradiction in Terms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Draws on a range of country contexts to shed light on the ways in which the practice of leadership is shaped by national aspirations. Examines whether there is a set of ideas, arrangements, and activities that appear to sustain new forms of leadership that support democracy, or whether democratic leadership of schools is a chimera. (Contains 29…

  9. Towards Democratic Leadership: Co-principal Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Marian

    2003-01-01

    A case study of a New Zealand primary school coprincipalship describes the impact of some intergroup misunderstandings and struggles over power. Concludes that building a democratic school community requires a set of considerations and practices different from those promoted within a market-managerial approach. (Contains 7 notes and 51…

  10. Democratizing English as an International Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Marc

    The aim of this paper is threefold. The first section shows how the political uses of language engendered by both western-style liberalism on the one hand and various forms of nationalism on the other lead to the negation of democratic ideals. Because of the current international situation, political aspects of language are receiving more and more…

  11. Rethinking Democratic Education: The Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David M.

    This book argues that democratic education should equip citizens to be "the measure of all things." The volume contends that the voices of society should develop the skills of questioning, criticizing, and reconstructing the language of the day in order to dissect the rhetoric of politics, economy, and culture. But the volume asserts that these…

  12. School Board Election Structure and Democratic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Plank, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Policies governing the organization and timing of school elections affect democratic representation in school decision making. Some argue that school board elections should be consolidated with general municipal elections on the grounds that this will increase participation and representation, but little empirical work addresses the consequences…

  13. Journal Editorship: Mentoring, Democratic, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…

  14. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  15. A Code of Ethics for Democratic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Ricardo; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Democratic leadership rests on sacred values, awareness, judgement, motivation and courage. Four turning points in a 38-year school administrator's career revealed decision-making in problematic moments stemmed from values in a personal and professional code of ethics. Reflection on practice and theory added vocabulary and understanding to make…

  16. Democrats' K-12 Views Differ, Subtly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Klein, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the presidential campaign, the leading Democrats have been speaking from a similar script on education--until this month, when U.S. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois suggested that he could be persuaded to support private school vouchers. "If there was any argument for vouchers, it was "Let's see if the experiment works"," Sen. Obama…

  17. A Democratic Framework for Educational Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Educational theorists frequently invoke rights claims to express their views about educational justice and authority. But the unyielding nature of rights claims presents a significant quandary in democratic contexts, given the tension between rights claims and majoritarian democracy. Educational theorists have given limited attention to this…

  18. Fanaticism and Schooling in the Democratic State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the problem of a democratic state facing multiple educational reform movements and establishes an outer boundary for what forms of school initiatives ought to be permissible. Included are claims of certain fundamentalist parents and the racialist "Christian Identity" religion that undergirds much of the militia movement. (GR)

  19. Democratic Pedagogy and the Discourse of Containment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popen, Shari

    2002-01-01

    Discusses application of a discourse of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this discourse limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…

  20. A Critical Ethnography of Democratic Music Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…

  1. The Potential for Deliberative Democratic Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.; Howe, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The values of aggregative democracy have dominated much of civic education as its values reflect the realities of the American political system. We argue that deliberative democratic theory better addresses the moral and epistemological demands of democracy when compared to aggregative democracy. It better attends to protecting citizens' autonomy…

  2. Democratic Ethics, Politics, and Education: Aristotle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    1993-01-01

    In our modernized, changing, and dissatisfied society, values and ideologies have split into two extremes (nihilistic postmodernism and totalitarianism/fundamentalism) antagonistic to developing democratic life ways requiring rational discourse and agreement based on mutual respect. Aristotle tried to elaborate how to act well to achieve a good…

  3. The School and the Democratic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    The purpose of the conference was to explore how schools can prepare students to function in a democratic society beset by unprededented demands, complexities, and inconsistencies between theory and practice. Educational reform was the long-range goal, the short-term goal being the extension of dialogue in large and small school districts leading…

  4. Leadership Education Priorities for a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the priorities for leadership education in a democratic society is a complex, challenging responsibility, not a task to be taken lightly. It is complex on one level in that to be a leader in schools "today is to understand a profoundly human as well as a professional responsibility." It is challenging on another level in that preparing…

  5. Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C.; Strzemieczny, Jacek

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of civic education for democracy in Poland. Focuses on the largest, most comprehensive project, Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland (EDCP). Discusses the context of civic education, project origins and goals, international partnerships, project funding, project-developed curricula, teacher-education activities, and…

  6. Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario Osbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

  7. Reconceptualizing Geography as Democratic Global Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William; Heilman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geography education typically appears in school curricula in a didactic or disciplinary manner. Yet, both the didactic and the disciplinary approach to geography education lack a serious engagement with society, politics, and power, or democratic theory. We suggest, from Dewey, that most students, the social studies, and indeed society…

  8. The Democratic Curriculum: Concept and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Dewey continues to offer arguments that remain powerful on the need to break down the divisions between "academic" and "vocational" in terms of his specific theory of knowledge. Dewey's writings are used to argue that a democratic curriculum needs to challenge such divisions to encompass the many forms of knowledge…

  9. John Dewey's Conundrum: Can Democratic Schools Empower?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutz, Aaron

    2001-01-01

    Examines John Dewey's vision of and concerns for democratic education, arguing that his approach failed to equip students to act effectively in the world as it was (and still is) and that his model of democracy, while extremely useful, is nonetheless inadequate to serve the varied needs of students living in a diverse and contentious society. (SM)

  10. Leadership Education Priorities in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Is there still an effort to include democratic ideals in public education? Some claim that it is no longer a priority, the result of a lack of common definition or perceived benefits. In today's policy driven climate, school leaders must transition to new and more effective approaches to enhancing learning and teaching. Aspiring principals/leaders…

  11. Democratic Theorizing: From Noun to Participle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Saville

    2005-01-01

    What is the relationship between theory and design in evaluation pretending to be "democratic?" When do we feel able to relinquish elements of intellectual control over evaluation? If not in qualitative versus quantitative tendencies, where lie key value divisions in evaluation? To elicit the views of two leading United Kingdom-based theorists of…

  12. Democratic Means for Democratic Ends: The Possibilities of Bakhtin's Dialogic Pedagogy for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In light of the common mission of social studies education to prepare future democratic citizens, the field continues to be rooted in didactic and monologic practices. Finding an alibi in the current accountability movement that favors teaching about democracy instead of teaching through democracy, many social studies teachers have reneged on…

  13. Education and the Democratic Person: Towards a Political Conception of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Ever since the Enlightenment, there has been a strong tendency in educational theory and practice to think of education as the "production" of a subject with particular qualities, most notably the quality of rationality. This way of thinking has deeply influenced the theory and practice of democratic education and has led to an…

  14. Democratic Experience and the Democratic Challenge: A Historical and Comparative Citizenship Education Study of Scandinavian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberkind, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In Scandinavian schools, there is a significant tradition for creating a democratic context of experience; this tradition is gradually being challenged by new political and economic movements and increasing focus on tests, assessments, knowledge, and skills. The purpose of this study is to analyze and discuss the status of the current context of…

  15. Learning to Teach Elementary Students in Democratic Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Katherina A.

    2013-01-01

    This multicase study employs sociocultural theories to analyze the learning to teach process and identity development of six novice elementary school teachers, who were immersed in a semester-long democratic field placement. Broadly, this study explored the field experience as part of democratic teacher education, and how the field experience can…

  16. Thinking Differently about Guidance: Power, Children's Autonomy and Democratic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques guidance approaches to discipline, that are employed in early childhood environments with an aim to create democratic environments for children, and as part of "good" practices. Advocates of guidance claim that this is a more humane or democratic approach to discipline that empowers children, and therefore, power in the…

  17. Democratic Schooling and Citizenship Education: What Does the Research Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    This paper examines four major research studies spanning approximately 45 years which provide solid evidence that democratic schooling is possible and is an extremely important factor in the education of young citizens for a democratic society. The objectives, methodology, limitations, and results of each study are examined. From the studies, the…

  18. A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire

    2014-01-01

    The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were…

  19. Inequality in Classroom Learning: Schooling and Democratic Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edward P.

    In a democratic society, the functions of public education should include at least two that are shaped by the principle of equality. These are (1) the task of socializing the young in ways appropriate to their conduct as democratic citizens; and (2) the function of providing all citizens with an opportunity to realize individual potential. The…

  20. Democratic Dams: School Governance and Habermas's Public Sphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David

    1997-01-01

    The governance of Canadian schools is undergoing change. Provincial ministries of education are pursuing contradictory policy initiatives: local school boards are being consolidated to become more "efficient," and individual schools are developing school councils to become more "democratic." This paper applies Jurgen Habermas's democratic theory…

  1. Media Literacy: A Central Component of Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Susie; Brocato, Kay; Hopper, Peggy F.; Sanders, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Educators from Europe, Latin America, and the United States convened to explore issues inherent in democratic citizenship. Media literacy, a central component of democratic citizenship, was studied in depth. Data from the camp were examined for evidence of the participants' understandings of media literacy and how it might be taught. Results…

  2. A Christian Democratic Party in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Donald W.

    1982-01-01

    The basis of Christian political thought is discussed, why Christian Democratic parties exist in other democratic countries is explained, and how the American political and moral climate may have changed enough to make the formation of such a party feasible in this country is examined. (RM)

  3. Elementary School Principals' Level of Practicing Democratic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincal, Remzi Y.; Isik, Halil

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the elementary school principals' level of practicing democratic values while managing their schools, according to teachers' perceptions. The results show that Turkish elementary principals are doing well in having democratic values in general. However, some values were more well practiced or reflected…

  4. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  5. Democratic Practices in Education: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Art, Ed.; Pryor, Caroline R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents the findings of eleven teacher educators as they examine the meaning of democracy and its application to classroom practice. There is a shared belief among all contributors to this volume: that incorporating democratic practice into teacher education is an essential requirement to introducing democratic practices in K-12…

  6. Democratic School Turnarounds: Pursuing Equity and Learning from Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    the report "Democratic School Turnarounds" considers the democratic tensions inherent in the federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) policy's market-based school reforms and critiques the research base that many of these reforms are based on. It concludes with a set of recommendations that re-center the purposes of public education…

  7. A Developmental Model for Educational Planning: Democratic Rationalities and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Michael; Johnson, Jerry; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Democratic Planning (DDP) model frames educational planning as a process that extends beyond the immediate focus of a particular planning effort to acknowledge and cultivate the potential of all members of the organization to fulfill their roles as active participants in the democratic life of the organization. The DDP model…

  8. Educating for Participation: Democratic Life and Performative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radaelli, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    A democratic life is a form of associated living that requires people to participate in a pluralistic dialogue in different spheres of the civic society: government, community, and work. Higher education classes have a leading role in preparing students for participation in a democratic society; however, more could be done, in particular focusing…

  9. Deweyan Democratic Agency and School Math: Beyond Constructivism and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemhagen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kurt Stemhagen reconstructs mathematics education in light of Dewey's democratic theory and his ideas about mathematics and mathematics education. The resulting democratic philosophy and pedagogy of mathematics education emphasizes agency and the connections between mathematics and students' social experiences. Stemhagen considers…

  10. Neoliberal Ideology and Democratic Learning. A Response to "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James; Ramirez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    In "Challenging Freedom: Neoliberalism and the Erosion of Democratic Education," the author suggests that the presumed decline of democratic learning in public schooling follows from two primary forces: (a) the metaphysical implications of Cartesian psychophysical dualism that support an ontological understanding of the self as distinct…

  11. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Bak, Per

    1995-05-01

    We introduce a simple ``toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

  12. Global communications: democratic access for women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women, women of the Latin American Information Agency prepared a statement for the UN about the importance of communications and information in the contemporary world and the role of women in the media. The statement includes the following specific suggestions: 1) that the UN promote the democratization of communications with a gender focus, 2) that women be assured access to new communications technologies that empower their communicational capacity, 3) that steps be taken to ensure that media content projects a positive and nondiscriminatory image of women, and 4) that guidelines be drawn up to promote labor equality between the genders and a greater presence of women in decision-making positions in the media.

  13. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  14. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  15. Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merelman, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses arguments about the "hidden curriculum" of the schools and outlines the conflict between democratic politics and "the basic shape of schooling." Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (IRT)

  16. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  17. Energy technology and American democratic values

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Today, the benefits of liberal democracy have increasingly been cast into doubt. The debate over alternative energy policies illustrates the problems associated with liberal democracy. For many, it is the realization that energy choices and the selection of social and political values amount to much the same thing. Simply put, energy policy decisions, and the concomitant energy technologies, carry implications of an ethical, social and political nature. The argument of the social and political effects of energy technology flows from the more general thesis that all forms of technological practice condition social and political relations. That is, technological systems, beyond performing the specific functions for which they were designed, act upon and influence social and political arrangements. Seen in this light, energy technologies are as important to the promotion and preservation of this country's political values as are its institutions and laws. Further, there is evidence to suggest that this country's cherished democratic value of freedom is slowly being eclipsed by the values attendant to corporate capitalism and its singular pursuit of growth. It is this dominance of economic values over political values which provides the environment within which the technological debate is waged. Ultimately, tracing the historic linkage between property and liberty, it is concluded that the preservation of our freedom require new thinking regarding the present configuration of ownership patterns. The questions surrounding energy policy serve to illuminate these concerns.

  18. Hierarchical majorana neutrinos from democratic mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Masaki J. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we obtain the light neutrino masses and mixings consistent with the experiments, in the democratic texture approach. The essential ansatz is that νRi are assumed to transform as "right-handed fields" 2R +1R under the S3L ×S3R symmetry. The symmetry breaking terms are assumed to be diagonal and hierarchical. This setup only allows the normal hierarchy of the neutrino mass, and excludes both of inverted hierarchical and degenerated neutrinos. Although the neutrino sector has nine free parameters, several predictions are obtained at the leading order. When we neglect the smallest parameters ζν and ζR, all components of the mixing matrix UPMNS are expressed by the masses of light neutrinos and charged leptons. From the consistency between predicted and observed UPMNS, we obtain the lightest neutrino masses m1 = (1.1 → 1.4) meV, and the effective mass for the double beta decay ≃ 4.5 meV.

  19. [Democratic institutional design in health care priority setting and rationing].

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Decisions on priority setting and rationing in health care have both informational and distributional aspects, which is why they require expert knowledge and specialised bodies on the one hand and democratic consent on the other hand. The paper presents normative criteria for the evaluation and empirical categories for the description and comparison of respective bodies. As procedural decisions always have implications for resulting distributional decisions, the bodies charged with priority setting and rationing decisions must be subject to democratic institutional design. (As supplied by publisher).

  20. How personal is the political? Democratic revolution and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2009-10-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from twenty-two European and four diaspora countries, the author examines the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. The author hypothesizes that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual's relationship to society and ultimately the legitimacy of couples' authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolutions -- but not institutionalized democratic structures -- predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline.

  1. How Personal Is the Political? Democratic Revolution and Fertility Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2010-01-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from 22 European and four diaspora countries, I examine the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. I hypothesize that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual’s relationship to society, and ultimately the legitimacy of couples’ authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolution – but not institutionalized democratic structures – predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. PMID:19999826

  2. Democratic Teacher Education: Programs, Processes, Problems, and Prospects. SUNY Series, Democracy and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, John M., Ed.

    This book focuses on the creative work and struggles of democratic teacher educators. After "Introduction: The Talk and the Walk of Democratic Teacher Education" (John M. Novak), the book is organized in three sections. Section I, "Programs," includes: (1) "The Institute for Democracy in Education: Supporting Democratic Teachers" (George Wood);…

  3. Finding Autonomy in Activity: Development and Validation of a Democratic Classroom Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…

  4. Misplaced Priorities: Gutmann's Democratic Theory, Children's Autonomy, and Sex Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corngold, Josh

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a critique of the "democratic state of education" proposed by Amy Gutmann in her influential book "Democratic Education". In the democratic state of education, educational authority is shared among the state, parents and educational professionals; and educational objectives are geared toward equipping future citizens to…

  5. Designing Intelligent Knowledge: Epistemological Faith and the Democratization of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Clayton Pierce examines the epistemological standpoints of Intelligent Design (ID) and evolutionary science education, focusing specifically on the pedagogical question of how ID and modern science-based education fail to promote democratic relations in how students learn, think, and associate with science and technology in society.…

  6. Educational Change under Autocratic Democratic Governments: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    This paper presents findings of a study that: (1) contrasts the educational change strategies of a military/autocratic government (1976-83) and a civilian/democratic government (1983-93) in Argentina; and (2) identifies the major consequences of these strategies. The military regime attempted to produce its version of effectiveness and efficiency…

  7. Political Microcultures: Linking Civic Life and Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    At the core of democratic citizenship is deliberation: citizens' tendency and capacity for debating issues of common importance. This study considers civic organizations--often found to be political mobilizers--as political microcultures: environments for political discourse that structure participants' understanding of the practice of…

  8. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  9. Trust, the Democratic Process, and Involvement in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.; Petrzelka, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    A number of dimensions of the democratic political process are important for understanding civic communities and civic engagement. While many of these aspects have been examined at the federal level, less is known about how these dynamics operate at the local level, especially in rural communities, and that, moreover, involve a specific issue. In…

  10. The Role of Democratic Governing Bodies in South African Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni

    2002-01-01

    School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…

  11. Civic Writing in Education for Democratic Citizenship. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    Civic writing is an intellectual skill that is needed for effective and responsible participation in civil society and government. This Digest examines the concept of civic writing, identifies its purposes in democratic citizenship, and discusses how to teach it. Civic writing includes formal legal writing (speeches, petitions, resolutions),…

  12. June Four: A Chronicle of the Chinese Democratic Uprising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1989

    This book presents more than 200 photographs along with a chronological record from the "Ming Pao News," covering the events in People's Republic of China from the death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, which precipitated the Chinese student democratic movement, to the crushing of the movement at Tiananmen Square by the Chinese army on June 4,…

  13. Democratization "from Below" and Popular Culture: Teachers from Chiapas, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Susan

    1996-01-01

    In the early 1980s, public school teachers in Chiapas, Mexico, organized themselves in a dissident mass movement aimed at democratizing their participation in union affairs and restructuring the relations of domination and subordination affecting their work lives. Macro-level analysis focuses on union corruption situated within an authoritarian…

  14. The Need for Media Education in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential for media and technology to act as a democratizing force and the challenges to democracy posed by partisanship and the explosion of political media spending, media education and the preparation of active citizens in schools is virtually nonexistent. This essay presents the case for revitalizing media education for the age of…

  15. Developing Democratic Citizens for Emerging Democracies in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1997-01-01

    Places the current problems concerning citizenship education in Africa in the context of African countries' emergence from colonial rule to democratic government. Maintains that social studies education in Africa must become transformative and interdisciplinary to overcome ethnocentric isolation. Advocates upgrading teacher education and…

  16. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  17. Educational Conservatism and Democratic Citizenship in Hannah Arendt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaila, Ramona; Popescu, Gheorghe H.; Nica, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain a deeper understanding of Arendt's educational philosophy, her perspective of political involvement as a kind of political education, and natality as the fundamental nature of education. The current study has extended past research by elucidating Arendt's view of participatory democratic politics, her…

  18. The "Local" Fetish as Reproductive Praxis in Democratic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical conceptualization of the local as the preferential spatial domain for democratic participation and learning. It critiques the ideological nature of educational theory that bifurcates the local from the "the global" through the application of the Marxist concept of "fetish". The argument…

  19. Relationship between Power Distance and Autocratic-Democratic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ali Riza

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between power distance and autocratic and democratic tendencies. Participants in the study were research assistants pursuing graduate degrees in the Sciences and Social Sciences Institutes of Balikesir University and prospective teachers pursuing undergraduate teaching degrees at Necatibey Education…

  20. States, Societies, and Sociologists: Democratizing Knowledge from above and below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John

    2009-01-01

    In his presidential address, Jess Gilbert argues that big states, in alliance with social scientists, can work to democratize society. He points to two fascinating examples--the involvement of rural sociologists with local citizens for policy planning in the New Deal and similarly their role in the Farm Security Administration's Resettlement…

  1. Unalienated Recognition as a Feature of Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The current era of standards and accountability in U.S. public schooling narrows recognition and assessment to an almost exclusive focus on the production of test scores as legitimate markers of student achievement. This climate prevents rather than encourages democratic forms of exchange within and across social worlds. Via a case study of one…

  2. School Democratization in Prefigurative Form: Two Brazilian Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2010-01-01

    Recent moves towards greater pupil participation in school decision-making have in part been based on instrumental rationales, such as increases in test scores and improvements in behaviour. This article assesses a different approach--that of the "prefigurative"--through which the school embodies the democratic society it aims to create. Two…

  3. Affinity through Mathematical Activity: Cultivating Democratic Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how a broader view of what shapes affinity is ideologically and practically linked to creating democratic learning communities. Specifically, the author explores how a teacher employed complex instruction (an equity pedagogy) with her ethnically and racially diverse students in the "lowest track"…

  4. Whole School Meetings and the Development of Radical Democratic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Serious re-examination of participatory traditions of democracy is long overdue. Iconically central to such traditions of democratic education is the practice of whole School Meetings. More usually associated with radical work within the private sector, School Meetings are here explored in detail through two examples from publicly funded…

  5. "Democratic" Collaboration for School Turnaround in Southern Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the democratic nature of collaboration and related principal influences in one successful Southern Arizona elementary school in a changing demographic and border context in the US Southwest and where the principal did not share the same ethnic identity/cultural background.…

  6. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  7. Military Power in a Democratic Society. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarlengo, F. John

    This unit focuses on the classic problem of the place of military power in a democratic society. Early sections examine the relationship between civil and military authority as developed in colonial America and written into the Constitution. The second half of the unit invites consideration of the relevance and workability of the earlier tradition…

  8. Democratic Miseducation: Preparing Students for Democracies That Do Not Exist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Geoffrey M.

