Science.gov

Sample records for katarsis rock cafes

  1. Rock on Cafe: achieving sustainable systems changes in school lunch programs.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Yvonne; Denniston, Ray; Morgan, Molly; Bordeau, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The rising rate of overweight poses a significant threat to the health of children. Because roughly one third of a child's dietary intake occurs during school hours and because both health and academic outcomes have been linked to children's nutrition, school nutrition policies and programs have been identified as a key area for intervention. This article describes the components, processes, and initial successes of a grassroots effort and innovative project to improve the nutritional quality of the School Lunch Program through a sustainable systems intervention and policy change across a regional area of upstate New York. The Rock on Cafe intervention was partially funded by the Steps to a Healthier New York program and promises to be a model for creating a school environment that supports healthy dietary behaviors among children.

  2. Rock on Cafe: achieving sustainable systems changes in school lunch programs.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Yvonne; Denniston, Ray; Morgan, Molly; Bordeau, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The rising rate of overweight poses a significant threat to the health of children. Because roughly one third of a child's dietary intake occurs during school hours and because both health and academic outcomes have been linked to children's nutrition, school nutrition policies and programs have been identified as a key area for intervention. This article describes the components, processes, and initial successes of a grassroots effort and innovative project to improve the nutritional quality of the School Lunch Program through a sustainable systems intervention and policy change across a regional area of upstate New York. The Rock on Cafe intervention was partially funded by the Steps to a Healthier New York program and promises to be a model for creating a school environment that supports healthy dietary behaviors among children. PMID:19454756

  3. Cafe Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaolo, Concetta A.; Robinson, David F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present time series data collected from a cafe run by business students at a Midwestern public university. The data were collected over a ten-week period during the spring semester of 2010. These data can be used in introductory courses to illustrate basic concepts of time series and forecasting, including trend, seasonality, and…

  4. Why Cafe Worked

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The frequently controversial Federal Automotive Fuel Economy Standards (a.k.a. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards) have in fact been a notable success. This paper attempts to explain why the CAFE standards have been such a successful energy policy. It begins by demonstrating that economic theory does not relegate technology standards to permanent second best status. As a public policy aimed at correcting an externality, regulations can be the key part of a first best public policy response. To be sure, practical problems will arise in implementing either an effluent tax or a regulatory standard. Next, it is argued that in the oligopotistic automotive market a combination of satisfying behavior on the part of consumers and risk aversion on the part of producers makes it very likely that fuel economy standards will be more effective than even a motor fuel tax. This does not mean that gasoline or vehicle use taxes are not important or useful policy tools. Indeed, they are essential if policies are to be economically efficient. It means that taxes will be most effective and efficient if used in conjunction with fuel economy standards.

  5. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  6. A Cafe Scientifique for Teens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts

  7. SPS Fabric of the Cosmos Cafe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anish

    2012-02-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best-selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four- part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked-off by 30 ``Cosmic Cafes'' being held around the country funded by an NSF grant which allows SPS-NOVA to fund SPS chapters for these events. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick-off, reviewing and suggesting revisions of resources related to the NOVA series to make them relevant to an SPS audience. I also got to organize and moderate the first ``Cosmic Cafe.'' The Cosmic cafe that I organized was discussion based, with our speaker Dr. James Gates starting with a short talk and then opening the floor up for questions. By organizing a ``Cosmic cafe,'' I got real hand experience about the challenges an SPS chapter would face while organizing a cafe themselves. Based on my experience I shall also discuss the effectiveness of the first ever themed science cafe blitz. A science caf'e is an informal discussion with an expert in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. A science cafe is mostly discussion based, but has a lot of freedom for the format. A ``Cosmic'' cafe is a science cafe which is based around the topics discussed in the documentary ``The Fabric of the Cosmos.''

  8. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  9. CaFe interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Kozak, M.; Gnaciński, P.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Krełowski, J.

    2007-07-01

    A new kind of interstellar cloud is proposed. These are rare (just a few examples among ~300 lines of sight) objects with the CaI 4227-Å, FeI 3720-Å and 3860-Å lines stronger than those of KI (near 7699 Å) and NaI (near 3302 Å). We propose the name `CaFe' for these clouds. Apparently they occupy different volumes from the well-known interstellar HI clouds where the KI and ultraviolet NaI lines are dominant features. In the CaFe clouds we have not found either detectable molecular features (CH, CN) or diffuse interstellar bands which, as commonly believed, are carried by some complex, organic molecules. We have found the CaFe clouds only along sightlines toward hot, luminous (and thus distant) objects with high rates of mass loss. In principle, the observed gas-phase interstellar abundances reflect the combined effects of the nucleosynthetic history of the material, the depletion of heavy elements into dust grains and the ionization state of these elements which may depend on irradiation by neighbouring stars. Based on data collected using the Maestro spectrograph at the Terskol 2-m telescope, Russia; and on data collected using the ESO Feros spectrograph; and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility acquired with the UVES spectrograph, Chile. E-mail: `arctur'@rambler.ru (AB); marizak@astri.uni.torun.pl (MK); pg@iftia.univ.gda.pl (PG); gala@boao.re.kr (GAG); ybialets@eso.org (YB); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)

  10. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  11. Developing a Science Cafe Program for Your University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramozzino, Jeanine Marie; Trujillo, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The Science Cafe is a national movement that attempts to foster community dialog and inquiry on scientific topics in informal venues such as coffee houses, bookstores, restaurants and bars. The California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Robert E. Kennedy Library staff have taken the Science Cafe model out of bars and cafes and into…

  12. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  13. The Business Cafe Project: Viewing to Browsing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly

    2001-01-01

    Describes and discusses critically a unique experiment called The Business Cafe that used a combination of broadcast television and an interactive Web site to reach people interested in business and management. Outlines the nine broadcasts, which were collaborations between the Open University (United Kingdom) and the BBC (British Broadcasting…

  14. Working in the Cafe: Lessons in Group Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on findings related to the use of a large group intervention method known as The World Cafe. Design/methodology/approach: The intervention method and its philosophical genesis are described along with lessons learned from observation, personal use, and interviews with cafe participants. Findings: While…

  15. Working in the Cafe: Lessons in Group Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on findings related to the use of a large group intervention method known as The World Cafe. Design/methodology/approach: The intervention method and its philosophical genesis are described, along with lessons learned from observation, personal use, and interviews with cafe participants. Findings:…

  16. CAFE: A New Relativistic MHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.

  17. CAFE: A NEW RELATIVISTIC MHD CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Guzmán, F. S. E-mail: aosorio@astro.unam.mx

    2015-06-22

    We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.

  18. 75 FR 21044 - Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2011 CAFE...

  19. The Consequences of Internet Cafe use on Turkish College Students' Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Ferneding, Karen Ann

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on a part of the doctoral research study that investigates the potential impacts of Internet cafe use on Turkish college students' social capital. In this study, Internet cafe usage was portrayed by the amount of time spent and the frequency of online activities engaged at the cafes. Social capital, on the other hand, was…

  20. Application of CAFE-I to the Irish Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, F.L.; Onishi, Y.

    1983-08-01

    The two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic model, CAFE, has been applied to the Irish Sea as part of a study to simulate radionuclide transport with sediment-radionuclide interactions for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The flow circulation pattern simulated by CAFE shows good agreement with flow patterns described in the literature. The model results were evaluated by comparing simulated current ellipses at 5 points in the grid with measured current ellipses generated from velocity data collected during April 1968. The computed and measured phases of the maximum flood and ebb currents were also compared.

  1. Understanding compassion literacy in nursing through a clinical compassion cafe.

    PubMed

    Winch, Sarah; Henderson, Amanda Jane; Kay, Margaret; Burridge, Letitia Helen; Livesay, Georgia Jane; Sinnott, Michael John

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a method of reconnecting and reaffirming with nurses the importance of compassion in health care by using a clinical compassion cafe, which describes nine steps that provide a forum to reaffirm clinicians' core values. This process has the potential to engage clinical staff in a different modality removed from the usual didactic approaches.

  2. Learning Science at Internet Cafes: Reflections on a Bulgarian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mick; Smith, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    In-service education using information and communication technology (ICT) to teach science is particularly demanding when working in under-resourced locations or where resources are in heavy demand. This article is based on Inset carried out by the authors working with teachers and a university lecturer in a Bulgarian Internet cafe. The use of…

  3. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  4. Building Nutrition Skills with the Breakfast Cafe Webquest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the nutrition component of a Home and Career Skills curriculum at Hommocks Middle School (Larchmont, NY) that includes the Breakfast Cafe Webquest, which encourages 7th graders to increase the amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diets as well as reduce serving sizes. Using this Webquest, students "help the Breakfast…

  5. What Can We Learn from the Word Writing CAFE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen; Vandenberg, Amy; White, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Building on the work of an earlier article ["The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency," Dorothy J. Leal, "Reading Teacher," 59 (4) Dec 2005 (EJ738016)], these authors investigated the use of a simple assessment tool with a different audience to yield similar useful results. (Contains 3 figures and 4…

  6. Teaching Cafe' Waiter Skills to Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Real Setting Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effectiveness of the Cafe' Waiter Education Program by providing the least prompting to three adult subjects with intellectual disability in a real-life setting. A multiple probe research design across subjects was used. Cafe' waiter skills included five main tasks incorporating 125 skill steps. Task…

  7. The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Dorothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Word Writing CAFE is a new assessment tool designed for teachers to evaluate objectively students' word-writing ability for fluency, accuracy, and complexity. It is designed to be given to the whole class at one time. This article describes the development of the CAFE and provides directions for administering and scoring it. The author also…

  8. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  9. Study of implementation level of tobacco restriction policy in cafes and restaurants of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gvinianidze, K; Bakhturidze, G; Magradze, G

    2012-05-01

    Before year 2008 smoking was partially restricted in cafes and restaurants of Georgia. In 2009 Georgian Parliament adopted amendment in law "Concerning Tobacco Control" and strengthened partial restriction in cafes and restaurants, namely required that 50% of territory of those facilities must be smoke free. To observe status of implementation of tobacco control legislation in field of prohibition/restriction of smoking in cafes and restaurants conducted observation of those facilities and in-depth interviews of their owners/staff. Observation in cafes and restaurants were done in big regional centers of Georgia, namely in Tbilisi (Capital), Telavi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Rustavi, Gori, Akhaltsikhe and Zugdidi. At all 176 cafés/restaurants were observed (22,4% of all registered cafes/restaurants in Georgia). For qualitative part of the study 1-2 persons from staff of the cafe or restaurant or its owner available during the observation was interviewed. Field work was done during 2011-2012. It must be mentioned that during this period was not observed any important change in legislation and/or enforcement of smoking ban/restrictions in those facilities. Study instrument were guide for observer that contained two parts - observational and open-ended questions for owners and staff. Observation of cafes/restaurants in Georgia shows that 89,8% of them violate existing restriction on smoking. All restaurants and 85% of cafes violate the law. Only 18 (10,2%) cafes are in compliance with the legislation and all of them have total ban. Despite to the fact that more than 50% of observed cafes/restaurants were located in Tbilisi, absolute majority (88,1%) of smoke free facilities are in regions (mainly in Kutaisi, Zugdidi and Gori). Qualitative study of owners/staff of the facilities found factors that probably are influential in determination of smoking status of cafes/restaurants. Namely, decisions on those kinds of issues are made by owners according to business interest and

  10. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aceituno, J.; Thiele, U.; Grupp, F.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.; Benitez, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE) is an instrument underconstruction at CAHA to replace FOCES, the high-resolution echellespectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of the observatory. FOCES is a property ofthe Observatory of the Munich University, and it was recalled it from Calar Altoin 2009. The instrument comprised a substantial fraction of thetelescope time during its operational life-time, and it is due to that it wastaken the decision to build a replacement.CAFE shares its basic characteristics with those of FOCES. However, significantimprovements have been introduced in the original design, the quality of thematerials, and the overall stability of the system. In particular: (i) a newcalibration Iodine cell is foreseen to operate together with the standard ThArlamps; (ii) the optical quality of all the components has been selected to belambda/20, instead of the original lambda/10; (iii) an isolated room hasbeen selected to place the instrument, termalized and stabilized againstvibrations (extensive tests have been performed to grant the stability); (iv)most of the mobile parts in FOCES has been substituted by fixed elements, toincrease the stability of the system; and finally (v) a new more efficientCCD, with a smaller pixel has been acquired. It is expected that the overallefficiency and the quality of the data will be significantly improved withrespect to its precesor. In particular, CAFE is design and built to achieveresolutions of R ˜ 70000, which will be kept in the final acquired data,allowing it to compete with current operational extrasolar planets hunters.After two years of work all the components are in place. The instrument is nowfinally assembled, and we are performing the the first alignment tests. It isexpected that the commissioning on the laboratory will finish at the end of2010, followed by the commissioning on telescope along the first semester of2011. If everything goes well, we will offer the instrument in a shared

  11. Users manual for CAFE-3D : a computational fluid dynamics fire code.

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Imane; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma

    2005-03-01

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) computer code has been developed to model all relevant fire physics for predicting the thermal response of massive objects engulfed in large fires. It provides realistic fire thermal boundary conditions for use in design of radioactive material packages and in risk-based transportation studies. The CAFE code can be coupled to commercial finite-element codes such as MSC PATRAN/THERMAL and ANSYS. This coupled system of codes can be used to determine the internal thermal response of finite element models of packages to a range of fire environments. This document is a user manual describing how to use the three-dimensional version of CAFE, as well as a description of CAFE input and output parameters. Since this is a user manual, only a brief theoretical description of the equations and physical models is included.

  12. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Grupp, F.; Lillo, J.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Benitez, D.; Montoya, L. M.; Thiele, U.; Pedraz, S.; Barrado, D.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). CAFE is a single-fiber, high-resolution (R ~ 70 000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800 Å. It was built on the basis of the common design for Échelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V ~ 13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of m s-1. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, as is the wavelength coverage; there is no filter wheel, etc. Particular care was taken with the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfills the specifications and can achieve the planned goals. In particular, the results show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a signal-to-noise of ~20 for a stellar object as faint as V ~ 14.5 mag in ~2700 s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (highly precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations), or astrochemistry.

  13. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful

    PubMed Central

    Kunzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Gotschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brandli, O

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. Methods: In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. Results: The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p < 0.01). The smoking regulation was the most often cited selection criterion (83%). In the non-smoking café, 89% indicated that they were usually annoyed by smoke in coffee houses, and 62% would avoid or leave cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p < 0.001) higher in the non-smoking cafe. Conclusion: In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies. PMID:12958388

  14. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  15. A CAFE Delta Building Model With Channel Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.; Edmonds, D.

    2009-12-01

    Mass balance sediment transport models based on the Exner equation are excellent at predicting the overall growth of river deltas, such as the position of the shoreline or the total area of delta as a function of time. The detailed evolution of delta growth, however, is dependent on the structure of the channel network which distributes the sediments. For example, vegetation dynamics along channel edges plays an important role in land building process. Therefore, to fully resolve the key delta growth processes, models must be able to evolve and track the channels on its surface. Current attempts to resolve channel networks in delta building models cover a wide range of scales. At small scales, solvers that resolve the three-dimensional flow field successfully simulate the formation of river mouth bar and channel bifurcation, but due to their computational demand they cannot be used to model a whole delta. At large scales, two-dimensional cellular models can crudely incorporate self-channelization but do not resolve the full channel network. In the middle, the coupling of Cellular Automata rules for channel evolution with Finite Element models of sediment transport (CAFE models) shows promise of providing physically and computationally feasible models. Here we borrow recent ideas from diffusion models of dendritic crystal structures, to develop a CAFE delta building model. We use an unstructured mesh of Delaunay triangulation with vertex nodes and two sets of rules are introduced as “building” and “aging” rules. Building rules describe the diffusional flux between adjacent nodes, essentially equivalent to a discrete solution of the PDE system describing diffusion of sediment in a fluvial delta. Channels are developed by selecting nodes in which sediment flux exceeds a given threshold. Interestingly bifurcations emerge at the shoreline, even though no rules specify their creation. Aging rules are applied to the cellular structure of channel networks to

  16. Physical properties of Rh substituted CaFe2As2 tuned by annealing/quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Sheng; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Our previous work on CaFe2As2 single crystal grown out of FeAs flux has shown that a process of annealing and quenching can be used as an additional control parameter which can tune the ground state of CaFe2As2 systematically. We have also shown that CaFe2As2 is very pressure sensitive. Therefore, unlike the BaFe2As2 system, the effect of 4d transition metal substitution on CaFe2As2 is expected to be largely different from that of 3d transition metal substitution (e.g. cobalt or nickel substitution). In this talk we will present results of measurements on a Rh substituted CaFe2As2 system with different annealing/quenching temperatures. Phase diagrams with substitution level and annealing/quenching temperature as independent parameters are constructed and compared with that of other transition metal substitutions. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  17. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  18. The Poetry Cafe Is Open! Teaching Literary Devices of Sound in Poetry Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcik, Beth; Certo, Janine L.

    2007-01-01

    A six-week long intervention that introduced second graders to poetry writing is described in this article, ending in a classroom "poetry cafe" culminating event. This article details the established classroom "writing workshop" structure and environment and the perceptions and observations of how students responded to the instruction. Four poetry…

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhen; Huffman, T. J.; Xu, Peng; Qazilbash, M. M.; Saha, S. R.; Drye, Tyler; Paglione, J.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, rare-earth doping in CaFe2As2 has been used to tune its electronic, magnetic, and structural properties. The substitution of rare-earth ions at the alkaline-earth sites leads to the suppression of the spin-density wave (SDW) phase transition in CaFe2As2. For example, Pr substitution results in a paramagnetic metal in the tetragonal phase that is susceptible to a low temperature structural transition to a collapsed tetragonal phase. However, La-doped CaFe2As2 remains in the uncollapsed tetragonal structure down to the lowest measured temperatures. Both the uncollapsed and collapsed tetragonal structures exhibit superconductivity with maximum Tc reaching 47 K, the highest observed in inter-metallics albeit with a small superconducting volume fraction. In this work, we perform ab-plane infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2 at different cryogenic temperatures. Our aim is to ascertain the contributions of electron doping and chemical pressure to the charge and lattice dynamics of this iron-arsenide system.

  20. CAFES 2009 New Student Survey Report. Survey Research Center Report 2010/3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speerstra, Mandy; Trechter, David

    2010-01-01

    During Academic Day, September 1, 2009, incoming freshmen and transfer students in the College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences (CAFES) were asked to complete a one-page questionnaire designed to find out: (1) how they learned about UW-River Falls as an option for their tertiary education; (2) what factors most influenced their…

  1. Speakeasy Studio and Cafe: Information Literacy, Web-based Library Instruction, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of academic library instruction and information literacy focuses on a Web-based program developed at Washington State University called Speakeasy Studio and Cafe that is used for bibliographic instruction. Highlights include the research process; asking the right question; and adapting to students' differing learning styles. (LRW)

  2. Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) Model: A Framework for School Counselor Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Erin C. M.; Ockerman, Melissa S.; Chen-Hayes, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    Significant recent influences in the profession have provided clear direction about what school counseling programs should look like but have not explicitly defined the professional identity necessary to enact these programs. A Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) Model draws from the American School Counselor Association National Model (2003, 2005,…

  3. Stockholm's Cafe 84: A Unique Day Program for Jewish Survivors of Concentration Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Hedi; Waxman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes Cafe 84, a day program in Sweden for survivors of German concentration camps, which offers organized but informal activities so that members can socialize and discuss current feelings and memories. Claims large membership as well as reports of reduced symptoms and increased well-being are evidence of program's success. (Author/ABL)

  4. The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laegran, Anne Sofie

    2002-01-01

    A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

  5. CAFE — A New On-Line Resource for Planning Scientific Field Investigations in Planetary Analogue Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. J.; Barber, S. J.; Grady, M. M.

    2012-03-01

    The Concepts for Activities in the Field for Exploration (CAFE) project is creating a complete catalogue of terrestrial analogue environments that are appropriate for testing human space exploration-related scientific field activities.

  6. CaFe2As2 Under In-Plane Uniaxial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Miles; Zieve, Rena; Dioguardi, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Many unconventional superconductors have a planar crystal structure, with a resulting two-dimensional character that favors superconductivity. They tend to have anisotropic behavior and can be very sensitive to uniaxial pressure. Since these materials often grow preferentially as platelets perpendicular to the crystalline c axis, applying in-plane pressure is challenging. We present a new setup for studying thin samples under uniaxial pressure and our results on CaFe2As2. CaFe2As2 undergoes a magnetic transition simultaneously with a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition. In-plane uniaxial pressure detwins the orthorhombic phase and accentuates the difference between the axes. We find a significant change in Ts as well as anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity that increases with pressure.

  7. Fermi-Surface Reconstruction and Complex Phase Equilibria in CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofryk, K.; Saparov, B.; Durakiewicz, T.; Chikina, A.; Danzenbächer, S.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Graf, M. J.; Sefat, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Fermi-surface topology governs the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based materials. Using low-temperature transport, angle-resolved photoemission, and x-ray diffraction, we show unambiguous evidence of large Fermi-surface reconstruction in CaFe2As2 at magnetic spin-density-wave and nonmagnetic collapsed-tetragonal (cT) transitions. For the cT transition, the change in the Fermi-surface topology has a different character with no contribution from the hole part of the Fermi surface. In addition, the results suggest that the pressure effect in CaFe2As2 is mainly leading to a rigid-band-like change of the valence electronic structure. We discuss these results and their implications for magnetism and superconductivity in this material.

  8. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  9. Complex temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Ganesh; Biswas, Deepnarayan; Sahadev, Nishaina; Bindu, R.; Kumar, Neeraj; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2014-03-01

    Employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy, we investigate the temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2, which is a parent compound of high temperature superconductors—CaFe2As2 exhibits superconductivity under pressure as well as doping of charge carriers. Photoemission results of CaFe2As2 in this study reveal a gradual shift of an energy band, α away from the chemical potential with decreasing temperature in addition to the spin density wave (SDW) transition induced Fermi surface reconstruction across SDW transition temperature. The corresponding hole pocket eventually disappears at lower temperatures, while the hole Fermi surface of the β band possessing finite p orbital character survives till the lowest temperature studied. These results, thus, reveal signature of complex charge redistribution among various energy bands as a function of temperature.

  10. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. PMID:25610415

  11. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events.

    PubMed

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain-domain interactions, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist's mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop 'novel' therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE.

  12. Global warming and urban smog: Cost-effectiveness of CAFE standards and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.; Collins, C.T.

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we estimate the cost-effectiveness, in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, of increasing the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard to 38 miles per gallon and substituting methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and reformulated gasoline for conventional gasoline. Greenhouse gas emissions are assessed over the entire fuel cycle and include carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide emissions. To account for joint environmental benefits, the cost per ton of greenhouse gas reduced is adjusted for reductions in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, an ozone precursor. CNG is found to be the most cost-effective of these alternatives, followed by increasing the CAFE standard, substituting methanol for gasoline, and substituting reformulated for conventional gasoline. Including the VOC benefits does not change the ranking of the alternatives, but does make the alternative fuels look better relative to increasing the CAFE standard. None of the alternatives look cost-effective should a carbon tax of $35 per ton be passed, and only CNG under optimistic assumptions looks cost-effective with a tax of $100 per ton of carbon. 35 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  14. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  15. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2 As2 studied by 75As NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yuji; Roy, Beas; Ran, Shen; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2014-03-01

    Recently much attention has been paid to CaFe2As2 because the magnetic and electronic properties of the system can be controlled by changing the heat treatment conditions. CaFe2As2 annealed at 400 C for 24 hours undergoes a phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal paramagnetic state to a low temperature orthorhombic antiferromagnetic state at TN ~ 160K. On the other hand, CaFe2As2 quenched from 960 C to room temperature shows a transition to a collapsed tetragonal non-magnetic phase below Ts ~ 90 K. In order to investigate the difference in electronic and magnetic properties of the two different CaFe2As2 samples from a microscopic point of view, we have carried 75As-NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements. We also performed 75As-NMR measurements on Co-doped CaFe2As2 superconductor. Based on our NMR data, we will discuss similarities and difference in magnetic fluctuations in the systems, and compare the NMR data with inelastic neutron scattering data. Supported by USDOE under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  17. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  18. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  19. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26497000

  1. Global warming and urban smog: The cost effectiveness of CAFE standards and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.; Collins, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative transportation policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone precursors. The net cost-effectiveness -- i.e., the cost per ton of greenhouse gas reduced, adjusted for ozone reduction benefits -- of substituting methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and reformulated gasoline for conventional gasoline is assessed and compared with the cost-effectiveness of raising the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard to 38 miles per gallon. Computing this [open quotes]net[close quotes] cost-effectiveness is one way of measuring the joint environmental benefits that these alternatives provide. Greenhouse gas emissions are assessed over the entire fuel cycle and include not only carbon dioxide emissions, but also methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide emissions. In computing cost-effectiveness, we account for the so-called [open quotes]rebound effect[close quotes] -- the impact on vehicle-miles traveled of higher or lower fuel costs. CNG is found to be the most cost-effective of these alternatives, followed by increasing the CAFE standard, substituting methanol for gasoline, and substituting reformulated for conventional gasoline. Including the ozone reduction benefits does not change the rankings of the alternatives, but does make the alternative fuels look better relative to increasing the CAFE standard. Incorporating the rebound effect greatly changes the magnitude of the estimates but does not change the rankings of the alternatives. None of the alternatives look cost-effective should a carbon tax of $35 per ton be passes (the proposal in the Stark bill, H.R. 1086), and only CNG under optimistic assumptions looks cost-effective if a tax of $100 per ton of carbon is passed.