    The political educator takes the perspective that, in Thomas Hobbes's phrase, "man is not born fit for society." To make him so fit, contemporary political educators seek to develop individual autonomy and democratic affect, which would have the added task of reforming all of society in the future. The current consensus holds that the best…

  9. Developing the European Citizen: Investing in Europe's Democratic Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Cornett, Jeffery W.; Pitts, Annette Boyd; Setenyi, Janos; Gal, Tibor; Eich, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing that democracy is not a static concept and that it should be learned and lived on a daily basis, the Council of Europe has named 2005 the European Year of Citizenship through Education. Citizens of European Union (EU) member countries face new challenges in their participation as citizens in a democratic society. While EU citizenship…

  10. Critical Pedagogy and Democratic Education: Possibilities for Cross-Pollination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on critical pedagogy (CP) and democratic education (DE) reveals that very little has been written comparing the two (Knight and Pearl in Urban Rev 32(2):197-226, 2000). After reading the Urban Review article by Knight and Pearl (2000)--the only publication explicitly comparing the two approaches to education--I was…

  11. Toward Inclusion and Human Unity: Rethinking Dewey's Democratic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hongmei

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author digs into John Dewey's writings to explore his democratic community to better understand the meaning and the value of community. The author begins by considering the connotation of the concept "community," which is distinguished from the more popular term "society" used in ordinary language. Then the author transitions…

  12. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…

  13. Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Many educational practices are based upon philosophical ideas about what it means to be human, including particular subjectivities and identities such as the rational person, the autonomous individual, or the democratic citizen. This book asks what might happen to the ways in which we educate if we treat the question as to what it means to be…

  14. Democratic Education in an Era of Town Hall Protests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    One central aspect of a healthy democracy is the practice of democratic dissent. For the first time in many years, dissent is being widely practiced in town hall meetings and on street corners across the United States. Despite this presence, dissent is often suppressed or omitted in the prescribed, tested, hidden, and external curriculum of US…

  15. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  16. Administrative Leadership and the Democratic Community as a Social Ideal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    Democratic participation in education suggests that communities will be served best when decision-making is decentralized and when people--teachers, parents, and students alike--are encouraged to participate directly in making decisions that affect them. In contrast, the notion of administrative leadership implies hierarchical elevation of chief…

  17. Democratizing Children's Computation: Learning Computational Science as Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Amy Voss; Sengupta, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Amy Voss Farris and Pratim Sengupta argue that a democratic approach to children's computing education in a science class must focus on the "aesthetics" of children's experience. In "Democracy and Education," Dewey links "democracy" with a distinctive understanding of "experience." For Dewey,…

  18. The Preparation Challenge: Democratic Administration in Schools and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Ralph R.

    This paper proposes a model of a democratic paradigm for educational researchers and practitioners. It attempts to explore the kinds of thinking that would be required to create such a system, to determine what principles and curriculum theories are involved and how they would work. It seeks to relate this model to the new National Council for…

  19. Science Education and Democratic Participation: An Uneasy Congruence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary policy statements from government and reforms to science curricula in schools emphasise the importance of educating a scientifically literate public for democratic participation in science and technology. While such an aspiration is seemingly uncontentious and appears consistent with progressive educational thinking, the reality of…

  20. The Irreversible Process of University "Democratization": The Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mogens N.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experience with university democratization suggests that the process is irreversible and that its progress is determined by how the initial change was begun two decades ago. It is also proposed that government attempts to intervene and revoke traditional institutional autonomy threaten to invalidate the progress made. (Author/MSE)

  1. Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

  2. Freezing out Injustice: Using ICE to Foster Democratic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica; Klein, Emily J.; Carletta, Liz

    2016-01-01

    In an urban teacher residency program, preservice science teachers experience what it's like to teach for social justice through the use of a democratic inquiry stance, thus moving toward an understanding of teaching for social justice as larger than one individual teacher in a classroom.

  3. Reconstructing Deweyan Democratic Education for a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica Ching-Sze

    2009-01-01

    As democratic citizenship education gains importance worldwide, one wonders whether common civic education practices in the United States, such as mock elections, are adequate models for other countries, or whether they fall short of realizing the goal of promoting democracy in different regions and cultures. Despite various controversies, one…

  4. Democratic Citizenship in Textbooks in Spanish Primary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis:…

  5. The Ethics of a Democratically-Based Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gale A.

    1993-01-01

    The elite model of education postulates that only a select few have the intellectual capacity, moral values, and personal commitment to make "good" decisions for society. A democratically based classroom, where students are respected for their intellectual abilities, personal integrity, and commitment to achievement, fosters successful learning.…

  6. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

  7. Argumentation in Democratic Education: The Crucial Role of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Educators, implicitly or explicitly, are interested in truth and, therefore, in argumentation. Argumentation is defined here as an evidence-based process by which one person may convince another of the rightness of his or her point of view. One of the primary uses of argumentation is within democratic deliberation writ large and within classrooms.…

  8. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  9. Religious Education in a Liberal, Pluralist, Democratic State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how throughout her academic career she has tried to answer the question "What should the appropriate place be for religion in the public schools of a liberal, pluralistic, democratic state?" The view the author embraces is that taking religion seriously in schools also means taking the purpose(s) of public…

  10. A. S. Neill on Democratic Authority: A Lesson from Summerhill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the views of A. S. Neill on democracy in school administration. Explains the reasoning behind Neill's arrangement of community-based decision making. Questions how democratic England's Summerhill School was in view of Neill's authority. Suggests giving children the right to participate in community government as an educationally…

  11. Practicing What We Preach: Cultivating Democratic Practice in Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Hartley, Matthew; Maxey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain why examining the way institutions model democracy on campus is an important, but often overlooked, step in advancing students' democratic learning. First, they note how a decline in shared governance produces an educational environment that adversely affects students' civic inclinations and agency. Next, they…

  12. Civic Engagement in Teacher Education: A Commitment to Democratic Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Civic engagement draws on the concepts of American democratic ideals such that society's interests are promulgated through the education of its citizenry. Ideas come to fruition in the form of community action, voting, involvement in the political process, and public discourse for promoting the commonwealth. Engendering in youth the commitment to…

  13. Citizenship Education Reconsidered in the Era of Democratic Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drissi, Sihem

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that citizenship education is essential to establish a culture of democratic practices and national commitment in Tunisia. The growing demands for and debates about democratisation and political participation from the mass citizenry, along with an increased pressure from civil society, go beyond the legalistic definition of…

  14. Protest Reconsidered: Identifying Democratic and Civic Engagement Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Somers, Patricia A.; Polman, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a case study approach, the authors examine the democratic and civic engagement learning outcomes of a campus protest. The conceptual framework is built on the ideas outlined in "Learning Reconsidered" (Keeling 2004) and modeled in its pragmatic follow-up, "Learning Reconsidered 2" (Keeling 2006). Results suggest student and campus…

  15. Democratic Citizenship and Service Learning: Advancing the Caring Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how service learning can promote the development of a "caring self" in college students by drawing on the ideas of John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and contemporary critical theorists. Links this caring self to democratic citizenship and uses students' narratives to illustrate how it develops through service learning contexts. (DB)

  16. Democratic Citizenship Education in Albania: A Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamo, Milika; Gjuraj, Tonin; Myteberi, Fatmira; Sinani, Marjana; Kaltsounis, Theodore

    This manual traces the emergence of democracy in Albania from the end of the Communist system in 1990. It deals with the concepts and practices of democratic citizenship education and emphasizes the role of education in developing and sustaining democracy. The manual is to assist educators to put together the knowledge and skills they possess with…

  17. Empowering Students through the Use of the Democratic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Janice Lamb; Numrich, Andrea Platt; Walsh, Kristine E.

    This report describes a program designed to empower students through the use of the democratic classroom to improve students' attitudes toward school. Targeted population consisted of sixth grade students in a growing middle class community, located in a major midwestern city. The problem of poor student attitude was documented through data…

  18. Is Jefferson a Founding Father of Democratic Education? A Response to "Jefferson and the Ideology of Democratic Schooling"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neem, Johann

    2013-01-01

    This response argues that it is reasonable to consider Thomas Jefferson a proponent of democratic education. It suggests that Jefferson's education proposals sought to ensure the wide distribution of knowledge and that Jefferson's legacy remains important to us today.

  19. University-school-community partnerships for youth development and democratic renewal.

    PubMed

    Harkavy, Ira; Hartley, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Democratic partnerships of universities, schools, and an array of neighborhood and community organizations are the most promising means of improving the lives of our nation's young people. Over the past two decades, many colleges and universities have been experiencing a renaissance in engagement activities. Universities, once ivory towers, have increasingly come to recognize that their destinies are inextricably linked with their communities. Authentic democratic partnerships have three characteristics: they are devised to achieve democratic purposes, the collective work is advanced through inclusive and democratic processes, and the product these partnerships produce benefits all participants and results in a strengthening of the democratic practices within the community. PMID:19593810

  20. Sustained Innovation Through Shared Capitalism and Democratic Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyster, M. A.; Blasi, J.; Sibilia, J.; Zebuchen, T.; Bowman, A.

    The Foundation for Enterprise Development (FED) explores application of democratic representative governance models and structures for long-term interdisciplinary research, development and education to the concept of an organization that can sustain activity in support of interstellar travel in the 100-year timeframe, as outlined by the 100 Year StarshipTM. This paper titled, Sustained Innovation through Shared Capitalism and Democratic Governance , explores the roots of representative structures and organizations as long-lived success stories throughout history. Research, innovation, organizational structures and associated issues are explored to address the long-term focus required for development, both material and human. Impact investing vehicles are also explored as potential investment structures addressing the long-term horizon required by the organization. This paper provides an illustration, description and philosophical approach of this model as developed by the FED and our collaborators.

  1. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself.

  2. The politics of color: preferences for Republican red versus Democratic blue.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2014-12-01

    The present study reveals that Election Day differentially affects the color preferences of US Republicans and Democrats. Voters' preferences for Republican red and Democratic blue were assessed, along with several distractor colors, on and around the 2010 interim and 2012 presidential elections. On non-Election Days, Republicans and Democrats preferred Republican red equally, and Republicans actually preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. On Election Day, however, Republicans' and Democrats' color preferences changed to become more closely aligned with their own party's colors. Republicans liked Republican red more than Democrats did, and no longer preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that color preferences are determined by people's preferences for correspondingly colored objects/entities (Palmer & Schloss in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010). They further suggest that color preferences are calculated at a given moment, depending on which color-object associations are currently most activated or salient. Color preferences are thus far more dynamic and context-dependent than has previously been believed.

  3. Democratization and life expectancy in Europe, 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Hu, Yannan; Looman, Caspar W N

    2013-09-01

    Over the past five decades, two successive waves of political reform have brought democracy to, first, Spain, Portugal and Greece, and, more recently, Central and Eastern European countries. We assessed whether democratization was associated with improvements in population health, as indicated by life expectancy and cause-specific mortality rates. Data on life expectancy at birth, age-standardized total and cause-specific mortality rates, levels of democracy and potential time-variant confounding variables were collected from harmonized international databanks. In two pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses with country-fixed effects, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality were regressed on measures of current and cumulative democracy, controlling for confounders. A first analysis covered the 1960-1990 period, a second covered the 1987-2008 period. In the 1960-1990 period, current democracy was more strongly associated with higher life expectancy than cumulative democracy. The positive effects of current democracy on total mortality were mediated mainly by lower mortality from heart disease, pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, and suicide. In the 1987-2008 period, however, current democracy was associated with lower, and cumulative democracy with higher life expectancy, particularly among men. The positive effects of cumulative democracy on total mortality were mediated mainly by lower mortality from circulatory diseases, cancer of the breast, and external causes. Current democracy was associated with higher mortality from motor vehicle accidents in both periods, and also with higher mortality from cancer and all external causes in the second. Our results suggest that in Europe during these two periods democratization has had mixed effects. That short-term changes in levels of democracy had positive effects in the first but not in the second period is probably due to the fact that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe was part of a complete system change

  4. A Renormalization Group Like Model for a Democratic Dictatorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2015-03-01

    We review a model of sociophysics which deals with democratic voting in bottom up hierarchical systems. The connection to the original physical model and technics are outlined underlining both the similarities and the differences. Emphasis is put on the numerous novel and counterintuitive results obtained with respect to the associated social and political framework. Using this model a real political event was successfully predicted with the victory of the French extreme right party in the 2000 first round of French presidential elections. The perspectives and the challenges to make sociophysics a predictive solid field of science are discussed.

  5. History of Neurosurgery in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee B; Roh, Young Han; Lee-Park, Owen; Park, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Neurosurgery in Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has undergone remarkable progress since its beginning in the 1950s. With the initial support from socialist countries of the Soviet bloc, especially Professor Constantin Arseni of Romania, the nation has consistently produced a number of its own neurosurgeons each year and fostered further advancement by establishing the Korean Neurosurgery Association (DPRK). Despite the recent international collaborative activity for North Korean neurosurgery-namely with Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons, and Korean American Medical Association-the sparse exchange of information, knowledge, and surgical skills still remains largely inadequate.

  6. Leadership to Build a Democratic Community within School: A Case Study of Two Korean High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Young Taek; Printy, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore how democratic community is manifest in schools in Korea. It also tries to examine how leadership, specifically transformational leadership, functions in shaping a democratic community within a school. Toward this aim, we have conducted a case study of two religious high schools in Korea. Based on the findings from the…

  7. The Ignorant Citizen: Mouffe, Ranciere, and the Subject of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Much work in the field of education for democratic citizenship is based on the idea that it is possible to know what a good citizen is, so that the task of citizenship education becomes that of the production of the good citizen. In this paper I ask whether and to what extent we can and should understand democratic citizenship as a positive…

  8. Wisdom and Compassion in Democratic Leadership: Perceptions of the Bodhisattva Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Leslie; Ylimaki, Rose; Ford, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of democratic leadership rests a deep respect for what it means to be human, the cultivation of the common good, and the need to act according to one's own direction. If democratic leadership aims to create an environment in which people are encouraged and supported in "aspiring to truths about the world" (Woods, 2005, p. xvi), then…

  9. School Governing Bodies in South African Schools: Under Pressure to Enhance Democratization and Improve Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heystek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Governing bodies in South Africa are expected to have an important role in ensuring high quality education in schools as well as in the democratization of the post-apartheid South Africa. However, current legislation precludes governing bodies from involvement in the professional management of schools. Governing bodies are democratically elected…

  10. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  11. The Promise and Perils of Developing Democratic Literacy for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2009-01-01

    How do democratic practices relate to social justice in our classrooms? What risks to social justice might democratic classroom discussions pose? In this article, I respond to these questions by drawing upon educational scholarship and data from a qualitative study in four U.S. secondary classrooms on the meanings and implications of teaching for…

  12. Conceptions of Volunteerism among Recent African Immigrants in Canada: Implications for Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareka, Ottilia; Nyemah, Joseph; Manguvo, Angellar

    2010-01-01

    In democratic societies the level of citizens' civic engagement and inclusion in all forms of democratic participation is crucial in maintaining social cohesion and a vibrant democracy. In the historical development of Canada's demographic, political, socio-economic and cultural systems, immigration continues to play an influential role. Our paper…

  13. Bringing Politics into the Nursery: Early Childhood Education as a Democratic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility that early childhood institutions can be, first and foremost, places of political practice--and specifically of democratic political practice. The case for the primacy of democratic political practice in early childhood institutions is made more urgent by two developments apparent in many countries today: the…

  14. Maxine Greene and the Democratic Project in Education: Signposts for the Irish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the work of philosopher Maxine Greene as it pertains to the democratic project in education, with a particular focus on the Irish educational context. The author considers the extent to which specific aspects of the educational concerns raised by Greene, with respect to the realisation of the democratic project in the context…

  15. Democratizing School Authority: Brazilian Teachers' Perceptions of the Election of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The idea of collective decision making in schools has been a popular democratic educational reform model. One of its claims is that participation in school decision making empowers teachers and improves teaching. This research investigates this claim by exploring seven teachers' experiences with a unique democratic school reform in Porto Alegre,…

  16. Teledeliberative Democratic Discourse: A Case Study of High School Students' Use of Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Scott; Marri, Anand R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine high school students' use of social networking to participate in teledeliberative democratic dialogue and explicates the implications of this dialogue for democratic education that is inclusive of all students. Design/methodology/approach: The case study analyzes the comments of 111 high school students over ten…

  17. Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

  18. Teacher Education for Democratic Classrooms: Moral Reasoning and Ideology Critique. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett

    This paper examines the moral reasoning of preservice and inservice teachers; reviews and summarizes empirical studies that have examined teachers' levels of principled reasoning; relates that information to the construction of democratic classrooms, which are a critique of both authoritarian and status quo democratic systems; and presents…

  19. Saudi Female Students' Perceptions of Their Democratic Empowerment in the Classroom at King Saud University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajlan, Sarah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to describe female graduate students' perceptions about their democratic empowerment in the classroom at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Their perceptions are compared based on female students' tracks. It also investigates the obstacles for democratic empowerment that female students face in the…

  20. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  1. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  2. Gender Delusions and Exclusions in the Democratization of Schooling in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines how democratization of schooling is being shaped in Latin America and how dangerous delusions and exclusions affect the treatment of gender in this process. Focuses on initiatives and development policies of international aid agencies, their research projects, and international conferences. Suggests that democratization requires a larger…

  3. Teaching for Democratic Practice: Three Strategies for the Social Studies Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses three strategies designed to support a college of education mission to prepare democratic practitioners. These strategies are: increasing civic knowledge (Butts, 1993), reflecting on civic values (Ross & Yeager, 1999), and organizing field experiences that promote democratic practice (Rainer & Guyton, 1999). Activities for…

  4. Understanding the Universal Right to Education as Jurisgenerative Politics and Democratic Iterations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how the universal human right to education can be understood in terms of what Seyla Benhabib considers "democratic iterations". Further, by referring to the concept of jurisgenerative politics, Benhabib argues that a democratic people reinterpret guiding norms and principles which they find themselves bound to, through…

  5. The School's Democratic Mission and Conflict Resolution: Voices of Swedish Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Ilse; Olsson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Swedish educational policy mandates have given schools a double mission: the development of content-based knowledge as well as the promotion of democratic values and competencies. While detailed learning outcomes are specified for content domains, the democratic mission is imprecisely described and unsupported by practical measures. This leaves…

  6. Rediscovering the Democratic Purposes of Education. Studies in Government and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M., Ed.; Timpane, P. Michael, Ed.; Benjamin, Roger, Ed.

    This volume of essays, spanning philosophy, history, sociology, and political science seeks to demonstrate that the democratic purposes of education are not outmoded but can continue to be driving forces in public education. Nine original articles examine how those democratic purposes might be redefined and revived. The volume both establishes the…

  7. Democratic Attitudes among High-School Pupils: The Role Played by Perceptions of Class Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perliger, Arie; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Pedahzur, Ami

    2006-01-01

    The present study shed light on the continuing debate among students of political socialisation regarding the effects of civic education on the upholding of democratic attitudes. Our major conclusion is that civic education, in and of itself, has only minor effects on democratic attitudes of pupils. Furthermore, among pupils who attended civic…

  8. Inclusive Curriculum? Challenges to the Role of Civic Education in a Jewish and Democratic State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of growing conflicts in Israeli society and concerns about its democratic character, the current curriculum guidelines and official textbook for civic education in Israel were set to offer a more inclusive civic education that would stress ideas such as pluralistic and democratic citizenship. However, this curriculum does not…

  9. Democratic Education: An (Im)Possibility that yet Remains to Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel; Jaastad, Bryn; Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to develop democratic schools have moved along particular rules and standards of "reasoning" even when expressed through different ideological and paradigmatic lines. From attempts to make a democratic education to critical pedagogy, different approaches overlap in their historical construction of the reason of schooling: designing society…

  10. Teacher Education for a Democratic Society in England and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive; Serf, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the role of teacher education in England and South Africa in relation to education for democratic citizenship. It argues that teacher education should play a positive role in this respect but there has often been a contradiction between the structures and practices of teacher education and democratic forms of education. The…

  11. Building a Democratic Nation: Governments in Transition. [Student Text and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gretchen E.; Tarasovic, Amy E.; Sass, Charles R.

    This student text and teacher's guide are part of a curriculum unit that examines the process and progress of democratic government from ancient Greece and Rome through the beginning of the twenty-first century. Part 1, "What is Democracy?" explores the growth and spread of democratic principles throughout the Western world, with particular…

  12. Transforming Schools into Democratic Organisations: The Case of the Secondary Schools Management Development Project in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monyatsi, Pedzani Perci

    2005-01-01

    As a democratic country which aims at nurturing and sustaining its envied democracy, organisations in Botswana are expected and encouraged to build and maintain democratic structures and principles. In September 1993, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Botswana and the then British Overseas Development Agency (ODA) launched an ambitious…

  13. The Recent Process of Decentralization and Democratic Management of Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Jose Camilo dos Santos

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of Brazilian decentralization policies, including those implemented by the military regime of 1964. Describes the experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s-80s. Analyzes the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in federal and state constitutions and…

  14. Examining the Relationships Between Education, Social Networks and Democratic Support With ABM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an agent-based model that explores the relationships between education, social networks, and support for democratic ideals. This study examines two factors thai affect democratic support, education, and social networks. Current theory concerning these two variables suggests that positive relationships exist between education and democratic support and between social networks and the spread of ideas. The model contains multiple variables of democratic support, two of which are evaluated through experimentation. The model allows individual entities within the system to make "decisions" about their democratic support independent of one another. The agent based approach also allows entities to utilize their social networks to spread ideas. Current theory supports experimentation results. In addion , these results show the model is capable of reproducing real world outcomes. This paper addresses the model creation process and the experimentation procedure, as well as future research avenues and potential shortcomings of the model

  15. An Investigation of Devotion to Democratic Values and Conflict Resolution Abilities: A Case of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Mediha; Sari, Sezen; Otunc, Mine Suat

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities of elementary school students. In the direction of this general purpose, the level of the students' devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities were investigated by the Devotion to Democratic Values Scale (DDVS) and…

  16. A Researcher-Student-Teacher Model for Democratic Science Pedagogy: Connections to Community, Shared Authority, and Critical Science Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, S. Jhumki

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a model for democratic pedagogy in science classrooms that is based on an examination of existing literature on democratic educational practices and on teacher and student ideas about how this pedagogy can take shape and be operationalized in science classrooms. A goal of democratic science pedagogy is to explore ways of…

  17. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament. PMID:17100751

  18. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy. PMID:23527455

  19. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  20. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  1. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  2. Democratic Republic of the Congo: undoing government by predation.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Edward B

    2006-12-01

    This paper draws on two periods of field research, conducted in 2004, to consider the state of governance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The first measures the paralysing impact of illegal taxation on riverine trade in the western provinces; the second documents civilian attempts to seek safety from violence in the troubled east, and evaluates third-party efforts to provide protection and security. Analysis of study findings suggests that the DRC's current governance crisis is neither historically novel nor driven exclusively by mineral resources, extraction rights or trafficking. Rather, government by predation is an endemic and systematic feature of the civil and military administration, ensuring the daily economic survival of soldiers and officials, who are able to wield their authority in a 'riskfree' environment, without oversight or accountability. The paper's conclusion tries to make sense of the persistence of corruption in social and political life, and assess the capacity of ordinary citizens to reverse their predicament.

  3. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  4. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality. PMID:23710098

  5. Concentrations and forms of heavy metals around two ore processing sites in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, F.; Masalehdani, M. N. N.; De Putter, T.; D'Hollander, C.; Van Biezen, E.; Mujinya, B. B.; Potdevin, J. L.; Van Ranst, E.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and the forms in which they occur were determined for tailings and derived deposits of two major processing sites of Cu-Co and Cu-Zn-(Pb) ores in the Katanga Copperbelt (Kipushi, Likasi). They were studied by a combination of methods, focussed on the nature of water- and EDTA-extractable compounds, the mineralogical composition of tailings and associated secondary minerals, and textural features of metal-bearing efflorescences. For the Kipushi area, sulfide minerals in tailings of decantation basins are identified as the source of extractable metals they contain, but input from an external source rather than local oxidation of substrate components is responsible for high levels of contamination in the Likasi area. Contaminated areas around Likasi are characterized by an abundance of Mg-sulfate efflorescences with high concentrations of cobalt and other metals, acting as an important vector for further dispersion of contaminants by wind and water.

  6. Adult, Community and Further Education--Autocratic or Democratic: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Hugh

    1996-01-01

    An observational study of two female education administrators identified two approaches: autocratic (technical/managerial) and democratic (participative/professional). Gender, expertise, and power are manifested in different ways in the two styles. (SK)

  7. The recent process of decentralization and democratic management of education in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, José Camilo Dos

    1993-09-01

    Brazilian society is beginning a new historical period in which the principle of decentralization is beginning to predominate over centralization, which held sway during the last 25 years. In contrast to recent Brazilian history, there is now a search for political, democratic and participatory decentralization more consonant with grass-roots aspirations. The first section of this article presents a brief analysis of some decentralization policies implemented by the military regime of 1964, and discusses relevant facts related to the resistance of civil society to state authoritarianism, and to the struggle for the democratization and organization of civil society up to the end of the 1970s. The second section analyzes some new experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s and 1980s. The final section discusses the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in the new Federal and State Constitutions, and in the draft of the new Law of National Education.

  8. Challenges of the Democratization of Popular Education from the Perspective of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosero, Rocio

    1993-01-01

    Economic crises in the Andean region countries have helped deepen and intensify sex discrimination. The contributions of feminism to popular education may enable active participation of women in the democratizing process. (SK)

  9. Social-democratic government and health policy in Europe: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Although health policy ultimately depends on political decision making, empirical evidence of the impact of politics on implementation of health policies and their population health outcomes is scarce. In this study, we assess the effects of social-democratic government participation on indicators of preventive health policy (tobacco, alcohol, food, mother and child health, infectious diseases, hypertension, cancer screening, road traffic safety, air pollution) in Europe. Cumulative years of social-democratic government differed widely between European countries, as did indicators of current health policy performance, but the latter are not associated with recent social-democratic government. However, there is a positive association with social-democratic government cumulated over five decades. Positive effects of social-democratic government are mainly seen on indicators of tobacco and alcohol control. We conclude that long-term social-democratic government participation may have had a positive impact on some areas of preventive health policy, perhaps through the creation of strong public health institutions or a strong public health workforce.

  10. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans.

    PubMed

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour. PMID:26375581

  11. Democratizing economics: pluralism as a path toward sustainability.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter; Brown, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Climate scientists point to a number of unsustainable trends concerning the environment and natural resources. There is also ongoing concern about poverty reduction, labor rights, and other social aspects of sustainable development. Growing numbers argue that change is required, but still at issue is the extent of change and how to facilitate it. In this paper, the focus is on the dominant interpretive schema of influential actors with respect to ideas about science in society, paradigms in economics, and ideological orientations. The authors argue that the monopolistic position of neoclassical economics at university departments of economics in different parts of the world, and the spread of its associated technocratic logic within broader policy arenas, should be abandoned in favor of a more ideologically open attitude that facilitates discussion and debate within academia, public policy, and in civil society more generally. In a sense, economics requires "democratization" with implications for approaches to sustainability monitoring, accounting, and the assessment of projects and policies. The paper provides suggestions for developing sustainability assessment technologies and practices that take pluralism seriously. PMID:20146769

  12. Democratizing economics: pluralism as a path toward sustainability.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter; Brown, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Climate scientists point to a number of unsustainable trends concerning the environment and natural resources. There is also ongoing concern about poverty reduction, labor rights, and other social aspects of sustainable development. Growing numbers argue that change is required, but still at issue is the extent of change and how to facilitate it. In this paper, the focus is on the dominant interpretive schema of influential actors with respect to ideas about science in society, paradigms in economics, and ideological orientations. The authors argue that the monopolistic position of neoclassical economics at university departments of economics in different parts of the world, and the spread of its associated technocratic logic within broader policy arenas, should be abandoned in favor of a more ideologically open attitude that facilitates discussion and debate within academia, public policy, and in civil society more generally. In a sense, economics requires "democratization" with implications for approaches to sustainability monitoring, accounting, and the assessment of projects and policies. The paper provides suggestions for developing sustainability assessment technologies and practices that take pluralism seriously.

  13. Ocular Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease. PMID:25058608

  14. Twitter Language Use Reflects Psychological Differences between Democrats and Republicans

    PubMed Central

    Sylwester, Karolina; Purver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives’ language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals’ language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties’ Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour. PMID:26375581

  15. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Tappe, Dennis; Hardi, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease. PMID:25058608

  16. Exploration in the Savannakhet Basin, Peoples Democratic Republic of Laos

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, P.J.; Wright, S.C. ); Kearney, C.J.; Pink, A.T. )

    1994-07-01

    The collision and suturing of four continental fragments during the Early Permian to the Middle Triassic formed present-day southeast Asia. Collapse of the overthickened crust in the Late Triassic (Indosinian) produced crustal extension and led to the development of an en echelon system of half grabens, which stretched across northeast Thailand and south-central Laos. Deposition of alluvial and fluvial sandstones and lacustrine mudstones rapidly infilled these depocenters and was succeeded by widespread continental mudstone deposition with occasional marine incursions through Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Late Cretaceous collision of the Kohistan arc and subsequent collision of India with Eurasia (Himalayan orogeny) inverted these half grabens along the preexisting extensional faults, producing large-scale anticlines. Continued regional uplift of the Khorat plateau area and denudation of the land surface has removed up to 3 km of sediments from the crests of the inversion anticlines. The Savannakhet basin lies in the south-central part of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Laos, between the Mekong River and the eastern border with Vietnam. A group led by Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd. licensed this area for hydrocarbon exploration in 1989. Gravity, aeromagnetic, seismic, geological, and geochemical data have all been acquired and used in an integrated interpretation of the geology and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the license area.

  17. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  18. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  19. Schistosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Linsuke, Sylvie; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Meurs, Lynn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Speybroeck, Niko; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja

    2015-11-19

    Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related parasitic infection, leading to chronic ill-health. For more than a century, schistosomiasis has been known to be endemic in certain provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, a clear overview on the status of the disease within the country is currently lacking, which is seriously hampering control. Here, we review the available information on schistosomiasis in DRC of the past 60 years. Findings and data gaps are discussed in the perspective of upcoming control activities.An electronic literature search via PubMed complemented by manual search of non-peer-reviewed articles was conducted up to January 2015. The search concerned all relevant records related to schistosomiasis in the DRC from January 1955 onwards. A total of 155 records were found, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarized by geographical region, mapped, and compared with those reported sixty years ago. The available data reported schistosomiasis in some areas located in 10 of the 11 provinces of DRC. Three species of Schistosoma were found: S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. intercalatum. The prevalence of schistosomiasis varied greatly between regions and between villages, with high values of up to 95 % observed in some communities. The overall trend over 60 years points to the spread of schistosomiasis to formerly non-endemic areas. The prevalence of schistosomiasis has increased in rural endemic areas and decreased in urban/peri-urban endemic areas of Kinshasa. Hepatosplenomegaly, urinary tract lesions and anaemia were commonly reported in schistosomiasis endemic areas but not always associated with infection status.The present review confirms that schistosomiasis is still endemic in DRC. However, available data are scattered across time and space and studies lack methodological uniformity, hampering a reliable estimation of the current status of schistosomiasis in DRC. There is a clear need for updated prevalence data

  20. [National ethics committees and representative democracy: is the new German ethics committee more "democratic"?].

    PubMed

    Dagron, Stéphanie

    2007-01-01

    The bill passed in April 2007 by the German parliament aims to confer democratic legitimacy on the German Ethics Committee (deutscher Ethikrat) which has replaced the former National Ethics Committee (nationaler Ethikrat) set up in 2001. This law results from a wide debate which began in 2005 within the political parties about the role in democracy of the bodies charged with advising the people's representatives in the areas of biotechnology and modern medicine. In this article, the author explains why it was necessary to confer a certain democratic legitimacy on the new Ethics Committee and analyses the relation that exists between the democratic principle, the work of this type of committee and the national institutional structure retained to stimulate the debate and advise the political decision-makers, and even to prepare legislation concerning bioethics. PMID:17902580

  1. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  2. Intergenerational Perspectives on Education and Employment in the Zambian Copperbelt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    This article explores intergenerational perspectives on the link between secondary schooling and employment held by students, parents, and teachers in Ndola, Zambia. The author argues that the differentiated meanings of schooling must be understood in light of the economic effects of the shift away from a state-controlled economy during the…

  3. Democratic Values and Teacher Self-Efficacy Perceptions: A Case of Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Ece Zehir; Yavu, Aysun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated democratic values of pre-service English language teachers in relation to their teacher self-efficacy perceptions in a Turkish context. It also examined the possible relationships between gender, grade and democratic values and self-efficacy perceptions. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 294 pre-service teachers.…

  4. Leadership Styles: An Experimental Study to Determine the Comparative Effectiveness of Democratic and Autocratic Leadership in Adult, "Real World" Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, L. Dean; Fadely, Patricia R.

    To study the effect of democratic and autocratic leadership styles upon the commitment and productivity of voluntary adult groups, eight tenant councils, composed of approximately six persons each, were selected to serve as experimental groups. Trained researchers acting as discussion leaders for each council functioned as either democratic or…

  5. The Contribution of Different Patterns of Teachers' Interactions to Young Children's Experiences of Democratic Values during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisen, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Developing a sense of belonging and experiences about the value of community are important democratic values that children may learn during play in preschool. Through the different ways that teachers' interact with children during play, children can learn about democratic values. This study is part of a Nordic project on values education in early…

  6. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  7. Political differences in past, present, and future life satisfaction: Republicans are more sensitive than democrats to political climate.

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R; Omorogbe, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican) and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party) are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a) life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b) Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events.

  8. Political Differences in Past, Present, and Future Life Satisfaction: Republicans Are More Sensitive than Democrats to Political Climate

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, David R.; Omorogbe, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican) and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party) are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a) life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b) Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events. PMID:24901253

  9. Critical Democracy Audits--A Response to "Teacher, Researcher, and Accountability Discourses: Creating Space for Democratic Science Teaching Practices in Middle Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Educators frequently claim that the projects in which they are involved are democratic. However, considering the multiple and often conflicting notions of democracy and democratic education, are there any shared understandings of what either of those notions means? Does the claim that a project is democratic carry with it any shared assumptions,…

  10. The Democratic Party on the Eve of the War between the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Presents overview of dissension in Democratic Party in United States just prior to Civil War. Maintains that tension between the northern and southern wings of the party had existed since the early days of the Republic. Provides quotes from newspapers of the time and historians that could be used by teachers in preparing classroom activities about…

  11. Comparison of Ukrainian and Turkish Law Students' Attitudes towards Democratic Values: Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayalar, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Ukrainian and Turkish law students' attitudes towards democratic values and the factors that may affect these values and to compare them in terms of different variables. This study is a descriptive survey model. The research consists of total 226 students from three Schools of Law, two in Turkey and one in…

  12. Five Questions and a Stack of Books: Remediation for a Democratic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, France H.

    1983-01-01

    Because students who do not read and write cannot participate effectively in a democratic society, the staff of the College Skills Program at Burlington County (New Jersey) College has designed a developmental skills program in reading and writing with a social science core. The program (Social Science 100) emphasizes reading, thinking,…

  13. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313.

  14. Active Democratic Citizenship and Service-Learning in the Postgraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clodagh

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the use of service-learning in teaching active democratic citizenship in the postgraduate classroom. In particular it draws on a case study of an MBS Government module (GV6104) entitled "Political Participation and Mobilisation" that explores the relationship between democracy and participation. Students of this module…

  15. Shaping Democratic Identities and Building Citizenship Skills through Student Activism: Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Ian K.

    2005-01-01

    In democratic societies schools play a large role in helping students learn the values and skills necessary for adult participation in a free and open society. This article is a case study of a group of students who started a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) at a private American school in Mexico City. The students' struggle to form and keep their GSA,…

  16. Sound-Bite Saboteurs: Public Discourse, Education, and the State of Democratic Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Julie; Lyons, William; Svehla, Lance

    2010-01-01

    "Sound-Bite Saboteurs" examines the emergence of a multifaceted, multimedia culture that encourages the use of sound bites to silence one's opponents at the expense of democratic deliberation and debate. No simple partisan phenomenon or mere attempt to "spin" a particular issue, sound-bite sabotage is, the authors argue, a sophisticated and…

  17. Forging Democratic Spaces: Teachers and Students Transforming Urban Public Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This article shows the process through which one teacher and a group of eleventh-graders worked to create spaces for democratic education in a hierarchically organized New York City public school that is heralded as a model of success under current reform initiatives. In response to student resistance to a required unit on Tim O'Brien's novel, The…

  18. Creating Democratic Classrooms: The Struggle To Integrate Theory and Practice. The Practitioner Inquiry Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Landon E., Ed.

    In this book, seven teachers analyze their own efforts to integrate social, moral, and political issues into the public school classroom. The volume weighs the possibilities for making classrooms more responsive to the need for social justice, critical consciousness, and democratic values. Through their personal narratives, these teachers reveal…

  19. Invasive Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ley, Benedikt; Le Hello, Simon; Lunguya, Octavie; Lejon, Veerle; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Weill, François-Xavier; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 is associated with high rates of drug resistance, bloodstream infections, and death. To determine whether ST313 is dominant in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we studied 180 isolates collected during 2007-2011; 96% belonged to CRISPOL type CT28, which is associated with ST313. PMID:24655438

  20. The War on Democratic Public Space: A Perspective from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a crisis in democratic public space in the USA. This essay explores key areas that are either causes or effects of the present predicament: post-9-11 fear, neoliberalisation/globalisation, migrating populations, and the growing power of right-wing fundamentalism, among others. (Contains 6 notes.)