  2. 'Tetl' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's trek through the 'Columbia Hills' at 'Gusev Crater,' shows the horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl.' Scientists hope to investigate this rock in more detail, aiming to determine whether the rock's layering is volcanic or sedimentary in origin. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba.' Spirit took this image on its 264th martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2004). This is a false-color composite image generated from the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters.

  3. Impact of densification on microstructure and transport properties of CaFe5O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacotte, C.; Hébert, S.; Hardy, V.; Bréard, Y.; Maki, R.; Mori, T.; Pelloquin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monophasic CaFe5O7 ceramic has been synthesized by solid state route. Its microstructural features have been studied by diffraction techniques and electron microscopy images before and after Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) annealings. This work is completed by measurements of electrical and thermal properties. Especially, attention is focused around the structural and electronic transition at 360 K for which specific heat measurements have revealed a sharp peak. Densification by SPS techniques led to a significant improvement of electrical conductivity above 360 K.

  4. Stripes and antiphase boundaries in CaFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Chris; Rodriguez, Efrain; Green, Mark; Lee, Nara; Cheong, S.-W.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the magnetic structure and spin dynamics in CaFe2O4 based upon an orthorhombic structure. The magnetic structure consists of two competing magnetic phases based upon stripes of S =5/2 Fe3+ ions. The magnetic dynamics illustrate that the coupling is primarily two dimensional. On application of a magnetic field, antiphase magnetic boundaries can be introduced into the lattice and frozen in at low temperatures. We investigate the structure and dynamics of these domains using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering and discuss how the triangular geometry allow these localized defects to be energetically favorable. Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Royal Society, and EPSRC.

  5. The Garden Cafe. An experiment in vocational education in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Olson, J R

    1992-07-01

    The author visited Bohol, a picturesque island in the Philippines 350 miles south of Manila, in 1986 and 1990 to observe and record the emerging deaf culture. Before the Peace Corps started a school program on the island some eight years ago, deaf children grew up functionally illiterate. Those who have not been found and are not enrolled in the fledgling school program still do, as they are completely isolated from the deaf community. This article describes heroic efforts to teach vocational skills to the deaf in Bohol. The project not only succeeded but led to the island's best restaurant, The Garden Cafe.

  6. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  7. Superconducting fluctuation effect in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Gao, B.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    2016-11-01

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF single crystals. Superconducting fluctuations, featured by magnetic field enhanced and exponential temperature dependent diamagnetism, are observed above the superconducting transition temperature T c, which is similar to that of cuprate superconductors, but less pronounced. In addition, the ratio of T c versus superfluid density follows well the Uemura line of high-T c cuprates, which suggests the exotic nature of the superconductivity in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF.

  8. Superconducting fluctuation effect in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Gao, B; Ma, Y H; Li, X J; Mu, G; Hu, T

    2016-11-16

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF single crystals. Superconducting fluctuations, featured by magnetic field enhanced and exponential temperature dependent diamagnetism, are observed above the superconducting transition temperature T c, which is similar to that of cuprate superconductors, but less pronounced. In addition, the ratio of T c versus superfluid density follows well the Uemura line of high-T c cuprates, which suggests the exotic nature of the superconductivity in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF. PMID:27619794

  9. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  10. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  12. Complex structures of different CaFe2As2 samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Cantoni, Claudia; Pan, Minghu; Hogan, Thomas C.; , William Ratcliff, II; Wilson, Stephen D.; Fritsch, Katharina; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between magnetism and crystal structures in three CaFe2As2 samples is studied. For the nonmagnetic quenched crystals, different crystalline domains with varying lattice parameters are found, and three phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal, and collapsed tetragonal) coexist between TS = 95 K and 45 K. Annealing of the quenched crystals at 350°C leads to a strain relief through a large (~1.3%) expansion of the c-parameter and a small (~0.2%) contraction of the a-parameter, and to local ~0.2 Å displacements at the atomic-level. This annealing procedure results in the most homogeneous crystals for which the antiferromagnetic and orthorhombic phase transitions occur at TN/TS = 168(1) K. In the 700°C-annealed crystal, an intermediate strain regime takes place, with tetragonal and orthorhombic structural phases coexisting between 80 to 120 K. The origin of such strong shifts in the transition temperatures are tied to structural parameters. Importantly, with annealing, an increase in the Fe-As length leads to more localized Fe electrons and higher local magnetic moments on Fe ions. Synergistic contribution of other structural parameters, including a decrease in the Fe-Fe distance, and a dramatic increase of the c-parameter, which enhances the Fermi surface nesting in CaFe2As2, are also discussed.

  13. Waterpipe cafes in Baltimore, Maryland: Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Torrey, Christine M; Moon, Katherine A; Williams, D' Ann L; Green, Tim; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1-2 m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke. PMID:24736103

  14. Waterpipe cafes in Baltimore, Maryland: Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, Christine M; Moon, Katherine A; Williams, D' Ann L; Green, Tim; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1–2 m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke. PMID:24736103

  15. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  16. 'Lutefisk' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take this image of a rock called 'Lutefisk' on the rover's 286th martian day (Oct. 22, 2004). The surface of the rock is studded with rounded granules of apparently more-resistant material up to several millimeters (0.1 inch) or more across. The visible portion of Lutefisk is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across.

  17. Pressure-induced change of the electronic state in the tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Yui; Ikeda, Shugo; Kuse, Tetsuji; Kobayashi, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the electronic states of single-crystal CaFe2As2 under hydrostatic pressure using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The center shift and the quadrupole splitting were refined from observed 57Fe Mössbauer spectra using the single-crystalline sample under pressure at room temperature. A discontinuous decrease in the pressure dependence of the refined center shift was observed at 0.33 GPa without any anomaly in the pressure dependence of the refined quadrupole splitting, indicating a purely electronic state change in CaFe2As2 with a tetragonal structure. Such a change is shown to be reflected in the peak-like anomalies observed in the pressure dependences of the magnetic susceptibility at 0.26 GPa above 150 K. Our results reveal that this pressure-induced electronic state change suppresses the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition accompanied by an antiferromagnetic ordering. We further observed superconductivity in CaFe2As2 below ˜8 K around 0.33 GPa although our sample was not in a single phase at this pressure. These findings suggest that the electronic state change observed in CaFe2As2 with the tetragonal structure is relevant to the appearance of the pressure-induced superconductivity in AFe2As2.

  18. Would the "Real" Girl Gamer Please Stand Up? Gender, LAN Cafes and the Reformulation of the "Girl" Gamer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Catherine; Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the significance of cyber "LAN" cafes as sites where on and off-line practices meet in way that complicates binary notions of the gendered gamer. Existing research into computer games culture suggests a male dominated environment and points to girls' lower levels of competence and participation in games. Building on…

  19. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  20. Mechanically - induced disorder in CaFe2As2: a 57Fe Mössbauer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoming; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.

    57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study an extremely pressure and strain sensitive compound, CaFe2As2, with different degrees of strain introduced by grinding and annealing. At the base temperature, in the antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase, compared to a sharp sextet Mössbauer spectrum of single crystal CaFe2As2, which is taken as an un-strained sample, an obviously broadened sextet and an extra doublet were observed for ground CaFe2As2 powders with different degrees of strain. The Mössbauer results suggest that the magnetic phase transition of CaFe2As2 can be inhomogeneously suppressed by the grinding induced strain to such an extent that the antiferromagnetic order in parts of the grains forming the powdered sample remain absent all the way down to 4.6 K. However, strain has almost no effect on the temperature dependent hyperfine magnetic field in the grains with magnetic order. The quadrupole shift in the magnetic phase approachs zero with increasing degrees of strain, indicating that the strain reduces the average lattice asymmetry at Fe atom position. Supported by US DOE under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358 and by the China Scholarship Council.

  1. (En)Countering Social and Environmental Messages in the Rainforest Cafe [sic], Children's Picturebooks, and Other Visual Culture Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Mira; Han, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Our study critically examines social and environmental messages in a range of visual sites educating about rainforest environments. We focus primarily on the Rainforest Cafe, an international series of rainforest-themed edutainment restaurant/stores, whose inherent contradictions between consumption and conservation are quite disturbing when…

  2. Solitary Magnons in the S =5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Lee, N.; Green, M. A.; Demmel, F.; Ewings, R. A.; Fouquet, P.; Laver, M.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Su, Y.; Nemkovski, K.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2016-07-01

    CaFe2O4 is a S =5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c -axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ˜1 ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ˜1 - 2 c -axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A +B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet.

  3. Incommensurate magnetism in FeAs strips: neutron scattering from CaFe(4)As(3).

    PubMed

    Nambu, Yusuke; Zhao, Liang L; Morosan, Emilia; Kim, Kyoo; Kotliar, Gabriel; Zajdel, Pawel; Green, Mark A; Ratcliff, William; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A; Broholm, Collin

    2011-01-21

    Magnetism in the orthorhombic metal CaFe(4)As(3) was examined through neutron diffraction for powder and single crystalline samples. Incommensurate [q(m) ≈ (0.37-0.39) × b*] and predominantly longitudinally (|| b) modulated order develops through a 2nd order phase transition at TN = 89.63(6) K with a 3D Heisenberg-like critical exponent β = 0.365(6). A 1st order transition at T2 = 25.6(9)  K is associated with the development of a transverse component, locking q(m) to 0.375(2)b*, and increasing the moments from 2.1(1) to 2.2(3)  μ B for Fe2+ and from 1.3(3) to 2.4(4)  μB for Fe+. The ab initio Fermi surface is consistent with a nesting instability in cross-linked FeAs strips.

  4. Mössbauer spectra of synthetic Ca-Fe pyroxenoids and lunar pyroxferroite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowty, Eric; Lindsley, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    Resolution of the iron sites in the Mössbauer spectra of Ca-Fe pyroxenoids is only partial, two doublets being apparent in each case, whereas there are up to nine cation sites in each structure. Thus the inner and outer doublets represent, respectively: two sites and two sites in Ca0.5Fe0.5SiO3(ferrobustamite); five sites and two sites in Ca0.15Fe0.85SiO3 (pyroxferroite); and five sites and four sites in FeSiO3 (ferrosolite III). Disorder of iron and calcium which exists in the two calcium-bearing pyroxenoids is not readily apparent in the spectra.

  5. Retention Cafe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwasser, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Employers in the hospitality industry are attempting to retain workers with such methods as using personality typing when selecting employees, offering a variety of fringe benefits, and selecting employees who want a career instead of a job. (JOW)

  6. Rock Paintings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  7. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  8. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  9. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  10. Unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF evidenced by torque measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF single crystals. Abnormal superconducting fluctuation, featured by enhanced diamagnetism with magnetic field, is detected up to about 1.5 times superconducting transition temperature Tc. Compared to cuprate superconductors, the fluctuation effect in iron-based superconductor is less pronounced. Anisotropy parameter γ is obtained from the mixed state torque data and it is found that γ shows both magnetic field and temperature depenence, pointing to multiband superconductivity. The temperature dependence of penetration depth λ (T) suggests unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF.

  11. The unusually high Tc in rare-earth-doped single crystalline CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fengyan; Lv, Bing; Deng, Liangzi; Meen, James K.; Xue, Yu-Yi; Chu, Ching-Wu

    2014-08-01

    In rare-earth-doped single crystalline CaFe2As2, the mysterious small volume fraction which superconducts up to 49 K, much higher than the bulk Tc ~ 30 s K, has prompted a long search for a hidden variable that could enhance the Tc by more than 30% in iron-based superconductors of the same structure. Here we report a chemical, structural and magnetic study of CaFe2As2 systematically doped with La, Ce, Pr and Nd. Coincident with the high Tc phase, we find extreme magnetic anisotropy, accompanied by an unexpected doping-independent Tc and equally unexpected superparamagnetic clusters associated with As vacancies. These observations lead us to conjecture that the tantalizing Tc enhancement may be associated with naturally occurring chemical interfaces and may thus provide a new paradigm in the search for superconductors with higher Tc.

  12. The non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 and superconductivity in the iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, J. H.; Tucker, G. S.; Pratt, D. K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, S.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the non-superconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is non-magnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Work at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  13. Mechanically-induced disorder in CaFe2As2: A 57Fe Mössbauer study

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiaoming; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2015-10-17

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to perform a microscopic study on the extremely pressure and strain sensitive compound, CaFe2As2, with different degrees of strain introduced by grinding and annealing. At the base temperature, in the antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase, compared to a sharp sextet Mössbauer spectrum of single crystal CaFe2As2, which is taken as an un-strained sample, an obviously broadened sextet and an extra doublet were observed for ground CaFe2As2 powders with different degrees of strain. The Mössbauer results suggest that the magnetic phase transition of CaFe2As2 can be inhomogeneously suppressed by the grinding induced strain to such an extent that themore » antiferromagnetic order in parts of the grains forming the powdered sample remain absent all the way down to 4.6 K. However, strain has almost no effect on the temperature dependent hyperfine magnetic field in the grains with magnetic order. Additional electronic and asymmetry information was obtained from the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting. Similar isomer shift values in the magnetic phase for samples with different degrees of strain, indicate that the stain does not bring any significant variation of the electronic density at 57Fe nucleus position. As a result, the absolute values of quadrupole shift in the magnetic phase decrease and approach zero with increasing degrees of strain, indicating that the strain reduces the average lattice asymmetry at Fe atom position.« less

  14. CAFE: A Computer Tool for Accurate Simulation of the Regulatory Pool Fire Environment for Type B Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, L.A.; Koski, J.A.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1999-03-16

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment computer code (CAFE) is intended to provide Type B package designers with an enhanced engulfing fire boundary condition when combined with the PATRAN/P-Thermal commercial code. Historically an engulfing fire boundary condition has been modeled as {sigma}T{sup 4} where {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzman constant, and T is the fire temperature. The CAFE code includes the necessary chemistry, thermal radiation, and fluid mechanics to model an engulfing fire. Effects included are the local cooling of gases that form a protective boundary layer that reduces the incoming radiant heat flux to values lower than expected from a simple {sigma}T{sup 4} model. In addition, the effect of object shape on mixing that may increase the local fire temperature is included. Both high and low temperature regions that depend upon the local availability of oxygen are also calculated. Thus the competing effects that can both increase and decrease the local values of radiant heat flux are included in a reamer that is not predictable a-priori. The CAFE package consists of a group of computer subroutines that can be linked to workstation-based thermal analysis codes in order to predict package performance during regulatory and other accident fire scenarios.

  15. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  18. Solitary Magnons in the S=5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe_{2}O_{4}.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Rodriguez, E E; Lee, N; Green, M A; Demmel, F; Ewings, R A; Fouquet, P; Laver, M; Niedermayer, Ch; Su, Y; Nemkovski, K; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Cheong, S-W

    2016-07-01

    CaFe_{2}O_{4} is a S=5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c-axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ∼1  ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ∼1-2 c-axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A+B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet.

  19. Mott transition in CaFe2O4 at around 50 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Eran; Rozenberg, Gregory Kh.; Xu, Weiming; Pasternak, Moshe P.; McCammon, Catherine; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical transport and magnetic properties of CaFe2O4 have been studied at pressures up to 70 GPa using Fe57 Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy, and electrical resistance measurements. These studies have shown the onset of the Mott transition (MT) at a pressure of around 50 GPa, leading to the collapse of Fe3+ magnetic moments and to the insulator-metal (IM) transition. The observed onset of the MT corroborates with the recently reported isostructural transition accompanied by a 12% decrease in the Fe polyhedral volume. An analysis of the alterations of the electrical transport, magnetic, and structural properties with pressure increase and at the transition range suggests that the coinciding IM transition, magnetic moment, and volume collapse at around 50 GPa are caused by the closure of the Hubbard gap driven by the high-spin to low-spin (HS-LS) transition. At that, since MS did not reveal any evidence of a preceding LS state, it could be inferred that the HS-LS transition immediately leads to an IM transition and complete collapse of magnetism.

  20. Interlayer interaction in Ca-Fe layered double hydroxides intercalated with nitrate and chloride species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jaberi, Muayad; Naille, Sébastien; Dossot, Manuel; Ruby, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Ca-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with chloride and nitrate ions has been synthesized with varying CaII:FeIII molar ratios of the initial solution. Phase pure LDH is observed with CaII:FeIII molar ratio of 2:1 and a mixture of LDH and Ca(OH)2 is formed for CaII:FeIII molar ratios higher than 2:1. Vibrational spectroscopies (Raman and IR) were used successfully to understand the interaction between the cationic and anionic sheets. The Raman bands positions at lower frequencies (150-600 cm-1) are intimately correlated to the nature of the divalent and trivalent ions but also to the nature of the anions. Indeed, a shift of ˜9 cm-1 is observed for the Raman double bands situated in the 300-400 cm-1 region when comparing Raman spectra of CaFe-LDH containing either nitrate or chloride ions. Two types of nitrate environments are observed namely free (non-hydrogen bonded) nitrate and nitrate hydrogen bonded to the interlayer water or to the 'brucite-like' hydroxyl surface. Multiple types of water structure are observed and would result from different hydrogen bond structures. Water bending modes are identified at 1645 cm-1 greater than the one observed for LDH intercalated with chloride anions (1618 cm-1), indicating that the water is strongly hydrogen bonded to the nitrate anions.

  1. Solitary Magnons in the S=5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe_{2}O_{4}.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Rodriguez, E E; Lee, N; Green, M A; Demmel, F; Ewings, R A; Fouquet, P; Laver, M; Niedermayer, Ch; Su, Y; Nemkovski, K; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Cheong, S-W

    2016-07-01

    CaFe_{2}O_{4} is a S=5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c-axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ∼1  ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ∼1-2 c-axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A+B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet. PMID:27419585

  2. Structural Origin of the Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Local Magnetic Moments in the CaFe2As2 Family of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortenzi, L.; Gretarsson, H.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Wu, W.; Julian, S. R.; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I. I.; Boeri, L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a combination of Fe K β x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 (x =0.055 ) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c -axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides.

  3. Structural origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of the local magnetic moments in the CaFe2As2 family of materials.

    PubMed

    Ortenzi, L; Gretarsson, H; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Shibauchi, T; Finkelstein, K D; Wu, W; Julian, S R; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I I; Boeri, L

    2015-01-30

    We report a combination of Fe Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (x=0.055) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides. PMID:25679903

  4. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  5. Temperature dependent tunneling study of CaFe1.96Ni0.04As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anirban; Thamizhavel, A.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2014-04-01

    We report on temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies on CaFe1.96Ni0.04As2 single crystals in 5.4 - 19.7 K temperature range across the normal metal - superconductor transition temperature, TC = 14K. The in-situ cleaved crystals show reasonably flat surface with signatures of atomic resolution. The tunnel spectra show significant spatial inhomogeneity below TC, which reduces significantly as the temperature goes above the TC. We discuss these results in terms of an inhomogeneous electronic phase that may exist due to the vicinity of this composition to the quantum critical point.

  6. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  7. Estimating gene gain and loss rates in the presence of error in genome assembly and annotation using CAFE 3.

    PubMed

    Han, Mira V; Thomas, Gregg W C; Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Hahn, Matthew W

    2013-08-01

    Current sequencing methods produce large amounts of data, but genome assemblies constructed from these data are often fragmented and incomplete. Incomplete and error-filled assemblies result in many annotation errors, especially in the number of genes present in a genome. This means that methods attempting to estimate rates of gene duplication and loss often will be misled by such errors and that rates of gene family evolution will be consistently overestimated. Here, we present a method that takes these errors into account, allowing one to accurately infer rates of gene gain and loss among genomes even with low assembly and annotation quality. The method is implemented in the newest version of the software package CAFE, along with several other novel features. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method with extensive simulations and reanalyze several previously published data sets. Our results show that errors in genome annotation do lead to higher inferred rates of gene gain and loss but that CAFE 3 sufficiently accounts for these errors to provide accurate estimates of important evolutionary parameters.

  8. A Tale of Blue Rain Cafe: A Study on the Online Narrative Construction about a Community of English Learners on the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes a strand of online discussion messages entitled "a Tale of Blue Rain Cafe" from an online community of English learners on the Chinese mainland. The strand of messages was part of the collective reflection made by members of an English learning club on their participation. Using sociocultural learning theory, the paper explores…

  9. Facile synthesis of novel CaFe2O4/g-C3N4 nanocomposites for degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, S; Maruthamani, D; Habibi-Yangjeh, A; Paul, Bappi; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Selvam, Kaliyamoorthy

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites comprised of calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) were prepared via a simple two-step process. The hybridized CaFe2O4/g-C3N4 heterostructure was characterized by a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and photoelectrochemical studies. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples was evaluated against degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of CaFe2O4 30%/g-C3N4 nanocomposite, as optimum photocatalyst, for degradation of MB was superior to the pure CaFe2O4 and g-C3N4 samples. It was demonstrated that the photogenerated holes and superoxide ion radicals were the two main reactive species towards the photocatalytic degradation of MB over the nanocomposite. Based on the experimental results, a possible photocatalytic mechanism for the MB degradation over the nanocomposite was proposed. This work may provide some inspiration for the fabrication of spinel ferrites with efficient photocatalytic performance. PMID:27421115

  10. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  11. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  12. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  13. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  14. Radial velocity confirmation of Kepler-91 b. Additional evidence of its planetary nature using the Calar Alto/CAFE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Henning, Th.; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2014-08-01

    The object transiting the star Kepler-91 was recently assessed as being of planetary nature. The confirmation was achieved by analysing the light-curve modulations observed in the Kepler data. However, quasi-simultaneous studies claimed a self-luminous nature for this object, thus rejecting it as a planet. In this work, we apply anindependent approach to confirm the planetary mass of Kepler-91b by using multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE). We obtain the physical and orbital parameters with the radial velocity technique. In particular, we derive a value of 1.09 ± 0.20 MJup for the mass of Kepler-91b, in excellent agreement with our previous estimate that was based on the orbital brightness modulation.

  15. Unusual superconducting state at 49 K in electron-doped CaFe2As2 at ambient pressure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bing; Deng, Liangzi; Gooch, Melissa; Wei, Fengyan; Sun, Yanyi; Meen, James K; Xue, Yu-Yi; Lorenz, Bernd; Chu, Ching-Wu

    2011-09-20

    We report the detection of unusual superconductivity up to 49 K in single crystalline CaFe(2)As(2) via electron-doping by partial replacement of Ca by rare-earth. The superconducting transition observed suggests the possible existence of two phases: one starting at 49 K, which has a low critical field < 4 Oe, and the other at 21 K, with a much higher critical field > 5 T. Our observations are in strong contrast to previous reports of doping or pressurizing layered compounds AeFe(2)As(2) (or Ae122), where Ae = Ca, Sr, or Ba. In Ae122, hole-doping has been previously observed to generate superconductivity with a transition temperature (T(c)) only up to 38 K and pressurization has been reported to produce superconductivity with a T(c) up to 30 K. The unusual 49 K phase detected will be discussed. PMID:21911404

  16. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  17. Thermal equation of state of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueda, Yuichiro; Irifune, Tetsuo; Sanehira, Takeshi; Yagi, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Kikegawa, Takumi; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-05-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4 have been conducted at pressures up to 42 GPa and temperatures to 2400 K using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus with sintered diamond anvils. Additional measurements have also been conducted at pressures to 12 GPa using diamond anvil cell with helium as a pressure medium at room temperature, and at temperatures to 836 K at the ambient pressure using a high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. The analysis of room-temperature data yielded V0 = 240.1(2) Å 3, K0 = 205(6) GPa, and K0=4.1(3). A fit of the present data to high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) yielded (∂ K0/∂ T) P = -0.030(2) GPa/K and α0 = a0 + b0T with values of a0 = 1.96(13) × 10 -5 K -1 and b0 = 1.64(24) × 10 -8 K -2. The present data set was also fitted to Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) EOS and we obtained γ0 = 1.73(7), q = 2.03(37), and θ0 = 1546(104) K. Density changes of MORB have been estimated using the newly obtained thermoelastic parameters, assuming that the Al-rich phase in this composition possesses the CaFe 2O 4-type structure under the lower mantle P, T conditions. The calculated densities along geotherms for the normal mantle and subducting cold slabs are both significantly higher than those of typical seismological models, confirming the conclusion of some recent results on MORB by laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

  18. Rock and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

  19. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  20. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Suppression of electron correlations in the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 under ambient pressure demonstrated by As75 NMR/NQR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Roy, B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2014-03-01

    The static and the dynamic spin correlations in the low-temperature collapsed tetragonal and the high-temperature tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 have been investigated by As75 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements. Through the temperature (T) dependence of the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the Knight shifts, although stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin correlations are realized in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, no trace of the AFM spin correlations can be found in the nonsuperconducting, low-temperature, collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase. Given that there is no magnetic broadening in As75 NMR spectra, together with the T-independent behavior of magnetic susceptibility χ and the T dependence of 1/T1Tχ, we conclude that Fe spin correlations are completely quenched statically and dynamically in the nonsuperconducting cT phase in CaFe2As2.