  1. Preparing Leaders for the Work of Leading Schools in a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    A most important theme that should be stressed in preparation programs is the leader's articulation and cultivation of a vision of learning that honors the three purposes behind the mission of public education--development of skills, understandings, and dispositions for: (1) participation as a citizen in a democratic society; (2) employment or…

  2. Discourse Structuration in Israel, Democratization of Education and the Impact of the Global Education Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The 1968 structural reform of the education system in Israel was part both of a global process of democratization of education launched after the Second World War and of a larger modernization project in which the social sciences played a crucial role. This dynamic was an expression of a conjunction of interests, in which political forces used…

  3. Transaction Circles with Digital Texts as a Foundation for Democratic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Transaction circles weave together elements of guided reading and literature circles in an open conversational structure that supports students as agentive learners. Discourse within these circles utilizing digital informational texts assist in the development of democratic practices even in a time when federal mandates limit curricula and…

  4. Influence of the Democratic Climate of Classrooms on Student Civic Learning in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapiasse, Sulaiman

    2007-01-01

    This study is intended to examine the influence of the democratic climate of classrooms on student engagement and learning outcomes in order to find out a more adequate model of learning in Civic Education classrooms. A model is developed for testing with data obtained from a sample of 930 students from schools in North Sulawesi. Prior to the…

  5. The Elephant in the Room: A Conundrum in Democratic Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Shannon Lindsay; Morrison, Serina Cinnamon

    2011-01-01

    This study reflects an autoethnographic conversation between two graduate students whose purpose is to explore the tensions teachers face in the classroom as they are confronted with the demands of a standards-based curriculum while striving to assert themselves as educators for democratic citizenship. These tensions manifest in the most…

  6. Indiscipline in Political Parties: Bane of Democratic Consolidation and Good Governance in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviasuyi, Patrick Osatohanmwen

    2006-01-01

    Indiscipline in political parties is antithetic to democratic consolidation and good governance in Nigeria. This article looks at the reasons and provides examples of actions of indiscipline in political parties in Nigeria and recommends that: the party must be superior to all its members, funding of the party should never be on individualistic…

  7. Political Economy of American Education: Democratic Citizenship in the Heart of Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Thomas Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chief among the goals of American education is the cultivation of democratic citizens. Contrary to State catechism delivered through our schools, America was not born a democracy; rather it emerged as a republic with a distinct bias against democracy. Nonetheless we inherit a great demotic heritage. Abolition, the labor struggle, women's…

  8. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  9. Wright Institute Workshop/Conference on Democratic Education for American Society, 26 and 27 July 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Martin M., Comp.

    Seven essays presented at three workshops/conferences examining democratic education in American society are provided. Topics of the three workshop sessions include (1) The Price of Failure: Equality of Educational Opportunity and the Realities of Competition; (2) The Burden of Success: Recruitment and Training of National Elites; and (3) The…

  10. Human Rights, Education for Democratic Citizenship and International Organisations: Findings from a Kuwaiti UNESCO ASPnet School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2012-01-01

    While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…

  11. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  12. Building Franklin's Truly Democratic, Engaged University: Twenty Years of Practice at the University of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Matthew; Harkavy, Ira; Benson, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin founded the University of Pennsylvania as a secular institution with the pragmatic aim of instilling in its students the inclination and ability to serve humankind in both the civic and mercantile realms. On this, the three hundredth anniversary of his birth (1706-2006), Franklin's ideal of a democratic, engaged university has…

  13. Democratization of Secondary Education in Malaysia: Attitudes towards Schooling and Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the democratization of secondary education in Malaysia beginning in the 1990s, many students who do not have academic credentials are allowed to progress to upper secondary education. This study examines the attitudes of these students towards two important aspects of schooling--namely, learning and examinations, as well as…

  14. Jesse Jackson and Television: Black Image Presentation and Affect in the 1984 Democratic Campaign Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Bishetta D.

    A study analyzed the visual content of the 1984 New Hampshire and California Democratic candidate debates to determine how Jesse Jackson was portrayed by television. The New Hampshire debate was chosen because it offered the first opportunity for Jackson to be heard and compared to the other, more media-prominent candidates. The California debate…

  15. Dilemmas of Democratic Thought for Educational Leadership: Considerations of Social Justice Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to include democratic ideals in public education are not new. However, current leadership efforts to foster these ideals within a PK-12 curriculum are often fruitless, partly because of a lack of common definition or perceived benefit. What exactly is meant when we suggest that educational leaders advocate teaching about democracy in our…

  16. Higher Education and the Practice of Democratic Politics: A Political Education Reader. Kettering Political Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murchland, Bernard, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on political education for democratic citizenship in higher education developed out of meetings over 5 years of a small group of faculty, administrators and students who gathered to discuss the way academia was educating young people for political responsibility. Following a foreword and an introduction by…

  17. Business School Teaching and Democratic Culture: An International and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik; Bislev, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Egalitarian and participation-oriented teaching emphasizes critical discussion and informal relationships between students and professors. The authors argue that the use of egalitarian and some aspects of participation-oriented teaching at business schools differs systematically across countries according to the strength of democratic culture.…

  18. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  19. Race, Culture, and Pluralism: The Evolution of Dewey's Vision for a Democratic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallace, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this historical study, the author traces the evolution of Dewey's vision for a democratic curriculum. Prior to 1916, Dewey was a linear historicist, meaning that he conceptualized culture as moving linearly through three distinct stages--savagery, barbarianism, civilization--that corresponded with stages of child development. Dewey's suggested…

  20. Hillary: The Movie, The History Channel, and the Challenge of the Documentary for Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: In "Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission (2009)," the U.S. Supreme Court cleared the way for corporations to spend unlimited amounts of money to influence citizens' decisions about candidates and issues that will appear on election ballots. More important, however, for democratic educators, the ruling…

  1. Education for Engagement in Political and Democratic Life: Responsibilities of the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbeck, Bernhard

    The teaching of law and education for a law abiding behavior have without doubt been neglected in the German educational system. If schools have the task to teach students that they should become involved in a democratic society, that it is worth the effort to get involved in a democracy, then schools must teach their students the concepts and…

  2. The Search for Emerging Decolonizing Methodologies in Qualitative Research: Further Strategies for Liberatory and Democratic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Gonzalez y Gonzalez, Elsa M.

    2008-01-01

    Many non-Western and non-English-speaking scholars express the need for supporting a methodological approach that foregrounds the voices of nationals and locals (or indigenous peoples). Supporting this stance, Western scholars will reach out in democratic and liberatory ways that effect research collaboration, helping to foster social justice and…

  3. What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2007-01-01

    In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

  4. The Implications of the Individualism and Communitarian Debate for Civic Education: The Task of Democratic Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Karlheinz

    Although the demise of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 was described as "the ultimate victory of Democracy," this paper asserts that serious internal problems exist within modern democracies throughout Europe and the United States today. However, civic education offers a potential remedy. Part 1, "The New Democratic Question," identifies the…

  5. Making Democracy Work Better: Mediating Structures, Social Capital, and the Democratic Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couto, Richard A.

    This book explores relationships among democracy, social capital, and community-based mediating structures, focusing on Appalachia because of the obvious failures of market capitalism there. It suggests that mediating structures protect communities from the savage side of market capitalism and promote the democratic prospect by increasing and…

  6. The Consequences of Democratizing Knowledge: Reconsidering Richard Hofstadter and the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Deborah M.

    2001-01-01

    In his Pulitzer Prize winning work, "Anti-intellectualism in American Life," Richard Hofstadter set out to trace the social movements that altered the role of intellect in society from a virtue to a vice. In so doing, he explored questions regarding the purpose of education and whether the democratization of education altered that purpose and…

  7. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  8. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  9. Democratizing Higher Education: Exploring MOOC Use among Those Who Cannot Afford a Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillahunt, Tawanna; Wang, Zengguang; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses ("MOOCs") provide free access to higher education for anyone with Internet access. MOOCs are considered a means for democratizing education. These courses will hopefully provide an opportunity for individuals to learn from the best educators in the world, as well as help expand their personal networks, and…

  10. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  11. University-School-Community Partnerships for Youth Development and Democratic Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy, Ira; Hartley, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Democratic partnerships of universities, schools, and an array of neighborhood and community organizations are the most promising means of improving the lives of our nation's young people. Over the past two decades, many colleges and universities have been experiencing a renaissance in engagement activities. Universities, once ivory towers, have…

  12. AcaDemocrats. Equal Rights, Tolerance, Justice--When Will Today's Professoriate Abandon This Radical Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Lawrence; George, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A national survey cited in the "New York Times" last November reveals that "Democratic professors outnumber Republicans by at least seven to one in the humanities and social sciences." These numbers, astonishing as they may seem, simply confirm what many in the academy have long known: that the ivory tower is tinged blue. With thirty years of…

  13. The Relationship between Levels of Education and Perception of Democratic Governance among Nigerian School Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Adesoji A.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the views and perception of school leavers about the democratic government in Nigeria. A self-designed questionnaire was used for collection of their views. The participants of the study comprised 500 school leavers selected across different working places in the six states of Southwest Nigeria. Results clearly revealed that…

  14. Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…

  15. Rights of the Child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosandey, Olivier

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report's introductory summary asserts that although the DRC has ratified the Convention and other international…

  16. Active and Democratic Citizenship Education and Its Challenges in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Arife Figen

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Turkey's passive and task-oriented approach to citizenship education, which has endured since the Ottoman Empire period, has begun to change into more active and democratic citizenship education since Turkey joined the European Union. Identifying the practical problems as well as describing the challenges when practicing the…

  17. The Practice of Equality: A Critical Understanding of Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay proposes a conception of citizenship that highlights its political aspects. Based on the work of Balibar, Rancière, and Biesta, it is argued that democratic citizenship education must include the education of equality. This means that students must have the opportunity to experience not only the membership aspect of citizenship that…

  18. Educational Freedom for a Democratic Society: A Critique of National Standards, Goals, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ron, Ed.

    This book of essay provides an analysis of how Goals 2000 and other standards-setting initiatives will affect local school districts and private schools. The essayists reflect diverse perspectives on the issue and argue that mandated standards will have devastating effects on children's learning and on the quality of democratic community life.…

  19. Validity and Reliability Analysis for the Teacher Determination for Democratic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil, Rustu

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the extent to which teachers display democratic behaviors they are supposed to display in in-classroom teaching practices and the level of their determination in displaying such behaviors. The study group of this survey is composed of 446 second grade high school students, 243 girls and…

  20. Visions, Provisions, and Reality: Political Changes and Education for Democratic Citizenship in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spajic-Vrkas, Vedrana

    2003-01-01

    Describes and critically analyzes the emergence and development of education directed at promoting the empowerment and responsibility of Croatian citizens in the framework of political changes and democratic challenges. Focuses on Croatia as a post-Communist and post-war country within a prospect of European integration. (BT)

  1. New Information and Communication Technologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Strategies and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banza, Nsomwe-a- Nfunkwa

    2006-01-01

    This article will primarily allow a definition of the strategic development of ICT in the Democratic Republic of Congo, to be put forward. For the most part it involves the precision of many types of measures and strategies (such as institutional, regulatory, infrastructural measures), human resources, the development of content and partnerships,…

  2. International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and…

  3. Toward Democratic Education and Transformational Learning: An Examination of Students' Experiences at Kigali Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusiime, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the experiences of Kigali Institute of Education students using a framework of democratic education theories. In Rwanda, the discriminatory and non-critical education system is believed to have been one of the major causes for the civil strife that has characterized the country, beginning in its post independence to its…

  4. Secondary Schools and Communities of Practice for Democratic Civic Education: Challenges of Authority and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Brantmeier, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the concept of "community of practice" (CoP), and analyzes its relevance for democratic citizenship education in secondary social studies. The authors discuss the origins of the CoP concept in the work of Lave and Wenger (1991), trace its usage in recent educational scholarship, and outline its conceptual…

  5. Diversity and Intergroup Contact in Higher Education: Exploring Possibilities for Democratization through Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to research linking diversity and higher education teaching to democratic learning outcomes. It explores processes and outcomes associated with the intergroup contact of Black and White students enrolled in two sections of a diversity education course at a public university in the southeastern United States. The goals of…

  6. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  7. Re-envisioning the Future: Democratic Citizenship Education and Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Smeyers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of why democratic citizenship education should be incorporated more meaningfully into Islamic education discourses in formal institutions in the Arab and Muslim world. In the Arab and Muslim world civic and national education seem to be the dominant discourses. We argue that the latter discourses are inadequate…

  8. Democratization or Neocolonialism? The Education of Muslims under US Military Occupation, 1903-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2004-01-01

    Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq appear to mark the beginning of a new and challenging relationship between the United States and the Muslim world. As the US embarks upon its self-appointed task of helping to bring about the development of peaceful, democratic civil societies in Islamic nations wracked by decades of war, ethnic strife and…

  9. Superintendent-Business Executive Collaboration in Intermediary Organizations: Moral Agency and Democratic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; McKee, Tiffany; Martin, Staci

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes collaboration between business executives and superintendents to influence local/regional K-12 educational change. Specifically, we examine participant like-mindedness about the ethics and appropriate focus of K-12 intermediary collaboration, the extent of democratic functioning, and key individuals to involve. Data…

  10. Mapping a Balance: Democratic Land-Use Planning on Galiano Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Meg

    2000-01-01

    The residents of Galiano Island, British Columbia, have used geographic information systems (GIS) to create a local information database that informs community decisions about sustainable use of forest land. The islanders' involvement with GIS promotes a democratic land-use planning process that is reasoned and well informed. (SV)

  11. Language and Cultural Diversity in U.S. Schools: Democratic Principles in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Terry A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "With the idea in mind that America will continue to move toward a truly democratic society, however slowly, the contributors of these eight articles and introduction examine the possibility that language and culture will eventually not be an impediment to fulfilling the idea that America is a democracy. Diversity is at the heart of today's…

  12. Experiencing Democracy through Neoliberalism: The Role of Social Justice in Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research involving American College of Education students in relation to their impressions of, reactions to, and engagement with democracy. Four themes are explored: the conceptualization of democracy; the democratic educational experience of teachers; the concern about teaching controversial issues; and the understanding of,…

  13. The Importance of Cultivating Democratic Habits in Schools: Enduring Lessons from "Democracy and Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; James, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that democratic habits remain as vital for education and culture today as they were when Dewey published "Democracy and Education" in 1916. We take our point of departure from his treatment of habit and education in the book. Dewey dissolves the stereotypical notion that habits refer solely to mechanical,…

  14. From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a democratic…

  15. Social Networking and Democratic Practices as Spheres for Innovative Musical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes into account and discusses innovative learning in the 21st digital and communicative century based on life-world-phenomenology and Hannah Arendt's view of democracy. From this point of view, the authors address and discuss how democratic practices can offer innovative musical learning in relation to what is taking place in…

  16. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  17. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  18. Perpetuating the Technological Ideology: An Ellulian Critique of Feenberg's Democratized Rationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Andrew Feenberg, in his book "Questioning Technology", offers his theory of "democratized rationalization" as a critical alternative to Jacques Ellul's essentialist perspective. Feenberg argues that Ellul has confused the tendency toward efficiency in technological discourse with the essence of technology, thereby disallowing for a "positive…

  19. Historical Precedents, Trans-Historical Strategies, and the Myth of Democratization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Estera

    1992-01-01

    Outlines coincidences between the birth of Dada and the birth of Fluxus. Charts the adoption of similar ahistorical strategies by members of both movements as they attempted to position themselves historically. Questions the assumption that democratization of the arts is the natural result of artistic actions that attempt to break down the line…

  20. Spare Time of People Working in Socialist Agriculture in the German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, K.; Muller, I.

    The German Democratic Republic's (GDR) Constitution says that "members of cooperative farms are responsible for the creation, on the basis of existing laws, of their own working and living conditions". This also applies to regulations of working hours, holidays, and paid leaves. The total time available per day to members of cooperative farms was…

  1. Education and Intergroup Attitudes: Moral Enlightenment, Superficial Democratic Commitment, or Ideological Refinement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary R.; Muha, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides evidence challenging the notions that education produces liberation from intergroup negativism or a superficial democratic commitment. Instead, suggests that the well educated are but one step ahead of their peers in developing a defense of their interests resting on qualification, individualism, obfuscation, and symbolic concessions.…

  2. Co-Creating Curriculum in Higher Education: Promoting Democratic Values and a Multidimensional View on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmark, Ulrika; Westman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study in teacher education in Sweden, focusing on creating spaces for student engagement through co-creating curriculum. It highlights democratic values and a multidimensional learning view as underpinning such endeavors. The main findings are that co-creating curriculum is an ambiguous process entailing unpredictable,…

  3. Politicization and Democratization of Adult Education. Models for Adult and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne W., Ed.

    This book contains four papers, each a chapter, that share in the discourse of Paulo Freire and provide varying perspectives on the ways to advance social transformation and achieve a politically literate citizenry as a democratic enterprise. The following four papers are included: "Exploring the Limits of Participatory Democracy: Prudent and…

  4. Superintendents' Perceptions of Utilizing a Democratic Decision-Making Process in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruppe, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making processes of superintendents. Using a democratic lens and ethic of care, this researcher used a multiple case study design to examine two superintendents' perceptions of their processes. Analysis of interview data from the two cases showed that superintendents use a deliberative…

  5. Democratizing Higher Education and Access to Science: The Portuguese Reform 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Manuel; Horta, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The democratization of higher education through strategically driven science policies and higher education reforms is documented in this paper. These represent complementary policy actions oriented towards strengthening social, cultural and economic dimensions that allow higher education institutions (HEIs) to grow and to train graduates able to…

  6. Facilitating Democratic Professional Development: Exploring the Double Role of Being an Academic Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olin, Anette; Karlberg-Granlund, Gunilla; Furu, Eli Moksnes

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the double role of the academic action researcher working as facilitator and researcher in democratic professional development projects. The inquiry is based on three partnership projects: "research circles" in Sweden, "dialogue conferences" in Norway and "tailored professional development" in…

  7. Skeletons in the Classroom Closet: Presence/Absence in the "Democratic" Public Sphere of the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provencal, Johanne

    2008-01-01

    The author brings together Paulo Freire and Jurgen Habermas to ask whether dialogue is possible in the classroom or whether, in a culture of rational debate, the classroom becomes more oppressive than democratic? In a voice and style that attempts to invite the skeletons out of the classroom closet, the author asks scholarly readers to lend an…

  8. Thinking about the Nature and Role of Authority in Democratic Education with Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Educational authority is an issue in contemporary democracies. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the problem of authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Emile" and his work has not been addressed in the contemporary debate on the issue of authority in democratic education. Olivier Michaud's goals are, first, to address both of these…

  9. The Legacy of Dance as a Democratizing Force in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Melissa

    Many believe that dance is a democratizing force in academia. Modern dance history is replete with feminist, homosexual, and racial liberation ideologies transcribed through body language. Experiences in planning cross-discipline courses suggest that, without dance, important aesthetic and sociopolitical ideas most fully revealed in nonverbal and…

  10. [Problems of population development and the labor force situation in the German Democratic Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, M

    1986-01-01

    An overview of demographic and labor force problems in the German Democratic Republic is presented. Topics mentioned include population decrease resulting from losses during World War II and labor force emigration prior to 1961, the low rate of natural increase, manpower resources and the dependency burden, and pro-natalist population policy measures. Selected demographic and labor force figures for 1984 are provided.

  11. Building a Society of Solidarity through Critical Pedagogy: Group Teaching as a Social and Democratic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolakaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Against the menacing shadow of neoliberalism, which promotes individualism and competition, the author illustrates in this paper the need for group teaching. Group teaching as a method of instruction and learning fosters community bonds, solidarity, and is more effective teaching. Group teaching is a democratic tool necessary for society to…

  12. Enquiring Teachers and Democratic Politics: Transformations in New Zealand's Early Childhood Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…

  13. Incendiary Discourse: Reconsidering Flaming, Authority, and Democratic Subjectivity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiak, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between teacher authority and flaming in asynchronous online communication. Teachers who rely on what I call stabilization and universal applicability--two concepts emerging from a liberal democratic theory--may actually be preventing a full and robust understanding of the complexities of 21st-century…

  14. The Role of the Independent Sector in a Modern Democratic Society. An European View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    This document discusses the shift in democratic countries toward the allocation of responsibility for the organization and control of education in the public system by decentralization from the center to the local community and beyond, to the governing bodies of individual schools, and to the parents who are represented on school councils. This…

  15. Democratic School Leadership in Canada's Public School Systems: Professional Value and Social Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Paul T.; Zaretsky, Lindy

    2004-01-01

    Democratic leadership processes are desirable for schools not only because they reflect socially mandated ethical commitments to collective process. They can be professionally justified as a necessary approach to leading schools effectively in the increasingly culturally diverse communities and a world transformed by the effects of technology and…

  16. Vocational Guidance within the Context of the Democratization of Education. Rapports, etudes...S.129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebel, Anselm

    This paper, based on information concerning the current status of vocational guidance in various countries, describes the main trends in its development in the context of the democratization of education. The experiences of the following countries are reviewed: Austria, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, France, German…

  17. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  18. Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning.…

  19. Comment on Richard Merelman's "Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent

    1980-01-01

    If for no other reason than the strong association between education and democratic values, we must give the education system some credit for the commitment of educated people to those values. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (Author/IRT)

  20. Preparing Students for Democratic Life: The Rediscovery of Education's Civic Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Dedrick, John; Gish, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores why, despite repeated affirmations of the importance of civic education in undergraduate education, preparing students to understand and play an active role in democratic life is, for the most part, a marginal and episodic part of the undergraduate experience. After describing various factors that have contributed to its…

  1. Continuity and Change in the Pursuit of a Democratic Public Mission for Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, G. Thomas; Goodlad, John I.