  2. Interplay of Superconductivity and Fermi-Liquid Transport in Rh-Doped CaFe2As2 with Lattice-Collapse Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danura, Masataka; Kudo, Kazutaka; Oshiro, Yoshihiro; Araki, Shingo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Nohara, Minoru

    2011-10-01

    Ca(Fe1-xRhx)2As2 undergoes successive phase transitions with increasing Rh doping in the T = 0 limit. The antiferromagnetic-metal phase with orthorhombic structure at 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.020 is driven to a superconducting phase with uncollapsed-tetragonal (ucT) structure at 0.020 ≤ x ≤ 0.024; a non-superconducting collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phase takes over at x ≥ 0.024. The breakdown of Fermi-liquid transport is observed in the ucT phase above Tc. In the adjacent cT phase, Fermi-liquid transport is restored along with a disappearance of superconductivity. This interplay of superconductivity and Fermi-liquid transport suggests the essential role of magnetic fluctuations in the emergence of superconductivity in doped CaFe2As2.

  3. Improved photoelectrochemical activity of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanode by reduced surface recombination in solar water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kang, Hyun Joon; Magesh, Ganesan; Kim, Jae Young; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-10-22

    A bismuth vanadate photoanode was first fabricated by the metal-organic decomposition method and particles of calcium ferrite were electrophoretically deposited to construct a heterojunction photoanode. The characteristics of the photoanodes were investigated in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under simulated 1 sun (100 mW cm(-2)) irradiation. Relative to the pristine BiVO4 anode, the formation of the heterojunction structure of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 increased the photocurrent density by about 60%. The effect of heterojunction formation on the transfer of charge carriers was investigated using hydrogen peroxide as a hole scavenger. It was demonstrated that the heterojunction formation reduced the charge recombination on the electrode surface with little effect on bulk recombination. The modification with an oxygen evolving catalyst, cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi), was also beneficial for improving the efficiency of CaFe2O4/BiVO4 heterojunction photoanode mainly by increasing the stability. PMID:25232699

  4. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuangmeng; Yin, Yuan; Shieh, Sean R.; Shan, Shuangming; Xue, Weihong; Wang, Ching-Pao; Yang, Ke; Higo, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies of orthorhombic CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4 chromite were carried out up to 16.2 and 32.0 GPa at room temperature using multi-anvil apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. No phase transition was observed in this study. Fitting a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the P-V data yields a zero-pressure volume of V 0 = 286.8(1) Å3, an isothermal bulk modulus of K 0 = 183(5) GPa and the first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus K 0' = 4.1(8). Analyses of axial compressibilities show anisotropic elasticity for β-CaCr2O4 since the a-axis is more compressible than the b- and c-axis. Based on the obtained and previous results, the compressibility of several CaFe2O4-type phases was compared. The high-pressure Raman spectra of β-CaCr2O4 were analyzed to determine the pressure dependences and mode Grüneisen parameters of Raman-active bands. The thermal Grüneisen parameter of β-CaCr2O4 is determined to be 0.93(2), which is smaller than those of CaFe2O4-type CaAl2O4 and MgAl2O4.

  5. Numerical prediction of heat-flux to massive calorimeters engulfed in regulatory fires with the cask analysis fire environment (CAFE) model

    SciTech Connect

    KOSKI,JORMAN A.; SUO-ANTITLA,AHTI; KRAMER,M. ALEX; GREINER,MILES

    2000-05-11

    Recent observations show that the thermal boundary conditions within large-scale fires are significantly affected by the presence of thermally massive objects. These objects cool the soot and gas near their surfaces, and these effects reduce the incoming radiant heat-flux to values lower than the levels expected from simple {sigma}T{sub fire}{sup 4} models. They also affect the flow and temperature fields in the fire far from their surfaces. The Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to provide an enhanced fire boundary condition for the design of radioactive material packages. CAFE is a set of computer subroutines that use computational fluid mechanics methods to predict convective heat transfer and mixing. It also includes models for fuel and oxygen transport, chemical reaction, and participating-media radiation heat transfer. This code uses two-dimensional computational models so that it has reasonably short turnaround times on standard workstations and is well suited for design and risk studies. In this paper, CAFE is coupled with a commercial finite-element program to model a large cylindrical calorimeter fully engulfed in a pool fire. The time-dependent heat-flux to the calorimeter and the calorimeter surface temperature are determined for several locations around the calorimeter circumference. The variation of heat-flux with location is determined for calorimeters with different diameters and wall thickness, and the observed effects discussed.

  6. Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, M.A.; Smith, B.P.; Sigut, D.; Sackey, K. )

    1990-07-15

    Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells.

  7. The Rock Physics Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2003-10-01

    The Rock Physics Handbook conveniently brings together the theoretical and empirical relations that form the foundations of rock physics, with particular emphasis on seismic properties. It also includes commonly used models and relations for electrical and dielectric rock properties. Seventy-six articles concisely summarize a wide range of topics, including wave propagation, AVO-AVOZ, effective media, poroelasticity, pore fluid flow and diffusion. The book contains overviews of dispersion mechanisms, fluid substitution, and Vp-Vs relations. Useful empirical results on reservoir rocks and sediments, granular media, tables of mineral data, and an atlas of reservoir rock properties complete the text. This distillation of an otherwise scattered and eclectic mass of knowledge is presented in a form that can be immediately applied to solve real problems. Geophysics professionals, researchers and students as well as petroleum engineers, well log analysts, and environmental geoscientists will value The Rock Physics Handbook as a unique resource.

  8. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  9. Bounce Rock Dimple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image shows the hole drilled by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' on Sol 65 of the rover's journey. The tool drilled about 7 millimeters (0.3 inches) into the rock and generated small piles of 'tailings' or rock dust around the central hole, which is about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The image from sol 66 of the mission was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  10. Hungry for Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  11. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  12. Rock Bites into 'Bounce'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features the 6.44 millimeter (0.25 inch) deep hole ground into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The tool took 2 hours and 15 minutes to grind the hole on sol 66 of the rover's journey. A combination of limited solar power and the rock's jagged texture led the rock abrasion tool team to set very aggressive grinding parameters to ensure that the end result was a full circle, suitable for a thorough read from the rover's spectrometers.

    Bounce's markedly different appearance (when compared to the rocks that were previously examined in the Eagle Crater outcrop) made it a natural target for rover research. In order to achieve an ideal position from which to grind into the rock, Opportunity moved in very close with its right wheel next to Bounce. In this image, the panoramic camera on the rover's mast is looking down, catching the tip of the solar panel which partially blocks the full circle ground by the rock abrasion tool.

    The outer ring consists of the cuttings from the rock, pushed out by the brushes on the grinding instrument. The dark impression at the top of the outer circle was caused by the instrument's contact mechanism which serves to stabilize it while grinding.

  13. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  14. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  15. Layered Rocks in Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 June 2004 Exposures of layered, sedimentary rock are common on Mars. From the rock outcrops examined by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum to the sequence in Gale Crater's central mound that is twice the thickness of of the sedimentary rocks exposed by Arizona's Grand Canyon, Mars presents a world of sediment to study. This unusual example, imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows eroded layer outcrops in a crater in Terra Tyrrhena near 15.4oS, 270.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past climates and events. Perhaps someday the story told by the rocks in this image will be known via careful field work. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  16. Angular dependent torque measurements on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Gao, B.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    2016-08-01

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF (Ca1 1 1 1) single crystals. In the normal state, the torque data shows \\sin 2θ angular dependence and H 2 magnetic field dependence, as a result of paramagnetism. In the mixed state, the torque signal is a combination of the vortex torque and paramagnetic torque, and the former allows the determination of the anisotropy parameter γ. At T   =  11.5 K, γ (11.5 K ≃ 0.5 T c)  =  19.1, which is similar to the result of SmFeAsO0.8F0.2, γ ≃ 23 at T≃ 0.4{{T}\\text{c}} . So the 11 1 1 is more anisotropic compared to 11 and 122 families of iron-based superconductors. This may suggest that the electronic coupling between layers in 1 1 1 1 is less effective than in 11 and 122 families.

  17. Evidence for interface superconductivity in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Bing; Deng, L. Z.; Wei, F. Y.; Xue, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    To unravel to the mysterious non-bulk superconductivity up to 49K observed in rare-earth (R =La, Ce, Pr and Nd) doped CaFe2As2 single-crystals whose Tc is higher than that of any known compounds consisting of one or more of its constituent elements of R, Ca, Fe, and As at ambient or under pressures, systematic magnetic, compositional and structural have carried out on different rare-earth-doped (Ca1-xRx) Fe2As2 samples. We have detected extremely large magnetic anisotropy, doping-level independent Tc, unexpected superparamagnetic clusters associated with As vacancies and their close correlation with the superconducting volume fraction, the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures and Josephson-junction arrays in this system. These observations lead us to conjecture that the Tc enhancement may be associated with naturally occurring chemical interfaces and thus provided evidence for the possible interface-enhanced Tc in naturally-grown single crystals of Fe-based superconductors.

  18. Magnetism and magnetocaloric effect study of CaFe0.7Co0.3O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H. L.; Y Yin, Y.; Dai, J. H.; Y Yang, J.; Qin, X. M.; Jin, C. Q.; Long, Y. W.

    2015-04-01

    The CaFe0.7Co0.3O3 single crystal was grown for the first time by a two-step method and its magnetism and magnetocaloric effect were investigated. This compound experiences a second-order paramagnetism-to-ferromagnetism transition in a wide temperature window between 200 and 150 K due to the presence of multiple ferromagnetic interactions. Since the spin entropy is gradually released above the ferromagnetic Curie temperature (˜177 K), no sharp λ-type anomaly is observed in specific heat. On the basis of magnetization measurements, however, a considerable entropy change is found in this perovskite oxide. More interesting, this compound exhibits a broadening working temperature, and a significant refrigerant capacity (˜355 J kg-1 at 6 T) which is comparable with those found in some giant magnetocaloric alloys with first-order magnetic transitions. The present study therefore provides an example on how to enhance the refrigerant capacity by extending the working temperature of magnetocaloric material.

  19. Cafe Variome: general-purpose software for making genotype-phenotype data discoverable in restricted or open access contexts.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Owen; Beck, Tim; Atlan, David; Swertz, Morris; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Veal, Colin; Dalgleish, Raymond; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Biomedical data sharing is desirable, but problematic. Data "discovery" approaches-which establish the existence rather than the substance of data-precisely connect data owners with data seekers, and thereby promote data sharing. Cafe Variome (http://www.cafevariome.org) was therefore designed to provide a general-purpose, Web-based, data discovery tool that can be quickly installed by any genotype-phenotype data owner, or network of data owners, to make safe or sensitive content appropriately discoverable. Data fields or content of any type can be accommodated, from simple ID and label fields through to extensive genotype and phenotype details based on ontologies. The system provides a "shop window" in front of data, with main interfaces being a simple search box and a powerful "query-builder" that enable very elaborate queries to be formulated. After a successful search, counts of records are reported grouped by "openAccess" (data may be directly accessed), "linkedAccess" (a source link is provided), and "restrictedAccess" (facilitated data requests and subsequent provision of approved records). An administrator interface provides a wide range of options for system configuration, enabling highly customized single-site or federated networks to be established. Current uses include rare disease data discovery, patient matchmaking, and a Beacon Web service.

  20. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  1. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  2. Detached rock evaluation device

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A rock detachment evaluation device (10) having an energy transducer unit 1) for sensing vibrations imparted to a subject rock (172) for converting the sensed vibrations into electrical signals, a low band pass filter unit (12) for receiving the electrical signal and transmitting only a low frequency segment thereof, a high band pass filter unit (13) for receiving the electrical signals and for transmitting only a high frequency segment thereof, a comparison unit (14) for receiving the low frequency and high frequency signals and for determining the difference in power between the signals, and a display unit (16) for displaying indicia of the difference, which provides a quantitative measure of rock detachment.

  3. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  5. Continental Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    During the past few decades, geochemical studies of continental basaltic rocks and their petrologic kin have become mainstays of studies of the continental lithosphere. These igneous rocks have taken on such an important role largely because the chemical and isotopic composition of continental basaltic rocks and their mantle (see Chapter 2.05) and crustal xenoliths (see Chapter 3.01) provide the best proxy record available to earth scientists for the chemical and physical evolution of the deep continental lithosphere and underlying mantle, areas that are otherwise resistant to direct study. Keeping this in mind, the primary goal of this chapter is to illustrate how geochemical data can be used both to assess the origin of these rocks and to study the evolution of the continental lithosphere.A complete overview of continental basaltic rocks will not be attempted here, because continental "basalts" come in too wide a range of compositions, and because of the sheer volume of geochemical data available for such rocks worldwide. The scope of the chapter is limited to a discussion of a select group of ultramafic to mafic composition "intraplate" continental igneous rocks consisting primarily of kimberlites, potassic and sodic alkali basalts, and continental flood basalts. Igneous rocks forming at active continental margins, such as convergent or transform plate margins, are important examples of continental magmatism but are not directly discussed here (convergent margin magmas are discussed in Chapters 2.11, 3.11, and 3.18). The geochemistry of intraplate igneous rocks of the ocean basins are covered in Chapters 2.04 and 3.16. Although basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout the Earths history, the majority of the examples presented here are from Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic fields due to the more complete preservation of younger continental mafic igneous rocks. While considerable effort has been expended in studying the chemical differentiation of mafic magmas

  6. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  7. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  8. East Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a thick, massive outcrop of light-toned rock exposed within eastern Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Dark, windblown sand has banked against the lower outcrop slopes. Outcrops such as this in the Valles Marineris chasms have been known since Mariner 9 images were obtained in 1972. However, the debate as to whether these represent sedimentary or igneous rocks has not been settled within the Mars science community. In either case, they have the physical properties of sedimentary rock (that is, they are formed of fine-grained materials), but some igneous rocks made up of volcanic ash may also exhibit these properties. This image is located near 7.8oS, 65.3oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  10. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  11. Broken Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows broken-up blocks of sedimentary rock in western Candor Chasma. There are several locations in western Candor that exhibit this pattern of broken rock. The manner in which these landforms were created is unknown; it is possible that there was a landslide or a meteoritic impact that broke up the materials. One attribute that is known: in some of these cases, it seems that the rock was broken and then buried by later sedimentary rocks, before later being exhumed so that they can be seen from orbit today.

    Location near: 6.9oS, 75.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  12. Layered Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Now that solar conjunction is over so that communication between Earth and Mars is no longer blocked by the Sun, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is continuing its trek through the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. Straight ahead, in the foreground of this image, is a horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl,' which scientists hope to investigate. Layering can be either volcanic or sedimentary in origin; researchers aim to determine which of these processes created this rock. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba,' just to the right, toward the middle of this image. Spirit took this image with its navigation camera on its 263rd martian day, or sol (Sept. 28, 2004).

  13. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  14. Tithonium Chasma's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-565, 5 December 2003

    Exposures of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks are common in the deep troughs of the Valles Marineris system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma. The banding seen here is an eroded expression of layered rock. Sedimentary rocks can be composed of (1) the detritus of older, eroded and weathered rocks, (2) grains produced by explosive volcanism (tephra, also known as volcanic ash), or (3) minerals that were chemically precipitated out of a body of liquid such as water. These outcrops are located near 4.8oS, 89.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  15. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  16. Rock Outcrop Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left shows a rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, looking north, and was acquired on the 4th sol, or martian day, of the rover's mission (Jan. 27, 2004). The yellow box outlines an area detailed in the top left image, which is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera. The top image uses solid colors to show several regions on or near the rock outcrop from which spectra were extracted: the dark soil above the outcrop (yellow), the distant horizon surface (aqua), a bright rock in the outcrop (green), a darker rock in the outcrop (red), and a small dark cobblestone (blue). Spectra from these regions are shown in the plot to the right.

  17. Rock slope stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kliche, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    Whether you're involved in surface mine design, surface mine production, construction, education, or regulation, this is an important new book for your library. It describes the basic rock slope failure modes and methods of analysis--both kinematic and kinetic techniques. Chapters include geotechnical and geomechanical analysis techniques, hydrology, rock slope stabilization techniques, and geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous examples, drawings and photos enhance the text.

  18. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  19. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  1. THE LICK/SDSS LIBRARY. II. [Ca/Fe] AND [Mg/Fe] IN F, G, AND K STARS FROM SDSS-DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M. E-mail: morossi@oats.inaf.it E-mail: malagnini@oats.inaf.it

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed the spectra of 17,600 F, G, and K stars extracted from the seventh Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS-DR7) database in order to derive ([{alpha}/Fe]), [Ca/Fe], and [Mg/Fe] ratios. Particular attention has been devoted to estimating homogeneous and self-consistent atmospheric parameter values, T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H], by comparing synthetic and observational Lick/SDSS indices. We present results for the sub-sample of more than 4000 spectra whose overall quality allowed us to derive fairly accurate stellar atmospheric parameter values and, therefore, reliable abundance ratios. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted to evaluate both the errors in the observational Lick/SDSS indices and in the derived parameter estimates. The analysis of the trends of [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] pointed out that (1) the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] ratios increase with decreasing [Fe/H] with different slopes reaching maximum average levels of +0.25 and +0.40 dex at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.75, respectively; (2) our sample contains, at a given [Fe/H], stars characterized by significantly different amounts of {alpha}-enhancement, thus belonging to different Galactic populations; and (3) the analyzed sample shows a predominance of thick disk stars for [Fe/H] > - 0.5 and the presence of stars belonging to the 'high-{alpha}' halo population for -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-0.5.

  2. Tetragonal and collapsed-tetragonal phases of CaFe2As2 : A view from angle-resolved photoemission and dynamical mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Richard, Pierre; Shi, Xun; Wu, Shangfei; Zeng, Lingkun; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Qian, Tian; Sefat, Athena S.; Biermann, Silke; Ding, Hong

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the tetragonal to collapsed-tetragonal transition of CaFe2As2 using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and dynamical mean field theory-based electronic structure calculations. We observe that the collapsed-tetragonal phase exhibits reduced correlations and a higher coherence temperature due to the stronger Fe-As hybridization. Furthermore, a comparison of measured photoemission spectra and theoretical spectral functions shows that momentum-dependent corrections to the density functional band structure are essential for the description of low-energy quasiparticle dispersions. We introduce those using the recently proposed combined "screened exchange + dynamical mean field theory" scheme.

  3. Three- to two-dimensional transition of the electronic structure in CaFe2As2: a parent compound for an iron arsenic high-temperature superconductor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Kondo, Takeshi; Ni, Ni; Palczewski, A D; Bostwick, A; Samolyuk, G D; Khasanov, R; Shi, M; Rotenberg, E; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Kaminski, A

    2009-04-24

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the electronic properties of CaFe2As2-parent compound of a pnictide superconductor. We find that the structural and magnetic transition is accompanied by a three- to two-dimensional (3D-2D) crossover in the electronic structure. Above the transition temperature (T_{s}) Fermi surfaces around Gamma and X points are cylindrical and quasi 2D. Below T_{s}, the Gamma pocket forms a 3D ellipsoid, while the X pocket remains quasi 2D. This finding strongly suggests that low dimensionality plays an important role in understanding the superconducting mechanism in pnictides. PMID:19518747

  4. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  5. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  6. Rock mechanics research awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, John E.

    The U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics, at its June 1983 annual meeting, adopted three actions to enhance the competition and public awareness of its annual awards program for rock mechanics papers. It will issue a call for nominations of outstanding papers; it will request participating societies to announce the names of award winners and the titles of papers, and it will publish an abstract of the winning papers in the proceedings of the annual U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium in the year following the awards.The competition is open to papers, by U.S residents or students in a U.S. school, published in an English language publication normally available in the United States. The following authors and papers are the 1983 award winners:

  7. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-439, 1 August 2003

    Gale Crater, located in the Aeolis region near 5.5oS, 222oW, contains a mound of layered sedimentary rock that stands higher than the rim of the crater. This giant mound suggests that the entire crater was not only once filled with sediment, it was also buried beneath sediment. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the eroded remains of the sedimentary rock that once filled Gale Crater. The layers form terraces; wind has eroded the material to form the tapered, pointed yardang ridges seen here. The small circular feature in the lower right quarter of the picture is a mesa that was once a small meteor impact crater that was filled, buried, then exhumed from within the sedimentary rock layers exposed here. This image is illuminated from the left.

  8. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  9. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  12. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  13. Digital carbonate rock physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  14. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research. PMID:21208403

  15. Electronic inhomogeneities in the superconducting phase of CaFe1.96Ni0.04As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anirban; Kumar, Neeraj; Thamizhavel, A.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2015-02-01

    Superconductivity in CaFe2-xNixAs2 emerges in close proximity to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered parent state and the AFM phase overlaps with superconducting (SC) phase for a small range of x-values. We present scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of an underdoped CaFe2-xNixAs2 single crystal in the vicinity of the boundary of the two phases. Both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements show a superconducting TC of 15 K and from later we deduce a superconducting fraction of 1.2%. Topographic images show reasonably flat surface with signatures of atomic resolution. Spectra between 120 K and 20 K are spatially homogeneous and show signatures of spin density wave (SDW) gap. Below TC, spectra show significant spatial inhomogeneity with a depression in density of states in±5 meV energy range. Inhomogeneity reduces significantly as the temperature goes above TC and disappears completely far above TC. These observations are discussed in terms of an inhomogeneous electronic phase that may exist due to the vicinity of this composition to the SC dome boundary on the underdoped side of the phase diagram.

  16. Fermi-Surface Topological Phase Transition and Horizontal Order-Parameter Nodes in CaFe2As2 Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Tortello, M.; Ummarino, G. A.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Reuvekamp, P. G.; Kremer, R. K.; Profeta, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    2016-05-01

    Iron-based compounds (IBS) display a surprising variety of superconducting properties that seems to arise from the strong sensitivity of these systems to tiny details of the lattice structure. In this respect, systems that become superconducting under pressure, like CaFe2As2, are of particular interest. Here we report on the first directional point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy (PCARS) measurements on CaFe2As2 crystals under quasi-hydrostatic pressure, and on the interpretation of the results using a 3D model for Andreev reflection combined with ab-initio calculations of the Fermi surface (within the density functional theory) and of the order parameter symmetry (within a random-phase-approximation approach in a ten-orbital model). The almost perfect agreement between PCARS results at different pressures and theoretical predictions highlights the intimate connection between the changes in the lattice structure, a topological transition in the holelike Fermi surface sheet, and the emergence on the same sheet of an order parameter with a horizontal node line.

  17. Transition to collapsed tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 single crystals as seen by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ma, Xiaoming; Tomić, Milan; Ran, Sheng; Valentí, Roser; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependent measurements of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra on CaFe2As2 single crystals in the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases are reported. Clear features in the temperature dependencies of the isomer shift, relative spectra area, and quadrupole splitting are observed at the transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal phase. From the temperature dependent isomer shift and spectral area data, an average stiffening of the phonon modes in the collapsed tetragonal phase is inferred. The quadrupole splitting increases by ˜25 % on cooling from room temperature to ˜100 K in the tetragonal phase and is only weakly temperature dependent at low temperatures in the collapsed tetragonal phase, in agreement with the anisotropic thermal expansion in this material. In order to gain microscopic insight about these measurements, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient and the electron density of CaFe2As2 in both phases. By comparing the experimental data with the calculations we are able to fully characterize the crystal structure of the samples in the collapsed-tetragonal phase through determination of the As z coordinate. Based on the obtained temperature dependent structural data we are able to propose charge saturation of the Fe-As bond region as the mechanism behind the stabilization of the collapsed-tetragonal phase at ambient pressure.