    2008-01-01

    An essential mission of schools, Mr. Bellamy and Mr. Goodlad argue, is ensuring that each new generation understands the principles and institutions that support democratic life. Schools require vigilant stewardship to serve this public purpose. Much of the needed work is local, but it depends on new and challenging collaborations among education…

  2. Validation of Scale of Commitment to Democratic Values among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study reports development of a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the commitment to democratic values among secondary school students in Kerala from 57 likert type statements originally developed in 2007 by Gafoor and Thushara to assess commitment to nine values avowed in the Indian Constitution. Nine separate maximum likelihood…

  3. The Importance of Student Centered Democratic Education & the Effects on Placement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical framework upon which a democratic classroom is based, and the effects that a curriculum based on social justice has on English Language Learners (ELLs). Furthermore, it explores authentic means of assessing ELLs, in addition to other more traditional and standardized testing. In a social justice framework, all…

  4. Social Foundations of Education and Democracy: Teacher Education for the Development of Democratically-Oriented Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leigh M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the characteristics that are found in "democratic" schools, the importance of this type of school, and what Social Foundation teacher educators can do to support the development of teachers who are attuned to and grounded in an education for democracy. She contends that Social Foundations teacher educators…

  5. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  6. Subsidizing the Cost of Collective Action: International Organizations and Protest among Polish Farmers during Democratic Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Polish farmers became politically contentious after democratization in 1989, despite their minimal involvement in the Solidarity movement. I test the effectiveness of social movement theories in explaining this phenomenon by examining frequency and intensity of protest from 1980-1995. I find that grievance models have little explanatory power,…

  7. Moving People and Minds: Dance as a Vehicle of Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Theresa; Leonard, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Engaging today's youth in civil discussions of contentious issues remains both a crucial element in democratically oriented education and extremely challenging to facilitate. The purpose of this article, which documents and presents pilot study findings from a dance workshop that engaged practicing teachers surrounding the issue of immigration, is…

  8. Democratic Shortfalls in Privatized Curriculum Policy Production: Silencing the "Potted Plants" and Politicizing "Quick Fixes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Democratic policy production requires the input of citizen voices, ideally through a process that actively engages a broad range of stakeholders in decision-making. This article describes Ontario's curriculum policy formulation process during the 1990s, based on archival documents and interviews with 16 policy actors. The privatization of…

  9. Democratic Education versus Smithian Efficiency: Prospects for a Deweyan Ideal in the "Neoliberal Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meens, David E.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, David Meens examines the viability of John Dewey's democratic educational project, as presented in "Democracy and Education," under present economic and political conditions. He begins by considering "Democracy and Education's" central themes in historical context, arguing that Dewey's proposal for democratic…

  10. Civic Education in Ethiopian Schools: Adopted Paradigms, Instructional Technology, and Democratic Citizenship in a Multicultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye; Bohl, Thorsten; Kleinknecht, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After nearly two decades of military dictatorship, democratic civic education has been integrated into the Ethiopian school curriculum. This paper examines the policy-practice concordance in implementing the civic education curriculum based on empirical evidence generated on the philosophical underpinnings, curricular contents, pedagogical…

  11. Factors Affecting Performance of Agricultural Extension: Evidence from Democratic Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Ulimwengu, John; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Badibanga, Thaddee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the institutional reforms and agricultural restructuring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper provides an assessment of the performance of the agricultural extension system as well as factors explaining it. Method: This paper involves key informants' interviews and surveys of 107 extension organizations and 162…

  12. Charting a Democratic Course for Global Citizenship Education: Research Directions and Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines research directions for global citizenship education, by emphasizing the centrality of democratic goals for schools in the 21st century. Despite a significant shift in educational policies and practices towards addressing education that respond to the conditions of globalization, there is not a clear vision regarding its role…

  13. School Governance and the Pursuit of Democratic Participation: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Suzanne Grant; Naidoo, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines experiences in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces with devolved school governance, introduced in 1996 to promote democratic participation in education decision making. Utilizing the ''theory of action'' framework, this analysis is an effort to de-center the school governance debate by moving from a central government…

  14. Classroom Discipline in American Schools: Problems and Possibilities for Democratic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butchart, Ronald E., Ed.; McEwan, Barbara, Ed.

    Some of the modes of classroom control, particularly the democratic, moral, and political perspectives of such management, are explored in this book. The collection of articles has three purposes: (1) revive the debate between educators and communities, in order to rekindle the core ethical issues surrounding school discipline; (2) present studies…

  15. Summerhill in Crisis: An Update on the Status of the Paradigmatic Democratic Free School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Summerhill School has recently come under fire from England's educational bureaucracy, who are calling for its closure for noncompliance with the British national curriculum. The school has responded that it will not change its noncompulsory status nor any aspect of its educational philosophy that distinguishes it as a democratic, free school. (LP)

  16. Education for Democratic Work and Citizenship: Building Bridges to Organized Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosio, Richard

    Members of the educational community have a vested interest in establishng a system of economic decisionmaking that is subject to democratic input and public accountability. Educators might seek alliances with progressive labor unions in order to achieve this goal. This paper explores the roles and effects of capitalism, multinational…

  17. Teaching History and Building a Democratic Future: Reflections from Post-Communist Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciobanu, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Education in Western democratic societies is broadly focused on combining the goals of providing theoretical and practical knowledge with acquiring and practicing the skills of citizenship. In this context, teaching history is more than a linear narration of events, and includes themes and stories reflecting individuals and movements that fought…

  18. Ethical implications of democratic theory for U.S. public participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hourdequin, Marion; Landres, Peter; Hanson, Mark J.; Craig, David R.

    2012-07-15

    Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but also on ethical grounds based on democratic ideals. In this paper, we review and synthesize modern democratic theory to develop and justify four ethical principles for public participation: equal opportunity to participate, equal access to information, genuine deliberation, and shared commitment. We then explore several tensions that are inherent in applying these ethical principles to public participation in EIA. We next examine traditional NEPA processes and newer collaborative approaches in light of these principles. Finally, we explore the circumstances that argue for more in-depth participatory processes. While improved EIA participatory processes do not guarantee improved outcomes in environmental management, processes informed by these four ethical principles derived from democratic theory may lead to increased public engagement and satisfaction with government agency decisions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ethical principles based on democratic theory for public participation in EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NEPA and collaboration offer different strengths in meeting these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore tensions inherent in applying these principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved participatory processes may improve public acceptance of agency decisions.

  19. Cultivating Responsibility and Humanity in Public Schools through Democratic Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of democratic citizenship education in public schools in South Africa, the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) has still not produced sufficiently plausible ways for how democracy and citizenship ought to be taught in classrooms. I argue that the recent "practical guide" on how to cultivate "responsibility…

  20. Dewey's Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks reconsiders the issue of the public character of charter schools, that is, schools funded through public taxation but operated by non-state organizations such as nonprofit and for-profit educational corporations and nongovernmental public interest organizations. Using John Dewey's conception of a democratic public as a…

  1. The Depiction of Workplace Reality: Principles of Democratic Learning and New Brunswick's Youth Apprenticeship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; McKerracher, Adrian; Cormier, Janice; Desroches, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The sharp decline in voter participation among Canadian youth requires an examination of how our students are being prepared for democratic citizenship. Public schools, including programs falling under the purview of career education, provide the means to prepare learners for vocational, community, and political participation. In Canada, career…

  2. Media and Democracy. A Response to "The Need for Media Education in Democratic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    This response supports Stoddard's (2014) assertion that media education should be considered a crucial factor of democratic education and offers both extensions and cautions related to that end. Extensions include practical suggestions for studying the non-neutrality of technology. The author also cautions educators that if media education and…

  3. Democratizing Rural Economy: Institutional Friction, Sustainable Struggle and the Cooperative Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Patrick H.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development demands institutions manage the conflicts and struggles that inevitably arise over material and ideal interests. While current cooperative theory privileges the economic element, a political economy of cooperation emphasizes cooperatives' tentative bridging of economic and political spheres with a democratic ethos. The…

  4. Sulphur isotope constraints on formation conditions of the Luiswishi ore deposit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Cailteux, J.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Milesi, J. P.; Fléhoc, C.

    2005-07-01

    Luiswishi is a Congo-type Neoproterozoic sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit of the Central Africa Copperbelt, located northwest of Lubumbashi (DRC). The ores form two main Cu-Co orebodies hosted by the Mines Subgroup, one in the lower part of the Kamoto Formation and the other at the base of the Dolomitic Shales Formation. Sulphides occur essentially as early parallel layers of chalcopyrite and carrolite, and secondarily as late stockwork sulphides cross-cutting the bedding and the early sulphide generation. Both types of stratiform and stockwork chalcopyrite and carrolite were systematically analyzed for sulphur isotopes, along the lithostratigraphic succession of the Mine Series. The quite similar δ 34S values of stratiform sulphides and late stockwork sulphides suggest an in situ recrystallization or a slight remobilization of stockwork sulphides without attainment of isotopic equilibrium between different sulphide phases (chalcopyrite and carrolite). The distribution of δ 34S values (-14.4‰ to +17.5‰) combined with the lithology indicates a strong stratigraphic control of the sulphur isotope signature, supporting bacterial sulphate reduction during early diagenesis of the host sediments, in a shallow marine to lacustrine environment. Petrological features combined with sulphur isotopic data of sulphides at Luiswishi and previous results on nodules of anhydrite in the Mine Series indicate a dominant seawater/lacustrine origin for sulphates, precluding a possible hydrothermal participation. The high positive δ 34S values of sulphides in the lower orebody at Luiswishi, hosted in massive chloritic-dolomitic siltite (known as Grey R.A.T.), fine-grained stratified dolostone (D.Strat.) and silicified-stromatolitic dolomites alternating with chloritic-dolomitic silty beds (R.S.F.), suggest that they were probably deposited during a period of regression in a basin cut off from seawater. The variations of δ 34S values (i.e. the decrease of δ 34S values

  5. Democratizing science and technology education: Perspectives from the philosophy of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Clayton Todd

    This study examines conceptualizations of science and technology and their relation to ideas of democratic education in the history of philosophy of education. My genealogical analysis begins by tracing the anti-democratic emergence of ideas and values of science and technology that have evolved through ancient and modern periods within the philosophy of education and continue to shape the ways science and technology are understood and treated in educational settings. From my critical engagement with Plato's Republic and Rousseau's Emile, I argue that anti-democratic structures and values have been embedded in philosophy of education through Plato's educational theory of techne and Rousseau's pedagogical theory that involves science and technology as important educational force. Following this theme, I analyze the work of John Dewey and Herbert Marcuse and their shared project for democratizing science and technology through education. Through a critical comparison of both theorists' models, I suggest that each provides positive legacies for philosophy of education to draw upon in rethinking the intersection of science, technology, and education: a strong model for understanding public problems associated with a highly technological and scientific society and a reconstructive framework for values and sensibilities that demands a new value relationship to be developed between humans and science and technology. Finally, I situate my critique and assessment of this history in the philosophy of education within the current science and technology education reform movement in the United States. I claim that the official models of science and technological literacy and inquiry, as constructed by the National Academy of Sciences and a host of governmental policies, shape science and technology education with a decidedly neo-liberal focus and purpose. In response to this anti-democratic movement I offer an alternative position that utilizes a counter-epistemology to the

  6. The Drastic Outcomes from Voting Alliances in Three-Party Democratic Voting (1990 → 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 (Galam in J. Math. Phys. 30:426, 1986) and 1990 (Galam in J. Stat. Phys. 61:943, 1990) to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in this journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big. Additional surprising results are obtained, which enlighten the complexity of three-party democratic bottom-up voting. In particular, the unexpected outcomes of local voting alliances are singled out. Unbalanced democratic situations are exhibited with strong asymmetries between the actual bottom support of a party and its associated share of power at the top leadership. Subtle strategies are identified for a party to maximize its hold on the top leadership. The results are also valid to describe opinion dynamics with three competing opinions.

  7. The Rise of Democratic and Authoritarian POST - States: the Case of Indonesia and Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Syed Farid

    1991-02-01

    The theoretical framework of this study on democratic and authoritarian post-colonial states is based on an historical study of the emergence of the dominant class forces that shaped the types of regimes found in Malaysia and Indonesia. Both emerged as democratic post-colonial states. However, in Indonesia the democratic process was suspended altogether and after about a decade of independence, an authoritarian state emerged there. Meanwhile, Malaysia still retains a functioning democratic system. The contrast between Indonesia and Malaysia, then, is an opportunity to study the conditions under which democracy can be sustained in post-colonial states. Three conditions under which democracy can survive in post-colonial states, based on the experience of Malaysia and Indonesia, are (1) the absence of mass resistance against the state, (2) a homogeneous ruling elite, and (3) an internally strong state. The imposition of colonialism upon the precapitalist societies of Malaysia and Indonesia left several classes with competing interests in these countries upon formal independence. It is in the context of this class structure that the three factors of the lack of resistance against the state, homogeneity of the ruling elite, and internal state strength were examined. The presence of these factors leads to democratic outcomes, as in Malaysia, while their absence leads to authoritarian outcomes, as in Indonesia. The significance of this study lies in the fact that there has not been any comparative work done on the state in Malaysia and Indonesia. Furthermore, the few works on the state in the two countries tend to focus on issues not directly related to the question of the origins of the post-colonial state. Democracy in post-colonial states is not to be explained in terms of its emergence because it is a given, having been introduced from without. What needs explanation is how and why democracy persisted in some post-colonial states and gave way to authoritarianism in

  8. How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat?

    PubMed

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here.

  9. [Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep in the Democratic Republic of Germany district of Frankfurt/Oder].

    PubMed

    Stuhrberg, E; Nickel, S; Hiepe, T

    1975-09-01

    In the district of Frankfurt/Oder of the German Democratic Republic, faecal examinations of 143 sheep stocks revealed a 31.3 percent infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum. In different territories of the district, the intensity of the infection with Dicrocoelium dendriticum varied remarkably. Detailed investigations demonstrated, that the parasite was limited to pastures with Brownearth soil. Routine examinations revealed the fact, that the egg-output of Dicrocoelium dendritcum was very variable during the pasture season. During the whole time of the examinations, the authors found eggs in the faeces of sheep belonging to Dicrocoelium dendriticun. In the German Democratic Republic, this helminth species is not restricted to hills with limestones. It occurs also in lowlands with small amounts of lime like the Brown-earth zones of the district Frankfurt/Oder. PMID:1190548

  10. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2011-03-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts.

  11. Mai-Mai militia and sexual violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Guy, Kitwe Mulunda

    2014-01-01

    This article sets the reasons for the brutal violence against women. It focuses on three field sites providing insight into Mai-Mai motivations and their attitudes toward sexual violence. According to most sources, 5.5 million people have died since the beginning of the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1994, and rape is used as a weapon of destruction. More than 15,000 rapes were reported in the DRC in the last year--accounts of these rapes include descriptions of horrific acts, such as mutilation and the killing of unborn children. The sexual violence is so severe in the DRC that some have described rape in the country as the worst in the world. Sexual violence has long lasting consequences and far-reaching impacts on individual survivors, their families, and their communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  12. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties1

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts. PMID:25083023

  13. How school can teach civic engagement besides civic education: The role of democratic school climate.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Sharkey, Jill; Mayworm, Ashley; Scacchi, Luca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Civic engagement, defined as involvement in community life, is influenced by reciprocal relationships between individuals and contexts and is a key factor that contributes to positive youth development. The present study evaluates a theoretical model linking perceived democratic school climate with adolescent civic engagement (operationalized as civic responsibility and intentions for future participation), taking into account the mediating role of civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Participants were 403 adolescents (47.9 % male) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.6). Path analysis results partially validated the proposed theoretical model. Higher levels of democratic school climate were associated with higher levels of adolescent civic responsibility; the association was fully mediated by civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Adolescents' civic responsibility, then, was positively associated with a stronger intention to participate in the civic domain in the future.

  14. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  15. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  16. The New Political History and Women's History: Comments on "The Democratic Experiment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklar, Kathryn Kish

    2006-01-01

    The new directions in American political history have been ably described by the editors of "The Democratic Experiment." These are now freshly out of the gate, but it is clear that they will continue to unfold in the years ahead. The author read the book with distinct pleasure--so much so that she wondered--more than once--whether it was not just…

  17. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftci, R.; ćiftci, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E6 Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  18. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  19. Alteration and ore distribution in the Proterozoic Mines Series, Tenke-Fungurume Cu-Co district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, I.; Barton, M. D.

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co deposits in the Tenke-Fungurume district of the Central African Copperbelt were examined to evaluate the alteration history of the ore-hosting Mines Series and its implications for ore distribution and processing. Core logging and petrography, focused on lithology and timing relationships, outlined a complex alteration sequence whose earliest features include formation of anhydrite nodules and laths, followed by precipitation of dolomite. Later alteration episodes include at least two silica introductions, accompanied by or alternating with two dolomite introductions into the existing gangue assemblages. One introduction of Cu-Co sulfides accompanied the last episode of dolomite alteration, overprinting an earlier generation of ore whose gangue association was unidentifiable. Sulfides and some carbonates were subsequently modified by supergene oxidation, transport, and reprecipitation to 100-200 m depth. Present-day ore distribution resulted from these successive processes. Ore is concentrated in two shale-dominated units on either side of a cavernous silicified dolomite, which is interpreted as the main conduit for the mineralizing fluids. Sulfide ores precipitated at the redox or sulfidation contacts between this dolomite and the shales. Later, supergene fluids dissolved and moved some of the metals, redepositing them as oxides and carbonates. Solubility differences between Cu and Co in supergene conditions caused them to precipitate separately. Thus, modern ore distribution at Tenke-Fungurume results both from original hypogene lithology- and contact-related precipitation and from supergene oxidation, transport, and Cu-Co decoupling. The supergene fluid flow also redistributed gangue minerals such as dolomite, which has an economically important influence on the processing costs of supergene ores.

  20. South Africa's abortion values clarification workshops — an opportunity to deepen democratic communication missed.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Louise

    2011-01-01

    A rich literature exists on local democracy and participation in South Africa. While the importance of participation is routinely built into the rhetoric of government, debate has increasingly focused on the dysfunctionality of participatory mechanisms and institutions in post-apartheid South Africa. Processes aimed ostensibly at empowering citizens, act in practice as instruments of social control, disempowerment and cooptation. The present article contributes to these debates by way of a critique of the approach used by the South African state, in partnership with the non-governmental sector, in what are called abortion "values clarification" (VC) workshops. This article examines the workshop materials, methodology and pedagogical tools employed in South African abortion VC workshops which emanate from the organization Ipas — a global body working to enhance women's sexual and reproductive rights and to reduce abortion-related deaths and injuries. VC workshops represent an instance of a more general trend in which participation is seen as a tool for generating legitimacy and "buy-in" for central state directives rather than as a means for genuinely deepening democratic communication. The manipulation of participation by elites may serve as a means to achieve socially desirable goals in the short term but the long-term outlook for a vibrant democracy invigorated by a knowledgeable, active and engaged citizenry that is accustomed to being required to exercise careful reflection and to its views being respected, is undermined. Alternative models of democratic communication, because they are based on the important democratic principles of inclusivity and equality, have the potential both to be more legitimate and more effective in overcoming difficult social challenges in ways that promote justice.

  1. The experiences of professional nurses who have migrated to Canada: cosmopolitan citizenship or democratic racism?

    PubMed

    Turrittin, Jane; Hagey, Rebecca; Guruge, Sepali; Collins, Enid; Mitchell, Mitzi

    2002-08-01

    This interpretive research analyses the discourse of nurses who migrated to Canada and experienced racism. They also experienced reprisals when they formally complained about racism in a context of denial of the problem of racism by colleagues and employers. The present work focuses on two issues arising from the data: the problem of how to make racism visible among those who have a vested interest in denying its existence and the emotional cool of those filing grievances or complaints in contrast with the hot reaction of those being challenged when racism is named. We introduce two theoretical perspectives to address these phenomena called democratic racism and cosmopolitan citizenship, respectively. The former, as defined by Henry et al. (The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society. Harcourt Brace, Canada, Toronto, 1996), describes the coexistence of both democratic values and practices that discount people of colour advertently or inadvertently. We outline the notion of cosmopolitan citizenship that is argued by Turner (Politics of the Global City. Routledge, London, 2000) to be an orientation resulting from global microcosms in cities teeming with diversity. The characteristic orientations of cool and stewardship are useful for describing some of the discourse expressed by each participant in our study all of whom challenged racism practices, not on nationalistic grounds, but rather out of concern for universal human rights. Their characteristics qualify them for cosmopolitan citizenship under Turner's perspective. We suggest that anti-racist activists have been cosmopolitan citizens for decades and argue that while cosmopolitan citizenship may have taken root in neo-liberal movements, it appears to have tactical attributes in the struggle with democratic racism. In conclusion, we advocate for a cosmopolitan citizenship ethic to facilitate a rational move toward racial integration in the profession through the sharing of power and privilege. One goal in

  2. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  3. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  4. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model—an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information—we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  5. That's MY Astronaut! Could Democratic Space Tourism Contribute to Earth Stewardship?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Many studies have been done on the physical and biological effects of space on the human body. The psychological effects of living in space are also being analyzed including the stressors from living in an isolated environment. But are we paying enough attention to what seems to be a positive effect on the human psyche, that is, the effect on astronauts and cosmonauts of the magnificent view of Earth from space? Does the length of time spent looking out the window affect our consciousness? Who comes back changed? And why? Such a social experiment needs more participants. Could democratic access to the view via suborbital space tourism change our Earth for the better?

  6. Human Monkeypox in the Kivus, a Conflict Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Andrea M.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Ndongala, Guy Mutombo; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Kabamba, Joelle; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Li, Yu; Emerson, Ginny; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Malekani, Jean; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infection endemic in central and western Africa. Human MPX cases occur in the central and northern regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and this is the first report of confirmed MPX cases in the forested areas of North and South Kivu Provinces, with a detailed epidemiological investigation for one case. The location of each case is within areas predicted to be suitable for MPX virus transmission based on an ecological niche model. Phylogenetic analysis places these viruses in the Congo Basin clade. PMID:26283752

  7. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN).

  8. Rape as a strategy of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Mukwege, Denis Mukengere; Mohamed-Ahmed, Olaa; Fitchett, Joseph R

    2010-09-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is tremendously wealthy. Abundant in gold, diamonds, tantalum, tin, copper, zinc and cobalt, the natural resources in Africa's third largest country are not equally benefiting the people. The DRC should sustainably be making use of their natural resources to develop the country, whose health, education and transport systems all suffer to this day from the effects of conflict. Instead, the DRC is divided with rebels, corrupt governments and foreign investors all fighting in one way or another for control over the country's wealth. The following article focuses on the emergence of rape as a strategy of war in the DRC.

  9. Democratizing Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    According to John Banas and colleagues, the research on laughter in the classroom indicates that a classroom full of laughter increases learning. In contrast, Plato argued that laughter is a vice and chastised those who would give in to it. Nonetheless, between the ancient concept of laughter as vice and the modern concept of laughter as learning…

  10. Power to the people? An international review of the democratizing effects of direct elections to healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ellen A; Greer, Scott L; Wilson, Iain; Donnelly, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Ensuring that publicly funded health systems are democratically accountable is an enduring challenge in policy and practice. One strategy for enhancing public officials' accountability is to elect members of the public to oversee their performance. Several countries have experimented with direct elections to healthcare organizations. The most directly comparable examples involve some Canadian regional health authorities, New Zealand district health boards, foundation trusts in England and health boards in Scotland. We propose three aspects of the process by which the democratizing effects of elections should be judged: authorization, accountability and influence. Evidence from these countries suggests that the democratization of health systems is a complex task, which cannot be completed simply by introducing elections. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [The democratic movement, cholera epidemic and public health reform in the Zurich canton (1867)].

    PubMed

    Condrau, F

    1996-01-01

    In the summer of 1867 Zurich, Switzerland, was struck by a severe Cholera outbreak. Recent research suggests that the Cholera epidemic had such an influence on the municipal policy makers that they pushed through a major reform of the public health system, namely of water supply and sewerage. This paper adopts a theoretical conception of crisis and social change to evaluate the plausibility of this hypothesis. The basic idea is that structural change can be usually understood as the consequence of a major social crisis. Exactly this was the case in Zurich during the 1860s. After a decade of economic stability and progress, a severe crisis simultaneously stuck Zurich's agriculture, textile industry and railway companies. The so called Democratic Movement threatened the existing political system; the old political establishment feared a political revolution. On top of all this, Cholera struck Zurich, precipitating a crisis in the public health system. Suddenly, old concepts and institutions were felt to be outdated. The democrats put through political reforms, the economic downswing ended and a large program to reshape the urban environment was initiated. It can be concluded that the Cholera epidemic alone did not cause the public health reform. But together with other crisis phenomena it played a major role in weakening the stability of the old system, and thus contributed to the society's ability to put in place new political, economic, and social structures. PMID:9092134

  12. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kadima-Tshimanga, Bertin; Mvitu-Muaka, Moïse; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René; Ekulu Mfutu, Pépé; Budiongo Nzazi, Aléine

    2012-01-01

    Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. PMID:22619679

  13. Executive federalism and Medicaid demonstration waivers: implications for policy and democratic process.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frank J; Burke, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    Executive federalism emphasizes collaboration between the executive branches at the national and state levels to transform grant programs through the implementation process. In this regard, Medicaid demonstration waivers loomed large during the presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. This article documents and compares the volume and substance of section 1115 Medicaid waiver activity under the two presidencies. From the perspective of policy performance, Medicaid demonstration waivers provide modest support for the view that states serve as laboratories for policy learning in the health care arena. More broadly, the waivers have not yielded a major solution to the problem of the uninsured and are unlikely to do so. At the same time, they have not (as some have suggested) been a subterranean force for the erosion of Medicaid. To the contrary, these waivers have often enhanced health services for low-income people; above all, they have helped preserve Medicaid as an entitlement by undercutting support for those seeking to convert the program into a block grant. From the perspective of the democratic process, we find that Congress has been a more significant player in shaping waivers than the executive federalism model suggests. While the decision processes surrounding Medicaid waivers often fall short of democratic standards with respect to transparency and opportunities for public input, they still compare favorably to certain alternatives.

  14. Red brain, blue brain: evaluative processes differ in Democrats and Republicans.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Darren; Fonzo, Greg; Simmons, Alan N; Dawes, Christopher T; Flagan, Taru; Fowler, James H; Paulus, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli. PMID:23418419

  15. Antibiotic prescription behaviours in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey

    PubMed Central

    Quet, Fabrice; Leyer, Caroline; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N; Naphayvong, Philaysak; Keoluangkhot, Valy; Chomarat, Monique; Longuet, Christophe; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices of doctors working in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and their knowledge of local antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods Doctors attending morning meetings in 25 public hospitals in four provinces were asked to complete a knowledge, attitude and practice survey. The questionnaire contained 43 multiple choice questions that the doctor answered at the time of the meeting. Findings The response rate was 83.4% (386/463). Two hundred and seventy doctors (59.8%) declared that they had insufficient information about antibiotics. Only 14.0% (54/386) recognized the possibility of cephalosporin cross-resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most participants had no information about local antibiotic resistance for Salmonella Typhi (211/385, 54.8%) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (253/384, 65.9%). Unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were considered as harmless by 115 participants and 148 considered locally-available generic antibiotics to be of poor quality. Nearly three-quarters (280/386) of participants agreed that it was difficult to select the correct antibiotics. Most participants (373/386) welcomed educational programmes on antibiotic prescribing and 65.0% (249/383) preferred local over international antibiotic guidelines. Conclusion Doctors in the Lao People's Democratic Republic seem to favour antibiotic prescribing interventions. Health authorities should consider a capacity building programme that incorporates antibiotic prescribing and hospital infection control. PMID:26229186

  16. Ethical bodies: are they possible under democratic systems? The Turkish example.

    PubMed

    Arda, Berna

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the relationship between ethics bodies and democratic concepts will be introduced. One should bear in mind that the relationship between the flourishing of ethics committees (EC) and democracy is by no means undirectional. The line of causation can easily be reversed as a higher level of democracy is likely to lead to a spurt in such committees at different levels of society. It is not a coincidence that they appear in larger numbers in relatively more open and democratic societies. In this sense, their sheer existence might be taken as a sign of a higher level of awareness for openness and democracy. EC seems to have some functions theoretically: To contribute to the eradication of corruption in society; To increase the accountability of different sections of the population; To play an important part in increasing the awareness about the rights and duties; To contribute to the spread of self-disciplining behavior in society; One final point to be emphasized is that for ethical committees to fulfill the above functions they should have a clear set of guidelines, powers to enforce them and effective deterrents to prevent wayward behavior. The principal question of how it does works in Turkey--a country located at the junction of Europe and Asia--ought to be perceived from the point of view of a medical ethicist from a developing country.

  17. The New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership) and the Work of Reclaiming a Progressive Alternative in Educational Administration from PreK-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay; Shapiro, Joan Poliner

    2013-01-01

    Facing repressive accountability regimes and high-stakes testing in the US and beyond, university and practitioner educators around the world decided to take action. Inspired by the democratic administration movement of the 1930's and 1940's and current scholarship in ethics, we started a movement called the New DEEL (Democratic Ethical…

  18. "How to Be Nice 'and' Get What You Want": Structural Referents of "Self" and "Other" in Experiential Education as (Un)Democratic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This critical ethnography explores a social justice program utilizing nontraditional, democratic, "experiential" education practices. The author posits a historical legacy of pedagogy of self obscures its emancipatory, democratic potential while simultaneously expanding on contemporary discourses of self and other as aspects of the…

  19. Escape from the Ivory Tower: Student Adventures in Democratic Experiential Education. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempert, David H.

    This book describes and reports on a new approach to higher education that is experiential and democratic. The approach uses discussion and interaction, laboratory work and field learning, community involvement and service, democratic citizenship and skills training, and student-initiated participatory learning in courses, projects, and clinical…

  20. Multiphase origin of the Cu Co ore deposits in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt, Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; Muchez, Ph.; Vets, J.; Fernandez-Alonzo, M.; Tack, L.

    2006-12-01

    A multiphase origin of the Cu-Co ores in the western part of the Lufilian fold-and-thrust belt in Central Africa is proposed based on literature, satellite image interpretations and petrographic and fluid inclusion analyses on samples from the stratiform mineralization of Kamoto and Musonoi (DR Congo). The various mineral occurrences in the Katanga Copperbelt can be classified in distinct categories: stratiform, supergene enrichment and vein-type. The stratiform mineralization form the largest group and can be found mainly in Lower Roan (R-2) rocks, which can be identified as ridges on satellite imagery. Ore deposits outside the R-2 occur along lineaments and result often from supergene enrichment. The main phase of the stratiform mineralization in the Katanga Copperbelt occurred during diagenesis preceding the Lufilian orogeny. Petrographic observation identified various mineralizing phases, which played a role in the formation of these stratiform mineralization. Mineralization started during early diagenesis, but mainly occurred during further burial. After the formation of early diagenetic pyrite, the circulation of diagenetic Cu-Co-rich fluids resulted in the formation of the main mineralization. Preliminary microthermometric investigation of primary inclusions in authigenic quartz, associated with the main stage of stratiform mineralization, indicates that an H 2O-NaCl fluid with a minimum temperature between 80 and 195 °C and a salinity between 8.4 and 18.4 eq. wt% NaCl circulated during the main phase of mineralization. Numerous faults and fractures formed during the Lufilian orogeny cut the stratiform mineralization. They are, however, at Kamoto and Musonoi only associated with minor sulphides. Supergene alteration along faults and fractures resulted in an enrichment of the mineralization, with the formation of secondary Cu-oxides, -carbonates and -silicates. The importance of the interaction of various processes for the formation of economic Cu-Co ore

  1. The Reforming Trajectory of the Italian Educational System. Site-Based Management and Decentralisation as a Challenge for Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present some tensions embedded in the Italian educational reform, arising both from the enactment of neo-liberal policies and the possibilities of democratic development opened up by the introduction of schools' site-based management and decentralisation. The article uses discourses as heuristic devices and presents two case…

  2. Chronicling Educator Practices and Experiences in the Context of Democratic Schooling and Quality Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi; Harber, Clive

    2010-01-01

    An interview-based qualitative study was undertaken to explore the experiences and practices of educators in providing democratic schooling as a way of delivering quality education for learners in schools. The exploration looked at educators' understandings of the concept of democracy in schools, their understanding of the concept quality…

  3. Developing and Validating Instruments for Measuring Democratic Climate of the Civic Education Classroom and Student Engagement in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mappiasse, Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    Using the Rasch Rating Scale model, data collected from 200 ninth grade students in North Sulawesi Indonesia were analysed. This analysis sought to validate instruments developed to measure the Democratic Climate of Civic Education Classrooms (DCCEC) and Student Engagement in Civic Education Classrooms (SECEC). Category used, item and person…

  4. A Framework for Learning about Big Data with Mobile Technologies for Democratic Participation: Possibilities, Limitations, and Unanticipated Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.; Schuler-Brown, Sarah; Way, Winmar

    2013-01-01

    As Big Data becomes increasingly important in policy-making, research, marketing, and commercial applications, we argue that literacy in this domain is critical for engaged democratic participation and that peer-generated data from mobile technologies offer rich possibilities for students to learn about this new genre of data. Through the lens of…

  5. Pre-Service to In-Service Changes in Beliefs: A Study of Intention to Become a Democratic Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Caroline R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which beliefs about democratic theory and practice taught in a social studies methods course would persist after the transition to in-service teaching. The 27 participants were pre-service teachers at initial data collection and first-year in-service teachers at final data collection. Data were collected…

  6. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  7. Exploring the Links between Adult Education and Human Resource Development: Learning, Risk-Taking, and Democratic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Learning is indeed an integral component of adapting successfully to an ever-changing world, one full of intriguing possibilities and insidious barriers. Democratic societies establish educative systems where learning and development is promoted to advance a citizenry of skillful problem solvers, knowledgeable decision makers, incisive risk…

  8. Civic Education in South Africa: The Impact of Adult and School Programs on Democratic Attitudes and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Steven E.; Stumbras, Sheryl

    A study examined the impact of civic education programs on political participation and democratic attitudes among adults and high school students in South Africa. The study represents an extension of a similar assessment of civic education programs in the Dominican Republic and Poland. Questionnaires were administered by a professional survey…

  9. Secular Humanism vs. Religion? The Liberal Democratic Education Tradition and the Battle over Vouchers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Todd Alan

    2007-01-01

    Since Mueller vs. Allen (1983), several legal decisions have attempted to clarify what is the appropriate relationship between religion and public education in a democratic society. During this time, the United States legal system has shifted, moving the historic "establishment clause" away from a strict "separationist" view…

  10. Education for All Meets Political Democratization: Free Primary Education and the Neoliberalization of the Malawian School and State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In recent years sub-Saharan African states, including Malawi, have adopted the Education for All (EFA) goal of universal, fee-free primary education (UPE). The EFA process is often linked to the expansion and sustainability of universal rights, democratic processes, and political systems. The EFA policies have also been tied, discursively and in…

  11. Root Metaphors, Paradigm Shifts, and Democratically Shared Values: Community Service-Learning as a Bridge-Building Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper claims that community service-learning (CSL) projects in schools and universities, if done well, might very well take us--all of us--to important new places. Under the conception of community service and democratic education more generally, CSL projects in schools and universities can take us to "the" most important place: a…

  12. Complete genome sequence of Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicus in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Si; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Pu, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yong-Xian; Liu, Yang; Cao, Xiao-mei; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Jing; Hu, Kong-Xin; Xu, Bao-Liang

    2012-12-01

    Seoul virus (SEOV) is responsible for 25% of cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia. Here we report the complete genome of strain DPRK08. The sequence information provided here is useful for understanding the molecular character of SEOV in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the circulation of SEOV in East Asia.

  13. Decision-Making Quandaries that Superintendents Face in Their Work in Small School Districts Building Democratic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Superintendents of small school districts describe how they give voice, involve and listen to others, and solicit various publics to build democratic communities. Superintendents make sense of leadership through their constructed role, leadership orientation, and district size. Findings suggest the following when superintendents involve, listen,…

  14. On the Social Status and Career Prospects of Youth in Agriculture in the GDR (German Democratic Republic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittel, Guenter

    The new Youth Act passed by the People's Chamber of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1974 assumes that the interests of young people concur with the interests of their socialist society and state, for it reforms the rights and conditions for the further development of young people and defines their duties and responsibilities in terms of…

  15. Religious Freedom and Rendering to Caesar: Reading Democratic and Faith-Based Values in Curriculum, Pedagogy and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I synthesise and apply elements of political and reading theory to demonstrate how central themes in learners' lives (such as freedom, faith, autonomy, equality, rationality and rights) can be read and interpreted differently. I suggest that policy and pedagogy for citizenship and democratic education informed by research into…

  16. "Learning in Fellowship": Encounters between Christian Socialists and Social Democratic Influences in Adult Education, 1900-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the meeting ground between Christian Socialist and Social Democratic ideas and practices in the development of adult education between 1900 and 1930 in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, focusing on cross-cultural dissemination and reception of Christian Socialism and the influence of the Woodbrooke Settlement in the United Kingdom and…

  17. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  18. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  19. Children's Meaning-Making of Nature in an Outdoor-Oriented and Democratic Swedish Preschool Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous…

  20. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2009-21 of June 12, 2009 Presidential Determination for the Lao...

  1. Patriotism and Democratic Citizenship Education in South Africa: On the (im) Possibility of Reconciliation and Nation Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I shall evaluate critically the democratic citizenship education project in South Africa to ascertain whether the patriotic sentiments expressed in the "Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy" (2001) are in conflict with the achievement of reconciliation and nation building (specifically peace and friendship) after decades…

  2. "Of, By, and For Are Not Merely Prepositions": Teaching and Learning Conflict Resolution for a Democratic, Global Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Andria K.

    2009-01-01

    Universities that promote a liberal education through creative, cross-cultural curriculum nurture the goals of democracy and assist students in becoming "citizens of the world." Democratic education for social justice and global consciousness are necessary tools in the peaceful transformation of today's violent conflicts, which now supersede…

  3. Families, School Choice, and Democratic Iterations on the Right to Education and Freedom of Education in Finnish Municipalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Silvennoinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the ways in which the right to education and freedom of education are expressed in local school choice policies in Finland. We aim to discover the elements that form democratic iterations on the right to education and freedom of education by contrasting their manifestations in three local institutional spaces for parental…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  5. The 1984 Literacy Campaign in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. A Case Study. Notes, Comments...No. 183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fara, Mohammed Saeed; Fisher, Nigel

    In 1984, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen undertook a nationwide literacy campaign, which mobilized the entire nation in an effort to reach an estimated 194,000 illiterate people, 77 percent of them women. The campaign plan demanded the full and active participation of formal school teachers and students at secondary level and above as…

  6. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  7. The Paradox of Meaning Well while Causing Harm: A Discussion about the Limits of Tolerance within Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum guidelines in many democratic countries argue for the need to practice tolerance as a means to creating peaceful relations. Through moral education, young people are believed to be able to develop a way of being that respects plurality and decreases interpersonal violence in society. But where do students' personal involvements or the…

  8. Citizens Behind Barbed Wire: The Japanese Relocation and Democratic Ideals in Total War. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Paul

    Focusing on the forcible relocation of West Coast Japanese-American citizens during World War II, the unit poses the question: Can democratic ideals and processes survive the conditions of total war? Some aspects of this episode considered are: public and official reactions to the Pearl Harbor attack; racial antipathies underlying the decision for…

  9. The Open Courseware Movement in Higher Education: Unmasking Power and Raising Questions about the Movement's Democratic Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Berdan,, Jennifer; Toven-Lindsey, Brit

    2013-01-01

    In this essay Robert Rhoads, Jennifer Berdan, and Brit Toven-Lindsey examine some of the key literature related to the open courseware (OCW) movement (including the emergence and expansion of massive open online courses, or MOOCs), focusing particular attention on the movement's democratic potential. The discussion is organized around three…

  10. The Outdoor Environment as a Site for Children's Participation, Meaning-Making and Democratic Learning: Examples from Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Wenche; Grindheim, Liv Torunn; Waters, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore socio-cultural theories of learning and some of the processes by which children learn democratic values. Norwegian policy and practice emphasises children's right to participation and involvement in decision-making. We discuss the importance of adults' attitudes, knowledge and ability to relate to and understand…

  11. Redescriptions of three species of freshwater crabs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae).

    PubMed

    Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-06-16

    The taxonomy of three species of freshwater crabs from the Upper Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Potamonautes congoensis (Rathbun, 1921), P. langi (Rathbun, 1921), and P. stanleyensis (Rathbun, 1921), is revised based on examination of the holotypes. Updated diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for these species, and their conservation status is discussed.