  18. Transition to collapsed tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 single crystals as seen by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ma, Xiaoming; Tomić, Milan; Ran, Sheng; Valentí, Roser; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-01-21

    Temperature dependent measurements of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra on CaFe2As2 single crystals in the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases are reported. Clear features in the temperature dependencies of the isomer shift, relative spectra area, and quadrupole splitting are observed at the transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal phase. From the temperature dependent isomer shift and spectral area data, an average stiffening of the phonon modes in the collapsed tetragonal phase is inferred. The quadrupole splitting increases by ~25% on cooling from room temperature to ~100 K in the tetragonal phase and is only weakly temperature dependent at low temperaturesmore » in the collapsed tetragonal phase, in agreement with the anisotropic thermal expansion in this material. In order to gain microscopic insight about these measurements, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient and the electron density of CaFe2As2 in both phases. By comparing the experimental data with the calculations we are able to fully characterize the crystal structure of the samples in the collapsed-tetragonal phase through determination of the As z coordinate. Furthermore, based on the obtained temperature dependent structural data we are able to propose charge saturation of the Fe-As bond region as the mechanism behind the stabilization of the collapsed-tetragonal phase at ambient pressure.« less

  19. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Janet E.; Duran, Maria Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A.

    2013-08-20

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 {+-} 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 {+-} 0.09 and +0.24 {+-} 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  20. Fermi-Surface Topological Phase Transition and Horizontal Order-Parameter Nodes in CaFe2As2 Under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Tortello, M.; Ummarino, G. A.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Reuvekamp, P. G.; Kremer, R. K.; Profeta, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-based compounds (IBS) display a surprising variety of superconducting properties that seems to arise from the strong sensitivity of these systems to tiny details of the lattice structure. In this respect, systems that become superconducting under pressure, like CaFe2As2, are of particular interest. Here we report on the first directional point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy (PCARS) measurements on CaFe2As2 crystals under quasi-hydrostatic pressure, and on the interpretation of the results using a 3D model for Andreev reflection combined with ab-initio calculations of the Fermi surface (within the density functional theory) and of the order parameter symmetry (within a random-phase-approximation approach in a ten-orbital model). The almost perfect agreement between PCARS results at different pressures and theoretical predictions highlights the intimate connection between the changes in the lattice structure, a topological transition in the holelike Fermi surface sheet, and the emergence on the same sheet of an order parameter with a horizontal node line. PMID:27216477

  1. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  2. Rock blasting environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Agreda, C.

    1995-12-31

    The rock blasting environmental impacts such as: flyrock, ground vibrations, air-blast, and/or noise, dust and fumes are identified and mentioned. Some comments on the correction factors that might be taken into consideration to calculate the initial velocity and the maximum projection of the rock fragments are mentioned as well. The blast fumes causes, its alleviation and protective measures are identified, described and discussed. To mitigate, minimize and/or avoid blast fumes, the AN/FO, Al/AN/FO and S/AN/FO dry blasting agents optimum equations are developed, discussed and recommended.

  3. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Rock Outcrops near Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in a pitted and eroded region just northeast of Hellas Planitia. The light-toned materials are most likely sedimentary rocks deposited early in martian history (but long after the Hellas Basin formed by a giant asteroid or comet impact). The scene also includes a plethora of large dark-toned, windblown ripples. The image is located near 27.2oS, 280.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  5. Layered Rocks In Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), image shows exposures of finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in western Melas Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Rocks similar to these occur in neighboring west Candor Chasma, as well. The picture is located near 9.1oS, 74.5oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  6. Sedimentary Rocks and Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows buttes composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion within a crater occurring immediately west of Schiaparelli Basin near 4.0oS, 347.9oW. Surrounding these buttes is a field of dark sand dunes and lighter-toned, very large windblown ripples. The sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater interior was once the site of a lake. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. Sedimentary Rock Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows knobs of remnant, wind-eroded, layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the floor of a crater located west of the Sinus Meridiani region of Mars. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common throughout the Sinus Meridiani region and its surrounding cratered terrain.

    Location near: 2.2oN, 7.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  9. Fault Rock Variation as a Function of Host Rock Lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fault rocks contain an integrated record of the slip history of a fault, and thereby reflect the deformation processes associated with fault slip. Within the Aus Granulite Terrane, Namibia, a number of Jurassic to Cretaceous age strike-slip faults cross-cut Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. These strike-slip faults were active at subgreenschist conditions and occur in a variety of host rock lithologies. Where the host rock contains significant amounts of hydrous minerals, representing granulites that have undergone retrogressive metamorphism, the fault rock is dominated by hydrothermal breccias. In anhydrous, foliated rocks interlayered with minor layers containing hydrous phyllosilicates, the fault rock is a cataclasite partially cemented by jasper and quartz. Where the host rock is an isotropic granitic rock the fault rock is predominantly a fine grained black fault rock. Cataclasites and breccias show evidence for multiple deformation events, whereas the fine grained black fault rocks appear to only record a single slip increment. The strike-slip faults observed all formed in the same general orientation and at a similar time, and it is unlikely that regional stress, strain rate, pressure and temperature varied between the different faults. We therefore conclude that the type of fault rock here depended on the host rock lithology, and that lithology alone accounts for why some faults developed a hydrothermal breccia, some cataclasite, and some a fine grained black fault rock. Consequently, based on the assumption that fault rocks reflect specific slip styles, lithology was also the main control on different fault slip styles in this area at the time of strike-slip fault activity. Whereas fine grained black fault rock is inferred to represent high stress events, hydrothermal breccia is rather related to events involving fluid pressure in excess of the least stress. Jasper-bearing cataclasites may represent faults that experienced dynamic weakening as seen

  10. 'Scarecrow' Climbs Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scarecrow, a mobility-testing model for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, easily traverses large rocks in the Mars Yard testing area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is in development for launch in 2009. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  12. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  13. The River Rock School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  14. Reducing Rock Climbing Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1998-01-01

    Provides checklists that can be used as risk-management tools to evaluate rock-climbing programs: developing goals, policies, and procedures; inspecting the climbing environment; maintaining and inspecting equipment; protecting participants; and managing staff (hiring, training, retraining, and evaluating) and campers (experience level, needs, and…

  15. A Rock Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  16. Estimating Rock Strength Parameters from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) Grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Lennon, A.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed an empirical correlation between rock abrasion tool (RAT) grind energy and compressive strength. This correlation can be used to infer the physical properties of rocks ground by the MER rovers on Mars.

  17. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  18. The Oldest Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.

    2004-04-01

    Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion years old. While 4.29 billion years sounds very ancient, a magma ocean ought to have solidified well within 100 million years of lunar origin about 4.55 billion years ago. One possibility is that the young ages reflect impact events, not the original time of igneous crystallization. My colleagues Lars Borg (University of New Mexico) and Larry Nyquist and Don Bogard (Johnson Space Center) and I studied an anorthosite (rock 67215) relatively rich in pyroxene, allowing us to determine a precise crystallization age of 4.40 billion years. But even that age might have been affected by the subsequent shock heating event that reset the low-temperature components in this rock about 500 million years after it formed. By examining data for all of the previously dated lunar anorthosites, we were able to show that plagioclase feldspar is more prone to shock damage than are the pyroxenes in these rocks, so we plotted only the pyroxene data for four different anorthosites on a samarium-neodymium isochron diagram. These data fall on a well-defined line indicating a crystallization age for the anorthosites of 4.46 billion years, consistent with very early, widespread melting of the Moon. Other data for 67215 show that it comes from a relatively shallow depth in the crust, giving us clues to the structure of the lunar crust. Studies like this one are filling in the picture of how the initial crust of the Moon formed, which in turn sheds light on the formation of the terrestrial planets.

  19. Estimating rock compressive strength from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Lennon, A.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.

    2013-06-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover carries a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) whose intended use was to abrade the outer surfaces of rocks to expose more pristine material. Motor currents drawn by the RAT motors are related to the strength and hardness of rock surfaces undergoing abrasion, and these data can be used to infer more about a target rock's physical properties. However, no calibration of the RAT exists. Here, we attempt to derive an empirical correlation using an assemblage of terrestrial rocks and apply this correlation to data returned by the rover Spirit. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between rock strength and RAT grind energy for rocks with compressive strengths less than about 150 MPa, a category that includes all but the strongest intact rocks. Applying this correlation to rocks abraded by Spirit's RAT, the results indicate a large divide in strength between more competent basaltic rocks encountered in the plains of Gusev crater (Adirondack-class rocks) and the weaker variety of rock types measured in the Columbia Hills. Adirondack-class rocks have estimated compressive strengths in the range of 70-130 MPa and are significantly less strong than fresh terrestrial basalts; this may be indicative of a degree of weathering-induced weakening. Rock types in the Columbia Hills (Wishstone, Watchtower, Clovis, and Peace class) all have compressive strengths <50 MPa and are consistent with impactites or volcanoclastic materials. In general, when considered alongside chemical, spectral, and rock textural data, these inferred compressive strength results help inform our understanding of rock origins and modification history.

  20. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  2. Joint Commission on rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  3. Realistic Expectations for Rock Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerback, Mary Elizabeth; Azer, Nazmy

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rock classification scheme for use by beginning students. The scheme is based on rock textures (glassy, crystalline, clastic, and organic framework) and observable structures (vesicles and graded bedding). Discusses problems in other rock classification schemes which may produce confusion, misidentification, and anxiety. (10 references)…

  4. A look at carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, A.I. )

    1994-03-01

    Important ore deposits are found in carbonate rocks, and large volumes of oil and gas are also produced from carbonate rocks on a worldwide basis. Reservoir types and productive capability are most often related to rock type and the facies to which the rock belongs. Broad new understanding of carbonate rocks came with the publication of Classification of Carbonate Rocks-A Symposium (AAPG Memoir 1, 1962). The principal parameters of carbonate rocks are (1) chemical composition, (2) grade size, (3) sorting and packing, (4) identification of grains in the rock, (5) cement, (6) color, (7) alteration of recrystallization, and (8) porosity. Original porosity in carbonate rocks relates to kind and packing of original particles. Secondary porosity is reduced by infilling that usually relates to some particles, or is enhanced because some types of grains are dissolved. Carbonate sediments are organic detritus. The range of solubility of organic detritus is very large. Fossils present in the carbonates are clues as to the source of the detritus in the rock. Additional research is needed in faunal relations of facies and of rock types. Ore recovery, well completion, and EOR are more successful when the parameters of carbonate rocks are extensively studied. A simplified approach to carbonate description is discussed.

  5. Soil and rock 'Yogi'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several possible targets of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. The smaller rock at left has been dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' while the larger rock at right, approximately 3-4 meters from the lander, is now nicknamed 'Yogi.' Barnacle Bill is scheduled to be the first object of study for the APXS. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are also visible at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of layered, sedimentary rock in eastern Gale Crater. North-central Gale Crater is the site of a mound that is more than several kilometers thick and largely composed of sedimentary rocks that record a complex history of deposition and erosion. At one time, Gale Crater might have been completely filled and buried beneath the martian surface.

    Location near: 4.9oS, 221.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  7. Sedimentary Rock Near Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-420, 13 July 2003

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera images, one from 2001, the other from 2003, shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops exposed on the floor of a trough that parallels Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris system. Layered rocks form the pages from which the history of a place can be read. It may be many years before the story is read, but or now at least we know where one of the books of martian history is found. This picture is located near 15.2oS, 60.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  8. Schiaparelli's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 October 2004 Schiaparelli Basin is a large, 470 kilometer (292 miles) impact crater located east of Sinus Meridiani. The basin might once have been the site of a large lake--that is, if the sedimentary rocks exposed on its northwestern floor were deposited in water. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.5 meter per pixel (5 ft per pixel) view of some of the light-toned, finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in northwestern Schiaparelli. The image is located near 1.0oS, 346.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  9. Sedimentary Rock Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded layered rock outcrops in a crater north of Meridiani Planum near 2.7oN, 359.1oW. The dozens and dozens of sedimentary rock layers of repeated thickness and similar physical properties at this location suggest that they may have been deposited in a lacustrine (lake) setting. The crater in which these layers occur may once have been completely filled and buried, as is the case for many craters in the Sinus Meridiani region. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  10. Eroded Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-372, 26 May 2003

    This high resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, layered sedimentary rock exposures in an unnamed western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. The dark material is windblown sand; much of the erosion of these layers may have also been caused by wind. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  11. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in southwestern Melas Chasma, one of the troughs of the vast Valles Marineris system. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; it is located near 9.8oS, 76.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  12. Iani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rocks exposed by erosion in the Iani Chaos region of Mars.

    Location near: 4.2oS, 18.7oW Image width: 1 km (0.6 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  13. Terby Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops in Terby Crater, located near 27.7oS, 285.4oW. The layered sediments in Terby are several kilometers thick, attesting to a long history of deposition in this ancient basin. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  14. Ripples and Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops and large dark-toned, windblown ripples in Aram Chaos.

    Location near: 3.0oN, 20.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  15. Soil Rock Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A redesigned version of a soil/rock analyzer developed by Martin Marietta under a Langley Research Center contract is being marketed by Aurora Tech, Inc. Known as the Aurora ATX-100, it has self-contained power, an oscilloscope, a liquid crystal readout, and a multichannel spectrum analyzer. It measures energy emissions to determine what elements in what percentages a sample contains. It is lightweight and may be used for mineral exploration, pollution monitoring, etc.

  16. Salty Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which produces a spectrum, or fingerprint, of chemicals in martian rocks and soil. The instrument contains a radioisotope, curium-244, that bombards a designated area with alpha particles and X-rays, causing a cascade of reflective fluorescent X-rays. The energies of these fluorescent X-rays are unique to each atom in the periodic table, allowing scientists to determine a target's chemical composition.

    Both 'Tarmac' and 'McKittrick' are located within the small crater where Opportunity landed. The full spectra are expressed as X-ray intensity (logarithmic scale) versus energy. When comparing two spectra, the relative intensities at a given energy are proportional to the elemental concentrations, however these proportionality factors can be complex. To be precise, scientists extensively calibrate the instrument using well-analyzed geochemical standards.

    Both the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the rock abrasion tool are located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm.

  17. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  18. Epidermal hyperpigmentation in non-syndromic solitary cafe-au-lait macules may be associated with increased secretion of endothelin-1 by lesional keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mutsumi; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Uchida, Gentaro; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Kitano, Yukie; Harii, Kiyonori

    2005-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of accentuated melanisation in non-syndromic solitary cafe-au-lait macules we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the concentration of melanogenic cytokines secreted by cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from the skins of the macules and compared them with those derived from normal people. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was significantly increased in cultured keratinocytes in the macules compared with the normals. In contrast, the secretion of other cytokines secreted by keratinocytes or fibroblasts did not differ between the groups. It may be that the increased secretion of ET-1 by epidermal keratinocytes has a role in the accentuated epidermal melanisation seen in non-syndromic macules.

  19. The Hard Probe Cafe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The advent of finite temperature lattice QCD in 1980 confirmed that hot strongly interacting matter will be transformed into a new medium of deconfined quarks and gluons, the primordial quark-gluon plasma. It was thus natural to see if this state of the early universe could somehow still be produced today, in terrestrial laboratories. An experimental program based on high energy nuclear collisions was developed at a meeting which Maurice Jacob and I convened in Bielefeld in 1982, and in the mid-eighties the planning and construction of "heavy ion experiments" was well underway both at CERN and at Brookhaven. At the 1987 Quark Matter Meeting in Nordkirchen/Germany, the first results were reported.

  20. From Cafeteria to Cafe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    If school architects, cafeteria designers, and some food service personnel have their way, the long, grey serving line characterizing most school cafeterias will go the way of meatloaf and mashed potatoes. This means booths and restaurant-like tables, school colors, brightly lit menu boards, windows overlooking courtyards, and mall-like…

  1. Staff Development: Cafe Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In most cases, memorable learning opportunities are fun, collaborative, and influential. Jennifer Arns, instructional programs director for the Organization for Education Technology and Curriculum, outlines the EdTech Professional Development Cadre, a refreshing and engaging PD approach. (Contains 3 resources.)

  2. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars.

    Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements.

    In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  4. Superconducting properties and pseudogap from preformed Cooper pairs in the triclinic (CaFe1-xPtxAs ) 10Pt3As8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmach, M. A.; Brückner, F.; Kamusella, S.; Sarkar, R.; Portnichenko, P. Y.; Park, J. T.; Ghambashidze, G.; Luetkens, H.; Biswas, P. K.; Choi, W. J.; Seo, Y. I.; Kwon, Y. S.; Klauss, H.-H.; Inosov, D. S.

    2015-03-01

    Using a combination of muon-spin relaxation (μ SR ) , inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we investigated the novel iron-based superconductor with a triclinic crystal structure (CaFe1-xPtxAs ) 10Pt3As8 (Tc=13 K), containing platinum-arsenide intermediary layers. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density obtained from the μ SR relaxation-rate measurements indicates the presence of two superconducting gaps, Δ1≫Δ2 . According to our INS measurements, commensurate spin fluctuations are centered at the (π ,0 ) wave vector, like in most other iron arsenides. Their intensity remains unchanged across Tc, indicating the absence of a spin resonance typical for many Fe-based superconductors. Instead, we observed a peak in the spin-excitation spectrum around ℏ ω0=7 meV at the same wave vector, which persists above Tc and is characterized by the ratio ℏ ω0/kBTc≈6.2 , which is significantly higher than typical values for the magnetic resonant modes in iron pnictides (˜4.3 ) . The temperature dependence of magnetic intensity at 7 meV revealed an anomaly around T*=45 K related to the disappearance of this new mode. A suppression of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1 /T1T , observed by NMR immediately below T* without any notable subsequent anomaly at Tc, indicates that T* could mark the onset of a pseudogap in (CaFe1-xPtxAs ) 10Pt3As8 , which is likely associated with the emergence of preformed Cooper pairs.

  5. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations and pseudogaplike behavior in Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 studied by 75As nuclear magnetic resonance and anisotropic resistivity

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, J.; Roy, B.; Tanatar, M. A.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Prozorov, R.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2015-11-06

    We report 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of single-crystalline Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2 (x=0.023, 0.028, 0.033, and 0.059) annealed at 350°C for 7 days. From the observation of a characteristic shape of 75As NMR spectra in the stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as in the case of x=0 (TN=170 K), clear evidence for the commensurate AFM phase transition with the concomitant structural phase transition is observed in x=0.023 (TN=106 K) and x=0.028 (TN=53 K). Through the temperature dependence of the Knight shifts and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1), although stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations are realized in the paramagnetic state as inmore » the case of other iron pnictide superconductors, we found a gradual decrease of the AFM spin fluctuations below a crossover temperature T* that was nearly independent of Co-substitution concentration, and it is attributed to a pseudogaplike behavior in the spin excitation spectra of these systems. The T* feature finds correlation with features in the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity, ρc(T), but not with the in-plane resistivity ρa(T). The temperature evolution of anisotropic stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations is tracked in the paramagnetic and pseudogap phases by the 1/T1 data measured under magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the c axis. As a result, based on our NMR data, we have added a pseudogaplike phase to the magnetic and electronic phase diagram of Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2.« less

  6. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  7. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  8. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff (Nevada Test Site).

  9. From stones to rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  10. Sedimentary Rocks in Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a butte and several other landforms eroded into light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in southern Melas Chasma. Melas is part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 11.8oS, 74.6oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 August 2004 Light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops are common within the vast martian Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a recent example from southern Melas Chasma at 1.5 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) resolution. The image is located near 11.3oS, 73.9oW, and covers an area about 1.8 km (1.1 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  12. Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Aram Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location.

    Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  14. Sedimentary Rock in Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dozens of light- and a few dark-toned sedimentary rock layers exposed by faulting and erosion in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 6.5oS, 77.0oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  15. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  16. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1993-01-01

    We study out Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are not on top of a mountain may once have been on the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of the Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  17. Schiaparelli Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-403, 26 June 2003

    Some of the most important high resolution imaging results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment center on discoveries about the presence and nature of the sedimentary rock record on Mars. This old meteor impact crater in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin exhibits a spectacular view of layered, sedimentary rock. The 2.3 kilometer (1.4 miles) wide crater may have once been completely filled with sediment; the material was later eroded to its present form. Dozens of layers of similar thickness and physical properties are now expressed in a wedding cake-like stack in the middle of the crater. Sunlight illuminating the scene from the left shows that the circle, or mesa top, at the middle of the crater stands higher than the other stair-stepped layers. The uniform physical properties and bedding of these layers might indicate that they were originally deposited in a lake (it is possible that the crater was at the bottom of a much larger lake, filling Schiaparelli Basin); alternatively, the layers were deposited by settling out of the atmosphere in a dry environment. This picture was acquired on June 3, 2003, and is located near 0.9oS, 346.2oW.

  18. Fossils, rocks, and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  19. Rocks as poroelastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    1998-04-30

    In Biot's theory of poroelasticity, elastic materials contain connected voids or pores and these pores may be filled with fluids under pressure. The fluid pressure then couples to the mechanical effects of stress or strain applied externally to the solid matrix. Eshelby's formula for the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a strain imposed at infinity is a very well-known and important result in elasticity. Having a rigorous generalization of Eshelby's results valid for poroelasticity means that the hard part of Eshelby' work (in computing the elliptic integrals needed to evaluate the fourth-rank tensors for inclusions shaped like spheres, oblate and prolate spheroids, needles and disks) can be carried over from elasticity to poroelasticity - and also thermoelasticity - with only trivial modifications. Effective medium theories for poroelastic composites such as rocks can then be formulated easily by analogy to well-established methods used for elastic composites. An identity analogous to Eshelby's classic result has been derived [Physical Review Letters 79:1142-1145 (1997)] for use in these more complex and more realistic problems in rock mechanics analysis. Descriptions of the application of this result as the starting point for new methods of estimation are presented.

  20. Lacustrine petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, A.J.; Kelts, K.; Talbot, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a proceedings volume from a 1985 symposium sponsored by the Geological Society of London and the International Geological Correlation Program Project No. 219 (Comparative lacustrine sedimentology in space and time). That meeting set the tone for subsequent IGCP No. 219 symposia, where sedimentary, petroleum, and structural geologists, as well as geochemists and paleontologists, have grappled with important problems in lake geology. The 1985 meeting on lacustrine source rocks considered the following questions: (1) How can we develop more refined methods for interpreting depositional environments from lake deposits and fossils , (2) What limnologic, sedimentologic, and tectonic conditions are most conducive to the production and accumulation of organic matter in lakes , (3) What diagenetic changes affect organic-rich sediments after deposition , and (4) How can questions 2 and 3 be best evaluated from the stratigraphic record As a group, lakes are extremely productive ecosystems. Marine environments that would be ranked as high productivity systems are only moderately productive by lacustrine standards. Even with energy transfer rates of less than a few percent from the primary producers to the sediment, lacustrine mudrocks can be extremely rich in organic matter. The major limitations of lacustrine source rocks are not lithologic but limitations of scale (both spatial and temporal). How, in the middle of a continent, do you get a hole in the ground that is both big enough and long-lasting enough to generate significant quantities of hydrocarbons

  1. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  2. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  3. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  4. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  5. A smart rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  6. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    The microseismic method relies on observational data, amply demonstrated in laboratory experiments, that acoustic noise occurs in rocks subjected to high differential stresses. Acoustic emission becomes most pronounced as the breaking strength of the rock is reached. Laboratory studies have shown that the acoustic emission is linked with the release of stored strain energy as the rock mass undergoes small-scale adjustments such as the formation of cracks. Studies in actual mines have shown that acoustic noises often precede failure of rock masses in rock bursts or in coal bumps. Seismologists are, therefore, very interested in whether these results can be applied to large-scale failures; that is, earthquakes. An active research program in predicting rock bursts in mines is being conducted by Brian T. Brady and his colleagues at the U.S Bureau of Mines, Denver Colo.  

  7. 'They of the Great Rocks'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows 'Adirondack,' the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and means 'They of the great rocks.'

  8. Geoelectrical Classification of Gypsum Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Himi, Mahjoub; Bosch, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum rocks and its lithological composition has been established, with the presence of lutites being the main controlling factor in the geoelectrical response of the deposit. This phenomenon has been quantified in the present study, by means of a combination of theoretical calculations, laboratory measurements and field data acquisition. Direct modelling has been performed; the data have been inverted to obtain the mean electrical resistivity of the models. The laboratory measurements have been obtained from artificial gypsum-clay mixture pills, and the electrical resistivity has been measured using a simple electrical circuit with direct current power supply. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography data have been acquired in different evaporite Tertiary basins located in North East Spain; the selected gypsum deposits have different gypsum compositions. The geoelectrical response of gypsum rocks has been determined by comparing the resistivity values obtained from theoretical models, laboratory tests and field examples. A geoelectrical classification of gypsum rocks defining three types of gypsum rocks has been elaborated: (a) Pure Gypsum Rocks (>75% of gypsum content), (b) Transitional Gypsum Rocks (75-55%), and (c) Lutites and Gypsum-rich Lutites (<55%). From the economic point of view, the Pure Gypsum Rocks, displaying a resistivity value of >800 ohm.m, can be exploited as industrial rocks. The methodology used could be applied in other geoelectrical rock studies, given that this relationship

  9. Building The Bell Rock Lighthouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the first mariners sailed off the east coast of Scotland the Bell Rock has claimed many vessels and countless lives. Also known as the Inch Cape Rocks they lie 18 km off the coast at Arbroath. Located near the mouth of the Firth of Forth and its important shipping ports these dangerous rocks cover an area some 440 m long and 90 m wide.…

  10. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  11. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying this area for clues about the rock outcrop's composition. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  12. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  13. Ready to Rock and Roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet)toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering study of a nonmagnetic collapsed tetragonal phase in nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: evidence of the impact of spin fluctuations on superconductivity in the iron-arsenide compounds.

    PubMed

    Soh, J H; Tucker, G S; Pratt, D K; Abernathy, D L; Stone, M B; Ran, S; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Kreyssig, A; McQueeney, R J; Goldman, A I

    2013-11-27

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  15. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of a Nonmagnetic Collapsed Tetragonal Phase in Nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: Evidence of the Impact of Spin Fluctuations on Superconductivity in the Iron-Arsenide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, J. H.; Tucker, G. S.; Pratt, D. K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  16. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of a Nonmagnetic Collapsed Tetragonal Phase in Nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: Evidence of the Impact of Spin Fluctuations on Superconductivity in the Iron-Arsenide Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Jing-Han; Tucker, Ggregory S.; Pratt, Daniel K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, Sheng; Budko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Kreyssig, Andreas; McQueeney, Robert J.; Goldman, Alan I.

    2013-11-27

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  17. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  18. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  19. Meridiani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-545, 15 November 2003

    Northern Sinus Meridiani is a region of vast exposures of layered, sedimentary rock. Buried within these layers are many filled impact craters. Erosion has re-exposed several formerly-buried craters in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. Arrows 1 and 2 indicate craters that are still emerging from beneath layered material; arrow 3 indicates a crater that has been fully re-exposed. This image is located near 5.1oN, 2.7oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated from the left/upper left.

  20. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  1. Further Reflections on Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Danielle S.

    2007-01-01

    The famous photo of Hazel Bryan jeering at Elizabeth Eckford as a mob helped drive Elizabeth from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 4, 1957, compels meditation on the nature of democratic politics. This scene is commemorative of the Little Rock events where school segregation was rampant. The author believes that the photo…

  2. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  3. The Rock Climbing Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudlas, John

    The product of 10 years of rock climbing instruction, this guide provides material from which an instructor can teach basic climbing concepts and safety skills as well as conduct a safe, enjoyable rock climbing class in a high school setting. It is designed for an instructor with limited experience in climbing; however, the need for teacher…

  4. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  5. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  6. Small-Town Rock Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarge, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an eighth grade rock exchange project in which small groups of students researched, then wrote letters to schools throughout the United States requesting samples of local rocks and minerals. Provides experience in use of the atlas and letter writing. (CS)

  7. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.N.

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  8. Seismic properties of polyphase rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    Knowledge about the seismic properties of polyphase rocks is fundamental for interpreting seismic refraction and reflection data and for establishing lithospheric structure and composition models. This study aims to obtain more precise relationships between seismic properties of rocks and controlling factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, mineralogical and chemical compositions, microstructure of rocks), particularly for those rocks imprinted by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. These relationships will be very helpful to extrapolate calculated and measured seismic properties of rocks to depths of interest and to engender interpretations relevant to petrological composition and tectonic process. An Internet Database of Rock Seismic Properties (DRSP) was set up and a Handbook of Seismic Properties of Minerals, Rocks and Ores was published. They comprise almost all data available in the literature during the past 4 decades and can serve as a convenient, comprehensive and concise information source on physical properties of rocks to the earth sciences and geotechnical communities. Statistical results of the DRSP reveal the dependence of seismic properties on density, porosity, humidity, and mineralogical and chemical compositions. Using 16 different averaging methods, we calculated P-wave velocities of 696 dry samples according to the volume fraction and elastic constants of each constituent mineral. Although only 22 common minerals were taken into account in the computation, the calculated P-wave velocities agree well with laboratory values measured at about 300 MPa, where most microcracks are closed and the mean Vp of a polymineralic rock is exclusively controlled by its modal composition. However, none of these mixture rules can simultaneously fit measured P-wave velocities for all lithologies or at all pressures. Therefore, more prudence is required in selecting an appropriate mixture rule for calculation of seismic velocities of different rock types.

  9. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  10. Analysis of Inflatable Rock Bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Charlie C.

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable bolt is integrated in the rock mass through the friction and mechanical interlock at the bolt-rock interface. The pullout resistance of the inflatable bolt is determined by the contact stress at the interface. The contact stress is composed of two parts, termed the primary and secondary contact stresses. The former refers to the stress established during bolt installation and the latter is mobilized when the bolt tends to slip in the borehole owing to the roughness of the borehole surface. The existing analysis of the inflatable rock bolt does not appropriately describe the interaction between the bolt and the rock since the influence of the folded tongue of the bolt on the stiffness of the bolt and the elastic rebound of the bolt tube in the end of bolt installation are ignored. The interaction of the inflatable bolt with the rock is thoroughly analysed by taking into account the elastic displacements of the rock mass and the bolt tube during and after bolt installation in this article. The study aims to reveal the influence of the bolt tongue on the contact stress and the different anchoring mechanisms of the bolt in hard and soft rocks. A new solution to the primary contact stress is derived, which is more realistic than the existing one in describing the interaction between the bolt and the rock. The mechanism of the secondary contact stress is also discussed from the point of view of the mechanical behaviour of the asperities on the borehole surface. The analytical solutions are in agreement with both the laboratory and field pullout test results. The analysis reveals that the primary contact stress decreases with the Young's modulus of the rock mass and increases with the borehole diameter and installation pump pressure. The primary contact stress can be easily established in soft and weak rock but is low or zero in hard and strong rock. In soft and weak rock, the primary contact stress is crucially important for the anchorage of the bolt, while

  11. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  12. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    DOEpatents

    Ruzzi, Peter L.; Morrell, Roger J.

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  14. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  15. Rock Dusting Leaves 'Mickey Mouse' Mark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed 'Humphrey' and the circular areas on the rock that were wiped off by the rover. The rover used a brush on its rock abrasion tool to clean these spots before examining them with its miniature thermal emission spectrometer. Later, the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool, exposing fresh rock underneath.

  16. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  17. Mineral Detector for Igneous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, S. T.; Hart, S. D.; Gulick, V. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a Raman spectral analysis tool that uses machine learning algorithms to classify pure minerals in igneous rocks. Experiments show greater than 90% accuracy classifying a test set of pure minerals against a database of similar reference minerals using an artificial neural network. Efforts are currently underway to improve this tool for use as a mineral detector in rock samples, an important milestone toward autonomously classifying rocks based on spectral, and previous imaging work. Although pure mineral classification has been widely successful, applying the same methods to rocks is difficult because the spectra may represent a combination of multiple, and often competing, mineral signatures. In such cases some minerals may appear with more intensity than others resulting in masking of weaker minerals. Furthermore, with our particular spectrometer (852 nm excitation, ~50 micron spot size), minerals such as potassium feldspar fluoresce, both obscuring its characteristic Raman features and suppressing those of weaker minerals. For example, plagioclase and quartz, two key minerals for determining the composition of igneous rocks, are often hidden by minerals such as potassium feldspar and pyroxene, and are consequently underrepresented in the spectral analysis. These technicalities tend to skew the perceived composition of a rock from its actual composition. Despite these obstacles, an experiment involving a training set of 26 minerals (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz) and a test set of 57 igneous rocks (basalt, gabbro, andesite, diorite, dacite, granodiorite, rhyolite, granite) shows that generalizations derived from their spectral data are consistent with expected trends: as rock composition goes from felsic to mafic there is a marked increase in the detection of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene along with a decrease in the detection of minerals such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The results suggest that phaneritic

  18. Approaching Rock Target No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D stereo anaglyph image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists plan to use instruments at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

  19. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  1. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-02-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K/sub 2/O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na/sub 2/O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta/sup 18/O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta/sup 18/ of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals.

  2. Optical spectroscopy study of the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2(As0.935P0.065)2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Wang, H. P.; Dong, T.; Chen, R. Y.; Wang, N. L.

    2014-10-01

    We present an optical spectroscopy study on P-doped CaFe2As2 which experiences a structural phase transition from tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase near 75 K. The measurement reveals a sudden reduction of low-frequency spectral weight and the emergence of a feature near 3200 cm -1 (0.4 eV) in optical conductivity across the transition, indicating an abrupt reconstruction of band structure. The appearance of the feature is related to the interband transition arising from the sinking of hole bands near the Γ point below Fermi level in the cT phase, as expected from the density function theory calculations in combination with the dynamical mean field theory. However, the reduction of Drude spectral weight is at variance with those calculations. The measurement also indicates an absence of the abnormal spectral weight transfer at high energy (near 0.5-0.7 eV) in the cT phase, suggesting a suppression of the electron correlation effect.

  3. Evidence of Spin Resonance Signal in Oxygen Free Superconducting CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF: An Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen; Su, Yixi; Xiao, Yinguo; Adroja, Devashibhai T.; Guidi, Tatiana; Mittal, Ranjan; Nandi, Shibabrata; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Brückel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The spin excitation spectrum of optimally doped superconducting CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF (Tc˜ 22 K) was studied by means of time-of-flight (ToF) inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a powder sample for temperatures above and below Tc and energies up to 15 meV. In the superconducting state, the spin resonance signal is observed as an enhancement of spectral weight of particle hole excitations of approximately 1.5 times relative to normal state excitations. The resonance energy ER˜ 7 meV scales to Tc via 3.7 kBTc which is in reasonable agreement to the scaling relation reported for other Fe-based compositions. For energies below 5 meV the spectrum of spin flip particle hole excitations in the superconducting state exhibits a strong reduction in spectral weight, indicating the opening of the spin gap. Nonetheless, a complete suppression of magnetic response cannot be observed. In contrast, the normal state spin excitations are not gapped and strongly two dimensional spin fluctuations persist up to temperatures at least as high as 150 K.

  4. Growth and characterization of CaFe1-xCoxAsF single crystals by CaAs flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui; Hu, Kangkang; Ji, Qiucheng; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Mu, Gang; Huang, Fuqiang; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter sized single crystals of CaFe1-x Cox AsF were grown using a self-flux method. It is found that high-quality single crystals can be grown from three approaches with different initial raw materials. The chemical compositions and crystal structure were characterized carefully. Compared with the undoped parent phase CaFeAsF, the crystal lattice along the c-axis is suppressed by the Co substitution while that along the a-axis expands slightly. Superconductivity with the critical transition Tc as high as 21 K was confirmed by both the resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements in the sample with x=0.118. Moreover, it is found that Tc can be enhanced for about 1 K under the very small hydrostatic pressure of 0.22 GPa, which is more quick than that reported in the polycrystalline samples. Our results are a promotion for the physical investigations of 1111 phase iron-pnictide superconductors.

  5. Anthropic Rock: a brief history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, R. B.

    2011-03-01

    Stone tool-making is a reductive process. Synthetic rock manufacturing, preeminently an additive process, will not for-ever be confined to only the Earth-biosphere. This brief focuses on humanity's ancient past, hodiernal and possible future even more massive than present-day creation of artificial rocks within our exploitable Solar System. It is mostly Earth-centric account that expands the factual generalities underlying the unique non-copyrighted systemic technogenic rock classification first publicly presented (to the American Geological Society) during 2001, by its sole intellectual innovator, James Ross Underwood, Jr. His pioneering, unique exposition of an organization of this ever-increasingly important aspect of the Anthropic Rock story, spatially expansive material lithification, here is given an amplified discussion for the broader geo and space science social group-purpose of encouragement of a completer 21st Century treatment of Underwood's explicative subject-chart (Fig. 2).

  6. City Rocks and National Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Martin; Slattery, William; Finegan-Stoll, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Presents a weeklong earth science module that allows students to explore the relationships between natural and manufactured materials. Relates rocks and minerals in the earth science curriculum to observations students make in their urban and suburban travels. (DDR)

  7. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  8. The Rock Your Students Dig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a field trip in which eighth grade earth science students map the rock types located on the side of a mountain. Pretrip preparation, equipment, procedures, and posttrip analysis are discussed. (CW)

  9. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  10. 'Mazatzal' Rock on Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Spirit took this navigation camera image of the 2-meter-wide (6.6-foot-wide) rock called 'Mazatzal' on sol 76, March 21, 2004. Scientists intend to aggressively analyze this target with Spirit's microscopic imager, Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer before brushing and 'digging in' with the rock abrasion tool on upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal stood out to scientists because of its large size, light tone and sugary surface texture. It is the largest rock the team has seen at the rim of the crater informally named 'Bonneville.' It is lighter-toned than previous rock targets Adirondack and Humphrey. Its scalloped pattern may be a result of wind sculpting, a very slow process in which wind-transported silt and sand abrade the rock's surface, creating depressions. This leads scientists to believe that Mazatzal may have been exposed to the wind in this location for an extremely long time.

    The name 'Mazatzal' comes from a mountain range and rock formation that was deposited around 1.2 billion years ago in the Four Peaks area of Arizona.

  11. Micromechanical Modelling of Stress Waves in Rock and Rock Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resende, R.; Lamas, L. N.; Lemos, J. V.; Calçada, R.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the interaction of stress waves and rock fractures in a particle micromechanical model. Stress waves travelling in fractured rock masses are slowed down and attenuated by natural heterogeneities, voids, microcracks and, above all, by faults and fractures. Considerable laboratory and theoretical investigation have uncovered the major aspects of this phenomenon, but models that cover the core mechanisms of the wave propagation in rock masses are necessary to investigate aspects of wave-fracture interaction, which are not completely clear, and in the future simulate full-scale real problems. The micromechanical model is based on the particle discrete element model that reproduces rock through a densely packed non-structured assembly of 2D disks with point contacts. The model of a hard rock core is developed and an irregular rock joint is generated at mid-height. A new contact constitutive model is applied to the particles in the joint walls. Numerical static joint compression tests are performed and a typical hyperbolic stress-displacement curve is obtained. Conditions for good quality wave transmission through non-jointed unorganized particulate media are determined, hybrid static-dynamic boundary conditions are established and plane waves are emitted into the compressed joint. The transmitted and reflected waves are extracted and analysed. Joint dynamic stiffness calculated according to the hypotheses of the Displacement Discontinuity Theory shows to increase with the static joint compression until the joint is completely closed. Still in its early stages of application, this rock micromechanical model enables the joint behaviour under static and dynamic loading to be analysed in detail. Its advantages are the reproduction of the real mechanics of contact creation, evolution and destruction and the possibility of visualizing in detail the joint geometry changes, which is hard to accomplish in the laboratory.

  12. Early Archaean rocks of Sarmatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlyanskyy, Leonid; Claesson, Stefan; Bibikova, Elena; Billström, Kjell

    2013-04-01

    Sarmatia, one of the three main crustal segments of the Precambrian East-European platform, comprises the Ukrainian shield and the Voronezh crystalline massif which are separated by the Late Palaeozoic Dnieper-Donets Depression. It is composed of a collage of terrains that were formed during over 2 billion years, from c. 3.8 to c. 1.7 Ga; some of these terrains can be traced across the Dnieper-Donets Depression. Geochronological and isotope-geochemical investigations have shown that significant portions of Sarmatia were formed already in the Early Archaean. In the Ukrainian shield Early Archaean rocks are known from the Dniester-Bug and Azov domains. Enderbites of the Dniester-Bug Series, which occur intercalated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, contain zircons as old as 3.75-3.78 Ga (Claesson et al., 2006; 2012) while initial Hf isotope ratios indicate derivation from mildly depleted sources. In the Azov domain the oldest rocks known belong to the Novopavlivka complex, which includes orthogneisses, enderbites, migmatites and related granites with up to 1 m thick enclaves of pyroxenite and peridotite, amphibolites, and schists. Zircons separated from two pyroxenite samples have yielded ages of 3633 ± 16 and 3640 ± 11 Ma, while zircons from enderbite gave 3609 ± 5 Ma (Bibikova and Williams, 1990). Zircons extracted from metasediments of the Soroki and Fedorivka greenstone belts, Azov domain, have yielded ages up to 3785 Ma (Bibikova et al, 2010) and ɛHf values of -1.6 to 1.8 for the oldest zircons. Finally, recent multigrain U-Pb dating of heavily deformed tonalitic gneisses of the Verkhnyotokmakska Stratum, Azov Domain, has given an age of 3560 ± 70 Ma (Scherbak et al., 2011). The oldest rocks of the Voronezh crystalline massif belong to the Oboyan Complex which is composed of mafic igneous rocks and sediments metamorphosed into amphibolites and gneisses. Most probably, this complex includes rocks of different ages and origins. Individual igneous zircons from

  13. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  14. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  15. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  17. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  18. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  19. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  1. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  2. 30 CFR 75.402 - Rock dusting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock dusting. 75.402 Section 75.402 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.402 Rock dusting. All... content to propagate an explosion, shall be rock dusted to within 40 feet of all working faces,...

  3. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  4. Surface uplift, uplift of rocks, and exhumation of rocks

    SciTech Connect

    England, P. ); Molnar, P. )

    1990-12-01

    Uplift of the surface of mountain belts requires forces that are comparable in magnitude to those associated with plate motion, and therefore determination of rates of surface uplift could provide important information on the dynamics of mountain ranges. Rates of uplift of the surfaces of mountain ranges have not, however, been quantified sufficiently well that they provide useful constraints on those processes. Many reports of surface uplift in mountain ranges are based on mistaking exhumation of rocks or uplift of rocks for surface uplift, and provide no information whatsoever on the rates of surface uplift.

  5. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  6. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers.

  7. Why are the Tcs so high in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals and ultrathin FeSe epi-films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in the Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and up to 100 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, respectively, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,R)122 single crystals with R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, a large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally assembled Fe-based superconductors. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 1-4UC FeSe ultra thin epi-films. We have detected a Meissner state below 1 Oe with extensive weak-links up to ~ 20 K, unconnected small superconducting patches up to ~ 40 K, and an unusual dispersion of diamagnetic moment with frequency up to 80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films at different temperature ranges suggest that collective excitations of electron and/or spin nature may exist in the FeSe films below 20 K and 40-80 K. The experimental results will be presented and the implications discussed. Collaborators: Liangzi Deng, Bing Lv, Fengyan Wei, and Yu-Yi Xue, University of Houston; Li-Li Wang, Xu-Cun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue, Tsinghua University, Beijing.

  8. Combined effects of transition metal (Ni and Rh) substitution and annealing/quenching on the physical properties of CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Ran, S; Bud'ko, S L; Straszheim, W E; Canfield, P C

    2014-08-01

    We performed systematic studies of the combined effects of annealing/quenching temperature (TA/Q) and T=Ni, Rh substitution (x) on the physical properties of Ca(Fe1-xTx)2As2. We constructed two-dimensional, TA/Q-x phase diagrams for the low-temperature states for both substitutions to map out the relations between ground states and compared them with that of Co substitution. Ni substitution, which brings one more extra electron per substituted atom and suppresses the c-lattice parameter at roughly the same rate as Co substitution, leads to a similar parameter range of antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase space in the TA/Q-x space as that found for Co substitution, but the parameter range for superconductivity has been shrunk (roughly by a factor of 2). This result is similar to what is found when Co- and Ni-substituted BaFe2As2 are compared. On the other hand, Rh substitution, which brings the same amount of extra electrons as does Co substitution, but suppresses the c-lattice parameter more rapidly, has a different phase diagram. The collapsed tetragonal phase exists much more pervasively, to the exclusion of the normal, paramagnetic, tetragonal phase. The range of antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase space is noticeably reduced, and the superconducting region is substantially suppressed, essentially truncated by the collapsed tetragonal phase. In addition, we found that whereas for Co substitution there was no difference between phase diagrams for samples annealed for 1 or 7 days, for Ni and Rh substitutions a second, reversible effect of annealing was revealed by 7-day anneals.

  9. 2012 Problem 10: Rocking Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaohua; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the motion of a bottle partly filled with water is investigated. Two stages of motion showing different kinetic properties, named as "moving stage" and "rocking stage", can be clearly identified in the experiment. In the moving stage, the bottle moves forward with a short period vibration, while in the rocking stage, the bottle oscillates with a significantly longer period around a certain spot. Theoretical and numerical methods are employed to explain these phenomena. By simplifying the system into a rigid body model, it is found that in the moving stage, classical mechanical method gives results that fit our experiment well. And the rocking stage is thought to be the result of the asymmetric torque generated by the gravity of a liquid layer adhered to the inside wall of the bottle.

  10. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  11. Martian sediments and sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markun, C. D.

    1988-01-01

    Martian sediments and sedimentary rocks, clastic and nonclastic, should represent a high priority target in any future return-sample mission. The discovery of such materials and their subsequent analysis in terrestrial laboratories, would greatly increase the understanding of the Martian paleoclimate. The formation of Martian clastic sedimentary rocks, under either present, low-pressure, xeric conditions or a postulated, high-pressure, hydric environment, depends upon the existence of a supply of particles, various cementing agents and depositional basins. A very high resolution (mm-cm range) photographic reconnaissance of these areas would produce a quantum jump in the understanding of Martian geological history. Sampling would be confined to more horizontal (recent) surfaces. Exploration techniques are suggested for various hypothetical Martian sedimentary rocks.

  12. Rock Outcrop Under Spirit's Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After months of traveling across a cratered plain, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image of a large, continuous rock outcrop at the base of the 'Columbia Hills.' The image was taken on sol 189 (July 15, 2004) with the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Spirit's left rear wheel is visible in the image, along with rocks that have a somewhat layered appearnce.

    The rover drove over this area backward on five wheels -- a new strategy that will conserve the rover's sixth, aging wheel for those times when it is needed most. Spirit is on its way to the north-facing slope of the hills, where it can look at rock outcrop in more detail, using more solar power.

  13. SHINING ROCK WILDERNESS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1984-01-01

    The Shining Rock Wilderness, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Haywood County, North Carolina, is underlain by complexly folded mica gneiss and schist of Precambrian age. A mineral-resource survey determined that two commodities, quartz as a source of silica (SiO//2) and gneiss and schist suitable for common building stone and crushed rock, are present in large quantities. Demonstrated resources of silica occur at Shining Rock Mountain and small amounts of sheet muscovite (mica) and scrap mica are present at about 10 localities. Until deep drilling is done to test the results of the seismic studies, no estimate of the potential for gas can be made, but the presence of gas cannot be totally discounted.

  14. Sojourner near the Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Sojourner rover was taken near the end of daytime operations on Sol 42. The rover is between the rocks 'Wedge' (left) and 'Flute Top' (right). Other rocks visible include 'Flat Top' (behind Flute Top) and those in the Rock Garden, at the top of the frame. The cylindrical object extending from the back end of Sojourner is the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. Sedimentary Rocks in Ladon Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 January 2004 This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture of an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in Ladon Vallis. These rocks preserve clues to the martian past. However, like books in a library, one needs to go there and check them out if one wishes to read what the layers have to say. This November 2003 picture is located near 21.1oS, 29.8oW, and covers an area 3km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  16. Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 February 2004 Aram Chaos is a large meteor impact crater that was nearly filled with sediment. Over time, this sediment was hardened to form sedimentary rock. Today, much of the eastern half of the crater has exposures of light-toned sedimentary rock, such as the outcrops shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The picture is located near 2.0oN, 20.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  17. Hot dry rock reservoir engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept is a simple one. Two nearly parallel wells are drilled, and hydraulic fractures are then formed to hydraulically connect the wells. Water pumped down the injection well and through the fracture system is heated by contact with the hot rock and rises to the production well. This hot fluid is passed through a heat exchanger at the surface and the extracted heat is used for direct heating or electricity generation. The cooled production fluid is then reinjected, thereby setting up a circulation loop. This paper describes the development and execution of the HDR project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico.

  18. Source rock potential of middle Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% R{sub o}. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% R{sub o}, and at Big Sky, Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% R{sub o}. At both localities, high R{sub o} values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  19. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  20. Rock physics properties of some lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, N.; Trice, R.; Anderson, O. L.; Soga, N.