  12. Merging Traditional Technique Vocabularies with Democratic Teaching Perspectives in Dance Education: A Consideration of Aesthetic Values and Their Sociopolitical Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests how movement analysis from a socially contextualized perspective can inform understanding about the significance of sociopolitical contexts and aesthetic values in Western dance training. Perspectives of movement analysis provide groundwork for discussing perceivable ways to address discrepancies between democratic and…

  13. Teacher Opinions on the Concepts Preparing Students to a Democratic Life in the First Grade Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the teacher opinions on whether the concepts preparing the students to the democratic life in the first grade social studies course theme "My School Excitement" are convenient for the level of the students. In the present study, the phenomenon science model, which is one of the qualitative…

  14. African American adolescent engagement in the classroom and beyond: the roles of mother's racial socialization and democratic-involved parenting.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara

    2009-02-01

    Previous research has explored how differential youth outcomes are associated with racial socialization and parenting style individually, but very little work has examined whether democratic-involved parenting style bolsters the positive link between racial messages and adolescent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine mothers' use of democratic-involved parenting as a moderator of the association between racial socialization (e.g., racial pride, racial barrier, and self-worth messages) and youth engagement. The types of engagement explored were attitudes toward class work and persistence on task. Ninety-four African American youth (ages 11-14) reported on maternal style and socialization. As predicted, racial barrier socialization was positively associated with engagement among adolescents who perceived their mothers to provide more involvement coupled with opportunities for their teens to make decisions. In contrast, barrier socialization and engagement were negatively associated among adolescents who viewed their mothers as low in democratic-involved parenting. Implications for adolescent engagement and for research on racial socialization and democratic-involved parenting style are discussed.

  15. African American Adolescent Engagement in the Classroom and Beyond: The Roles of Mother's Racial Socialization and Democratic-Involved Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has explored how differential youth outcomes are associated with racial socialization and parenting style individually, but very little work has examined whether democratic-involved parenting style bolsters the positive link between racial messages and adolescent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine mothers' use of…

  16. Democratic Environments Offered to Children at School, in the Family, and in Society: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate democratic environments offered to children in Turkey at school, in the home, and in society. A mixed method is a general type of research where qualitative and quantitative methods are used together. The researcher first collects quantitative and then the qualitative data. The study group in the research…

  17. Educational Reforms and Marketization in Norway--A Challenge to the Tradition of the Social Democratic, Inclusive School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgøy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A social democratic, egalitarian public sector and a corporatist political economy have been strong, distinctive and enduring characteristics of Norwegian education. However, this article demonstrates that the education sector has experienced a period of rapid and extensive implementation of New Public Management (NPM) reforms and post-NPM reforms…

  18. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  19. Toward an Understanding of the Democratic Reconceptualization of Physical Education Teacher Education in Post-Military Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Matta, Gylton; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Hemphill, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher education, including physical education teacher education (PETE), around the world remains highly autocratic and content focused [Apple, M. W. 2000. "Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age." New York: Routledge]. Scholars in physical education [O'Sullivan, M., D. Siedentop, and L. F. Locke.…

  20. Beyond Communism and War: The Effect of Civic Education on the Democratic Attitudes and Behavior of Bosnian and Herzegovinian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Suzanne

    This study asks, To what degree has the Civitas: An International Civic Education Exchange Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina been effective in creating or promoting attitudes and values that serve to strengthen support for democratic institutions and processes among Bosnia and Herzegovina school children? To answer this question, an empirical…

  1. Developing Democratic Dispositions and Enabling Crap Detection: Claims for Classroom Philosophy with Special Reference to Western Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The prominence given in national or state-wide curriculum policy to thinking, the development of democratic dispositions and preparation for the "good life", usually articulated in terms of lifelong learning and fulfilment of personal life goals, gives rise to the current spate of interest in the role that could be played by philosophy…

  2. Teachers' Democratic and Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Coping with Behavioural Problems of Pupils with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Orit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how teachers actually cope with behavioural problems of included students. In order to understand the impact of individual differences on teachers' coping strategies, the authors looked at the relationship between these strategies and teachers' democratic beliefs and self-efficacy. Participants were 33 teachers in Israel, who…

  3. A Fresh Take on Democratic Education: Revisiting Rancière through the Notions of Emergence and Enaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastrup-Birk, Henriette; Wildemeersch, Danny

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to new ways of thinking about democratic education. We discuss how revisiting this concept may help raise fresh questions in relation to non-formal fora grappling with intricate sustainability issues that span international borders. Starting from Rancière's ideas on democracy, we first examine a conception of…

  4. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings. PMID:26526923

  5. Discourses of social justice: examining the ethics of democratic professionalism in nursing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    This essay provides a critical exploration of discourses of social justice in nursing. It examines commitments to social justice in the work of international nursing scholars and in professional codes of ethics in international nursing organizations. The analysis touches on salient conversations in philosophy, relating these ways of knowing to social justice as an ethical pattern in nursing practice. On the basis of this analysis, the discussion explores questions of professional formation in nursing, noticing when commitments to social justice are taken up or evaded in different models of professionalism. In concluding comments, implications of democratic professionalism are explored for professional formation in nursing, arguing for teaching, learning, and knowledge projects that contribute to social justice in our democracy.

  6. Dorstenialuamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenialuamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  7. Investigation of Recurrent Melioidosis in Lao People's Democratic Republic by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, Audrey; Dittrich, Sabine; Phommasone, Koukeo; Douangnouvong, Anousone; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Dance, David A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. In northeast Thailand and northern Australia, where the disease is highly endemic, a range of molecular tools have been used to study its epidemiology and pathogenesis. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) where melioidosis has been recognized as endemic since 1999, no such studies have been undertaken. We used a multilocus sequence typing scheme specific for B. pseudomallei to investigate nine cases of culture-positive recurrence occurring in 514 patients with melioidosis between 2010 and 2015: four were suspected to be relapses while the other five represented reinfections. In addition, two novel sequence types of the bacterium were identified. The low overall recurrence rates (2.4%) and proportions of relapse and reinfection in the Laos are consistent with those described in the recent literature, reflecting the effective use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27001759

  8. Science education for democratic citizenship through the use of the history of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstø, Stein Dankert

    2008-09-01

    Scholars have argued that the history of science might facilitate an understanding of processes of science. Focusing on science education for citizenship and active involvement in debates on socioscientific issues, one might argue that today’s post-academic science differs from academic science in the past, making the history of academic science irrelevant. However, this article argues that, under certain conditions, cases from the history of science should be included in science curricula for democratic participation. One condition is that the concept of processes is broadened to include science society interactions in a politically sensitive sense. The scope of possibilities of using historical case studies to prepare for citizenship is illustrated by the use of a well-known case from the history of science: Millikan’s and Ehrenhaft’s “Battle over the electron”.

  9. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains.

  10. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014–2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  11. Dementia and representative democracy: Exploring challenges and implications for democratic citizenship.

    PubMed

    Sonnicksen, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Despite growing recognition of the rights of people with dementia for full citizenship, issues related to democracy, whether from theoretical or practical perspectives, remain neglected. Especially since discourses on dementia have expanded to this rights-based approach, it is imperative to begin to examine the meanings and practices of democracy within a context of dementia. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to assess implications of dementia in the context of democracy. Rather than surveying the variety of democratic concepts, it will focus the analytical framework on representative democracy and then outline several challenges to and for representative democracy and citizens with dementia. The intention is to begin to identify paths for ensuring representation, inclusion and participation for those who have dementia.

  12. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox?

    PubMed

    Arat, Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  13. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-05-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim's work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  14. PARRHESIA, PHAEDRA, AND THE POLIS: ANTICIPATING PSYCHOANALYTIC FREE ASSOCIATION AS DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Jill

    2015-07-01

    This essay explores the mostly unexamined analogy of psychoanalytic free association to democratic free speech. The author turns back to a time when free speech was a matter of considerable discussion: the classical period of the Athenian constitution and its experiment with parrhesia. Ordinarily translated into English as "free speech," parrhesia is startlingly relevant to psychoanalysis. The Athenian stage-in particular, Hippolytus (Euripides, 5th century BCE)-illustrates this point. Euripides's tragic tale anticipates Freud's inquiries, exploring the fundamental link between free speech and female embodiment. The author suggests that psychoanalysis should claim its own conception of a polis as a mediated and ethical space between private and public spheres, between body and mind, and between speaking and listening communities.

  15. Dorstenia luamensis (Moraceae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Miguel E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae), Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN). PMID:25383011

  16. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  17. Co-infections in Visceral Pentastomiasis, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Riu, Therese; Rózsa, Lajos; Bodó, Imre; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Babocsay, Gergely; Hardi, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Snakeborne Armillifer pentastomiasis is an emerging human parasitic infection in rural tropical areas where snake meat is eaten. After a series of severe ocular A. grandis larval infections and anecdotal abdominal infection in Sankuru District, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during 2014-2015, we systematically investigated possible pentastomid etiology in patients who underwent surgery in the region. Histologic and molecular analyses by established pentastomid 18S rDNA- and newly developed Armillifer-specific cytochrome oxidase PCRs revealed larval pentastomid lesions in 3.7% of patients. Some persons had A. armillatus and A. grandis co-infections. Another pentastomid larva, Raillietiella sp., was molecularly detected in 1 patient who had concomitant A. grandis and A. armillatus infection. The PCRs used were suitable for detecting pentastomid species even in highly necrotic tissues. Phylogenetic analyses of Armillifer cytochrome oxidase genes detected multiple local strains. PMID:27434739

  18. [Parasitologic survey of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Katana, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Bisimwa, B

    2000-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that development of irrigation projects in endemic areas for schistosomiasis invariably leads to a recrudescence of the disease by increasing the habitat of the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. This fatality was again demonstrated by experience in the Katana region of the Democratic Republic of Congo where development of 43 fresh water reservoirs for raising Tilapia nilotica led to multiplication of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. A parasitological study was conducted in three new villages around these basins and in neighboring villages. Stool examinations were performed in a total of 787 people. Infestation rates were 8.1 p. 100 and 4 p. 100 respectively. Infestation exceeded 25 p. 100 in children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. These findings underline the need for preventive measures.

  19. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry. PMID:19035918

  20. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic") for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated. PMID:21572529

  1. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  2. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s), forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565) were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%), although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%). Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103) of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%). Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the majority of aggressions

  3. Collaborative Medical Engagement and Needs Assessment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Preliminary Report from Muanda

    PubMed Central

    Lesho, Emil; Okito, Edmond Amisi; Mann, Kelly; McCullough, Michael; Hesse, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second largest and fourth most populous country in Africa. More than two decades of ongoing conflicts have degraded its healthcare system. A broad range of tropical diseases, along with opportunities for collaborative medical engagements (CMEs), are prevalent. However, reports from such events in this country are sparse. In June 2013, a CME was conducted in the western town of Muanda. Twenty-two hours of didactic sessions were collaboratively presented, and 158 patients were collaboratively evaluated. Durable dental and respiratory equipment, infrastructure improvements, and training opportunities were the top needs identified by the providers. Whether the regional referral hospital received sustainable benefit remains under investigation. However, the approach and needs assessment described herein provide a framework for future engagements or assistance. This CME established a precedence of medical partnership in the region because it led to the largest multidisciplinary joint collaboration in the history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:24534813

  4. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees.

    PubMed

    Friele, Minou Bernadette

    2003-08-01

    Bioethical and bio-political questions are increasingly tackled by committees, councils, and other advisory boards that work on different and often interrelated levels. Research ethics committees work on an institutional or clinical level; local advisory boards deal with biomedical topics on the level of particular political regions; national and international political advisory boards try to answer questions about morally problematic political decisions in medical research and practice. In accordance with the increasing number and importance of committees, the quality of their work and their functional status are being subjected to more and more scrutiny. Besides overall criticism regarding the quality of their work, particular committees giving political advice are often suspected of being incompatible with democratic values, such as respect for affected parties, representation of diverse values and transparency in the decision-making processes. Based on the example of the German National Ethics Council, whose inauguration caused a still ongoing debate on the aims and scopes of committees in general, this paper discusses: (1) the requirements of modern democratic societies in dealing with complex scientific-technical problems; (2) the composition and organisation of committees working as political advisory boards; and (3) the appointment procedures and roles of laymen and experts, and here in particular of ethicists, who may legitimately be taken on by a committee. I will argue that bioethics committees do not necessarily endanger democratic values, but can considerably improve their realisation in democratic decision-making procedures--if, and only if, they do not act as substitutes for parliamentarian processes, but help prepare parliamentarian processes to be organised as rationally as possible. PMID:14567389

  5. Intellectual and developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: causality and implications for resilience and support.

    PubMed

    Aldersey, Heather M; Turnbull, H Rutherford; Turnbull, Ann P

    2014-06-01

    This article reports results of a 7-month qualitative study on intellectual and related developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly as they relate to the causes and meaning of intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study raises important questions related to the understanding of resilience of persons affected by IDD and the nature and purpose of support they use or desire.

  6. Australia's health system: the search for a cure. The Australian Democrats' discussion paper on Australia's health system.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The Australian Democrats' believe that Australia is currently at a critical time in the development of its health care system. The twin pressures of higher demands and inadequate funding have led to alarmingly heavier pressure on the public health infrastructure. Increasingly, the choices confronting society is one of how to allocate limited resources in the health sector. Awareness is growing on the impact wider issues such as unemployment, fragmentation of communities are having on society's health. In the face of new challenges confronting Australia's health system of the needs of an aging population, adoption of new developments in medical treatment and technology and new relationships which are developing between the public and private health sector, the Democrats acknowledge that although there are no easy responses, it is important, nonetheless to recognise their complexities and work collaboratively towards viable solutions. Through this discussion paper, based on consultation with a wide range of stakeholder groups and individuals, the Australian Democrats' have sought to outline the options for addressing the challenges and debate which will serve to contribute to the development of a fair, efficient and equitable health care system for all Australians, now and into the future. PMID:10387682

  7. A review of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

    PubMed

    Linton, John A; Tan, Bernard; Casey, Michael

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence of tuberculosis and its management in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. A review of technical reports of NGOs' experience working in North Korea with Democratic People's Republic of Korea officials, tuberculosis healthcare personnel and tuberculosis patients. Site visits, observations and experiences are also included. Until 2001, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was predominately isolated with an unknown healthcare system but has since allowed NGOs, WHO and international agencies to rehabilitate the healthcare infrastructure involving 200 people's Country Hospitals, 13 Prophylactic Hospitals, 62 Sanitariums and 4 Special Hospitals. The mid 1990s witnessed a resurgence of tuberculosis in North Korea with 100,000 new cases reported yearly. Preliminary analysis revealed that poverty, neglect, lack of resources and isolation resulted in the overall deterioration of public health services. Present estimates suggest a prevalence of 220 per 100,000 with 45,000 new cases. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in North Korea that will require increased efforts by the national government and international agencies to control

  8. Democracies restricting democratic rights: some classical sources and implications for ethics of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the most attention to two paradigms that have most influenced modern democratic thinking: 17th century English democracy and ancient Athens. I do not accept the dogma that the Athenians were obviously wrong to try and then to condemn Socrates. His death-loving doctrine could not but have weakened the will of the youth to work and fight for the good of Athens. I will try to understand the Athenians' point of view and their need to defend their security. At the end, I will apply these lessons to biometrics and data sharing for security reasons. PMID:21380481

  9. Democracies restricting democratic rights: some classical sources and implications for ethics of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-03-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the most attention to two paradigms that have most influenced modern democratic thinking: 17th century English democracy and ancient Athens. I do not accept the dogma that the Athenians were obviously wrong to try and then to condemn Socrates. His death-loving doctrine could not but have weakened the will of the youth to work and fight for the good of Athens. I will try to understand the Athenians' point of view and their need to defend their security. At the end, I will apply these lessons to biometrics and data sharing for security reasons.

  10. Rapid Identification of Paragonimiasis Foci by Lay Informants in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Odermatt, Peter; Veasna, Duong; Zhang, Wei; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Phrommala, Souraxay; Habe, Shigehisa; Barennes, Hubert; Strobel, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis leading to lung disease. Worldwide, an estimated 21 million people are infected. Foci of ongoing transmission remain often unnoticed. We evaluated a simple questionnaire approach using lay-informants at the village level to identify paragonimiasis foci and suspected paragonimiasis cases. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in an endemic area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. Leaders of 49 remote villages in northern Vientiane Province were asked to notify suspected paragonimiasis patients using a four-item questionnaire sent through administrative channels: persons responding positively for having chronic cough (more than 3 weeks) and/or blood in sputum with or without fever. We validated the village leaders' reports in ten representative villages with a door-to-door survey. We examined three sputa of suspected patients for the presence of Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. 91.8% of village leaders participated and notified a total of 220 suspected patients; 76.2% were eventually confirmed; an additional 138 suspected cases were found in the survey. Sensitivity of village leaders' notice for “chronic cough” and “blood in sputum” was 100%; “blood in sputum” alone reached a sensitivity of 85.7%. Significance Our approach led to the identification of three previously unknown foci of transmission. A rapid and simple lay-informant questionnaire approach is a promising low-cost community diagnostic tool of paragonimiasis control programs. PMID:19771150

  11. Seroprevalence of Q Fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2016-09-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR.

  12. Impact of Competing Values and Choices on Democratic Support in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wai-Man

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the reasons for the relatively low democratic support (DS) in Hong Kong in the context of competing values and choices based on the previous Asian Barometer Surveys. In so doing, it establishes a three-factor theoretical model that includes survey attitudinal statements related to authoritarianism (AU), nationalism (NA) and economic evaluations (EC) on DS. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the analysis shows that the hypothesized model is a very good fit. The Hong Kong people's relatively low DS, in terms of their unconditional support for democracy and the degree of democracy they want for Hong Kong, can be well explained by the three factors in combination. The factors have various extent of impact on DS, with AU being the strongest, followed by EC, and then NA. The paper contributes by illustrating the usefulness of CFA in political values research, unraveling the comparative importance of the values and choices in affecting DS, and establishing a model for further testing. PMID:23874056

  13. Crystal structure study of a cobaltoan dolomite from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Perchiazzi, Natale

    2015-03-01

    A structural study has been undertaken on a cobaltoan dolomite, with chemical formula CaMg0.83Co0.17(CO3)2 (cal-cium magnesium cobalt dicarbonate), from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pale-pink euhedral cobaltoan dolomite was associated with kolwezite [(Cu1.33Co0.67)(CO3)(OH)2] and cobaltoan malachite [(Cu,Co)2(CO3)(OH)2]. A crystal with a Co:Mg ratio of 1:5.6 (SEM/EDAX measurement), twinned on (11 -2 0) was used for crystal structural refinement. The refinement of the structural model of Reeder & Wenk [Am. Mineral. (1983 ▶), 68, 769-776; Ca at site 3a with site symmetry -3; Mg site at site 3b with site symmetry -3; C at site 6c with site symmetry 3; O at site 18f with site symmetry 1] showed that Co is totally incorporated in the Mg site, with refined occupancy Mg0.83Co0.17, which compares with Mg0.85Co0.15 from chemical data. The Co substitution reflects in the expansion of the cell volume, with a pronounced increasing of the c cell parameter. PMID:25844202

  14. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia

    PubMed Central

    PRIDEMORE, WILLIAM ALEX; KIM, SANG-WEON

    2006-01-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim’s work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union. PMID:16880894

  15. Seed predation by bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Alexander V; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Lokasola, Albert Lotana; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-10-01

    We compared the feeding ecology of the Hali-Hali community of bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Kokolopori, a new field site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between two periods 5 months apart. During the first study period (SP1), bonobos relied heavily on the dry seeds of Guibourtia (Caesalpiniaceae), mostly eaten from the ground. The second period (SP2) was characterized by high consumption of ripe tree fruit. Terrestrial herbaceous vegetation (THV) contributed little to the diet in either study period. The low amount of ripe fruit and the high reliance on seeds in the diet during SP1 were associated with high cortisol production and low levels of urinary C-peptide in females, suggesting nutritional stress. However, female gregariousness was not constrained during the fruit-poor period, probably because high seed abundance on the ground ameliorated scramble feeding competition. This is the first description of extensive seed predation by bonobos. It suggests that bonobo feeding ecology may be more similar to that of chimpanzees than previously recognized.

  16. REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

    2014-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

  17. The Mexico City Policy: a "gag rule" that violates free speech and democratic values.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1998-04-01

    With the support of the Republican leadership of the US House of Representatives, Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey continues to attempt to limit provision of US family planning (FP) funding to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who agree to enforce absolute prohibitions on engaging in abortion-related activities. Despite the fact that the House is withholding funds to meet US obligations to the UN and to support the International Monetary Fund, US President Clinton refuses to give in to pressure to enforce what amounts to a "gag rule." The Secretary of State explains that Clinton has no intention of punishing organizations engaging in free-speech protected democratic activities in foreign countries. Smith has offered a self-styled "compromise" that would allow Clinton to waive disqualification for a foreign NGO offering abortion services with its own funds in compliance with the laws of its country. This waiver would penalize the international FP program by $44 million and would not apply to the broad prohibitions against abortion lobbying (including lobbying for changes in laws, sponsoring conferences and workshops on "alleged" defects in abortion laws, and drafting and distributing materials or public statements on "alleged defects"). Smith's emphasis on the "lobbying" ban has widened the issue from a debate on abortion to a debate on democracy and free speech. Opposition to Smith's proposal is, thus, rising in many quarters. Smith also endorses withholding US contributions to the UN Population Fund because the fund has resumed work in China. PMID:12293660

  18. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented.

  19. The Mexico City Policy: a "gag rule" that violates free speech and democratic values.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1998-04-01

    With the support of the Republican leadership of the US House of Representatives, Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey continues to attempt to limit provision of US family planning (FP) funding to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) who agree to enforce absolute prohibitions on engaging in abortion-related activities. Despite the fact that the House is withholding funds to meet US obligations to the UN and to support the International Monetary Fund, US President Clinton refuses to give in to pressure to enforce what amounts to a "gag rule." The Secretary of State explains that Clinton has no intention of punishing organizations engaging in free-speech protected democratic activities in foreign countries. Smith has offered a self-styled "compromise" that would allow Clinton to waive disqualification for a foreign NGO offering abortion services with its own funds in compliance with the laws of its country. This waiver would penalize the international FP program by $44 million and would not apply to the broad prohibitions against abortion lobbying (including lobbying for changes in laws, sponsoring conferences and workshops on "alleged" defects in abortion laws, and drafting and distributing materials or public statements on "alleged defects"). Smith's emphasis on the "lobbying" ban has widened the issue from a debate on abortion to a debate on democracy and free speech. Opposition to Smith's proposal is, thus, rising in many quarters. Smith also endorses withholding US contributions to the UN Population Fund because the fund has resumed work in China.

  20. Allocating health care: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, or the veil of ignorance?

    PubMed

    Goold, S D

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that rationing health care is unavoidable, and that it requires moral reasoning, how should we allocate limited health care resources? This question is difficult because our pluralistic, liberal society has no consensus on a conception of distributive justice. In this article I focus on an alternative: Who shall decide how to ration health care, and how shall this be done to respect autonomy, pluralism, liberalism, and fairness? I explore three processes for making rationing decisions: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision making, and applications of the veil of ignorance. I evaluate these processes as examples of procedural justice, assuming that there is no outcome considered the most just. I use consent as a criterion to judge competing processes so that rationing decisions are, to some extent, self-imposed. I also examine the processes' feasibility in our current health care system. Cost-utility analysis does not meet criteria for actual or presumed consent, even if costs and health-related utility could be measured perfectly. Existing structures of government cannot creditably assimilate the information required for sound rationing decisions, and grassroots efforts are not representative. Applications of the veil of ignorance are more useful for identifying principles relevant to health care rationing than for making concrete rationing decisions. I outline a process of decision making, specifically for health care, that relies on substantive, selected representation, respects pluralism, liberalism, and deliberative democracy, and could be implemented at the community or organizational level.

  1. Seroprevalence of Q Fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2016-09-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  2. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. PMID:26164963

  3. Hidden varicella outbreak, Luang Prabang Province, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, December 2014 to January 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Bounma, Khonesavanh; Siamong, Chansone; Datta, Siddhartha; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Vongphachanh, Phengta; Luo, Dapeng; O’Reilly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background In January 2015, the Lao People's Democratic Republic Ministry of Health received a report of 34 cases of fever and rash with one laboratory-confirmed measles case in Houitone village, Pakseng District of Luang Prabang Province. Between 21 and 27 January, we conducted a field investigation to determine the etiology, magnitude and severity of this outbreak. Methods We conducted active case findings in Houitone and neighbouring villages and collected information on age, location, date of rash onset, symptoms and measles vaccination status. We collected serum samples from cases with rash onset of less than 28 days and tested for measles and rubella IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Between 22 December 2014 and 23 January 2015, 190 fever and rash cases were identified in seven villages in Pakseng District with the majority of the cases in Houitone village. The most affected age group was between 1 and 9 years. The majority of the rashes were vesicular. Of the additional 43 serum samples collected, no samples tested positive for measles or rubella IgM. The clinical manifestation and epidemiology of the disease suggested a varicella outbreak. Conclusion The rapid response to a single laboratory-confirmed measles case did not identify a measles outbreak but suggested a varicella outbreak. Low measles vaccination coverage led us to recommend a routine catch-up vaccination campaign. We also recommend collecting information of rash types and photos of rashes in future fever and rash outbreaks to better differentiate potential etiologies.

  4. Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tia; Bredenkamp, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide data-based estimates of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and describe risk factors for such violence. Methods. We used nationally representative household survey data from 3436 women selected to answer the domestic violence module who took part in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey along with population estimates to estimate levels of sexual violence. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze correlates of sexual violence. Results. Approximately 1.69 to 1.80 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (with 407 397–433 785 women reporting having been raped in the preceding 12 months), and approximately 3.07 to 3.37 million women reported experiencing intimate partner sexual violence. Reports of sexual violence were largely independent of individual-level background factors. However, compared with women in Kinshasa, women in Nord-Kivu were significantly more likely to report all types of sexual violence. Conclusions. Not only is sexual violence more generalized than previously thought, but our findings suggest that future policies and programs should focus on abuse within families and eliminate the acceptance of and impunity surrounding sexual violence nationwide while also maintaining and enhancing efforts to stop militias from perpetrating rape. PMID:21566049

  5. Prevalence of River Epilepsy in the Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Colebunders, Robert; Tepage, Floribert; Rood, Ente; Mandro, Michel; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Musinya, Gisele; Mambandu, Germain; Kabeya, José; Komba, Michel; Levick, Bethany; Mokili, John L; Laudisoit, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design/Methods An epilepsy prevalence study was carried out in 2014, in two localities of the Bas-Uélé district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in the Orientale Province of the DRC. Risk factors for epilepsy were identified using a random effects logistic regression model and the distribution of epilepsy cases was investigated using the Moran’s I statistic of spatial auto-correlation. Results Among the 12,776 individuals of Dingila, 373 (2.9%) individuals with epilepsy were identified. In a house-to-house survey in Titule, 68 (2.3%) of the 2,908 people who participated in the survey were found to present episodes of epilepsy. Epilepsy showed a marked spatial pattern with clustering of cases occurring within and between adjacent households. Individual risk of epilepsy was found to be associated with living close to the nearest fast flowing river where blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)–the vector of Onchocerca volvulus–oviposit and breed. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in villages in the Bas-Uélé district in the DRC was higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Living close to a blackflies infested river was found to be a risk factor for epilepsy. PMID:27139245

  6. HIGH RATE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION IN LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Jutavijittum, Prapan; Yousukh, Amnat; Saysanasongkham, Bounnack; Samountry, Bounthome; Samountry, Khamtim; Toriyama, Kan; Tokuda, Masaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Among 3,000 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at Mother and Child Hospital in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 5.8% were HBsAg positive by a rapid test. Among serum samples of 47 infants aged 9-12 months born to HBsAg-positive mothers, 38% were anti-HBs negative. Percent anti-HBs negative children is significantly higher in those born to HBeAg positive mothers than in those born to HBeAg negative mothers (60% vs 25%, p < 0.05). Out of 47 HBsAg-positive mothers, 10 had infants who were HBsAg positive. None of the infants born to HBsAg negative mothers became HBsAg positive but 10/19 (52.6%) of infants born to HBeAg positive mothers became HBsAg positive. This high rate of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in an endemic country is of concern and indicates that routine vaccination program for Lao infants needs strengthening.

  7. Intimate partner violence, modern contraceptive use and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be negatively associated with contraceptive use in developing countries, but evidence from Africa is mixed. This study examines whether the above association differs in conflict settings, which have the potential for both higher levels of violence and more limited access to family planning. We use nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to examine the relationship between individual- and community-level IPV and modern contraceptive use, and to explore whether conflict modifies the relationship between IPV and contraceptive use. Nationally, only 6% of women reported current modern contraceptive use, while 53% reported experiencing physical IPV and 32% reported experiencing sexual IPV. In multivariate models, we found that individual-level sexual IPV was positively associated with current using modern contraceptive use, but that a combined measure of physical and sexual IPV did not demonstrate a similar association. Community-level IPV was not associated with individual-level contraceptive use. Conflict exposure was neither an independent predictor nor modifier of contraceptive use. Results suggest improved access to family planning should be a priority for programming in DRC, and efforts should ensure that sufficient resources are allocated towards the reproductive health needs of women in both conflict and non-conflict regions.

  8. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Soukvilay, Vilayvahn; Senaphanh, Chanthana; Phithacthep, Kamphok; Phomhaksa, Souk; Yingst, Samuel; Lombardini, Eric; Hansson, Eric; Selleck, Paul W.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2016-01-01

    This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs, and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity. There is an urgent need to determine the levels of economic loss and human health-related issues caused by Q fever, brucellosis, and BTV in Lao PDR. PMID:27430548

  9. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Nur, Y A; Groen, J; Heuvelmans, H; Tuynman, W; Copra, C; Osterhaus, A D

    1999-12-01

    In February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal pain, and coughing. In 1 individual, hemorrhagic manifestations were observed. The neurologic signs included an altered level of consciousness, convulsions, and coma. Malaria was initially suspected, but the patients showed negative blood films and failed to respond to antimicrobial drugs. A total of 35 sera collected from the military patients in the acute phase were tested for the presence of IgM against vector-borne agents. Serum IgM antibodies against West Nile fever virus were found in 23 patients (66%), against Chikungunya virus in 12 patients (34%), against dengue virus in 1 patient (3%), and against Rickettsia typhi in 1 patient (3%). All sera were negative for IgM antibody against Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, and Sindbis virus. These data suggest that infections with West Nile fever virus have been the main cause of the outbreak.

  10. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1976-2014

    PubMed Central

    Rosello, Alicia; Mossoko, Mathias; Flasche, Stefan; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Mbala, Placide; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Kucharski, Adam; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Edmunds, W John; Piot, Peter; Baguelin, Marc; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus' discovery in 1976. This article provides for the first time a description and a line list for all outbreaks in this country, comprising 996 cases. Compared to patients over 15 years old, the odds of dying were significantly lower in patients aged 5 to 15 and higher in children under five (with 100% mortality in those under 2 years old). The odds of dying increased by 11% per day that a patient was not hospitalised. Outbreaks with an initially high reproduction number, R (>3), were rapidly brought under control, whilst outbreaks with a lower initial R caused longer and generally larger outbreaks. These findings can inform the choice of target age groups for interventions and highlight the importance of both reducing the delay between symptom onset and hospitalisation and rapid national and international response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09015.001 PMID:26525597

  11. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, A O; Mbuzukongira, P; Mangala, M J

    2007-06-01

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g(-1) are 10.75 +/- 5.11 for (238)U, 7.06 +/- 3.39 for (226)Ra, 1.75 +/- 0.85 for (232)Th, and 1.63 +/- 0.52 for (40)K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average. PMID:17664663

  12. Human rabies: a descriptive observation of 21 children in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Muyila, Delphin I; Aloni, Michel N; Lose-Ekanga, Marie Josée; Nzita, Jules M; Kalala-Mbikay, Alexandre; Bongo, Henri L; Esako, Mathilde N; Malonga-Biapi, Jean Pierre; Mputu-Dibwe, BenoÎt; Aloni, Muriel L; Ekila, Mathilde B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Human rabies has recently emerged as a significant public health threat in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, there is little epidemiological information on human rabies especially in children. Methods: We performed at Pediatrics Department of General Reference hospital of Kinshasa between December 2008 and July 2009, a retrospective study to assess the incidence and to describe their clinical aspects and outcome. Results: A total of 21 cases were observed, rather three cases per month. There were 12 boys (57.1%) and 9 girls (42.9%). Biting animal was found to be dog in all cases (100%). The dog was not immunized in all of cases. On admission, all patients (100%) showed furious rabies manifestations. Only two (9.5%) had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) after the bite incident. Two (9.5%) patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The case-fatality rate was 100%. Conclusions: The disease emerges as a new major public health problem because of a lack of knowledge regarding rabies risk, the poor management of dog bites. Preventative vaccination for rabies should be recommended in the population of Kinshasa, area at high risk to contract rabies, particularly in children. PMID:25417907

  13. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government.

    PubMed

    Franke, W W; Berendonk, B

    1997-07-01

    Several classified documents saved after the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990 describe the promotion by the government of the use of drugs, notably androgenic steroids, in high-performance sports (doping). Top-secret doctoral theses, scientific reports, progress reports of grants, proceedings from symposia of experts, and reports of physicians and scientists who served as unofficial collaborators for the Ministry for State Security ("Stasi") reveal that from 1966 on, hundreds of physicians and scientists, including top-ranking professors, performed doping research and administered prescription drugs as well as unapproved experimental drug preparations. Several thousand athletes were treated with androgens every year, including minors of each sex. Special emphasis was placed on administering androgens to women and adolescent girls because this practice proved to be particularly effective for sports performance. Damaging side effects were recorded, some of which required surgical or medical intervention. In addition, several prominent scientists and sports physicians of the GDR contributed to the development of methods of drug administration that would evade detection by international doping controls.

  14. Sparks creating light? Strengthening peripheral disease surveillance in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mossoko, M.; Nyakio Kakusu, J. P.; Nyembo, J.; Mangion, J. P.; Van Laeken, D.; Van den Bergh, R.; Van den Boogaard, W.; Manzi, M.; Kibango, W. K.; Hermans, V.; Beijnsberger, J.; Lambert, V.; Kitenge, E.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The Democratic Republic of Congo suffers from an amalgam of disease outbreaks and other medical emergencies. An efficient response to these relies strongly on the national surveillance system. The Pool d'Urgence Congo (PUC, Congo Emergency Team) of Médecins Sans Frontières is a project that responds to emergencies in highly remote areas through short-term vertical interventions, during which it uses the opportunity of its presence to reinforce the local surveillance system. Objective: To investigate whether the ancillary strengthening of the peripheral surveillance system during short-term interventions leads to improved disease notification. Design: A descriptive paired study measuring disease notification before and after 12 PUC interventions in 2013–2014. Results: A significant increase in disease notification was observed after seven mass-vaccination campaigns and was sustained over 6 months. For the remaining five smaller-scaled interventions, no significant effects were observed. Conclusion: The observed improvements after even short-term interventions underline, on the one hand, how external emergency actors can positively affect the system through their punctuated actions, and, on the other hand, the dire need for investment in surveillance at peripheral level. PMID:27358796

  15. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Escalante, Ananias A; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel's tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  16. Spatial Patterns of Forest Cover Loss in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Three groups of metrics of spatial patterns of forest cover loss were calculated for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While other studies had previously assessed landscape patterns in the Congo Basin, they had done so for small areas due to data limitations. The input data for this study, the Forets d;Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection(FACET), allowed the analysis to be performed at the national level. FACET is a landsat-scale dataset giving an unprecedented synoptic view of forest cover and forest cover loss for the DRC for three time periods: 2000, 2005 and 2010. The three groups of metrics evaluated the following spatial characteristics of forest cover loss for the same standard 1.5km unit of area: proportions of typologies of forest lost, forest fragmentation and proximity of forest loss patches from other land cover types. Results indicate that there are several different typologies of forest cover loss in the DRC, and offer quantitative explanations of these differences, providing a valuable locally-relevant tool for land use planning, available at the national level. Spatial patterns of forest cover loss highlight differences between areas of high primary forest loss due to agriculture conversion in frontier deforestation, such as in the east of the country, areas of equivalent primary and secondary forest loss emanating from the rural complex and areas of variable proportions of primary and secondary forest loss but important ecological repercussions of forest fragmentation due to isolated, but systematic forest perforations. Typologies of spatial patterns of forest cover loss are presented as well as their correlated drivers, and ecological, conservation and land use planning considerations are discussed.

  17. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  18. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally.

  19. Sexual Violence toward Children and Youth in War-Torn Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Lussy Justin, Paluku; Kimona, Christophe; Nyavandu, Kavira; Mukekulu Eugenie, Kamabu; Jonathan, Kasereka Muhindo Lusi; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Hawkes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. Methods Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤18 yrs) and adult patients. Findings 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6–12], p<0.001), and less frequently by military personnel (13% vs 48%, OR 0.14 [95%CI 0.075–0.26], p<0.001). Delayed presentation for medical care (>72 hours after the assault) was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2–4.0], p = 0.007). Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3–4.4], p = 0.006). Nine (2.9%) pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34). Interpretation World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth. PMID:21267467

  20. [Blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo: efforts and challenges].

    PubMed

    Kabinda Maotela, J; Ramazani, S Y; Misingi, P; Dramaix-Wilmet, M

    2015-01-01

    The authors trace the history of blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as inherited through the colonial organization of the health system. The current configuration of transfusion system begins with the drafting of the national blood transfusion policy and the establishment of a national technical office within the Ministry of Health to coordinate transfusion activities and of its agents in each province. Despite countless difficulties, several positive points were noted. These involve essentially the drafting of all the necessary documents and standards and the integration of the blood safety system into the country's health system. Initially, the blood transfusion system applied a vertical approach, but with the reform of the country's health system, the performance of blood safety became transversal. In the 12 years from 2001 to 2012, it mobilized 112,882 volunteer blood donors; more than 80% of blood products were checked for safety and covered all blood needs; and 81,806 HIV infections were avoided by routine testing of blood products. During the same period, 7560 people were trained in blood transfusion. The prevalence of viral markers among donors has diminished sharply. Thus, HIV prevalence decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% between 2001 and 2012 that of hepatitis B dropped from 7.1% to 3.5% during the same period, and hepatitis C from 11.8% to 2.3% from 2004 to 2012. Despite this performance, enormous efforts are still required, for the organization of blood safety monitoring, the establishment of a safe supply of reagents and supplies, for sustaining the dynamics of voluntary associations of blood donors, and finally for providing stable funding for these blood safety activities. PMID:26742551