    1973-01-01

    Linear strains and acoustic velocity data for lunar samples under uniaxial and hydrostatic loading are presented. Elastic properties are presented for 60335,20; 15555,68; 15498,23; and 12063,97. Internal friction data are summarized for a number of artificial lunar glasses with compositions similar to lunar rocks 12009, 12012, 14305, 15021, and 15555. Zero porosity model-rock moduli are calculated for a number of lunar model-rocks, with mineralogies similar to Apollo 12, 14, and 16 rocks. Model-rock calculations indicate that rock types in the troctolitic composition range may provide reasonable modeling of the lunar upper mantle. Model calculations involving pore crack effects are compatible with a strong dependence of rock moduli on pore strain, and therefore of rock velocities on nonhydrostatic loading. The high velocity of rocks under uniaxial loading appears to be compatible with, and may aid in, interpretation of near-surface velocity profiles observed in the active seismic experiment.

  1. Rock 14068 - An unusual lunar breccia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helz, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Rock 14068 is a walnut-sized clast of dark breccia from station C1 near Cone Crater. The rock's dominant component is an olivine-rich groundmass. Petrographic and chemical studies were made of polished sections of the rock. The origin of the material is discussed. It is thought possible that the melt was produced by remelting a preexisting lunar rock of the same composition. Another possibility considered is that the rock composition constitutes a mixture of several rock types of partly meteoritic origin.

  2. Microwave dielectric spectrum of rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bengal, T.; East, J.; Dobson, M. C.; Garvin, J.; Evans, D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of several measurement techniques was used to investigate the dielectric properties of 80 rock samples in the microwave region. The real part of the dielectric constant, epsilon', was measured in 0.1 GHz steps from 0.5 to 18 GHz, and the imaginary part, epsilon'', was measured at five frequencies extending between 1.6 and 16 GHz. In addition to the dielectric measurements, the bulk density was measured for all the samples and the bulk chemical composition was determined for 56 of the samples. The study shows that epsilon' is frequency-dependent over the 0.5 to 18 GHz range for all rock samples, and that the bulk density rho accounts for about 50 percent of the observed variance of epsilon'. For individual rock types (by genesis), about 90 percent of the observed variance may be explained by the combination of density and the fractional contents of SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, and TiO2. For the loss factor epsilon'', it was not possible to establish statistically significant relationships between it and the measured properties of the rock samples (density and chemical composition).

  3. Rock Music and Music Videos.

    PubMed

    Hendren; Strasburger

    1993-10-01

    Sex, violence, sexual violence, drugs, suicide, satanic worship, and racism are common themes in modern rock lyrics. The authors examine their effect on adolescent development and identity, concluding with a discussion of the roles of parents and health care professionals in addressing the problem.

  4. Ionium dating of igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Kigoshi, K

    1967-05-19

    Local fractionation of uranium and thorium, between minerals within a sample of igneous rock at the time of crystallization, makes it possible to date its solidification by use of ionium and uranium. Results on samples of granite, pumice, and lava suggest that this method of dating is reliable.

  5. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.

  6. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  7. Relevance of Computational Rock Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of computational rock physics has brought to light the often ignored question: How applicable are controlled-experiment data acquired at one scale to interpreting measurements obtained at a different scale? An answer is not to use a single data point or even a few data points but rather find a trend that links two or more rock properties to each other in a selected rock type. In the physical laboratory, these trends are generated by measuring a significant number of samples. In contrast, in the computational laboratory, these trends are hidden inside a very small digital sample and can be derived by subsampling it. Often, the internal heterogeneity of measurable properties inside a small sample mimics the large-scale heterogeneity, making the tend applicable in a range of scales. Computational rock physics is uniquely tooled for finding such trends: Although it is virtually impossible to subsample a physical sample and consistently conduct the same laboratory experiments on each of the subsamples, it is straightforward to accomplish this task in the computer.

  8. Community School at Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.; Schwartz, Henrietta

    The objective of the evaluation of Rough Rock Demonstration School (RRDS) on the Navajo Reservation was to examine, in terms of its own stated objectives, the school's organizational and social system as a whole. Chapters in the 1969 evaluation report are "What We Did and Why,""The Schools That Were Compared,""Community Relationships,""The…

  9. Preliminary Study on Rock Avalanche in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Hsieh, M.

    2012-12-01

    Rock avalanche is a kind of rapid (average >100 km/h) granule flow caused by crushing and pulverization of rock materials during catastrophic rock slide. Literature researches show that rock avalanches typically occur on steep, high-relief slopes underlain by hard rocks, and have volumes >10,000,000 m3. Rock avalanches also are characterized by long runout distances, which are 5 to 10 times the total fall heights. Some cases can run up the opposing valley wall. Rock avalanches generally occurred in active mountains (e.g., New Zealand) and were triggered by earthquakes or rainfall (snowmelt), but with exceptions. There were few rock avalanches in historical time in Taiwan. This could reflect: (1) intrinsic instability of hillslopes due to weak rock, frequent earthquakes/heavy rains, which resulted in landslides of high frequency/low magnitude; (2) limited runout space along deeply incised river-valley systems, which increased the likelihood of rock-slope failures to transform to debris flows. However, there are ancient rock-avalanche records, found at Shou-shan coast (SW Taiwan) and Shin-she, Chang-pin, Tu-lan along Hua-tung coast (E Taiwan), which is likely to have undergone coseismic uplift. These places, with steep slopes, underlain by hard rock, and free for materials to run, are most prone to rock avalanches in the future.

  10. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  11. Rock strength under confined shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, C.H.

    1982-10-01

    This report addresses the laboratory measurements of the static strength of rock needed to simulate the response of rock to an underground explosion. The approach is to identify the variables that affect the strength of rock and to discuss each effect in terms of the underlying processes that cause it. Most of the report is the result of a literature review, although some new analyses and concepts are presented. Attention is directed at three basic rock types: low porosity brittle rock such as granodiorite, high porosity brittle rock such as volcanic tuff, and a rock that may be ductile under the relevant conditions, salt. These three rock types are sufficiently different that somewhat different constitutive laws may have to be used to model their behavior.

  12. 'They of the Great Rocks'-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D perspective image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows 'Adirondack,' the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because it has a flat surface and is relatively free of dust - ideal conditions for grinding into the rock to expose fresh rock underneath. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating.Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and means 'They of the great rocks.' Data from the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  13. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  14. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  15. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  16. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  17. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.; Brace, W.F.

    1969-01-01

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  18. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    PubMed

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-01

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  19. Fungal leaching of titanium from rock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.

    1971-01-01

    Penicillium simplicissimum is found to solubilize up to 80% of the titanium in granitic rocks but less than 2% of the titanium in basaltic rocks. These findings were made in investigating the interactions of microorganisms with rocks and minerals of the biosphere in studies aimed at developing experiments for the detection of extraterrestrial life.

  20. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  1. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  5. Brittleness Effect on Rock Fatigue Damage Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati, Hamid Reza; Ghazvinian, Abdolhadi

    2014-09-01

    The damage evolution mechanism of rocks is one of the most important aspects in studying of rock fatigue behavior. Fatigue damage evolution of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness were considered in the present study. Intensive experimental tests were conducted on the chosen rock samples and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used in some of them to monitor the fracturing process. Experimental tests indicated that brittleness strongly influences damage evolution of rocks in the course of static and dynamic loading. AE monitoring revealed that micro-crack density induced by the applied loads during different stages of the failure processes increases as rock brittleness increases. Also, results of fatigue tests on the three rock types indicated that the rock with the most induced micro-cracks during loading cycles has the least fatigue life. Furthermore, the condition of failure surfaces of the studied rocks samples, subjected to dynamic and static loading, were evaluated and it was concluded that the roughness of failure surfaces is influenced by loading types and rock brittleness. Dynamic failure surfaces were rougher than static ones and low brittle rock demonstrate a smoother failure surface compared to high brittle rock.

  6. Planetary rock corer and drill concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imus, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Several planetary rock corers and drill design concepts have been developed for obtaining subsurface rock samples in future planetary explorations. Tools are designed for unmanned space vehicles. Two devices are rotary impact multiple chisel trepan rock corer and hole drilling tool.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  8. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  9. Sojourner Sits Near Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Rover Sojourner is images by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder as it nears the rock 'Wedge.' Part of the Rock Garden is visible in the upper right of the image.

    Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Feet injuries in rock climbers

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

  11. Overview-hard rock penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, borehole instrumentation, acoustic telemetry, slimhole drilling, geothermal heat pumps. A new project to improve synthetic diamond drill bits for hard rock drilling was initiated during the year. Accomplishments during the year include completion of important acoustic telemetry tests in the Long Valley Well. These tests produced the first set of reliable, repeatable data in a drill hole. The results indicate the promise of acoustic transmission through drill pipe for great distances without repeaters. The rolling float meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow was duplicated and sent to six different companies for evaluation in the field. A new slimhole spectral gamma tool for operation at temperatures up to 300 C was fabricated and evaluated in the laboratory. Slimhole drilling for exploration and reservoir characterization was begun with several projects jointly completed with industry.

  12. EAGLE ROCK ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Johnson, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations define the mineral-resource potential of the Eagle Rock Roadless Area of north-central Washington. The area has probable and substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals where the eastern part of the Index mining district extends into the roadless area; the Sunset mine, 400 ft outside the area, has inferred copper resources, and 10 other properties in the roadless area have demonstrated resources for base and precious metals. The resource potential in the area is related to the Index batholith, which makes up the western part of the roadless area, and rocks to the east in the roadless area that are intruded by the Index batholith. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless area.

  13. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  14. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  15. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  16. Future Directions in Rock Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Rock magnetism explains how a rock becomes magnetized and retains its magnetization over geologic time intervals. A wealth of information has been collected on the magnetic properties of constituent minerals. Rock magnetic methods are amongst the most sensitive in detecting iron minerals in natural or synthetic materials. However, several fundamental topics are still inadequately understood. These include the theories of multi-domain magnetism and the depositional or post-depositional acquisition of magnetism in sediments. A serious problem in working with natural materials is the variability of physical properties due to differences in composition and grain size, and interactions between grains. Great advances have been made in the synthesis of iron nanoparticles, thus controlled systems offer a key to gaining new insights into the role that physical parameters play in bulk magnetization behavior. Better models can be constructed in a system when only a few physical factors play a role. Information from these types of studies provides the basis for a better understanding of natural systems. For example, they clarify how environmental conditions affect iron mineralogy and the role of diagenetic processes in the acquisition of remanence in a sediment, and they explain conditions that lead to the growth of ferromagnetic minerals in relation to remagnetization. Experimental results have advanced our understanding of the single-crystal anisotropy of minerals and how these contribute to the total anisotropy in a rock. The combination of deformation experiments and their effects on magnetic anisotropy can provide new insights into ferromagnetic textures, which may play a role in the deflection of remanence in inclination flattening. Future progress in these fields will depend on a closer alliance between experiment, theory and modeling.

  17. Sedimentary Rocks of Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock within Aram Chaos, an ancient, partly-filled impact crater located near 3.2oN, 19.9oW. This 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel picture is illuminated by sunlight from the left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  18. Thermal conductivity of carbonate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Frost, R.R.; Harvey, R.D.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of several well-defined carbonate rocks were determined near 40??C. Values range from 1.2 W m-1 C-1 for a highly porous chalk to 5.1 W m-1 C-1 for a dolomite. The thermal conductivity of magnesite (5.0) is at the high end of the range, and that for Iceland Spar Calcite (3.2) is near the middle. The values for limestones decrease linearly with increasing porosity. Dolomites of comparable porosity have greater thermal conductivities than limestones. Water-sorbed samples have expected greater thermal conductivities than air-saturated (dry) samples of the same rock. An anomalously large increase in the thermal conductivity of a water-sorbed clayey dolomite over that of the same sample when dry is attributed to the clay fraction, which swells during water inhibition, causing more solid-to-solid contacts within the dolomite framework. Measurements were made with a Colora Thermoconductometer. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were made and tabulated. Porosity of the rocks was determined by mercury porosimetry and also from density measurements. The Iceland Spar Calcite and magnesite were included for reference. ?? 1973.

  19. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Petrology of unshocked crystalline rocks and shock effects in lunar rocks and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; James, O.B.; Minkin, J.A.; Boreman, J.A.; Jackson, E.D.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of rock modes, textures, and mineralogy, unshocked crystalline rocks are classified into a dominant ilmenite-rich suite (subdivided into intersertal, ophitic, and hornfels types) and a subordinate feldspar-rich suite (subdivided into poikilitic and granular types). Weakly to moderately shocked rocks show high strain-rate deformation and solid-state transformation of minerals to glasses; intensely shocked rocks are converted to rock glasses. Data on an unknown calcium-bearing iron metasilicate are presented.

  1. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. COMMANDING OFFICER'S OFFICE, FIRST FLOOR. DATED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. Mars Rocks Continue to Fascinate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Proving once again that Mars is a complex and fascinating place, NASA's Opportunity rover has entered new terrain and is providing scientists with more discoveries and puzzles to solve. 'One of the things we've been wondering,' said principal investigator Steve Squyres, 'is whether the rounded concretions we call 'blueberries' are the same everywhere. It turns out they're not. The berries are more numerous here, and some seem to be smaller than any we've ever seen.'

    This microscopic image of a drill hole cut into a martian rock nicknamed 'Ice Cream' by the rover's rock abrasion tool shows cross sections of round concretions 1 to 2 millimeters (0.04 to 0.08 inches) wide. Science team members are debating whether the grayish-looking smudges that are not as round are concretions or some other feature.

    Opportunity is now almost 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater,' where the rover spent from May through December of 2004 reading the story of a watery past recorded in the martian rocks. After exiting 'Endurance' on martian day, or sol, 316 (Dec. 13, 2004), Opportunity turned south and continued the trek across land where no human has trod, demonstrating that endurance is more than just a name.

    Opportunity took this mosaic of images with its microscopic imager on sol 546 (Aug. 6, 2005). The area shown is approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) wide. The shaded portions on the left side of each quadrangle in the mosaic are silhouettes of the rover's robotic arm.

  17. Lander and Mini Matterhorn rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the two forward cameras aboard the Sojourner rover took this image of the Sagan Memorial Station on Sol 26. The angular resolution of the camera is about three milliradians (.018 degrees) per pixel, which is why the image appears grainy. The field of view of each rover camera is about 127 degrees horizontally and 90 degrees vertically.

    Features seen on the lander include (from left to right): the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast with windsocks; the low-gain antenna mast, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on its mast at center; the disc-shaped high-gain antenna at right, and areas of deflated airbags. The dark circle on the lander body is a filtered vent that allowed air to escape during launch, and allowed the lander to repressurize upon landing. The high-gain antenna is pointed at Earth. The large rock Yogi, which Sojourner has approached and studied, as at the far right of the image. Mini Matterhorn is the large rock situated in front of the lander at left.

    The horizontal line at the center of the image is due to differences in light-metering for different portions of the image. The shadow of Sojourner and its antenna are visible at the lower section of the image. The antenna's shadow falls across a light-colored rock.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  19. Infiltration flux distributions in unsaturated rock deposits andtheir potential implications for fractured rock formations

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Olson, Keith R.; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-11-01

    Although water infiltration through unconsolidated rocks and fractured rock formations control flow and transport to groundwater, spatial distributions of flow paths are poorly understood. Infiltration experiments conducted on packs of rocks showed that a well-constrained distribution of fluxes develops despite differences in rock type (angular diabase and sandstone, and subangular serpentinite), rock size (30 to 200mm), and packing (up to 42 rock layers). Fluxes stabilize into a geometric (exponential) distribution that keeps about half of the system depleted of flow, retains a small fraction of high flow regions, and has a characteristic scale determined by the rock size. Modification of a statistical mechanical model shows that gravity-directed, random flowpaths evolve to the observed flux distribution, and that it represents the most probable distribution. Key similarities between infiltration in rock deposits and fractured rock formations indicate that the geometric flow distribution may also apply in the latter systems.

  20. Sedimentary rocks of early Mars.

    PubMed

    Malin, M C; Edgett, K S

    2000-12-01

    Layered and massive outcrops on Mars, some as thick as 4 kilometers, display the geomorphic attributes and stratigraphic relations of sedimentary rock. Repeated beds in some locations imply a dynamic depositional environment during early martian history. Subaerial (such as eolian, impact, and volcaniclastic) and subaqueous processes may have contributed to the formation of the layers. Affinity for impact craters suggests dominance of lacustrine deposition; alternatively, the materials were deposited in a dry, subaerial setting in which atmospheric density, and variations thereof mimic a subaqueous depositional environment. The source regions and transport paths for the materials are not preserved.

  1. Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

  2. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  3. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  4. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  5. Ambient resonance of rock arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison Margaret

    Resonant frequencies of structural elements are related to fundamental material properties of mass and stiffness, and monitoring over time can thus serve as an indirect indictor of internal mechanical change. Until now, however, this methodology has not been applied to natural rock structures such as arches and towers. We evaluated the resonance characteristics of four rock arches in southeastern Utah, combining in-situ ambient vibration measurements with numerical modal analysis. At each location, we measured the spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using up to two broadband seismometers. Ambient vibration spectra measured on the arches showed clear peaks at distinct frequencies (typically between 1-10 Hz), which we interpret as resonant frequencies, as opposed to the relatively flat spectra recorded on nearby bedrock. Polarization analysis helped us identify the orientations of vibration and explore resonant mode shapes. We then verified the measured resonant frequencies through 3D finite-element numerical modal analysis, and in most cases we were able to match the fundamental along with several higher-order modes. Repeat occupation and short-term continuous ambient vibration monitoring were aimed at assessing daily and seasonal changes in resonant frequencies, which in turn may provide evidence of internal mechanical change; Mesa Arch in Canyonlands National Park served as the main focus for our repeat measurements. Results revealed that minor, reversible changes in resonant frequencies can be created by thermal effects, i.e., changes in bulk material stiffness as the arch expands and contracts on daily and seasonal time scales. No irreversible change in the resonant frequency of Mesa Arch was detected over the period of this study. Our research provides the first step towards monitoring the long-term structural health of natural rock arches as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. We have shown that the resonance

  6. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  7. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  8. Why Tc of (CaFeAs)10Pt3.58As8 is twice as high as (CaFe0.95Pt0.05As)10Pt3As8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathaiah, S.; Stürzer, T.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Johrendt, D.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    Recently discovered (CaFe1-xPtxAs)10Pt3As8 and (CaFeAs)10Pt4-yAs8 superconductors are very similar materials having the same elemental composition and structurally similar superconducting FeAs slabs. Yet the maximal critical temperature achieved by changing Pt concentration is approximately twice higher in the latter. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) we compare the electronic structure of their optimally doped compounds and find drastic differences. Our results highlight the sensitivity of critical temperature to the details of fermiology and point to the decisive role of band-edge singularities in the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity.

  9. Learning through the Kids Cafe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of middle-school children supported by the community in organizing a project to feed needy children: running the project, and providing an educational activity prior to each meal. Describes academic outcomes of project, such as developing skills in language arts, math, and creative problem solving; and learning about nutrition.…

  10. Electrical properties of dry rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism by which atmospheric moisture affects the conductivity and dielectric constant of rock specimens was studied in time and frequency domains. It is suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface conductivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators. Powdered basalts show a low-frequency dispersion produced by the atmospheric moisture remaining in the pore system of the sample in a high vacuum; this effect is attributed to isolated adsorption centers. Simulated lunar permafrost at 100 K and a vacuum of 10 to the -8th power torr together with data on lunar samples contaminated with atmospheric moisture and the dielectric properties of ice at various temperatures indicate that, if permafrost exists in the moon it should present a relaxation peak at approximately 300 Hz; for temperatures up to 263 K it may go up to 20 KHz. It is concluded that in order to have electrical steady state conditions in rock samples it is necessary to have volume charge accumulations at interfaces within the sample and at the electrode sample interface. A method for measuring heterogeneous dielectrics with non-negligible ohmic and dielectric conductivities is proposed and experimentally verified.

  11. Multiversos: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; García, N.

    2011-11-01

    Imagine that you can use your fingers only for typing target coordinates at thetelescope, reduce images and spectra with IRAF, or write papers for Astronomy &Astrophysics, but you would never be able to play an electric guitar.Imagine that you love music, work in front of the computer always withheadphones, and dream of playing with your favourite rock band in a tumultuousconcert.Imagine that you are an astronomer who, after a "cosmic fluke", share stagewith the band which themes you have always hummed since you were a teenager.Imagine that you were born for rock, played a main role in the best Spanishalbum of the 90s (Omega, with Enrique Morente), and your songs arerutinary played by Radio 3, but you would never be able to detect an exoplanetor a galaxy at a high redshift.Imagine that you love Astronomy, try to see the Moon craters and Andromeda withyour small telescope through the light pollution of your city, and explain yourdaughter that Pluto is not a planet any longer. Imagine that you are a musician who, after a "cosmic fluke", give a talk justafter a Nobel laureate that discovered the cosmic microwave backgroundradiation.Such "cosmic flukes" sometimes happen. If you were not at the dinner of the SEA meeting and do not believe us, visithttp://www.myspace.com/antonioariasmultiverso or open the proceedings DVD andlisten "El ordenador simula el nacimiento de las estrella...".

  12. Multisensor classification of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    1988-01-01

    A comparison is made between linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification results based on signatures from the Landsat TM, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and airborne SAR, alone and combined into extended spectral signatures for seven sedimentary rock units exposed on the margin of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Results from a linear discriminant analysis showed that training-area classification accuracies based on the multisensor data were improved an average of 15 percent over TM alone, 24 percent over TIMS alone, and 46 percent over SAR alone, with similar improvement resulting when supervised multisensor classification maps were compared to supervised, individual sensor classification maps. When training area signatures were used to map spectrally similar materials in an adjacent area, the average classification accuracy improved 19 percent using the multisensor data over TM alone, 2 percent over TIMS alone, and 11 percent over SAR alone. It is concluded that certain sedimentary lithologies may be accurately mapped using a single sensor, but classification of a variety of rock types can be improved using multisensor data sets that are sensitive to different characteristics such as mineralogy and surface roughness.

  13. 'Pot of Gold' and 'Rotten Rocks'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed 'Pot of Gold' (upper left), located near the base of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. Scientists are intrigued by this unusual-looking, nodule-covered rock and plan to investigate its detailed chemistry in coming sols. This picture was taken on sol 159 (June 14, 2004).

    To the right is a set of rocks referred to as 'Rotten Rocks' for their resemblance to rotting loaves of bread. The insides of these rocks appear to have been eroded, while their outer rinds remain more intact. These outer rinds are reminiscent of those found on rocks at Meridiani Planum's 'Eagle Crater.' This image was captured on sol 158 (June 13, 2004).

  14. 'They of the Great Rocks'-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows 'Adirondack,' the rover's first target rock. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of the football-sized rock on Sunday, Jan. 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The word Adirondack is Native American and is interpreted by some to mean 'They of the great rocks.'

  15. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  16. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  17. Metamorphosed ultramafic rocks in east Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kays, M. A.; Dorais, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The compositional and mineralogical characteristics of Archean ultramafic rocks in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord are summarized: the first provides information important to understanding the primary character of the rock suite, whereas the latter provides data necessary to determine the conditions of their equilibrium during the latest metamorphism. This information will be of value in determining the affinity of the suite to similar Archean rocks in other areas of the North Atlantic craton.

  18. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks.

    PubMed

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E

    2015-05-12

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  19. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-05-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  20. Meteorite Linked to Rock at Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This meteorite, a basalt lava rock nearly indistinguishable from many Earth rocks, provided the first strong proof that meteorites could come from Mars. Originally weighing nearly 8 kilograms (17.6 pounds), it was collected in 1979 in the Elephant Moraine area of Antarctica. The side of the cube at the lower left in this image measures 1 centimeter (0.4 inches).

    This picture shows a sawn face of this fine-grained gray rock. (The vertical stripes are saw marks.) The black patches in the rock are melted rock, or glass, formed when a large meteorite hit Mars near the rock. The meteorite impact probably threw this rock, dubbed 'EETA79001,' off Mars and toward Antarctica on Earth. The black glass contains traces of martian atmosphere gases.

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has discovered that a rock dubbed 'Bounce' at Meridiani Planum has a very similar mineral composition to this meteorite and likely shares common origins. Bounce itself is thought to have originated outside the area surrounding Opportunity's landing site; an impact or collision likely threw the rock away from its primary home.

  1. Hopi and Anasazi Alignments and Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Bryan C.

    The interaction of light and shadow on ancestral Puebloan rock art, or rock art demarcating sunrise/set horizon points that align with culturally significant dates, has long been assumed to be evidence of "intentional construct" for marking time or event by the native creator. However, anthropological rock art research requires the scientific control of cultural time, element orientation and placement, structure, and association with other rock art elements. The evaluation of five exemplars challenges the oft-held assumption that "if the interaction occurs, it therefore supports intentional construct" and thereby conveys meaning to the native culture.

  2. Evolution of Rock Cracks Under Unloading Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R. Q.; Huang, D.

    2014-03-01

    Underground excavation normally causes instability of the mother rock due to the release and redistribution of stress within the affected zone. For gaining deep insight into the characteristics and mechanism of rock crack evolution during underground excavation, laboratory tests are carried out on 36 man-made rock specimens with single or double cracks under two different unloading conditions. The results show that the strength of rock and the evolution of cracks are clearly influenced by both the inclination angle of individual cracks with reference to the unloading direction and the combination geometry of cracks. The peak strength of rock with a single crack becomes smaller with the inclination angle. Crack propagation progresses intermittently, as evidenced by a sudden increase in deformation and repeated fluctuation of measured stress. The rock with a single crack is found to fail in three modes, i.e., shear, tension-shear, and splitting, while the rock bridge between two cracks is normally failed in shear, tension-shear, and tension. The failure mode in which a crack rock or rock bridge behaves is found to be determined by the inclination angle of the original crack, initial stress state, and unloading condition. Another observation is that the secondary cracks are relatively easily created under high initial stress and quick unloading.

  3. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  4. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

    Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  5. Rayleigh wave studies in lunar rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    An ultrasonic surface wave technique described by the author (1971) is used to verify a hypothesis that links the seismic wave propagation velocities in lunar crust, much too low as compared to those on earth, to the extensive fracturing of lunar rock in the absence of liquids and gases which changed drastically the elastic and inelastic properties of lunar rock. Measurements on lunar rock samples and synthetic analogs suggest that the presence of microfractures have influence on both the wave velocity and Q factor in lunar rocks.

  6. Evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.

  7. New eyes on eastern California rock varnish

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsley, D.H.; Dorn, R.I. )

    1991-05-01

    This article presents findings from recent investigations of how rock varnish forms and describes the manner in which this understanding can aid researchers. Rock varnish is typically a glossy-brown to black coating that commonly develops on rock surfaces in arid climates. It may take tens of thousands of years to form a complete coating over rock surfaces. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of rock varnish. The following explanations originated during examination of rock varnishes in the Mojave Desert: (1) the role of pollen in providing manganese, (2) the role of lichens in somehow catalyzing varnish accretion, (3) physical and chemical changes at the rock surface, and (4) the role of bacteria in concentrating manganese. Recent findings using backscatter electron microscopy are given researchers additional insights into this phenomenon. This technology permits researchers to view rock varnish chemistry and texture simultaneously and permits sources of varnish constituents, origin of manganese enhancement in varnish, reliable rock varnish dating, and new microscopic textures to be studied in great detail. It is now apparent that a number of varnish accretion processes occur other than deposition in even layers.

  8. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt

  9. Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez Martinez, Jaime

    Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic

  10. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations and Implications for Landing Hazards on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks represent an obvious potential hazard to a landing spacecraft. They also represent an impediment to rover travel and objects of prime scientific interest. Although Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images are of high enough resolution to distinguish the largest rocks (an extremely small population several meters diameter or larger), traditionally the abundance and distribution of rocks on Mars have been inferred from thermal inertia and radar measurements, our meager ground truth sampling of landing sites, and terrestrial rock populations. In this abstract, we explore the effective thermal inertia of rocks and rock populations, interpret the results in terms of abundances and populations of potentially hazardous rocks, and conclude with interpretations of rock hazards on the Martian surface and in extremely high thermal inertia areas.

  11. Some influences of rock strength and strain rate on propagation of rock avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Elisabeth; Rait, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Rock avalanches are extreme and destructive mass movements in which large volumes of rock (typically >1 million cubic metres) travel at high speeds, covering large distances, and the occurrence of which is highly unpredictable. The "size effect" in rock avalanches, whereby those with larger volumes produce greater spreading efficiency (as defined by an increase in normalised runout) or lower farboschung angle (defined as the tangent of the ratio of fall height to runout length), is well known. Studies have shown that rock strength is a controlling factor in the mobility of rock avalanches - that is, mass movements involving lower strength rock are generally found to produce greater mobility as evidenced by the spread of deposits or low farboschung angle. However, there are conflicting ideas as to how and why this influence is manifested. This paper discusses different theories of rock comminution in light of numerical simulations of rock clasts undergoing normal and shear induced loading, experimental work on rock avalanche behaviour, and dynamic fracture mechanics. In doing so, we introduce the idea of thresholds of strain rate for the production of dynamic fragmentation (as opposed to pseudo-static clast crushing) that are based, inter alia, on static rock strength. To do this, we refer to data from physical models using rock analogue materials, field data on chalk cliff collapses, and field statistics from documented rock avalanches. The roles of normal and shear loading and loading rate within a rock avalanche are examined numerically using 3D Discrete Element Method models of rock clasts loaded to failure. Results may help to reconcile the observations that large rock avalanches in stronger materials tend not to fragment as much as those in weaker materials and also possess lower mobility, while small cliff collapses (typically > 1000 cubic metres) in weak chalk can exhibit rock avalanche-like behaviour at much smaller volumes.

  12. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  13. Abiogenic methanogenesis in crystalline rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lollar, B.S.; Frape, S.K. ); Weise, S.M. , Neuherberg ); Fritz, P. ); Macko, S.A. ); Welhan, J.A. )

    1993-12-01

    Isotopically anomalous CH[sub 4]-rich gas deposits are found in mining sites on both the Canadian and Fennoscandian shields. With [delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4] values from -22.4 to -48.5% and [delta]D[sub CH4] values from -133 to -372%, these methane deposits cannot be accounted for by conventional processes for bacterial or thermogenic methanogenesis. Compositionally the gases are similar to other CH[sub 4]-rich gas occurrences found in Canadian and Fennoscandian shield rocks. However, the isotopically anomalous gases of this study are characterized by unexpectedly high concentrations of H[sub 2] gas, ranging from several volume percent up to 30 vol%. The H[sub 2] gases are consistently depleted in the heavy isotope, with [delta]D[sub H[sub 2

  14. On wettability of shale rocks.

    PubMed

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified.

  15. On wettability of shale rocks.

    PubMed

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  16. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: Source characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed ofintensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  17. Making "Rock Hounds" of "City Slickers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; Nye, Osborne

    1980-01-01

    Described are ways in which urban "rocks" (building stones, curbstones, sidewalks, etc.) can be used as resources for earth science teachers. Discussed are such activities as: classifying buildings according to rock type and mineral composition, extrapolating geologic history by examining common building materials, economics of stone industry, and…

  18. Preparation for Moving a Rock on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander enlarged a trench beside a rock called 'Headless' during the mission's 115th Martian day (Sept. 20, 2008) in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image later that afternoon, showing the enlarged trench and the rock.

    The robotic arm successfully moved the rock two days later.

    The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been.

    Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The trench, called 'Neverland,' was excavated to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep near the rock. The ground surface between the rock and the lip of the trench slopes downward about 3 degrees toward the trench.

    This image was taken at about 4:35 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  20. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  1. Extracting Information from Folds in Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudleston, Peter John

    1986-01-01

    Describes the three processes of folding in rocks: buckling, bending, and passive folding. Discusses how geometrical properties and strain distributions help to identify which processes produce natural folds, and also provides information about the mechanical properties of rocks, and the sense of shear in shear zones. (TW)

  2. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Alor, J; Robison, R A

    1967-09-01

    Fossiliferous Cambrian, Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian rocks, never before found in southern Mexico, have been discovered in the Nochixtlán region. Superjacent unfossiliferous sedimentary rocks may be Permian in age. Early Paleozoic and late Paleozoic intervals of marine sedimentation were bounded by intervals of positive tectonism and erosion.

  3. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  4. Floods in the Rock River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1973-01-01

    Flood profiles for the Rock River include those for the 1962, 1964, 1965, 1969, and the computed 25- and 50-year floods. On the Little Rock River and Otter Creek, profiles include those for the 1969 flood and the computed 25- and 50-year floods. Low-water profiles are shown for all reaches.

  5. Circular Signs of the Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera, providing a circular sign of the success of the rover's first grinding of a rock. The round, shallow hole seen in this image is on a rock dubbed 'McKittrick,' located in the 'El Capitan' area of the larger outcrop near Opportunity's landing site.

    Opportunity used its rock abrasion tool to grind off a patch of rock 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter during the 30th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Feb. 23, 2004). The grinding exposed fresh rock for close inspection by the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers located on its robotic arm. The Honeybee Robotics team, which designed and operates the rock abrasion tool, determined the depth of the cut at 'McKittrick' to be 4.4 millimeters (0.17 inches) deep.

    On sol 34 (Feb. 27, 2004), the rover is scheduled to grind into its second target on the 'El Capitan' area, a rock dubbed 'Guadalupe' in the upper middle part of this image. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  6. Rheology of rock glaciers: a preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giardino, J.R.; Vitek, J.D.; Hoskins, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Movement of rock debris under the influence of gravity, i.e., mass movement, generates a range of phenomena from soil creep, through solifluction,debris flows and rock glaciers to rock falls. Whereas the resultant forms of these phenomena are different, common elements in the mechanics of movement are utilized in the basic interpretation of the processes of formation. Measurements of morphologic variables provide data for deductive analyses of processes that operate too slowly to observe or for processes that generated relict phenomena. External and internal characteristics or rock glacier morphometry and measured rates of motion serve as the basis for the development of a rheological model to explain phenomena classified as rock glaciers. A rock glacier in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Southern Colorado, which exhibits a large number of ridges and furrows and lichen bare fronts of lobes, suggests present day movement. A strain-net established on the surface provides evidence of movement characteristics. These data plus morphologic and fabric data suggest two rheological models to explain the flow of this rock glacier. Model one is based upon perfect plastic flow and model two is based upon stratified fluid movement with viscosity changing with depth. These models permit a better understanding of the movement mechanics and demonstrate that catastrophic events and slow creep contribute to the morphologic characteristics of this rock glacier.

  7. Rock Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Rock Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) chemistry (introducing the topics of matter, elements, compounds, and chemical bonding); (2) characteristics (presenting hands-on activities with rocks and minerals); (3) minerals (emphasizing the aesthetic and economic…

  8. Trace element geochemistry of Archean volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Murthy, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth-element contents of some Archean volcanic rocks from the Vermilion greenstone belt, northeast Minnesota, were determined by the isotopic dilution method. The characteristics of trace element abundances, supported by the field occurrences and major element chemistry, suggest that these volcanic rocks were formed in an ancient island arc system.

  9. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  10. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability.

  11. Little Rock Split as Historic Date Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years ago, nine black students walked through the doors of Little Rock Central High School, guarded by U.S. Army and National Guard troops dispatched to protect them from angry white residents protesting integration. Now, Arkansas is inviting the world to turn its eyes to Little Rock--this time, to see how far the city has come since those…

  12. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. Apollo 16 rocks - Petrology and classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilshire, H. G.; Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Jackson, E. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 rocks are classified in three broad intergradational groups: (1) crystalline rocks, subdivided into igneous rocks and metaclastic rocks, (2) glass, and (3) breccias, which are subdivided into five groups on the basis of clast and matrix colors. Most of the rocks were derived by impact brecciation of an anorthosite-norite suite but may represent ejecta from more than one major basin. First-cycle breccias are believed to have consisted of clasts of crushed anorthosite-norite in a fine-grained partly fused matrix with a chemical composition similar to that of the clasts. Most of the other recognized breccia types could have been produced by rebrecciation of first-cycle breccias.

  14. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  15. Kinetics of crystallization of igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The geochemistry of igneous rocks is discussed, with the primary objectives of bringing together the theories underlying the kinetics of crystallization of igneous rocks and illustrating the use of these theories in understanding experimental and observational data. The primary purpose of the chapter is to introduce current thinking about the kinetics of igneous rocks and to provide a basis for understanding other work. A basic assumption made in the discussion is that the rate of any chemical reaction, including the crystallization of igneous rocks, is zero at equilibrium and proceeds at a finite rate only at a finite deviation from equilibrium. As such, an understanding of the processes operating in igneous rocks requires an understanding of how deviation from equilibrium affects the rates and mechanisms of the processes occurring during crystallization. These processes are detailed, with special emphasis given to nucleation and crystal growth. (JMT)

  16. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate.

  17. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. PMID:24566296

  18. Database on unstable rock slopes in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Nordahl, Bo; Bunkholt, Halvor; Nicolaisen, Magnus; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Several large rockslides have occurred in historic times in Norway causing many casualties. Most of these casualties are due to displacement waves triggered by a rock avalanche and affecting coast lines of entire lakes and fjords. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected up to now more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This systematic mapping aims to detect future rock avalanches before they occur. The registered unstable rock slopes are stored in a database on unstable rock slopes developed and maintained by the Geological Survey of Norway. The main aims of this database are (1) to serve as a national archive for unstable rock slopes in Norway; (2) to serve for data collection and storage during field mapping; (3) to provide decision-makers with hazard zones and other necessary information on unstable rock slopes for land-use planning and mitigation; and (4) to inform the public through an online map service. The database is organized hierarchically with a main point for each unstable rock slope to which several feature classes and tables are linked. This main point feature class includes several general attributes of the unstable rock slopes, such as site name, general and geological descriptions, executed works, recommendations, technical parameters (volume, lithology, mechanism and others), displacement rates, possible consequences, hazard and risk classification and so on. Feature classes and tables linked to the main feature class include the run-out area, the area effected by secondary effects, the hazard and risk classification, subareas and scenarios of an unstable rock slope, field observation points, displacement measurement stations, URL links for further documentation and references. The database on unstable rock slopes in Norway will be publicly consultable through the online map service on www.skrednett.no in 2014. Only publicly relevant parts of

  19. Structural properties and superconductivity of SrFe(2)As(2 - x)P(x) (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) and CaFe(2)As(2 - y)P(y) (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3).

    PubMed

    Shi, H L; Yang, H X; Tian, H F; Lu, J B; Wang, Z W; Qin, Y B; Song, Y J; Li, J Q

    2010-03-31

    The SrFe(2)As(2 - x)P(x) (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) and CaFe(2)As(2 - y)P(y) (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3) materials were prepared by a solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the single-phase samples can be successfully obtained for SrFe(2)As(2 - x)P(x) (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) and CaFe(2)As(2 - y)P(y) (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3). Visible contraction of the lattice parameters is determined due to the relatively smaller radius of P ions in comparison with that of As. The spin-density-wave (SDW) instability associated with the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition is suppressed noticeably in both systems following the increase in P content. The highest superconducting transitions are observed at about 27 K in SrFe(2)As(1.3)P(0.7) and at about 13 K in CaFe(2)As(1.925)P(0.075), respectively. Structural analysis suggests that lattice contraction could notably affect the superconductivity in these materials.

  20. Rock weathering and Carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozza, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    In the history of the Earth system, we can find indicators of hot or glacial periods, as well as brutal climatic change… How can we explain those climate variations on a geological timescale ? One of the causative agents is probably the fluctuation of atmospheric CO2 amounts, (gas responsible for the greenhouse effect). A concrete study of some CO2 fluxes between Earth system reservoirs (atmo, hydro and lithosphere) is proposed in this poster. Hydrogencarbonate is the major ion in river surface waters and its amount is so high that it can not be explained by a simple atmospheric Carbon diffusion. From a simple measurement of river HCO3- concentration, we can estimate the consumption of atmospheric CO2 that arises from carbonate and silicate weathering processes. Practical experiments are proposed. These are carried out in the local environment, and are conform to the curriculums of Chemistry and Earth sciences. These tests enable us to outline long-term Carbon cycles and global climatic changes. Key words : Erosion, rock weathering, CO2 cycle, Hydrogencarbonate in waters, climatic changes

  1. Radiometric ages of Tennessee rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Corgan, J.X.; Bradley, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This report compiles and summarizes all known radiometric age determinations based on bedrock samples from Tennessee. Data are available for 89 sites. Specimens record both igneous and metamorphic events ranging in age from 1.3 billion to 220 million years before present. Tennessee rocks have been dated by techniques that measure the results of four different kinds of radioactive decay: thorium-lead, uranium-lead, potassium-argon, and rubidium-strontium. Most determinations meet normal scientific standards for reliability. This study focuses on clarifying published data by bringing together geochemical, geological, and geographical information for each site. In addition to data on the age of bedrock samples, this study presents basic information on the ages of meteorites from Tennessee and on the ages of sediments and organic remains from Ice Age fossil sites and more recent archeological sites. While bedrock ages are the thrust of the report, other kinds of absolute age determinations are briefly discussed. 98 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  2. 81. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 6; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLE ROCK DAM: REINFORCEMENT, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 6; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 5; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction with Old Coulterville Road behind rock. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Turning Bread into Rocks: A Multisensory Unit Opener.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Presents an earth science activity on rocks to demonstrate the vital links between minerals and rocks. Uses different kinds of breads to demonstrate that rocks, like breads, are composed of various ingredients in different proportions. (ASK)

  8. Terrestrial impact melt rocks and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Reimold, W. U.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of meteorite and comet impact on Earth are rock brecciation, the formation of shock metamorphic features, rock melting, and the formation of impact structures, i.e. simple craters, complex craters, and multi-ring basins. Large events, such as the 65-Ma Chicxulub impact, are believed to have had catastrophic environmental effects that profoundly influenced the development of life on Earth. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize some of the voluminous literature on impact melting, one important aspect of planetary impact, provide some comments on this process, and to make suggestions for future research. The products of impact melting are glasses, impact melt rocks, and pseudotachylites. Our treatise deals mainly with the geological setting, petrography, and major-element chemistry of melt rocks and glasses. Impact glasses, in several petrographic aspects, are similar to volcanic glasses, but they are associated with shock metamorphosed mineral and rock fragments and, in places, with siderophile element anomalies suggestive of meteoritic contamination. They are found in allogenic breccia deposits within (fall-back 'suevite') and outside (fall-out 'suevite') impact craters and, as spherules, in distal ejecta. Large events, such as the K/T boundary Chicxulub impact, are responsible for the formation of worldwide ejecta horizons which are associated with siderophile element anomalies and shock metamorphosed mineral and rock debris. Impact glasses have a bulk chemical composition that is homogeneous but exemptions to this rule are common. On a microscopic scale, however, impact glasses are commonly strikingly heterogeneous. Tektites are glasses ejected from craters over large distances. They are characterized by very low water and volatile contents and element abundances and ratios that are evidence that tektites formed by melting of upper crustal, sedimentary rocks. Four tektite strewn-fields are known, three of which can be tied to specific impact

  9. Spirit Studies Rock Outcrop at 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this false-color image at 11:48 local true solar time on Mars on the rover's 746th Martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2006), after using the rock abrasion tool to brush the surfaces of rock targets informally named 'Stars' (left) and 'Crawfords' (right). Small streaks of dust extend for several centimeters behind the small rock chips and pebbles in the dusty, red soils. Because the rover was looking southwest when this image was taken, the wind streaks indicate that the dominant wind direction was from the southeast.

    The targets Stars and Crawfords are on a rock outcrop located on top of 'Home Plate.' The outcrop is informally named 'James 'Cool Papa' Bell,' after a Negro Leagues Hall of Famer who played for both the Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Kansas City Stars. To some science team members, the two brushed spots resemble the eyes of a face, with rocks below and between the eyes as a nose and layered rocks at the bottom of the image as a mouth.

    The image combines frames taken by Spirit's panoramic camera through the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters. It is enhanced to emphasize color differences among the rocks, soils and brushed areas. The blue circular area on the left, Stars, was brushed on 761 (Feb. 22, 2006). The one on the right, Crawfords, was brushed on sol 763 (Feb. 25, 2006).

  10. An Empirical Failure Criterion for Intact Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun; Rong, Guan; Cai, Ming; Wang, Xiaojiang; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2014-03-01

    The parameter m i is an important rock property parameter required for use of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. The conventional method for determining m i is to fit a series of triaxial compression test data. In the absence of laboratory test data, guideline charts have been provided by Hoek to estimate the m i value. In the conventional Hoek-Brown failure criterion, the m i value is a constant for a given rock. It is observed that using a constant m i may not fit the triaxial compression test data well for some rocks. In this paper, a negative exponent empirical model is proposed to express m i as a function of confinement, and this exercise leads us to a new empirical failure criterion for intact rocks. Triaxial compression test data of various rocks are used to fit parameters of this model. It is seen that the new empirical failure criterion fits the test data better than the conventional Hoek-Brown failure criterion for intact rocks. The conventional Hoek-Brown criterion fits the test data well in the high-confinement region but fails to match data well in the low-confinement and tension regions. In particular, it overestimates the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the uniaxial tensile strength of rocks. On the other hand, curves fitted by the proposed empirical failure criterion match test data very well, and the estimated UCS and tensile strength agree well with test data.

  11. ROCK insufficiency attenuates ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, David I; Mathews, Joel A; Park, Chan Y; Cho, Youngji; Hunt, Gabrielle; Wurmbrand, Allison P; Liao, James K; Shore, Stephanie A

    2015-10-01

    Ozone causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell contraction and inflammatory cell migration. To determine the contribution of the two ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2 to ozone-induced AHR, we exposed wild-type, ROCK1(+/-), and ROCK2(+/-) mice to air or ozone (2 ppm for 3 h) and evaluated mice 24 h later. ROCK1 or ROCK2 haploinsufficiency did not affect airway responsiveness in air-exposed mice but significantly reduced ozone-induced AHR, with a greater reduction in ROCK2(+/-) mice despite increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammatory cells in ROCK2(+/-) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, ozone-induced increases in BAL hyaluronan, a matrix protein implicated in ozone-induced AHR, were lower in ROCK1(+/-) but not ROCK2(+/-) mice. Ozone-induced increases in other inflammatory moieties reported to contribute to ozone-induced AHR (IL-17A, osteopontin, TNFα) were not different in wild-type vs. ROCK1(+/-) or ROCK2(+/-) mice. We also observed a dose-dependent reduction in ozone-induced AHR after treatment with the ROCK1/ROCK2 inhibitor fasudil, even though fasudil was administered after induction of inflammation. Ozone increased pulmonary expression of ROCK2 but not ROCK1 or RhoA. A ROCK2 inhibitor, SR3677, reduced contractile forces in primary human airway smooth muscle cells, confirming a role for ROCK2 in airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results demonstrate that ozone-induced AHR requires ROCK. Whereas ROCK1-dependent changes in hyaluronan may contribute to ROCK1's role in O3-induced AHR, the role of ROCK2 is downstream of inflammation, likely at the level of airway smooth muscle contraction.

  12. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

    1970-01-01

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elements and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  13. Professional users handbook for rock bolting

    SciTech Connect

    Stillborg, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    All the common rockbolts in current use are considered. The characteristics of these bolts and the installation procedures are discussed. Testing methods for the installed rockbolts are presented, together with the results of the load bearing capacity of different bolts. Design considerations are dealt with, including a discussion of rock mass conditions and rock classification systems. The rock conditions in which a particular type of rockbolt should not be used are reviewed. Design principles for rockbolts in different mass conditions are treated, as well as monitoring and cost of rockbolt systems.

  14. Erosion and the rocks of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Photographs of the surface of Venus returned by the Venera 9 and 10 spacecraft have revealed the presence of smooth and angular rockline forms. Two mechanisms previously suggested (Sagan, 1975) for erosion of crater ramparts on the surface of Venus might also explain the erosion of rocks. Chemical weathering by the hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acids present in the atmosphere of Venus may have been sufficient to erode angular projections of silicous rocks. Alternatively, the contours of rocks containing such low-melting materials as NaOH, KOH, HgS and KNO2 may have softened as the result of exposure to the high surface temperatures of the planet.

  15. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  16. ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

  17. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying the spherule, or small sphere, in the center of the image that appears to be protruding from the rock formation. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  18. Uranium in NIMROC standard igneous rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of the uranium in multiple samples of each of six igneous-rock standards (dunite, granite, lujavrite, norite, pyroxenite, and syenite) prepared as geochemical reference standards for elemental and isotopic compositions. Powdered rock samples were examined by measuring delayed neutron emission after irradiation with a flux of the order of 10 to the 13th power neutrons/sq cm per sec in a nuclear reactor. The measurements are shown to compare quite favorably with previous uranium determinations for other standard rock samples.

  19. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1970-01-30

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elemizents and the initial compositions of the earth and moon.

  20. Lunar rock compositions and some interpretations.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1970-01-30

    Samples of igneous "gabbro," "basalt," and lunar regolith have compositions fundamentally different from all meteorites and terrestrial basalts. The lunar rocks are anhydrous and without ferric iron. Amounts of titanium as high as 7 weight percent suggest either extreme fractionation of lunar rocks or an unexpected solar abundance of titanium. The differences in compositions of the known, more "primitive" rocks in the planetary system indicate the complexities inherent in defining the solar abundances of elemizents and the initial compositions of the earth and moon. PMID:17781481

  1. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  2. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    PubMed

    Norris, Richard D; Norris, James M; Lorenz, Ralph D; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice. PMID:25162535

  3. Sliding Rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First Observation of Rocks in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved >60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, “windowpane” ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of ∼4–5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2–5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice. PMID:25162535

  4. Terrestrial impact melt rocks and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Reimold, W. U.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of meteorite and comet impact on Earth are rock brecciation, the formation of shock metamorphic features, rock melting, and the formation of impact structures, i.e. simple craters, complex craters, and multi-ring basins. Large events, such as the 65-Ma Chicxulub impact, are believed to have had catastrophic environmental effects that profoundly influenced the development of life on Earth. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize some of the voluminous literature on impact melting, one important aspect of planetary impact, provide some comments on this process, and to make suggestions for future research. The products of impact melting are glasses, impact melt rocks, and pseudotachylites. Our treatise deals mainly with the geological setting, petrography, and major-element chemistry of melt rocks and glasses. Impact glasses, in several petrographic aspects, are similar to volcanic glasses, but they are associated with shock metamorphosed mineral and rock fragments and, in places, with siderophile element anomalies suggestive of meteoritic contamination. They are found in allogenic breccia deposits within (fall-back 'suevite') and outside (fall-out 'suevite') impact craters and, as spherules, in distal ejecta. Large events, such as the K/T boundary Chicxulub impact, are responsible for the formation of worldwide ejecta horizons which are associated with siderophile element anomalies and shock metamorphosed mineral and rock debris. Impact glasses have a bulk chemical composition that is homogeneous but exemptions to this rule are common. On a microscopic scale, however, impact glasses are commonly strikingly heterogeneous. Tektites are glasses ejected from craters over large distances. They are characterized by very low water and volatile contents and element abundances and ratios that are evidence that tektites formed by melting of upper crustal, sedimentary rocks. Four tektite strewn-fields are known, three of which can be tied to specific impact

  5. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  6. SCCRV, a major component of highlands rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Mcewing, C. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the composition of lunar highlands samples rich in mafics. Most of the samples were Apollo 16 rocks. The compositional data for 13 lunar rocks are listed in a table. The nonpristine rocks 64815 and 77545 having essentially identical KREEP contents of about 32% have very similar, high contents of the mafic component SCCRV. The same amounts of rather similar ingredients were mixed at locations 1000 km apart. The composition of SCCRV is discussed. According to the three most plausible hypotheses for the origin of SCCRV which are proposed the SCCRV is primordial material, SCCRV consists entirely or mainly of a single type of lunar rock, or SCCRV resulted from the mixing of two or more lunar materials.

  7. The Chemistry of Rocks and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezaro, Peter; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the curriculum, operation and pilot study of a secondary school course on the study of rocks and minerals. Teacher training procedures and modification of the curriculum for other countries (outside of Israel) are discussed. (CP)

  8. Igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Prinz, M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported for a study of seven holocrystalline feldspathic rocks (including a spinel troctolite and six melt rocks) and one mare basalt clast from the Apollo-16 rake samples. The composition and grain structure of each rock is described in detail. Only the spinel troctolite is considered a good candidate for a primary igneous cumulate formed during the original differentiation of the lunar crust. It is shown that the melt rocks probably resulted from shock melting followed by rapid crystallization of heterogeneous highland material and that compositional variations are probably due to mixing of various amounts of heterogeneous cumulates and KREEP components. It is suggested that the mare basalt clast may have been derived from Mare Fecunditatis, although the nearest mare to the Apollo-16 site is Nectaris.

  9. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  10. Getting lunar ilmenite: From soils or rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Lunar soils or rocks can be mined as sources of ilmenite for producing oxygen. However, separable crystals of loose ilmenite in lunar soils are rare (<2%) and small (<200 {mu}); most ilmenite in the regolith is locked together with silicate minerals as rock fragments. Since fragmentation of rock sources must be attempted to win appreciable amounts of ilmenite ({approximately}10% or more), selective collection of high-Ti basalt fragments larger than 1 cm for fragmentation and ilmenite beneficiation may be advantageous over extensive processing of fine lunar soil. Many alternative processing schemes for fragmenting rocks on the Moon have been proposed; one process which was tested early in the Apollo program successfully disaggregated lunar and terrestrial basalts by passive exposure to low-pressure alkali (K) vapor. This process is worthy of reinvestigation. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Cosmogenic nuclides in football-sized rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Honda, M.; Imamura, M.; Fruchter, J. S.; Finkel, R. C.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    The activity of long- and short-lived isotopes in a series of samples from a vertical column through the center of rock 14321 was measured. Rock 14321 is a 9 kg fragmental rock whose orientation was photographically documented on the lunar surface. Also investigated was a sample from the lower portion of rock 14310, where, in order to study target effects, two different density fractions (mineral separates) were analyzed. A few nuclides in a sample from the comprehensive fines 14259 were measured. This material has been collected largely from the top centimeter of the lunar soil. The study of the deep samples of 14321 and 14310 provided values for the activity of isotopes at points where only effects produced by galactic cosmic rays are significant.

  12. 30 CFR 56.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support...) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of ground support, (1) Selected tension...

  13. 30 CFR 56.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support...) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of ground support, (1) Selected tension...

  14. 30 CFR 56.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support...) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of ground support, (1) Selected tension...

  15. 30 CFR 56.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support...) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of ground support, (1) Selected tension...

  16. Rock Port Celebrates New Technology Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grones, Freda

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the advantages dome architecture gave to a new school technology center in Rock Port, Missouri. Advantages cover energy cost savings, lighting, storage space, aesthetics, accessibility, and convenience. (GR)

  17. Pre-Eocene rocks of Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith B.; Kastowo,; Modjo, Subroto; Naeser, C.W.; Obradovich, J.D.; Robinson, Keith; Suptandar, Tatan; Wikarno,

    1976-01-01

    The exposed pre-Eocene rocks of Java can be divided into two compound units for purposes of reconnaissance mapping and structural interpretation: a sedimentary sequence and melange. The sedimentary sequence consists of moderately deformed and little-metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, claystone, chert, and limestone. The melange consists of a chaotic mechanical mixture of rocks identical to those of the sedimentary sequence and their metamorphic equivalents, such as schist, phyllite, quartzite, and marble. In addition, it contains a large proportion of quartz porphyry and smaller amounts of granite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, and serpentinite. The sedimentary sequence is at least partly of Early Cretaceous age and the melange is of Early Cretaceous to very early Paleocene age. They are overlain unconformably by Eocene rocks. The presence in the melange of blocks of quartz porphyry and granite is not easily reconcilable with current plate tectonic concepts in which the sites of formation of melange and plutonic rocks should be hundreds of kilometres apart.

  18. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  19. The elastic energy of damaged rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamiel, Y.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Crustal rocks are typically treated as linear elastic material with constant elastic moduli. This assumption is appropriate for rock with relatively low damage, associated with low concentration of cracks and flaws, and under relatively small strains. However, laboratory and field data indicate that rocks subjected to sufficiently high loads exhibit clear deviations from linear behavior. In general, nonlinear stress-strain relationships of rocks can be approximated by including higher-order terms of the strain tensor in the elastic energy expression (e.g., the Murnaghan model). Such models are successful for calculating rock deformation under high confining pressure. However, values of the third (higher order) Murnaghan moduli estimated from acoustic experiments are one to two orders of magnitude above the expected values of the same moduli estimated from the stress-strain relations in quasi-static rock-mechanics experiments. The Murnaghan model also fails to reproduce an abrupt change in the elastic moduli when deformation changes from compression to tension. Such behavior was observed in laboratory experiments with rocks, concrete, and composite brittle material samples. Bi-linear elastic models with abrupt change of the moduli under stress reversal were suggested based on acoustic experiments ("clapping" nonlinearity) and in continuum damage mechanics (unilateral damage model). Here we present a theoretical basis for general second-order nonlinear expression of the elastic potential. We then show that a simplified version of the general nonlinear model is consistent with bi-linear elastic behavior and accounts for non-linearity even under small strains. We apply the simplified nonlinear model to various laboratory observations, including quasi-static modeling of rocks and composite material with different effective moduli under tension and compression; rock dilation under shear; stress- and damage-induced seismic wave anisotropy observed during cycling load of

  20. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  1. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  2. Stress-induced transverse isotropy in rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.M.; Murphy, W.F. III; Berryman, J.G.

    1994-03-28

    The application of uniaxial pressure can induce elastic anisotropy in otherwise isotropic rock. We consider models based on two very different rock classes, granites and weakly consolidated granular systems. We show that these models share common underlying assumptions, that they lead to similar qualitative behavior, and that both provide a microscopic basis for elliptical anisotropy. In the granular case, we make experimentally verifiable predictions regarding the horizontally propagating modes based on the measured behavior of the vertical modes.

  3. Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in a rock pigeon.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Nanako; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Chambers, James K; Shibato, Tokuhiro; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    A rock pigeon (Columba livia) caught in Akihabara, Tokyo, showed neurological symptoms, such as head tilt and circling. Pathological examinations revealed abundant Sarcocystic cysts in the skeletal muscle and myocardium with mild myositis, and numerous schizonts and sarcocysts with severe multifocal granulomatous T-lymphocytic infiltration in the central nervous system. A Sarcocystis calchasi-specific gene was detected in the muscle and brain. This case indicates S. calchasi was distributed in Japan and caused severe encephalitis to rock pigeons.

  4. Technicians examine largest lunar rock sample collected

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Three Brown and Root/Northrop technicians in the Nonsterile Nitrogen Laboratory in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) peer through glass at the much-discussed basketball size rock which Apollo 14 crewmen brought back from the Fra Mauro area of the Moon. They are, left to right, Linda Tyler, Nancy L. Trent and Sandra Richards (21244); Dr. Daniel Anderson, an aerospace technologist and test director in the LRL, looks at basketball size rock through a microscope (21245).

  5. NASA "Rocks" Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla J.

    2004-01-01

    A rock investigation set up as a problem-based learning mini-unit for the author's seventh grade integrated science students. To start this unit, she explains to students that NASA has sent us a container of rocks that they would like to have identified. It is up to the students to assume the role of geologists and come up with some way to…

  6. [Growth characteristics of rock plant Pogonatherum paniceum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyang; Peng, Li; Li, Shaocai; Bai, Baowei

    2005-08-01

    The study on the growth characters, above and underground biomass, and root-shoot ratio of Pogonatherum paniceum grown on three types of substrates and five types of habitats in Chongqing showed that there were significant differences in plant growth characters, including stalk basal diameter, plant canopy and height, root system area and depth, and maximum root length among five habitats. For shoot growth, though the plants grown on purple soil had the maximum stalk basal diameter (15.18 cm), canopy (3 086.77 cm2) and height (6.58 cm) while those grown on purple sandy rock had the minimum values (stalk basal diameter 10.89 cm, canopy 1 868.79 cm2, and height 60.75 cm). There were no significant differences among three types of substrates. As for root system, there were significant differences between sandy rocks and purple soil, the plants grown on sandy rocks having higher means of root system area (1 389.14 cm2 and 1 487.14 cm2) and maximum root length (45.83 cm and 39.24 cm) than those grown on purple soil (root system area 717.09 cm2, maximum root length 21.42 cm). The plants grown on sandy rock allocated more biomass to root system, and had higher root-shoot ratio, which was helpful for its fixation on rock and its endurance on the desiccation and arid of rock substrate.

  7. Tunnel boring machine performance in sedimentary rock

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.

    1983-01-01

    Full-face tunnel boring machine (TBM) performance during the excavation of six tunnels is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rate, and cutter wear. Construction records for over 75,000 ft (22,860m) of tunnel in sedimentary rock are analyzed, and the results are used to investigate factors affecting TBM performance. Machine utilization is strongly affected by site specific conditions, including geology, construction planning, and contractor practice. The relative importance of each of 21 downtime causes is discussed, and recommendations are made for modifications in excavation system design which could help to reduce delays. Effects of machine operation rate were investigated. The interrelationship among penetration, thrust, and rolling force is analyzed with a three-dimensional model which provides a rational basis for explaining variations in cutter forces and penetration rate as a function of rock type. The most useful rock index for estimating TBM performance in sedimentary rock is shown to be a combination of Schmidt Hammer rebound and abrasion hardness. Variation in cutter wear is considered as a function of position on the cutterhead and the rock type being excavated. Rolling distances for center cutters are less sensitive to rock type than for other positions. A fracture mechanics approach, of use in modeling the process chip formation, is proposed. The use of fracture material properties for empirical prediction of TBM performance is reported. Recommendations are made for future work, and observations and records required for future performance evaluations are summarized.

  8. Calcic myrmekite in anorthositic and gabbroic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffries, C.M.; Dymek, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Myrmekite is a common feature of granitic plutonic rocks and quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, but it is rarely reported in anorthositic and gabbroic rocks. The authors have identified myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and calcic plagioclase in a variety of plagioclase-rich cumulate rocks, including samples from a number of massif anorthosites and layered igneous intrusions. It appears that calcic myrmekite has been frequently overlooked, and is a common accessory feature in these rock types. Chemical and textural characteristics of myrmekite in the St-Urbain massif anorthosite (Quebec) and the Bushveld Igneous Complex (South Africa) have several features in common, but this myrmekite appears to be fundamentally different from that described by most previous investigators. Whereas myrmekite typically consists of a vermicular intergrowth of sodic plagioclase and quartz that occurs adjacent to alkali feldspar, the intergrowths in these rocks contain highly calcic plagioclase and lack the intervening alkali feldspar. In addition, the plagioclase in the myrmekite is more calcic than that in the surrounding rock. The boundary between the myrmekite and the host material is generally extremely sharp, although reverse zoning of host plagioclase may obscure the contact in some cases. The textural and chemical evidence is consistent with a replacement origin for these intergrowths; the proportion of quartz in the myrmekite is in close agreement with the predicted amount of silica that is generated by the theoretical replacement reaction. It appears that water played a key role in the replacement process.

  9. Discovery of Alkaline Volcanic Rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Team, A. S.

    2006-05-01

    Based on remote sensing measurements and the compositions of martian meteorites, the surface of Mars is inferred to be dominated by subalkaline mafic volcanic rocks. However, the Spirit rover has recently discovered lavas of alkalic composition. Picritic (Adirondack class) basalts with high alkali and low silica contents were previously analyzed on the plains of Gusev Crater, and two new classes of dark, fine-grained, relatively unaltered volcanic rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra have now been found as float and in a possible dike at high elevations in the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt and trachybasalt, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. Chemical compositions of these rocks lie along a MELTS-calculated liquid line of descent for Adirondack class basalt. Systematic changes in normative mineralogy are consistent with the calculated magmatic fractionation. We infer that Backstay- and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by low-pressure fractionation of primitive, oxidized Adirondack-class magmas and were possibly emplaced coevally with the plains basalts. The compositions of these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. This discovery may have implications for the composition of the martian mantle source region and the conditions under which it melted.

  10. Marine source rocks of New Zeland

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.P.; Norgate, C.; Summons, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Exploration in New Zealand is moving beyond the Taranaki Basin with its mainly terrestrial source rocks. Good to excellent quality marine source rocks exist and have generated oil in the Northland, East Coast W North Taranaki Basins. These high quality source rocks are Wespread throughout the late Cretaceous - Paleocene passive margin sequence in these basins as well in offshore Canterbury and the Great South Basin. This paper details the character, distribution, generative capacity and maturation behavior of the two main source units and shows how they can be correlated to the numerous seeps and oil impregnations found in the East Coast and Northland Basins. As well as being useful in basin modelling, kinetic maturation parameters for these two source rock facies help to explain differences in the biomarker and isotopic composition of seep oils and also explain trends in Rock Eval Tmax which are unrelated to maturity. In the East Coast Basin alone, the raw oil potential of the Waipawa Black Shale approaches 80 billion barrels. An understanding of the marine source rocks described here is crucial to evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of New Zealand away from the Taranaki Basin.

  11. Marine source rocks of New Zeland

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.P.; Norgate, C.; Summons, R.E. )

    1996-01-01

    Exploration in New Zealand is moving beyond the Taranaki Basin with its mainly terrestrial source rocks. Good to excellent quality marine source rocks exist and have generated oil in the Northland, East Coast W North Taranaki Basins. These high quality source rocks are Wespread throughout the late Cretaceous - Paleocene passive margin sequence in these basins as well in offshore Canterbury and the Great South Basin. This paper details the character, distribution, generative capacity and maturation behavior of the two main source units and shows how they can be correlated to the numerous seeps and oil impregnations found in the East Coast and Northland Basins. As well as being useful in basin modelling, kinetic maturation parameters for these two source rock facies help to explain differences in the biomarker and isotopic composition of seep oils and also explain trends in Rock Eval Tmax which are unrelated to maturity. In the East Coast Basin alone, the raw oil potential of the Waipawa Black Shale approaches 80 billion barrels. An understanding of the marine source rocks described here is crucial to evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of New Zealand away from the Taranaki Basin.

  12. Rock Cracking Indices for Improved Tunnel Support Design: A Case Study for Columnar Jointed Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Hao, Xian-Jie; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-jun; Hudson, John A.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements indicate that the development of cracking is a key feature relating to the strength and collapse of a columnar jointed rock mass. In this context, a new support design method utilising rock cracking indices for columnar jointed rock mass under high stress is proposed to restrain the development of cracking in the surrounding rock mass. The method involves limiting the cracking evolution of the surrounding rock mass by designing the appropriate parameters and time of installation of the support system. Two indices are suggested: the allowable depth of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); and the allowable damage extent of the rock mass in the EDZ. The method involves limiting the evolution of cracking in the surrounding rock mass by designing the parameters and time of installation of the support system. The support system should have a suitable stiffness and installation time so as to restrain the evolution of the depth and damage extent of the EDZ within the surrounding rock. Therefore, the depth and damage extent of the EDZ, as well as the axial stress in the anchor bolts, are calculated at different distances between the support location and the tunnel working face to find the appropriate stiffness and installation time of the support system. The method has been successfully adopted to determine the thickness of shotcrete, the arrangement and installation time of rockbolts, and other parameters, for five large diversion tunnels at the Baihetan hydropower station, China, which were excavated in columnar jointed rock masses.

  13. Quantification of rock fall processes on recently deglaciated rock slopes, Gepatsch glacier, Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehling, Lucas; Rohn, Joachim; Moser, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recently deglaciated area in alpine glacier forefields is characterized by intensified mass movement processes in particular debris flows, shallow landslides and rockfalls. Due to enhanced geomorphic activity, rock slopes adjacent to shrinking glaciers contribute in a substantial way to the sediment budget. In this study, direct measurements of rock fall intensity are conducted by rock fall collector nets and natural sediment traps. The study area is a high mountain (1750-3520m a.s.l) catchment, which is recently about 30% glaciated. The extension of the Gepatsch glacier has been reducing since the little ice age maximum in the mid of the 19th century with an average annual shrinking rate of a few decameters at its tongue. The first results of the direct measurements demonstrate that on the recently deglaciated rock slopes, rock fall intensity is at least one order of magnitude higher (2,38-6,64 g/m2/d - corresponding backweathering rate: 0,3-0,9 mm/a) than on rock slopes which had has ice free since the last Pleistocene deglaciation (0,04-0,38 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: 0,005-0,05 mm/a). The highest rock fall intensity is attributed to the recent deglaciated rock slopes which are located close to larger fault systems (>60 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: >8 mm/a). Rock fall intensity shows also considerable intra-annual variations which are related to cold climate weathering processes and rainstorm activity.

  14. Site amplifications for generic rock sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic shear-wave velocity as a function of depth for generic rock sites has been estimated from borehole data and studies of crustal velocities, and these velocities have been used to compute frequency-dependent amplifications for zero attenuation for use in simulations of strong ground motion. We define a generic rock site as one whose velocity at shallow depths equals the average of those from the rock sites sampled by the borehole data. Most of the boreholes are in populated areas; for that reason, the rock sites sampled are of particular engineering significance. We consider two generic rock sites: rock, corresponding to the bulk of the borehole data, and very hard rock, such as is found in glaciated regions in large areas of eastern North America or in portions of western North America. The amplifications on rock sites can be in excess of 3.5 at high frequencies, in contrast to the amplifications of less than 1.2 on very hard rock sites. The consideration of unattenuated amplification alone is computationally convenient, but what matters for ground-motion estimation is the combined effect of amplification and attenuation. For reasonable values of the attenuation parameter K0, the combined effect of attenuation and amplification for rock sites peaks between about 2 and 5 Hz with a maximum level of less than 1.8. The combined effect is about a factor of 1.5 at 1 Hz and is less than unity for frequencies in the range of 10 to 20 Hz (depending on K0). Using these amplifications, we find provisional values of about ???? = 70 bars and K0 = 0.035 sec for rock sites in western North America by fitting our empirically determined response spectra for an M 6.5 event to simulated values. The borehole data yield shear velocities (V??30) of 618 and 306 m/sec for "rock" and "soil" sites, respectively, when averaged over the upper 30 m. From this, we recommend that V??30 equals 620 and 310 m/sec for applications requiring the average velocity for rock and soil sites in

  15. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  16. Exploring fault rocks at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viti, Cecilia

    2010-05-01

    The mechanical properties of a fault are strongly dependent on mineralogy and microstructure of the fault rocks. X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, combined with optical and scanning electron microscopies (OM and SEM, respectively), are the conventional tools to investigate bulk mineralogy and microstructures of the fault rocks. However, fault rocks are often formed by ultrafine-grained minerals (below 1 - 2 microns, i.e., below the resolution limits of OM and SEM), requiring the use of a high-resolution technique, such as the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), that combines images, diffraction and chemical data, down to the nanoscale. Here, I summarize a few examples of TEM study on fault rocks, obtained from both nature and deformation experiments and covering different kinds of rocks, from carbonates to ultramafics and quartz-feldspatic rocks. In particular: 1) Mineralogical and micro/nanostructural study of fault core samples from the Zuccale low-angle normal fault (Elba Island, Italy; carbonatic protolite). TEM investigation showed large amounts of oriented and interconnected talc lamellae, affected by intense interlayer delamination, giving rise to "sublamellae" down to 10 - 20 nm thick. This peculiar nanotexture suggests easy frictional sliding along an almost infinite number of sliding surfaces, thus explaining the weakness of this fault. 2) Mineralogical and micro/nanostructural characterization of the slip zones produced by high-velocity friction experiments on carbonatic and ultramafic rocks. TEM investigation of the slip zones revealed thermal decomposition (by frictional heating) of the starting minerals (dolomite and antigorite, respectively), and allowed the accurate characterization of the high-temperature, ultrafine-grained mineral assemblages (grain size from a few nm to 200 nm). 3) Mineralogical and micro/nanostructural study of a natural pseudotachylite in quartz-feldspatic rocks (northern Victoria land, Antarctica), showing thermal

  17. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  18. orbital selective correlation reduce in collapse tetragonal phase of CaFe2(As0.935P0.065)2 and electronic structure reconstruction studied by angel resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lingkun

    We performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the CaFe2(As0.935P0.065)2 in the collapse tetragonal(CT) phase and uncollapse tetragonal(UCT) phase. We find in the CT phase the electronic correlation dramatically reduces respective to UCT phase. Meanwhile, the reduction of correlation in CT phase show an orbital selective effect: correlation in dxy reduces the most, and then dxz/yz, while the one in dz2-r2 almost keeps the same. In CT phase, almost all bands sink downwards to higher binding energy, leading to the hole like bands around Brillouin zone(BZ) center sink below EF compared with UCT phase. However, the electron pocket around Brillouin Zone(BZ) corner(M) in UCT phase, forms a hole pocket around BZ center(Z point) in CT phase. Moreover, the dxy exhibits larger movement down to higher binding energy, resulting in farther away from dyz/xz and closer to dxy.We propose the electron filling ,namely high spin state in UCT phase to low spin state in CT phase(due to competing between crystal structure field and Hund's coupling), other than the Fermi surface nesting might be responsible for the absent of magnetic ordering.

  19. First-principles investigation of the effect of pressure on CaFe2As2 and Pr-doped Ca1-xPrxFe2 As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurel, Tanju; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Erturk, Esra; Akcay, Guven; Eryigit, Resul; Anisimov, V. I.

    2014-03-01

    In a recent study (arXiv:1310.3842), superconductivity has been observed at critical temperature 51 K under pressure 1.9 GPa for rare-earth doped Ca0.86Pr0.14Fe2As2 which is the highest Tc reported in the class of 1-2-2 iron-based superconductors. Motivated by this, we present density functional theory calculations on iron-based pnictide undoped CaFe2As2 and Pr-doped Ca1-xPrxFe2As2 (x=0.25 and 0.125). The calculations have been carried out using plane-waves and pseudopotential approach within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and also within GGA+U in order to investigate the influence of correlation effects. The effect of pressure on crystal structure, magnetic order, and electronic structure are investigated for both undoped and Pr-doped structures for comparison and discussed with experimental findings. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No. TBAG-111T796) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 12-02-91371-CT_a).

  20. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin.

    Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy.

    The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks.

    As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography