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Sample records for katrin sak gerda

  1. Status of the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinaceli, E.; Gerda Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) using ^{76} Ge, therefore asses the nature of neutrinos (Dirac or Majorana). In the so-called Phase I, with an exposure of 21.6kr yr, GERDA reached a background index (BI) of 10^{-2}{ cts/(keV kg yr)} at 90% CL No signal was found during this phase and a lower limit on the process half-life of 2.1×10^{25}{ yr} was derived (90% CL). GERDA is currently being upgraded to its Phase II, where the ^{76} Ge mass will be double, and it is expected to reduce by an order of magnitude the BI. For 0νββ half-lives at the order of 10^{26}{ yr} will be derived in the absence of signal. The experimental techniques used by GERDA will be depicted and the most relevant results from Phase I will be shown; as well as details on the upgrades of Phase II, including the status of the additional detectors deployed recently, and the new background reduction techniques using the active liquid Argon veto.

  2. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν <= 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.), after an exposure of 21 . 6 kg .yr. The result refutes an earlier claim of discovery with high probability. The background index of 1 .10-2 cts/(keV .kg .yr) is lower by about one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. At present the experiment is being upgraded to Phase II. The aim is to collect an exposure of 100kg .yr and further reduce the background by another order of magnitude to a level of <=10-3 cts/(keV .kg .yr). The detector mass will be increased by ~20 kg of new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors from enriched 76Ge, which exhibit superior pulse shape discrimination and hence background rejection power. Low mass detector holders, cold front-end electronics, contacting and cabling schemes are redesigned for ultra low mass and radiopurity. In addition, a retractable liquid argon veto will be installed to efficiently suppress background events that induce scintillation in the liquid argon. A hybrid solution of photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibres was chosen. This talk gives an account of the results and these challenging modifications to meet our design goals. The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA

  3. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-21

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10{sup −2} cts/(keV·kg·yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge was set to 2.1·10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 10{sup 26} yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10{sup −3} cts/(keV·kg·yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  4. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  5. Sak and Sak4 recombinases are required for bacteriophage replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Neamah, Maan M.; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; López-Sanz, María; Acosta, Sonia; Baquedano, Ignacio; Haag, Andreas F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA-single strand annealing proteins (SSAPs) are recombinases frequently encoded in the genome of many bacteriophages. As SSAPs can promote homologous recombination among DNA substrates with an important degree of divergence, these enzymes are involved both in DNA repair and in the generation of phage mosaicisms. Here, analysing Sak and Sak4 as representatives of two different families of SSAPs present in phages infecting the clinically relevant bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, we demonstrate for the first time that these enzymes are absolutely required for phage reproduction. Deletion of the genes encoding these enzymes significantly reduced phage replication and the generation of infectious particles. Complementation studies revealed that these enzymes are required both in the donor (after prophage induction) and in the recipient strain (for infection). Moreover, our results indicated that to perform their function SSAPs require the activity of their cognate single strand binding (Ssb) proteins. Mutational studies demonstrated that the Ssb proteins are also required for phage replication, both in the donor and recipient strain. In summary, our results expand the functions attributed to the Sak and Sak4 proteins, and demonstrate that both SSAPs and Ssb proteins are essential for the life cycle of temperate staphylococcal phages. PMID:28475766

  6. Sak and Sak4 recombinases are required for bacteriophage replication in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Neamah, Maan M; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; López-Sanz, María; Acosta, Sonia; Baquedano, Ignacio; Haag, Andreas F; Marina, Alberto; Ayora, Silvia; Penadés, José R

    2017-06-20

    DNA-single strand annealing proteins (SSAPs) are recombinases frequently encoded in the genome of many bacteriophages. As SSAPs can promote homologous recombination among DNA substrates with an important degree of divergence, these enzymes are involved both in DNA repair and in the generation of phage mosaicisms. Here, analysing Sak and Sak4 as representatives of two different families of SSAPs present in phages infecting the clinically relevant bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, we demonstrate for the first time that these enzymes are absolutely required for phage reproduction. Deletion of the genes encoding these enzymes significantly reduced phage replication and the generation of infectious particles. Complementation studies revealed that these enzymes are required both in the donor (after prophage induction) and in the recipient strain (for infection). Moreover, our results indicated that to perform their function SSAPs require the activity of their cognate single strand binding (Ssb) proteins. Mutational studies demonstrated that the Ssb proteins are also required for phage replication, both in the donor and recipient strain. In summary, our results expand the functions attributed to the Sak and Sak4 proteins, and demonstrate that both SSAPs and Ssb proteins are essential for the life cycle of temperate staphylococcal phages. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  8. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  9. First results from GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    Gerda is designed for a background-free search of 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay, using bare Ge detectors in liquid Ar. The experiment was upgraded after the successful completion of Phase I to double the target mass and further reduce the background. Newly-designed Ge detectors were installed along with LAr scintillation sensors. Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 with approximately 36 kg of Ge detectors and is currently ongoing. The first results based on 10.8 kg· yr of exposure are presented. The background goal of 10‑3 cts/(keV· kg· yr) is achieved and a search for neutrinoless double-β decay is performed by combining Phase I and II data. No signal is found and a new limit is set at T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L.).

  10. The KATRIN Neutrino Mass Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parno, Diana; Katrin Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While neutrino oscillation experiments have demonstrated that the particles have non-zero mass, the absolute neutrino mass scale is still unknown. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is designed to improve on previous laboratory limits by an order of magnitude, probing the effective neutrino mass with a sensitivity approaching 0.2 eV at 90% confidence via the kinematics of tritium beta decay. At the same time, KATRIN has the potential to scan for sterile neutrinos at eV and keV scales. After years of preparation, all major components are now on site and commissioning is underway. I will report on the current status of the experiment, including recent results and preparations for the introduction of tritium later this year. US participation in KATRIN is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  11. Cryogenic Supply for the Gerda Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberstroh, Ch.

    2008-03-01

    In the GERDA experiment (GERmanium Detector Array for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge) germanium diodes are suspended in a superinsulated cryostat filled with 70 m3 of liquid argon. The cold medium is required since the diodes have to be operated at low temperatures, and furthermore for shielding against background radiation. For the same reason the whole experiment will be placed in the underground laboratories in the Gran Sasso mountains, Italy. In order to avoid any detrimental perturbation inside the dewar vessel, the liquid-argon (LAr) inventory in the main tank will be kept in a subcooled state at a working pressure of 0.12 MPa absolute at the surface. At the TU Dresden an appropriate cryogenic arrangement was designed to match these requirements. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as a cooling fluid. Special care was taken to cope with the narrow temperature span between the LAr boiling temperature and triple point. In the proposed solution a subcooler located close to the cryostat neck provides a stable LAr convection inside the main tank. The working pressure is adjusted with a controlled, slightly elevated temperature level at the liquid-vapor interface.

  12. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  13. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  14. Interaction of SNF1 Protein Kinase with Its Activating Kinase Sak1▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 protein kinase, a member of the SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, is activated by three kinases, Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1, which phosphorylate the Snf1 catalytic subunit on Thr-210 in response to glucose limitation and other stresses. Sak1 is the primary Snf1-activating kinase and is associated with Snf1 in a complex. Here we examine the interaction of Sak1 with SNF1. We report that Sak1 coimmunopurifies with the Snf1 catalytic subunit from extracts of both glucose-replete and glucose-limited cultures and that interaction occurs independently of the phosphorylation state of Snf1 Thr-210, Snf1 catalytic activity, and other SNF1 subunits. Sak1 interacts with the Snf1 kinase domain, and nonconserved sequences C terminal to the Sak1 kinase domain mediate interaction with Snf1 and augment the phosphorylation and activation of Snf1. The Sak1 C terminus is modified in response to glucose depletion, dependent on SNF1 activity. Replacement of the C terminus of Elm1 (or Tos3) with that of Sak1 enhanced the ability of the Elm1 kinase domain to interact with and phosphorylate Snf1. These findings indicate that the C terminus of Sak1 confers its function as the primary Snf1-activating kinase and suggest that the physical association of Sak1 with SNF1 facilitates responses to environmental change. PMID:21216941

  15. Production and test of isotopically modified Ge detectors for GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Budjas, D.

    2011-07-01

    The viability of producing BEGe-type detectors from isotopically modified germanium for the GERDA experiment is demonstrated by a complete test of the supply chain. GERDA is built to search for neutrinoless double beta (0v{beta}{beta}) decay of Ge using high-purity germanium detectors made of material enriched in {sup 76}Ge. To reach a sensitivity for 0v{beta}{beta} decay of <1.4 x 10{sup 26} years, new active background suppression techniques are necessary. BEGe detectors enable a capability to efficiently identify and reject background events, while keeping large acceptance of 0v{beta}{beta} decay signal, by using novel pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques. The PSD as well as spectroscopic performance of prototype BEGe detectors from isotopically modified Ge was verified by comprehensive testing. (authors)

  16. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ∼ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ∼ 10‑3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  17. New derivative of staphylokinase SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul exerts thrombolytic effects in the arterial thrombosis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Szemraj, Janusz; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Brown, George; Stankiewicz, Adrian; Gromotowicz, Anna; Grędziński, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul are recombinant proteins that are derivatives of r-SAK (recombinant staphylokinase). They are characterized by their fibrin-specific plasminogen activation properties and their antithrombin and antiplatelet activities. The difference between these proteins is the presence of the antithrombotic fragment (hirudin or hirulog) in the C-terminal portion of the r-SAK. The aim of the present study was to examine the thrombolytic potentials of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model in rats and to compare the potentials to that of r-SAK. We determined that a bolus injection of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul was more effective than one of r-SAK in the improvement and maintenance of carotid patency and in arterial thrombus weight reduction; however, it had the same potency as SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. The bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in the animals that were treated with either dose (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir or SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul, whereas no changes were observed in the plasma fibrinogen concentration or the α2 plasmin inhibitor level. r-SAK alone did not change the bleeding time or coagulation parameters. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the thrombolytic activity of intravenous bolus injection of the novel thrombolytic agent SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in rats. Although this protein compares favorably with r-SAK, we were unable to show the presence of any beneficial effects of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul over those of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. Furthermore, our results suggest that high doses of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul bear the risk of bleeding.

  18. Status of the neutrino mass experiment KATRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Bornschein, L.; Bornschein, B.; Sturm, M.; Roellig, M.; Priester, F.

    2015-03-15

    The most sensitive way to determine the neutrino mass scale without further assumptions is to measure the shape of a tritium beta spectrum near its kinematic end-point. Tritium is the nucleus of choice because of its low endpoint energy, superallowed decay and simple atomic structure. Within an international collaboration the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently being built up at KIT. KATRIN will allow a model-independent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90% CL). KATRIN will use a source of ultrapure molecular tritium. This contribution presents the status of the KATRIN experiment, thereby focusing on its Calibration and Monitoring System (CMS), which is the last component being subject to research/development. After a brief overview of the KATRIN experiment in Section II the CMS is introduced in Section III. In Section IV the Beta Induced X-Ray Spectroscopy (BIXS) as method of choice to monitor the tritium activity of the KATRIN source is described and first results are presented.

  19. Results from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    The GERmanium Detector Array Gerda at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the INFN in Italy is an experiment dedicated to the search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay in {sup 76}Ge. The experiment employs high purity germanium detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge inside a 64 m{sup 3} cryostat filled with liquid argon. Gerda was planned in two phases of data taking with the goal to reach a half-life sensitivity in the order of 10{sup 26} yr. Phase I of Gerda was running from November 2011 until May 2013. With about 18 kg total detector mass, data with an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr was collected and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr) was achieved in the region of interest. No signal was found for the 0νββ decay and a new limit of T{sub 1/2} > 2.1 · 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L.) was obtained, strongly disfavoring the previous claim of observation. Furthermore, the 2νββ decay half-life of {sup 76}Ge was measured with unprecedented precision. Other results include new half-life limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr for Majoron emitting double beta decay modes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 and new limits in the order of 10{sup 23} yr for 2νββ decays to the first 3 excited states of {sup 76}Se. In Phase II, currently in preparation, the detector mass will be doubled while reducing the background index by a factor of 10.

  20. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vacri, M. L.; Nisi, S.; Cattadori, C.; Janicsko, J.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-17

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the {sup 76}Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10{sup −3} counts/keV kg y) at the Q{sub ββ}. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system.

  1. ICP MS selection of radiopure materials for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vacri, M. L.; Nisi, S.; Cattadori, C.; Janicsko, J.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment, located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) aims to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. Both an ultra-low radioactivity background environment and active techniques to abate the residual background are required to reach the background index (of 10-3 counts/keV kg y) at the Qββ. In order to veto and suppress those events that partially deposit energy in Ge detectors, the readout of liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light (SL) has been implemented for the second GERDA experimental Phase. A double veto system has been designed and constructed using highly radiopure materials (scintillating fibers, wavelength shifters, polymeric foils, reflective foils). This work describes the study of lead, thorium and uranium ultra-trace content, performed at the LNGS Chemistry Laboratory by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR ICP MS), for the selection of all materials involved in the construction of the veto system

  2. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  3. The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim; Katrin Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) aims to determine the electron neutrino mass from tritium decay in a model-independent way, by a kinematic measurement of the energy of β-electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 will improve present limits by one order of magnitude. The decay electrons will originate from a 10 m long windowless gaseous tritium source. Super-conducting magnets will guide the electrons through a differential and cryogenic pumping section to the electro-static tandem spectrometer (MAG-E-filter), where the kinetic energy will be measured. The experiment is presently being built at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe by an international collaboration of more than 120 scientists. The largest component, the 1240 m3 main spectrometer, was delivered end of 2006 and first commissioning tests have been performed. This paper gives an overview of the goals and technological challenges of the experiment and reports on the progress in commissioning first major components. The start of first measurements is expected in 2012.

  4. Novel spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 improves methimazole-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Husain; Yabuki, Yasushi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2017-03-07

    Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism. Twenty-four hours after MMI (75 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment, we administered SAK3 (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) to mice daily for 7 days. MMI treatment alone disrupted olfactory bulb (OB) glomerular structure, as assessed by staining with the olfactory marker protein (OMP), reduced the number of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive neurons in medial septum (MS), and significantly impaired cognition. SAK3 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly restored the number of cholinergic MS neurons in MMI-treated mice, and SAK3 treatment at a higher dose significantly improved cognitive deficits seen in MMI-treated control mice. Overall, our study suggests that SAK3 treatment could antagonize such impairment in patients with hypothyroidism.

  5. Status of the KATRIN neutrino mass experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eric; Katrin Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment aims to explore neutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c2 (90% CL) by measuring the shape of the tritium beta decay spectrum. Using magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic filter (MAC-E filter) KATRIN will measure the electron kinetic energy spectrum with a resolution better than one part in 104. All major components are on site and commissioning is underway, with first tritium data currently scheduled for 2017. The measurement technique will be explained along with an update on commissioning progress. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  6. Background processes in the KATRIN main spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkle, F. M.; KATRIN collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment which aims for the model-independent determination of the effective mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium β-decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum. Low statistics at the endpoint requires an equally low background rate below 0.01 counts per second. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. The background characteristics of the KATRIN main spectrometer were investigated in detail during two commissioning measurement phases. Of particular interest were backgrounds due to the decay of radon in the volume of the spectrometer, cosmic-muon-induced backgrounds, backgrounds due to natural radioactivity and Penning-discharge-related backgrounds. This proceeding will present results of the commissioning measurements and focuses on different background processes and their contribution to the overall background of the KATRIN experiment.

  7. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  8. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  9. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  10. Characterization of sakA gene from pathogenic dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes utilize stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways to adapt to environmental stress, including heat, osmotic, oxidative or nutrient stresses. Penicillium marneffei (Talaromyces marneffei), the dimorphic pathogenic fungus that can cause disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected patients, has to encounter various types of stresses both outside and inside host cells. However, the strategies used by this fungus in response to these stresses are still unclear. In this report, the stress-activated kinase (sakA) gene of P. marneffei was characterized and the roles of this gene on various stress conditions were studied. The sakA gene deletion mutant was constructed using the split marker method. The phenotypes and sensitivities to varieties of stresses, including osmotic, oxidative, heat and cell wall stresses of the deletion mutant were compared with the wild type and the sakA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the P. marneffei sakA gene encoded a putative protein containing TXY phosphorylation lip found in the stress high osmolarity glycerol 1 (Hog1)/Spc1/p38 MAPK family, and that this gene was involved not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also played a role in asexual development, chitin deposition, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside mouse and human macrophages.

  11. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-05-23

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001.

  12. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  13. Pulse shape discrimination for Gerda Phase I data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Gerda experiment located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN searches for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay of 76Ge using germanium diodes as source and detector. In Phase I of the experiment eight semi-coaxial and five BEGe type detectors have been deployed. The latter type is used in this field of research for the first time. All detectors are made from material with enriched 76Ge fraction. The experimental sensitivity can be improved by analyzing the pulse shape of the detector signals with the aim to reject background events. This paper documents the algorithms developed before the data of Phase I were unblinded. The double escape peak (DEP) and Compton edge events of 2.615 MeV γ rays from 208Tl decays as well as two-neutrino double beta (2 νββ) decays of 76Ge are used as proxies for 0 νββ decay. For BEGe detectors the chosen selection is based on a single pulse shape parameter. It accepts 0.92±0.02 of signal-like events while about 80 % of the background events at Q ββ =2039 keV are rejected. For semi-coaxial detectors three analyses are developed. The one based on an artificial neural network is used for the search of 0 νββ decay. It retains 90 % of DEP events and rejects about half of the events around Q ββ . The 2 νββ events have an efficiency of 0.85±0.02 and the one for 0 νββ decays is estimated to be . A second analysis uses a likelihood approach trained on Compton edge events. The third approach uses two pulse shape parameters. The latter two methods confirm the classification of the neural network since about 90 % of the data events rejected by the neural network are also removed by both of them. In general, the selection efficiency extracted from DEP events agrees well with those determined from Compton edge events or from 2 νββ decays.

  14. Current experiments in germanium 0 ν β β search -- GERDA and MAJORANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sturm, K.

    2015-01-01

    There are unanswered questions regarding neutrino physics that are of great interest for the scientific community. For example the absolute masses, the mass hierarchy and the nature of neutrinos are unknown up to now. The discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) would prove the existence of a Majorana mass, which would be linked to the half-life of the decay, and would in addition provide an elegant solution for the small mass of the neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. Because of an existing discovery claim of 0νββ of 76Ge and the excellent energy resolution achievable, germanium is of special interest in the search for 0νββ . In this article the state of the art of germanium 0νββ search, namely the GERDA experiment and MAJORANA demonstrator, is presented. In particular, recent results of the GERDA collaboration, which strongly disfavour the above mentioned claim, are discussed.

  15. First results of GERDA Phase II and consistency with background models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode1, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is an experiment for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). GERDA operates bare high purity germanium detectors submersed in liquid Argon (LAr). Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 and is currently ongoing. In Phase II 35 kg of germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge including thirty newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors is operating to reach an exposure of 100 kg·yr within about 3 years data taking. The design goal of Phase II is to reduce the background by one order of magnitude to get the sensitivity for T1/20ν = O≤ft( {{{10}26}} \\right){{ yr}}. To achieve the necessary background reduction, the setup was complemented with LAr veto. Analysis of the background spectrum of Phase II demonstrates consistency with the background models. Furthermore 226Ra and 232Th contamination levels consistent with screening results. In the first Phase II data release we found no hint for a 0νββ decay signal and place a limit of this process T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L., sensitivity 4.0·1025 yr). First results of GERDA Phase II will be presented.

  16. A mobile magnetic sensor unit for the KATRIN main spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipowicz, A.; Seller, W.; Letnev, J.; Marte, P.; Müller, A.; Spengler, A.; Unru, A.

    2012-06-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) aims to measure the electron neutrino mass with an unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2, using β decay electrons from tritium decay. For the control of magnetic field in the main spectrometer area of the KATRIN experiment a mobile magnetic sensor unit is constructed and tested at the KATRIN main spectrometer site. The unit moves on inner rails of the support structures of the low field shaping coils which are arranged along the the main spectrometer. The unit propagates on a caterpillar drive and contains an electro motor, battery pack, board electronics, 2 triaxial flux gate sensors and 2 inclination senors. During operation all relevant data are stored on board and transmitted to the master station after the docking station is reached.

  17. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H.; Bodine, L. I.; Bonn, J.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Dunmore, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Frankle, F. M.; Furse, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Gluck, F.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Hartmann, J.; Howe, M. A.; Kaboth, A.; Kelsey, J.; Knauer, M.; Kopmann, A.; Leber, M. L.; Martin, E. L.; Middleman, K. J.; Myers, A. W.; Oblath, N. S.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Phillips, II, D. G.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thummler, T.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Vocking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wustling, S.

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  18. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  19. Role of the Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei) sakA gene in nitrosative stress response, conidiation and red pigment production.

    PubMed

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Tam, Emily W T; Woo, Patrick C Y; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2016-12-22

    Stress-activated MAPK (SAPK) pathways are systems used to regulate the stress adaptation of most fungi. It has been shown that in Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei), a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the sakA gene is involved, not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also in playing a role in asexual development, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside macrophage cell lines. In this study, the role of the T. marneffei sakA gene on the nitrosative stress response, and the regulation of gene expression were investigated. The susceptibility of the sakA mutant to NaNO2 was investigated using drop dilution assay and the expression of genes of interest were determined by RT-PCR, comparing them to the wild type and complemented strains. The results demonstrated that the T. marneffei sakA gene played a role in the stress response to NaNO2, the expression of genes functioning in conidial development (brlA, abaA and wetA) and red pigment biosynthesis (pks3, rp1, rp2 and rp3). These findings suggest that T. marneffei sakA is broadly involved in a wide variety of cell activities, including stress response, cell morphogenesis, asexual development and pigmentation.

  20. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar was established: T_{1/2} > 3.6 × 10^{21} years at 90% CI.

  1. Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Bybee, Deborah; Shaw, Jessica

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Flux modulations seen by the muon veto of the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicsk'o Cs'athy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two causes have been identified: (i) secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2%) and (ii) a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4%). A mean cosmic muon rate of Iμ0 =(3.477 ± 0 .002stat ± 0 .067sys) ×10-4 /(s · m2) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS. Combining the present result with those from previous experiments at LNGS the effective temperature coefficient αT , Lngs is determined to 0.93 ± 0.03. A fit of the temperature coefficients measured at various underground sites yields a kaon to pion ratio rK/π of 0.10 ± 0.03.

  3. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maneschg, Werner; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ∼15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  4. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneschg, Werner; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ˜15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  5. Highly Sensitive Gamma-Spectrometers of Gerda for Material Screening: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Budjas, Dusan; Hampel, W.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Keillor, Marty; Laubenstein, M.; Maneschg, W.; Rugel, G.; Schonert, S.; Simgen, H.; Strecker, H.

    2007-04-21

    The previous article about material screening for Gerda points out the importance of strict material screening and selection for radioimpurities as a key to meet the aspired background levels of the Gerda experiment. This is directly done using low-level gammaspectroscopy. In order to provide sufficient selective power in the mBq/kg range and below, the employed gamma-spectrometers themselves have to meet strict material requirements, and make use of an elaborate shielding system. This article gives an account of the setup of two such spectrometers. Corrado is located in a depth of 15 m w.e. at the MPI-K in Heidelberg (Germany), Gempi III is situated at the Gran-Sasso underground laboratory at 3500 m w.e. (Italy). The latter one aims at detecting sample activities of the order ~10 μBq/kg, which is the current state-of-the-art level. The applied techniques to meet the respective needs are discussed and demonstrated by experimental results.

  6. Operation of bare HPGe detectors in LAr/LN2 for the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabé Heider, M.; Cattadori, C.; Chkvorets, O.; di Vacri, A.; Gusev, K.; Schönert, S.; Shirchenko, M.

    2008-11-01

    GERDA is designed to search for 0νββ-decay of 76Ge using high purity germanium detectors (HPGe), enriched (~ 85%) in 76Ge, directly immersed in LAr which acts both as shield against γ radiation and as cooling medium. The cryostat is located in a stainless steel water tank providing an additional shield against external background. The GERDA experiment aims at a background (b) lessapprox10-3 cts/(kg-y-keV) and energy resolution (FWHM) <= 4 keV at Qββ = 2039 keV. GERDA experiment is foreseen to proceed in two phases. For Phase I, eight reprocessed enriched HPGe detectors from the past HdM [C Balysh et al., Phys. Rev. D 66 (1997) 54] and IGEX [C E Aalseth et al., Phys. of Atomic Nuclei 63 (2000) 1225] experiments (~ 18 kg) and six reprocessed natural HPGe detectors (~ 15 kg) from the Genius Test-Facility [H V Klapdor et al., HIM A 481 (2002) 149] will be deployed in strings. GERDA aims at b lessapprox 10-2 cts/(kg·keV·y). With an exposure of ~ 15 kg·y of 76Ge and resolution ~ 3.6 keV, the sensitivity on the half-life will be T0ν1/2 3 · 1025 y (90 % C.L.) corresponding to mee < 270 meV [V A Rodin et al., Nucl. Phys. A 766 (2006) 107]. In Phase II, new diodes, able to discriminate between single- and multi-site events, will be added (~ 20 kg of 76Ge with intrinsic b ~ 10-2 cts/(kg·keV·y). With an exposure of ~ 120 kg·y, it is expected T0ν1/2 > 1.5 · 1026 y (90% C.L.) corresponding to mee < 110 meV [V A Rodin et al., Nucl. Phys. A 766 (2006) 107]. Three natural p-type HPGe prototypes (different passivation layer designs) are available in the GERDA underground facility at LNGS to investigate the effect of the detector assembly (low-mass low-activity holder), of the handling procedure and of the refurbishment technology on long term stability and spectroscopy performance. The study started on prototype 1 (fully passivated on the borehole side). 60Co γ-irradiation of the detector in LAr resulted in an increase of the leakage current (LC), depending on the

  7. Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor AtfA interacts with the MAPK SakA to regulate general stress responses, development and spore functions.

    PubMed

    Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Sánchez, Olivia; Kawasaki, Laura; Aguirre, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    Fungi utilize a phosphorelay system coupled to a MAP kinase module for sensing and processing environmental signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, response regulator SskA transmits osmotic and oxidative stress signals to the stress MAPK (SAPK) SakA. Using a genetic approach together with GFP tagging and molecular bifluorescence we show that SakA and ATF/CREB transcription factor AtfA define a general stress-signalling pathway that plays differential roles in oxidative stress responses during growth and development. AtfA is permanently localized in the nucleus, while SakA accumulates in the nucleus in response to oxidative or osmotic stress signals or during normal spore development, where it physically interacts with AtfA. AtfA is required for expression of several genes, the conidial accumulation of SakA and the viability of conidia. Furthermore, SakA is active (phosphorylated) in asexual spores, remaining phosphorylated in dormant conidia and becoming dephosphorylated during germination. SakA phosphorylation in spores depends on certain (SskA) but not other (SrrA and NikA) components of the phosphorelay system. Constitutive phosphorylation of SakA induced by the fungicide fludioxonil prevents both, germ tube formation and nuclear division. Similarly, Neurospora crassa SakA orthologue OS-2 is phosphorylated in intact conidia and gets dephosphorylated during germination. We propose that SakA-AtfA interaction regulates gene expression during stress and conidiophore development and that SAPK phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism to regulate transitions between non-growing (spore) and growing (mycelia) states.

  8. Limits on uranium and thorium bulk content in GERDA Phase I detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakemüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-05-01

    Internal contaminations of 238U, 235U and 232Th in the bulk of high purity germanium detectors are potential backgrounds for experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The data from GERDA Phase I have been analyzed for alpha events from the decay chain of these contaminations by looking for full decay chains and for time correlations between successive decays in the same detector. No candidate events for a full chain have been found. Upper limits on the activities in the range of a few nBq/kg for 226Ra, 227Ac and 228Th, the long-lived daughter nuclides of 238U, 235U and 232Th, respectively, have been derived. With these upper limits a background index in the energy region of interest from 226Ra and 228Th contamination is estimated which satisfies the prerequisites of a future ton scale germanium double beta decay experiment.

  9. Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; GERDA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in our Universe by neutrinos being their own antiparticles. This would imply the existence of neutrinoless double-β decay, which is an extremely rare lepton-number-violating radioactive decay process whose detection requires the utmost background suppression. Among the programmes that aim to detect this decay, the GERDA Collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge by operating bare detectors, made of germanium with an enriched 76Ge fraction, in liquid argon. After having completed Phase I of data taking, we have recently launched Phase II. Here we report that in GERDA Phase II we have achieved a background level of approximately 10‑3 counts keV‑1 kg‑1 yr‑1. This implies that the experiment is background-free, even when increasing the exposure up to design level. This is achieved by use of an active veto system, superior germanium detector energy resolution and improved background recognition of our new detectors. No signal of neutrinoless double-β decay was found when Phase I and Phase II data were combined, and we deduce a lower-limit half-life of 5.3 × 1025 years at the 90 per cent confidence level. Our half-life sensitivity of 4.0 × 1025 years is competitive with the best experiments that use a substantially larger isotope mass. The potential of an essentially background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay will facilitate a larger germanium experiment with sensitivity levels that will bring us closer to clarifying whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles.

  10. Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of (76)Ge with GERDA.

    PubMed

    2017-04-05

    Many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in our Universe by neutrinos being their own antiparticles. This would imply the existence of neutrinoless double-β decay, which is an extremely rare lepton-number-violating radioactive decay process whose detection requires the utmost background suppression. Among the programmes that aim to detect this decay, the GERDA Collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double-β decay of (76)Ge by operating bare detectors, made of germanium with an enriched (76)Ge fraction, in liquid argon. After having completed Phase I of data taking, we have recently launched Phase II. Here we report that in GERDA Phase II we have achieved a background level of approximately 10(-3) counts keV(-1) kg(-1) yr(-1). This implies that the experiment is background-free, even when increasing the exposure up to design level. This is achieved by use of an active veto system, superior germanium detector energy resolution and improved background recognition of our new detectors. No signal of neutrinoless double-β decay was found when Phase I and Phase II data were combined, and we deduce a lower-limit half-life of 5.3 × 10(25) years at the 90 per cent confidence level. Our half-life sensitivity of 4.0 × 10(25) years is competitive with the best experiments that use a substantially larger isotope mass. The potential of an essentially background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay will facilitate a larger germanium experiment with sensitivity levels that will bring us closer to clarifying whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles.

  11. The SrkA Kinase Is Part of the SakA Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Interactome and Regulates Stress Responses and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Arroyo, Rafael; Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and many other eukaryotes use specialized mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) of the Hog1/p38 family to transduce environmental stress signals. In Aspergillus nidulans, the MAPK SakA and the transcription factor AtfA are components of a central multiple stress-signaling pathway that also regulates development. Here we characterize SrkA, a putative MAPK-activated protein kinase, as a novel component of this pathway. ΔsrkA and ΔsakA mutants share a derepressed sexual development phenotype. However, ΔsrkA mutants are not sensitive to oxidative stress, and in fact, srkA inactivation partially suppresses the sensitivity of ΔsakA mutant conidia to H2O2, tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), and menadione. In the absence of stress, SrkA shows physical interaction with nonphosphorylated SakA in the cytosol. We show that H2O2 induces a drastic change in mitochondrial morphology consistent with a fission process and the relocalization of SrkA to nuclei and mitochondria, depending on the presence of SakA. SakA-SrkA nuclear interaction is also observed during normal asexual development in dormant spores. Using SakA and SrkA S-tag pulldown and purification studies coupled to mass spectrometry, we found that SakA interacts with SrkA, the stress MAPK MpkC, the PPT1-type phosphatase AN6892, and other proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, mRNA stability and protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, and other stress-related responses. We propose that oxidative stress induces DNA damage and mitochondrial fission and that SakA and SrkA mediate cell cycle arrest and regulate mitochondrial function during stress. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which SakA and SrkA regulate the remodelling of cell physiology during oxidative stress and development. PMID:25820520

  12. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  13. The National Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs): Scope, Causes, and Future Directions for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Feeney, Hannah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Shaw, Jessica; Horsford, Sheena

    2015-12-23

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault kit (SAK; also termed a "rape kit") to preserve physical evidence (e.g., semen, blood, and/or saliva samples) to aid in the investigation and prosecution of the crime. Law enforcement are tasked with submitting the rape kit to a forensic laboratory for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis, which can be instrumental in identifying offenders in previously unsolved crimes, confirming identify in known-offender assaults, discovering serial rapists, and exonerating individuals wrongly accused. However, a growing number of media stories, investigative advocacy projects, and social science studies indicate that police are not routinely submitting SAKs for forensic testing, and instead rape kits are placed in evidence storage, sometimes for decades. This review article examines the growing national problem of untested rape kits by summarizing current research on the number of untested SAKs in the United States and exploring the underlying reasons why police do not submit this evidence for DNA testing. Recommendations for future research that can guide policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. 2νββ decay of 76Ge into excited states with GERDA phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Mi, Y.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-11-01

    Two neutrino double beta decay of {}76{Ge} to excited states of {}76{Se} has been studied using data from Phase I of the GERDA experiment. An array composed of up to 14 germanium detectors including detectors that have been isotopically enriched in {}76{Ge} was deployed in liquid argon. The analysis of various possible transitions to excited final states is based on coincidence events between pairs of detectors where a de-excitation γ ray is detected in one detector and the two electrons in the other. No signal has been observed and an event counting profile likelihood analysis has been used to determine Frequentist 90% C.L. bounds for three transitions: {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{2}1+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 1.6× {10}23 yr, {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{0}1+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 3.7× {10}23 yr and {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{2}2+: {T}1/22ν \\gt 2.3× {10}23 yr. These bounds are more than two orders of magnitude larger than those reported previously. Bayesian 90% credibility bounds were extracted and used to exclude several models for the {0}{{g}.{{s}}.}+-{0}1+ transition.

  15. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Viveiros, L. De; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Ureña, A. Gonzalez; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; Cascio, L. La; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H. -W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  16. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; ...

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3more » km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  17. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  18. Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.; Katrin Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The properties of neutrinos and especially their rest mass play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. On the other hand experiments such as MARE, KATRIN and the recently proposed Project 8 will investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Here, because of neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. It combines an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source with an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. It will investigate the neutrino rest mass with 0.2 eV/c (90% C.L.) sensitivity and allow β spectroscopy close to the T endpoint at 18.6 keV with unprecedented precision.

  19. Sterile neutrinos and right-handed currents in KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, James; Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2014-07-01

    Kurie-plot experiments allow for neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics in an almost model-independent manner. A future tritium-based KATRIN-like experiment can be sensitive to light sterile neutrinos with masses below 18 keV, which are among the prime candidates for warm dark matter. Here we consider such keV neutrinos in left-right symmetric extensions, i.e. coupled to right-handed currents, which allow for an enhanced contribution to beta decay even for small active-sterile mixing, without violating astrophysical X-ray constraints. The modified spectral shape is in principle distinguishable from the standard contribution — especially for sterile neutrino masses below 9 keV, which can lead to a distinct peak. We compare the sensitivity to constraints from the LHC and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  20. The Windowless Gaseous Tritium Source (WGTS) of the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heizmann, Florian; Seitz-Moskaliuk, Hendrik; KATRIN collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will perform a direct, kinematics-based measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90 % C. L.), which will be reached after 3 years of measurement time. The neutrino mass is obtained by investigating the shape of the energy spectrum of tritium β-decay electrons close to the endpoint at 18.6 keV with a spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. This contribution reviews the current status of the tritium source cryostat and magnet system which is currently in its first cool-down phase. Furthermore, the next steps of the comprehensive pre-tritium measurement programme to characterise the apparatus and investigate important systematics are outlined. This work is supported by BMBF (05A14VK2) and the Helmholtz Association.

  1. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  2. Methodology and application of high performance electrostatic field simulation in the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Thomas

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a tritium beta decay experiment designed to make a direct, model independent measurement of the electron neutrino mass. The experimental apparatus employs strong ( O[T]) magnetostatic and (O[10 5 V/m]) electrostatic fields in regions of ultra high (O[10-11 mbar]) vacuum in order to obtain precise measurements of the electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium beta-decay. The electrostatic fields in KATRIN are formed by multiscale electrode geometries, necessitating the development of high performance field simulation software. To this end, we present a Boundary Element Method (BEM) with analytic boundary integral terms in conjunction with the Robin Hood linear algebraic solver, a nonstationary successive subspace correction (SSC) method. We describe an implementation of these techniques for high performance computing environments in the software KEMField, along with the geometry modeling and discretization software KGeoBag. We detail the application of KEMField and KGeoBag to KATRIN's spectrometer and detector sections, and demonstrate its use in furthering several of KATRIN's scientific goals. Finally, we present the results of a measurement designed to probe the electrostatic profile of KATRIN's main spectrometer in comparison to simulated results.

  3. The opposite role of two UBA-UBX containing proteins, p47 and SAKS1 in the degradation of a single ERAD substrate, α-TCR.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sil; Yoo, Yung Joon; Elangovan, Muthukumar

    2017-01-01

    The UBA-UBX domain-containing proteins can interact with ubiquitinated substrates and p97 during endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Here, we found that the expressions of all UBA-UBX genes p47, SAKS1, UBXD8, FAF1, and UBXD7 were elevated upon ER stress, albeit with different levels. Of which p47, SAKS1, and UBXD8 are 'immediate' respondents whereas FAF1 and UBXD7 were 'late' respondents to ER stress. Interestingly, the expression of specific UBA-UBX genes were altered in cells stably expressing three different ERAD substrates such as α-TCR, α1-antitrypsin, and δCD3. We first found that p47 and UBXD8 expression levels were increased in α-TCR and α1-antitrypsin stable cell lines, respectively, whereas SAKS1 expression level was reduced in all the three ERAD substrates tested. Of note, we also found p47 promotes, whereas SASK1 delays the degradation of a single ERAD substrate, α-TCR. Additionally, we found that SAKS1 selectively inhibits the degradation of ERAD substrates without affecting cytosolic proteasomal substrates. Taken together, our results identified that UBA-UBX proteins possess substrate selectivity and opposite role of two different UBA-UBX proteins in the degradation of a single ERAD substrate.

  4. Background Suppression Using Pulse Shape Analysis with a BEGe Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search with GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan; Chkvorets, Oleg

    2009-12-17

    A pulse shape analysis for distinguishing between double beta decay-like interactions and multiple-scattered photons was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector. This discrimination method is included in the research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment, since active background suppression techniques are necessary to reach sensitivity for the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay half life of >10{sup 26} years. A suppression of backgrounds in the energy region of interest around the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. This performance is achieved with (89{+-}1)% acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay.

  5. Deconvolution of the energy loss function of the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannen, V.; Heese, I.; Weinheimer, C.; Sejersen Riis, A.; Valerius, K.

    2017-03-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at a direct and model independent determination of the neutrino mass with 0.2 eV/c2 sensitivity (at 90% C.L.) via a measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum. The main components of the experiment are a windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), differential and cryogenic pumping sections and a tandem of a pre- and a main-spectrometer, applying the concept of magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic retardation potential to analyze the energy of beta decay electrons and to guide electrons passing the filter onto a segmented silicon PIN detector. One of the important systematic uncertainties of such an experiment are due to energy losses of β-decay electrons by elastic and inelastic scattering off tritium molecules within the source volume which alter the shape of the measured spectrum. To correct for these effects an independent measurement of the corresponding energy loss function is required. In this work we describe a deconvolution method to extract the energy loss function from measurements of the response function of the experiment at different column densities of the WGTS using a monoenergetic electron source.

  6. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  7. The Aspergillus fumigatus SchASCH9 kinase modulates SakAHOG1 MAP kinase activity and it is essential for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Castro, Patrícia; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Dolan, Stephen K.; Manfiolli, Adriana Oliveira; Brown, Neil Andrew; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M.; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Caldana, Camila; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism. The ΔschA null mutant showed increased phosphorylation of SakA, the A. fumigatus Hog1 homologue. The schA null mutant has increased and decreased trehalose and glycerol accumulation, respectively, suggesting SchA performs different roles for glycerol and trehalose accumulation during osmotic stress. The schA was transcriptionally regulated by osmotic stress and this response was dependent on SakA and MpkC. The double ΔschA ΔsakA and ΔschA ΔmpkC mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress than the corresponding parental strains. Transcriptomics and proteomics identified direct and indirect targets of SchA post-exposure to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, ΔschA was avirulent in a low dose murine infection model. Our results suggest there is a complex network of interactions amongst the A. fumigatus TOR, SakA and SchA pathways. PMID:27538790

  8. SAK-HV Triggered a Short-period Lipid-lowering Biotherapy Based on the Energy Model of Liver Proliferation via a Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Zhiguang; Jing, Haoran; Fu, Wenliang; Yuan, Min; Xia, Wenrong; Cai, Ling; Gan, Xiangdong; Chen, Yao; Zou, Minji; Long, Minhui; Wang, Jiaxi; Wang, Min; Xu, Donggang

    2017-01-01

    The accumulations of excess lipids within liver and serum are defined as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperlipemia respectively. Both of them are components of metabolic syndrome that greatly threaten human health. Here, a recombinant fusion protein (SAK-HV) effectively treated NAFLD and hyperlipemia in high-fat-fed ApoE-/- mice, quails and rats within just 14 days. Its triglyceride and cholesterol-lowering effects were significantly better than that of atorvastatin during the observation period. We explored the lipid-lowering mechanism of SAK-HV by the hepatic transcriptome analysis and serials of experiments both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, SAK-HV triggered a moderate energy and material-consuming liver proliferation to dramatically decrease the lipids from both serum and liver. We provided the first evidence that PGC-1α mediated the hepatic synthesis of female hormones during liver proliferation, and proposed the complement system-induced PGC-1α-estrogen axis via the novel STAT3-C/EBPβ-PGC-1α pathway in liver as a new energy model for liver proliferation. In this model, PGC-1α ignited and fueled hepatocyte activation as an “igniter”; PGC-1α-induced estrogen augmented the energy supply of PGC-1α as an “ignition amplifier”, then triggered the hepatocyte state transition from activation to proliferation as a “starter”, causing triglyceride and cholesterol-lowering effects via PPARα-mediated fatty acid oxidation and LDLr-mediated cholesterol uptake, respectively. Collectively, the SAK-HV-triggered distinctive lipid-lowering strategy based on the new energy model of liver proliferation has potential as a novel short-period biotherapy against NAFLD and hyperlipemia. PMID:28529649

  9. The Aspergillus fumigatus SchA(SCH9) kinase modulates SakA(HOG1) MAP kinase activity and it is essential for virulence.

    PubMed

    Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Dolan, Stephen K; Oliveira Manfiolli, Adriana; Brown, Neil Andrew; Jones, Gary W; Doyle, Sean; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Caldana, Camila; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2016-11-01

    The serine-threonine kinase TOR, the Target of Rapamycin, is an important regulator of nutrient, energy and stress signaling in eukaryotes. Sch9, a Ser/Thr kinase of AGC family (the cAMP-dependent PKA, cGMP- dependent protein kinase G and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C family), is a substrate of TOR. Here, we characterized the fungal opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Sch9 homologue (SchA). The schA null mutant was sensitive to rapamycin, high concentrations of calcium, hyperosmotic stress and SchA was involved in iron metabolism. The ΔschA null mutant showed increased phosphorylation of SakA, the A. fumigatus Hog1 homologue. The schA null mutant has increased and decreased trehalose and glycerol accumulation, respectively, suggesting SchA performs different roles for glycerol and trehalose accumulation during osmotic stress. The schA was transcriptionally regulated by osmotic stress and this response was dependent on SakA and MpkC. The double ΔschA ΔsakA and ΔschA ΔmpkC mutants were more sensitive to osmotic stress than the corresponding parental strains. Transcriptomics and proteomics identified direct and indirect targets of SchA post-exposure to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, ΔschA was avirulent in a low dose murine infection model. Our results suggest there is a complex network of interactions amongst the A. fumigatus TOR, SakA and SchA pathways.

  10. Quadruple or quintuple conversion of hlb, sak, sea (or sep), scn, and chp genes by bacteriophages in non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Rina; Nakatani, Kazue; Ikeya, Nanami; Kito, Yukiko; Kaidoh, Toshio; Takeuchi, Shotaro

    2007-05-16

    In 13 of 43 non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, two truncated beta-hemolysin (hlb) genes were demonstrated by PCR and sequencing, and one truncated hlb gene was located beside the integrase (int) gene of phage origin. The staphylokinase (sak) gene was detected in all 13 isolates in which the truncated hlb genes were detected by PCR. Enterotoxin A (sea) and enterotoxin P (sep) genes were also detected in 5 and 2 of the 13 isolates, respectively. Moreover, the scn and chp genes encoding staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS) were detected in 13 and 4 of the 13 isolates, respectively. The bacteriophage induced by mitomycin C treatment was able to lysogenize one beta-hemolysin-producing isolate of S. aureus, and the sak and scn genes were detected from the lysogenized isolate. These results suggest quadruple or quintuple conversion of hlb, sak, sea (or sep), scn, and chp genes by bacteriophages among non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of S. aureus.

  11. New Lightcurves of 8 Flora, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 25 Phocaea 40 Harmonia, 74 Galatea, and 122 Gerda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2009-10-01

    New lightcurves yield synodic rotation periods and amplitudes for: 8 Flora, 12.861 ± 0.001 h, 0.08 ± 0.01 mag; 13 Egeria, 7.0473 ± 0.0001 h, 0.15 ± 0.02 mag in 2007, 0.37 ± 0.02 mag in 2009; 14 Irene, 15.089 ± 0.009 h, 0.03 ± 0.01 mag in 2007, 15.028 ± 0.001 h, 0.16 ± 0.03 mag in 2009; 25 Phocaea, 9.935 ± 0.001 h, 0.11 ± 0.02 mag in 2008, 9.927 ± 0.003 h, 0.06 ± 0.01 mag with one maximum and minimum per cycle in 2009; 40 Harmonia, 8.909 ± 0.001 h, 0.28 ± 0.02 mag; 74 Galatea, 17.268 ± 0.004 h, 0.16 ± 0.03 mag with 4 unequal maxima and minima per cycle; 122 Gerda 10.712 ± 0.010 h, 0.11 ± 0.01 mag.

  12. Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N

    2014-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11, P = 0.019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water.

  13. Neutrinos secretly converting to lighter particles to please both KATRIN and the cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Hannestad, Steen E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    2016-02-01

    Within the framework of the Standard Model of particle physics and standard cosmology, observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) set stringent bounds on the sum of the masses of neutrinos. If these bounds are satisfied, the upcoming KATRIN experiment which is designed to probe neutrino mass down to ∼ 0.2 eV will observe only a null signal. We show that the bounds can be relaxed by introducing new interactions for the massive active neutrinos, making neutrino masses in the range observable by KATRIN compatible with cosmological bounds. Within this scenario, neutrinos convert to new stable light particles by resonant production of intermediate states around a temperature of T∼ keV in the early Universe, leading to a much less pronounced suppression of density fluctuations compared to the standard model.

  14. Tests of by-pass diodes at cryogenic temperatures for the KATRIN magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, W.; Bolz, H.; Jansen, A.; Müller, K.; Steidl, M.; Hagedorn, D.

    2014-01-27

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) requires a series of superconducting solenoid magnets for guiding beta-electrons from the source to the detector. By-pass diodes will operate at liquid helium temperatures to protect the superconducting magnets and bus bars in case of quenches. The operation conditions of the by-pass diodes depend on the different magnet systems of KATRIN. Therefore, different diode stacks are designed with adequate copper heat sinks assuming adiabatic conditions. The by-pass diode stacks have been submitted to cold tests both at liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures for checking operation conditions. This report presents the test set up and first results of the diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, as well as of endurance tests of the diode stacks at constant current load at 77 K and 4.2 K.

  15. Electron line shape and transmission function of the KATRIN monitor spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slezák, M.

    2013-12-30

    Knowledge of the neutrino mass is of particular interest in modern neutrino physics. Besides the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological observation information about the neutrino mass is obtained from single beta decay by observing the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. The KATRIN β decay experiment aims to push the limit on the effective electron antineutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. To reach this sensitivity several systematic effects have to be under control. One of them is the fluctuations of the absolute energy scale, which therefore has to be continuously monitored at very high precision. This paper shortly describes KATRIN, the technique for continuous monitoring of the absolute energy scale and recent improvements in analysis of the monitoring data.

  16. 1450 m^3 at 10^-9 Pa: One of the KATRIN Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Christian Day; R. Gumbsheimer; W. Herz; J. Wolf; J. Bonn; R. Reid; G.R. Myneni

    2006-11-12

    The KATRIN project is a challenging experiment to measure the mass of the electron neutrino directly with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. It is a next generation tritium beta-decay experiment scaling up the size and precision of previous experiments by an order of magnitude as well as the intensity of the tritium beta source. Ultrafine spectrometric analysis of the energy distribution of the decay electrons at their very endpoint of 18.57 keV is the key to derive the neutrino mass. This is provided by a high-resolution spectrometer of unique size (10 m in diameter, 22 m in length). To avoid any negative influence from residual gas, the spectrometer vessel is designed to UHV/XHV conditions (an ultimate total pressure of below 10{sup -9} Pa and a wall outgassing rate below 10{sup -13} Pam{sup 3}/scm{sup 2}). The paper shortly describes the experimental idea behind KATRIN. The emphasis will then be given to the pumping concept for how to achieve the target parameters and to the manufacturing of the spectrometer tank. Critical issues will also be discussed (surface treatment, welding, transportation). Finally, a description of the current status and an outlook on the overall KATRIN schedule completes the paper.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus exposed to osmotic stress reveals regulators of osmotic and cell wall stresses that are SakA(HOG1) and MpkC dependent.

    PubMed

    Pereira Silva, Lilian; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Paziani, Mario Henrique; Von Zeska Kress, Márcia Regina; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ries, Laure N A; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2017-04-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response. We compared A. fumigatus wild-type transcriptional response to osmotic stress with the ΔmpkC, ΔsakA, and ΔmpkC ΔsakA strains. Our results strongly indicate that MpkC and SakA have independent and collaborative functions during the transcriptional response to transient osmotic stress. We have identified and characterized null mutants for four A. fumigatus basic leucine zipper proteins transcription factors. The atfA and atfB have comparable expression levels with the wild-type in ΔmpkC but are repressed in ΔsakA and ΔmpkC ΔsakA post-osmotic stress. The atfC and atfD have reduced expression levels in all mutants post-osmotic stress. The atfA-D null mutants displayed several phenotypes related to osmotic, oxidative, and cell wall stresses. The ΔatfA and ΔatfB were shown to be avirulent and to have attenuated virulence, respectively, in both Galleria mellonella and a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

  18. A pulsed, mono-energetic and angular-selective UV photo-electron source for the commissioning of the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, J.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Erhard, M.; Groh, S.; Hannen, V.; Kraus, M.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Rest, O.; Schlösser, K.; Thümmler, T.; Valerius, K.; Wierman, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Zacher, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2017-06-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims to determine the neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 {meV/c^2} (90% C. L.) by a precision measurement of the shape of the tritium β -spectrum in the endpoint region. The energy analysis of the decay electrons is achieved by a MAC-E filter spectrometer. To determine the transmission properties of the KATRIN main spectrometer, a mono-energetic and angular-selective electron source has been developed. In preparation for the second commissioning phase of the main spectrometer, a measurement phase was carried out at the KATRIN monitor spectrometer where the device was operated in a MAC-E filter setup for testing. The results of these measurements are compared with simulations using the particle-tracking software "Kassiopeia", which was developed in the KATRIN collaboration over recent years.

  19. Simulation of background from low-level tritium and radon emanation in the KATRIN spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Leiber, B.; Collaboration: KATRIN Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment for the model independent determination of the mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium beta decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum at 18.6 keV. To achieve a good signal to background ratio at the endpoint, a low background rate below 10{sup −2} counts per second is required. The KATRIN setup thus consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), a magnetic electron transport system with differential and cryogenic pumping for tritium retention, and electro-static retarding spectrometers (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a segmented detector system for counting transmitted beta-electrons. A major source of background comes from magnetically trapped electrons in the main spectrometer (vacuum vessel: 1240 m{sup 3}, 10{sup −11} mbar) produced by nuclear decays in the magnetic flux tube of the spectrometer. Major contributions are expected from short-lived radon isotopes and tritium. Primary electrons, originating from these decays, can be trapped for hours, until having lost almost all their energy through inelastic scattering on residual gas particles. Depending on the initial energy of the primary electron, up to hundreds of low energetic secondary electrons can be produced. Leaving the spectrometer, these electrons will contribute to the background rate. This contribution describes results from simulations for the various background sources. Decays of {sup 219}Rn, emanating from the main vacuum pump, and tritium from the WGTS that reaches the spectrometers are expected to account for most of the background. As a result of the radon alpha decay, electrons are emitted through various processes, such as shake-off, internal conversion and the Auger deexcitations. The corresponding simulations were done using the KASSIOPEIA

  20. Statistical sensitivity on right-handed currents in presence of eV scale sterile neutrinos with KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrink, Nicholas M. N.; Glück, Ferenc; Heizmann, Florian; Kleesiek, Marco; Valerius, Kathrin; Weinheimer, Christian; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-06-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the endpoint region of the tritium β-spectrum. As a large-scale experiment with a sharp energy resolution, high source luminosity and low background it may also be capable of testing certain theories of neutrino interactions beyond the standard model (SM). An example of a non-SM interaction are right-handed currents mediated by right-handed W bosons in the left-right symmetric model (LRSM). In this extension of the SM, an additional SU(2)R symmetry in the high-energy limit is introduced, which naturally includes sterile neutrinos and predicts the seesaw mechanism. In tritium β decay, this leads to an additional term from interference between left- and right-handed interactions, which enhances or suppresses certain regions near the endpoint of the beta spectrum. In this work, the sensitivity of KATRIN to right-handed currents is estimated for the scenario of a light sterile neutrino with a mass of some eV. This analysis has been performed with a Bayesian analysis using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The simulations show that, in principle, KATRIN will be able to set sterile neutrino mass-dependent limits on the interference strength. The sensitivity is significantly increased if the Q value of the β decay can be sufficiently constrained. However, the sensitivity is not high enough to improve current upper limits from right-handed W boson searches at the LHC.

  1. Next generation KATRIN high precision voltage divider for voltages up to 65kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Berendes, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Rosendahl, S.; Thümmler, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-10-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment aims to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino with a sensitivity of 200 meV by precisely measuring the electron spectrum of the tritium beta decay. This will be done by the use of a retarding spectrometer of the MAC-E-Filter type. To achieve the desired sensitivity the stability of the retarding potential of -18.6 kV has to be monitored with a precision of 3 ppm over at least two months. Since this is not feasible with commercial devices, two ppm-class high voltage dividers were developed, following the concept of the standard divider for DC voltages of up to 100 kV of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In order to reach such high accuracies different effects have to be considered. The two most important ones are the temperature dependence of resistance and leakage currents, caused by insulators or corona discharges. For the second divider improvements were made concerning the high-precision resistors and the thermal design of the divider. The improved resistors are the result of a cooperation with the manufacturer. The design improvements, the investigation and the selection of the resistors, the built-in ripple probe and the calibrations at PTB will be reported here. The latter demonstrated a stability of about 0.1 ppm/month over a period of two years.

  2. 3 Neutrino mass experiments fit a strange 3 + 3 model, but will KATRIN reveal the model's unique 3-part signature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is presented in support of an unconventional 3 + 3 model of the neutrino mass eigenstates with specific m2 > 0 and m2 < 0 masses. The two large m2 > 0 masses of the model were originally suggested based on a SN 1987A analysis, and they were further supported by several dark matter fits. The new evidence for one of the m2 > 0 mass values comes from an analysis of published data from the three most precise tritium β - decay experiments. The KATRIN experiment by virtue of a unique 3-part signature should either confirm or reject the model in its entirety.

  3. Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.

    2011-08-01

    Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (tsunamis and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian Ocean, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either tsunamis or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between tsunami and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide tsunami which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as tsunami candidates.

  4. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    DOE PAGES

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high sourcemore » luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.« less

  5. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high source luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.

  6. Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    PubMed

    Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.

  7. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  8. Impact of ADC non-linearities on the sensitivity to sterile keV neutrinos with a KATRIN-like experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolde, Kai; Mertens, Susanne; Radford, David; Bode, Tobias; Huber, Anton; Korzeczek, Marc; Lasserre, Thierry; Slezak, Martin

    2017-03-01

    ADC non-linearities are a major systematic effect in the search for keV-scale sterile neutrinos with tritium β-decay experiments like KATRIN. They can significantly distort the spectral shape and thereby obscure the tiny kink-like signature of a sterile neutrino. In this work we demonstrate various mitigation techniques to reduce the impact of ADC non-linearities on the tritium β-decay spectrum to a level of < ppm . The best results are achieved with a multi-pixel (≥104 pixels) detector using full waveform digitization. In this case, active-to-sterile mixing angles of the order of sin2 θ =10-7 would be accessible from the viewpoint of ADC non-linearities. With purely peak-sensing ADCs a comparable sensitivity could be reached with highly linear ADCs, sufficient non-linearity corrections or by increasing the number of pixels to ≥105 .

  9. The SCF Slimb ubiquitin ligase regulates Plk4/Sak levels to block centriole reduplication.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gregory C; Rusan, Nasser M; Roberts, David M; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L

    2009-01-26

    Restricting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle is critical for chromosome segregation and genomic stability, but the mechanisms underlying this block to reduplication are unclear. Genetic analyses have suggested an involvement for Skp/Cullin/F box (SCF)-class ubiquitin ligases in this process. In this study, we describe a mechanism to prevent centriole reduplication in Drosophila melanogaster whereby the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with the F-box protein Slimb mediates proteolytic degradation of the centrosomal regulatory kinase Plk4. We identified SCF(Slimb) as a regulator of centriole duplication via an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Cullin-based ubiquitin ligases. We found that Plk4 binds to Slimb and is an SCF(Slimb) target. Both Slimb and Plk4 localize to centrioles, with Plk4 levels highest at mitosis and absent during S phase. Using a Plk4 Slimb-binding mutant and Slimb RNAi, we show that Slimb regulates Plk4 localization to centrioles during interphase, thus regulating centriole number and ensuring the block to centriole reduplication.

  10. Subjectivity Matters: Using Gerda Lerner's Writing and Rhetoric to Claim an Alternative Epistemology for the Feminist Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the common assumption among teachers that the traditional academic essay is the most appropriate sustained writing activity for students. As a feminist, the author believes that the traditional academic essay considers a positivist, patriarchal epistemology that governs beliefs about knowledge and teaching…

  11. Subjectivity Matters: Using Gerda Lerner's Writing and Rhetoric to Claim an Alternative Epistemology for the Feminist Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the common assumption among teachers that the traditional academic essay is the most appropriate sustained writing activity for students. As a feminist, the author believes that the traditional academic essay considers a positivist, patriarchal epistemology that governs beliefs about knowledge and teaching…

  12. Predicting Mothers’ Reports of Children’s Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrin

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Godoy, Leandra; Rhodes, Jean E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time 3, respectively). Mothers rated their children’s behavior problems at Time 3 only (n = 251 children; 53.0% male; Mean age: 10.19 years, SD = 1.68 years). A path analytic model indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with increased maternal psychological distress and school mobility in the first post-disaster year, which were associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing symptoms three years post-disaster. Mediation analysis indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with child symptoms indirectly, through their impact on maternal psychological distress. Findings underscore the importance of interventions that boost maternal and child mental health and support children through post-disaster school transitions. PMID:23471125

  13. Patch test reactions to mite antigens: a GERDA multicentre study. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Dermato-Allergie.

    PubMed

    Castelain, M; Birnbaum, J; Castelain, P Y; Ducombs, G; Grosshans, E; Jelen, G; Lacroix, M; Meynadier, J; Mougeolle, J M; Lachapelle, J M

    1993-11-01

    We performed patch tests with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) antigens from 2 different sources in 355 non-randomly selected patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 398 subjects of a control group. The study demonstrated that contact sensitization to mites occurred in an appreciable % of AD cases (20.8%), using commonly available assay products. The differences recorded between the 2 materials tested were related to the concentration of P1 antigen. Non-atopic patients rarely showed positive reactions to Dp (0.75%), when strict criteria for readings were applied and if 2 readings were performed. Patients with positive patch tests did not necessarily show positive immediate skin tests. It would be useful to carry out tests systematically in atopic patients, even if it is not yet known what modern treatment would be best for the patient. Laboratories still do not provide standardized house dust mite preparations--measuring and codifying their biological activity--for use in patch tests. It is to be hoped that the extension of this type of test will lead to the production of better test materials, in syringes with homogeneous dispersion and concentration.

  14. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  15. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  16. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  17. 27 CFR 25.53 - Submissions of samples of fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit samples of: (a) Cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product produced at the brewery, (b) Materials used in the production of cereal beverage, saké, or any fermented product; and (c) Cereal...

  18. Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in forensic nurse examiner programs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed.

  19. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein’s α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  20. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  1. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  2. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  3. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  4. Toxicology studies with recombinant staphylokinase and with SY 161-P5, a polyethylene glycol-derivatized cysteine-substitution mutant.

    PubMed

    Moons, L; Vanlinthout, I; Roelants, I; Moreadith, R; Collen, D; Rapold, H J

    2001-01-01

    SY 161-P5, a polyethylene glycol derivatized (PEGylated) mutant of the recombinant Staphylokinase (rSak) variant SakSTAR, exhibiting reduced antigenicity is in clinical development for treatment of acute myocardial infarction as a single bolus injection. A series of safety studies were performed in vivo as a routine toxicology program with SY 161-P5 (PEG-rSakSTAR) and with the recombinant Staphylokinase variant Sak42D (rSak42D). For both compounds, intravenous single bolus injections of up to 100-fold therapeutic equivalent, as well as repeated injections during 7 to 28 days revealed no significant pathological findings in mice, rats or hamsters. However, New Zealand white rabbits developed clinically silent, multifocal myocarditis following single or repeat doses of SY 161-P5 or of Sak42D. These findings were dose-independent and reversible. A similar species-specific cardiotoxic effect has previously been described for other proteolytic proteins, including the approved drugs Streptokinase and Acetylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Complex (APSAC). The large experience with these drugs, as well as the clinical data accumulated both with PEGylated and non-PEGylated rSak variants to date, do not indicate cardiotoxic hazards associated with the use of these drugs in humans.

  5. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IN-SITU GAS HYDRATES AND HEAVY OIL OCCURRENCES ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1973, during the drilling of the West Sak #1 well on the North Slope of Alaska, oil was first recovered from a shallow Cretaceous sand interval which was later informally named the West Sak sands by ARCO Alaska. Stratigraphically above the West Sak sands there are two additional oil bearing sands, and are informally referred to by ARCO as the Ugnu and the 2150 horizons. Gas hydrates are interpreted to exist in the West Sak #6 well in conjunction with heavy oil and the physical properties of this oil may have been influenced by the gas hydrate. Prior to this work, only experimental evidence suggested that hydrates and oil could exist in the same reservoir.

  6. Development and validation of an indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of recombinant staphylokinase in rabbit plasma: Application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anmol; Pulicherla, K K; Sambasiva Rao, K R S

    2016-01-01

    The relatively short circulatory half-life (2-3 min) of staphylokinase is a major drawback in the development of SAK- (staphylokinase) based thrombolytic drug. A rapid and sensitive method, based on indirect competitive ELISA, was developed and validated for quantitative determination of SAK in rabbit plasma. The dynamic range of the assay varied between 0.41 ± 0.16 μg/L and 9.03 ± 0.38 μg/L (R(2) = 0.98) for SAK in rabbit plasma. There were no dilution linearity issues apparent with this assay. The precision (% CV) ranged from 4.6-9.7% for the intraassay and from 17.1-19.3% for interassay. This validated method was successfully employed for evaluation of various pharmacokinetic parameters of SAK in rabbit.

  7. An Intergenerational Support System for Child Welfare Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Children's Aid Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, called Intergenerational Support System (ISS), in which senior volunteers serve as support persons for problem families. (SAK)

  8. Use of Structural Assessment of Knowledge for Outcomes Assessment in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Shah, Samir; Bish, Joel P

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula should assess the ability to think integratively about basic neuroscience concepts based on two of the core competencies established by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. The current study investigated whether the structural assessment of knowledge (SAK) approach, which evaluates the organization of an individual's knowledge structures, is effective for demonstrating learning of basic neuroscience concepts. Students in an introductory psychology course (n = 29), an introductory neuroscience course (n = 19), or an advanced behavioral neuroscience course (n = 15) completed SAK before and after learning gross brain anatomy and neuronal physiology. All students showed improvements in their SAK after short-term dissemination for gross brain anatomy, but not for neuronal physiology, concepts. Therefore, research is needed to determine whether the effectiveness of SAK in outcomes assessment depends on the content or teaching style. Additional research using SAK should also explore effectiveness for learning over longer time frames and correlations with student performance in the course. However, the results suggest SAK is a promising technique for outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula.

  9. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  10. Use of Structural Assessment of Knowledge for Outcomes Assessment in the Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Shah, Samir; Bish, Joel P.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula should assess the ability to think integratively about basic neuroscience concepts based on two of the core competencies established by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. The current study investigated whether the structural assessment of knowledge (SAK) approach, which evaluates the organization of an individual’s knowledge structures, is effective for demonstrating learning of basic neuroscience concepts. Students in an introductory psychology course (n = 29), an introductory neuroscience course (n = 19), or an advanced behavioral neuroscience course (n = 15) completed SAK before and after learning gross brain anatomy and neuronal physiology. All students showed improvements in their SAK after short-term dissemination for gross brain anatomy, but not for neuronal physiology, concepts. Therefore, research is needed to determine whether the effectiveness of SAK in outcomes assessment depends on the content or teaching style. Additional research using SAK should also explore effectiveness for learning over longer time frames and correlations with student performance in the course. However, the results suggest SAK is a promising technique for outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula. PMID:27980469

  11. 1992 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Esau Farida Ian Gerda Fran Gene Hett ie Neville Jane/Irna Innis Totsls: Percentage of Total: 17 32 95 25 110 85 0 0 35 21 120 36 3 0 12 45 70 19 6 137...those for Tropical Cyclone 18P were preced- ed by Tropical Cyclone Formation Alerts. Tropical cyclones 06P (Val), 21P ( Esau ), and 25P (Fran) all made it...Cliff 15S Celesta 16s ____ 17P Daman 18P ---- 19S Davilia 20S Harriet 21P Esau 22S Farida 23s Ian 24S Gerda 25P Fran* 26P Gene 27P Hettie 28s Neville

  12. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  13. Cold adaptation: structural and functional characterizations of psychrophilic and mesophilic acetate kinase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Md Abul Kashem; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible magnesium-dependent phosphoryl transfer from ATP to acetate to form acetyl phosphate and ADP. Here, we report functional and some structural properties of cold-adapted psychrotrophic enzyme; acetate kinase with those from mesophilic counterpart in Escherichia coli K-12. Recombinant acetate kinase from Shewanella sp. AS-11 (SAK) and E. coli K-12 (EAK) were purified to homogeneity following affinity chromatography and followed by Super Q column chromatography as reported before [44]. Both purified enzymes are shared some of the common properties such as (similar molecular mass, amino acid sequence and similar optimum pH), but characterized shift in the apparent optimum temperature of specific activity to lower temperature as well as by a lower thermal stability compared with EAK. The functional comparisons reveal that SAK is a cold adapted enzyme, having a higher affinity to acetate than EAK. In the acetyl phosphate and ADP-forming direction, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for acetate was 8.0 times higher for SAK than EAK at 10 °C. The activity ratio of SAK to EAK was increased with decreasing temperature in both of the forward and backward reactions. Furthermore, the activation energy, enthalpy and entropy in both reaction directions that catalyzed by SAK were lower than those catalyzed by EAK. The model structure of SAK showed the significantly reduced numbers of salt bridges and cation-pi interactions as compared with EAK. These results suggest that weakening of intramolecular electrostatic interactions of SAK is involved in a more flexible structure which is likely to be responsible for its cold adaptation.

  14. TRITIUM-β-DECAY Experiments - the Direct way to the Absolute Neutrino Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornschein, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Tritium-β-decay experiments provide the most sensitive approach to measure the absolute neutrino mass in a model independent way. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN will measure the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% C.L.) and so will help to clarify the roles of neutrinos in the early universe. KATRIN investigates spectroscopically the electron spectrum from tritium β-decay 3 H -> 3 {He} + {e}^ - + bar ν e close to the kinematic endpoint of 18.6 keV. It will use a windowless gaseous tritium source in combination with an electrostatic filter for energy analysis. KATRIN is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Campus North. This proceeding will give an overview of the status of the main components of the KATRIN experiment.

  15. Detection of novel recombinases in bacteriophage genomes unveils Rad52, Rad51 and Gp2.5 remote homologs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Anne; Amarir-Bouhram, Jihane; Faure, Guilhem; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a key in contributing to bacteriophages genome repair, circularization and replication. No less than six kinds of recombinase genes have been reported so far in bacteriophage genomes, two (UvsX and Gp2.5) from virulent, and four (Sak, Redβ, Erf and Sak4) from temperate phages. Using profile–profile comparisons, structure-based modelling and gene-context analyses, we provide new views on the global landscape of recombinases in 465 bacteriophages. We show that Sak, Redβ and Erf belong to a common large superfamily adopting a shortcut Rad52-like fold. Remote homologs of Sak4 are predicted to adopt a shortcut Rad51/RecA fold and are discovered widespread among phage genomes. Unexpectedly, within temperate phages, gene-context analyses also pinpointed the presence of distant Gp2.5 homologs, believed to be restricted to virulent phages. All in all, three major superfamilies of phage recombinases emerged either related to Rad52-like, Rad51-like or Gp2.5-like proteins. For two newly detected recombinases belonging to the Sak4 and Gp2.5 families, we provide experimental evidence of their recombination activity in vivo. Temperate versus virulent lifestyle together with the importance of genome mosaicism is discussed in the light of these novel recombinases. Screening for these recombinases in genomes can be performed at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/virfam. PMID:20194117

  16. Tested at Last: How DNA Evidence in Untested Rape Kits Can Identify Offenders and Serial Sexual Assaults.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Feeney, Hannah; Pierce, Steven J; Sharma, Dhruv B; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2016-03-27

    An increasing number of U.S. law enforcement agencies have disclosed that they have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs; also called "rape kits") in police property storage. Whether previously untested SAKs should be tested for DNA evidence has been the subject of considerable public debate. To inform policy and practice regarding rape kit testing, the current study tested a sample of 900 previously unsubmitted SAKs from Detroit, Michigan, and documented the DNA forensic testing outcomes associated with those kits. We assessed how many SAKs yielded DNA profiles eligible for upload into CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), the federal DNA criminal database; how many resulted in a DNA match (termed a "CODIS hit"); and how many of those hits were associated to other sexual assault crimes (i.e., serial sexual assault hits). Overall, there were 259 CODIS hits, 69 of which had DNA matches to another sexual assault case. The potential utility of a DNA profile and CODIS hit may vary depending on whether offender was known or unknown to the victim, so we examined these outcomes separately for SAKs associated with stranger- and non-stranger-perpetrated sexual assaults. We also present six case study examples of how DNA testing and CODIS hits helped identify serial sexual assaults in both stranger and non-stranger sexual assault cases. Implications for rape kit testing policies are discussed.

  17. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Benato, G.; Cattadori, C.; Di Vacri, A.; Ferri, E.

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  18. Cladocarpoides yucatanicus, a new genus and species of aglaopheniinae (coelenterata: hydroida: plumulariidae) from Arrowsmith Bank, Yucatan Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Due to the unique character of its gonosome, a new genus and species of hydroid, Cladocarpoides yucatanicus (family Plumulariidae), is described and illustrated from material collected by the R/V Gerda and R/V John Elliott Pillsbury from the Yucatan Channel. It is compared with closely allied species of the genus Cladocarpus. 4 references, 3 figures.

  19. Here to Tell My Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Gerda Weissmann Klein was 15 years old in September 1939 when Germany invaded the city of Bielitz (present-day Bielsko), Poland. In her memoir, "All But My Life," she recounts the horror of losing family and friends, of life in concentration camps, of the death march and of liberation in 1945 by an American soldier named Kurt Klein, who…

  20. Women's Associations and the Origins of the Social Studies: Volunteers, Professionals, and the Community Civics Curriculum, 1890-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This article will follow Gerda Lerner's line of thinking in regard to the conceptualization of women in history, since women as a group are not necessarily "visible among those making decisions." The challenge, according to Lerner, is to examine the traditional sources in social studies history for "androcentric bias... [and] seek…

  1. Here to Tell My Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Gerda Weissmann Klein was 15 years old in September 1939 when Germany invaded the city of Bielitz (present-day Bielsko), Poland. In her memoir, "All But My Life," she recounts the horror of losing family and friends, of life in concentration camps, of the death march and of liberation in 1945 by an American soldier named Kurt Klein, who…

  2. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodák, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380,000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter, the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the BB. Probably, the most promising method to "see" the CNB is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562 keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The "KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino" (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time, KATRIN can also look by the reaction νe(˜1.95K) + 3H → 3He + e-(Q = 18.6keV + mνec2). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spectrum as a peak by the electron neutrino rest mass above Q. Here, the possibility to see the CNB with KATRIN is studied. A detection of the CNB by KATRIN seems not to be possible at the moment. But KATRIN should be able to determine an upper limit for the local electron neutrino density of the CNB.

  3. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodák, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380,000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter, the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the BB. Probably, the most promising method to “see” the CNB is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The “KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino” (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time, KATRIN can also look by the reaction νe(˜ 1.95K) +3H →3He + e‑(Q = 18.6keV + m νec2). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spectrum as a peak by the electron neutrino rest mass above Q. Here, the possibility to see the CNB with KATRIN is studied. A detection of the CNB by KATRIN seems not to be possible at the moment. But KATRIN should be able to determine an upper limit for the local electron neutrino density of the CNB.

  4. The pharmaceutics from the foreign empire: the molecular pharming of the prokaryotic staphylokinase in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Gerszberg, Aneta; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gatkowska, Justyna; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the application of microbiology and biotechnology for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plant cells. To the best of our knowledge and belief it is one of few examples of the expression of the prokaryotic staphylokinase (SAK) in the eukaryotic system. Despite the tremendous progress made in the plant biotechnology, most of the heterologous proteins still accumulate to low concentrations in plant tissues. Therefore, the composition of expression cassettes to assure economically feasible level of protein production in plants remains crucial. The aim of our research was obtaining a high concentration of the bacterial anticoagulant factor-staphylokinase, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. The coding sequence of staphylokinase was placed under control of the β-phaseolin promoter and cloned between the signal sequence of the seed storage protein 2S2 and the carboxy-terminal KDEL signal sequence. The engineered binary vector pATAG-sak was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Analysis of the subsequent generations of Arabidopsis seeds revealed both presence of the sak and nptII transgenes, and the SAK protein. Moreover, a plasminogen activator activity of staphylokinase was observed in the protein extracts from seeds, while such a reaction was not observed in the leaf extracts showing seed-specific activity of the β-phaseolin promoter.

  5. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  6. Altering Depth and Complexity in the Science Curriculum for the Gifted: Results of an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalikoglu, Burcu Seher; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has developed democratic support for equity in education for groups who have various learning needs (Levent, 2011, p. 89-91). In connection with Turkey's central policy of education, current educational applications have addressed these diverse needs to a certain extent. Sak (2011) drew our attention to the insufficiency of…

  7. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One mode of action of the antimycotics amphotericin B (AMB) or itraconazole (ITZ) against filamentous fungi involves cellular oxidative stress response. Aspergillus fumigatus sakA', a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was more sensitive to AMB ...

  8. Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which…

  9. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 520 - Standard Terminology and Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HH Hardtop HT Insulated IN Open Top OT Dry PC Platform PL Reefer RE Tank TC Top Loader TL Trailer TR... Reverse Reel RVR Sack SAK Shook SHK Sides of Beef SID Skid SKD Skid, Elev, Lift Trk SKE Sleeve SLV Spin...

  10. Altering Depth and Complexity in the Science Curriculum for the Gifted: Results of an Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalikoglu, Burcu Seher; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has developed democratic support for equity in education for groups who have various learning needs (Levent, 2011, p. 89-91). In connection with Turkey's central policy of education, current educational applications have addressed these diverse needs to a certain extent. Sak (2011) drew our attention to the insufficiency of…

  11. Metamemory, Memory Performance, and Causal Attributions in Gifted and Average Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Beth E.; Weinert, Franz E.

    1989-01-01

    Tested high- and average-achieving German fifth- and seventh-grade students' metacognitive knowledge, attributional beliefs, and performance on a sort recall test. Found ability-related differences in all three areas. Gifted children tended to attribute academic success to high ability while average children attributed success to effort. (SAK)

  12. Evaluation of CERT Secure Coding Rules through Integration with Source Code Analysis Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation of CERT Secure Coding Rules through Integration with Source Code Analysis Tools Stephen Dewhurst Chad Dougherty Yurie Ito David...numbers FA8721-05-C-0003 6. author(s) Stephen Dewhurst , Chad Dougherty, Yurie Ito, David Keaton, Dan Saks, Robert C. Seacord, David Svoboda, Chris

  13. Creating a Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits: An Empirically Supported Planning Framework.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Horsford, Sheena

    In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol. This planning tool presents 12 discussion questions that can guide communities through the process of creating a victim notification protocol tailored to the needs of their local jurisdiction. In this article, we review the evidence (both practice and research based) that can inform discussions about each of these 12 key questions.

  14. Relation of Knowledge and Performance in Boys' Tennis: Age and Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sue L.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1989-01-01

    Examined 10- to 13-year-old boys' development of knowledge structure and sport performance in tennis by comparing skills and knowledge of experts and novices. Experts focused on higher concepts and exhibited greater decision-making ability because of their more highly developed knowledge structure. (SAK)

  15. Extensive phage dynamics in Staphylococcus aureus contributes to adaptation to the human host during infection.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Christiane; Wirtz, Christiane; Flückiger, Ursula; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-09-01

    Bacteriophages serve as a driving force in microbial evolution, adaptation to new environments and the pathogenesis of human bacterial infections. In Staphylococcus aureus phages encoding immune evasion molecules (SAK, SCIN, CHIPS), which integrate specifically into the beta-haemolysin (Hlb) gene, are widely distributed. When comparing S. aureus strain collections from infectious and colonizing situations we could detect a translocation of sak-encoding phages to atypical genomic integration sites in the bacterium only in the disease-related isolates. Additionally, significantly more Hlb producing strains were detected in the infectious strain collection. Extensive phage dynamics (intragenomic translocation, duplication, transfer between hosts, recombination events) during infection was shown by analysing cocolonizing and consecutive isolates of patients. This activity leads to the splitting of the strain population into various subfractions exhibiting different virulence potentials (Hlb-production and/or production of immune evasion molecules). Thus, phage-inducing conditions and strong selection for survival of the bacterial host after phage movement are typical for the infectious situation. Further in vitro characterization of phages revealed that: (i) SAK is encoded not only on serogroup F phages showing a conserved tropism for hlb but also on serogroup B phages which always integrate in a distinct intergenic region, (ii) the level of sak transcription correlates to phage inducibility but is independent of the phage localization in the chromosome, and (iii) phages can be stabilized extra-chromosomally during their life cycle.

  16. Challenges in Utilising Key Leader Engagement in Civil-Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    experience from Afghanistan represented different organisations: Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF), Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( Sida ...with Swedish civil and military personnel • Extensive experience from several missions, focus on Afghanistan • Organisations: SwAF, Sida , SAK and

  17. The Best of ESL: Practical-Strategy Guide for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Wesley; Blue, Jama; Bosma, Amy Sak; Gillet, Rosemary; Korzhenyak, Ida; McCoy, Angelita Lopez; Nikiforov, Victoria; Nowak, Charlotte; Rande, Eileen; Rice, Susan M.

    The guide consists of essays on classroom practice and strategy in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction. Essays on practice include: "Benefits of Cooperative Learning: A Guide for Beginning ESL Teachers" (Amy Sak Bosma); "Process Writing in the Adult Education Classroom" (Rosemary Gillet); "Grammar for Pre-Literates" (Ida…

  18. Comparing Standard and Selective Degradation DNA Extraction Methods: Results from a Field Experiment with Sexual Assault Kits().

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Pierce, Steven J; Sharma, Dhruv B; Shaw, Jessica; Feeney, Hannah; Nye, Jeffrey; Schelling, Kristin; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and thrombolytic properties of cysteine-linked polyethylene glycol derivatives of staphylokinase.

    PubMed

    Vanwetswinkel, S; Plaisance, S; Zhi-Yong, Z; Vanlinthout, I; Brepoels, K; Lasters, I; Collen, D; Jespers, L

    2000-02-01

    Recombinant staphylokinase (SakSTAR) variants obtained by site-directed substitution with cysteine, in the core (lysine 96 [Lys96], Lys102, Lys109, and/or Lys135) or the NH(2)-terminal region that is released during activation of SakSTAR (serine 2 [Ser2] and/or Ser3), were derivatized with thiol-specific (ortho-pyridyl-disulfide or maleimide) polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules with molecular weights of 5,000 (P5), 10,000 (P10), or 20,000 (P20). The specific activities and thrombolytic potencies in human plasma were unaltered for most variants derivatized with PEG (PEGylates), but maleimide PEG derivatives had a better temperature stability profile. In hamsters, SakSTAR was cleared at 2.2 mL/min; variants with 1 P5 molecule were cleared 2-to 5-fold; variants with 2 P5 or 1 P10 molecules were cleared 10-to 30-fold; and variants with 1 P20 molecule were cleared 35-fold slower. A bolus injection induced dose-related lysis of a plasma clot, fibrin labeled with 125 iodine ((125)I-fibrin plasma clot), and injected into the jugular vein. A 50% clot lysis at 90 minutes required 110 microg/kg SakSTAR; 50 to 110 microg/kg of core-substitution derivatives with 1 P5; 25 microg/kg for NH(2)-terminal derivatives with 1 P5; 5 to 25 microg/kg with derivatives with 2 P5 or 1 P10; and 7 microg/kg with P20 derivatives. Core substitution with 1 or 2 P5 molecules did not significantly reduce the immunogenicity of SakSTAR in rabbits. Derivatization of staphylokinase with a single PEG molecule allows controllable reduction of the clearance while maintaining thrombolytic potency at a reduced dose. This indicates that mono-PEGylated staphylokinase variants may be used for single intravenous bolus injection.

  20. Simulation and Performance of Brushless DC Motor Actuators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    AD-RI63 725 SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF IRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A GERDA DEC 85 NPS69-85-628 M...California Progress Report SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS IN SUPPORT OF THE PROGRAM "ADVANCED MISSILE CONTROL DEVICES"I of...34.’ SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS SUMMARY The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated * commutation power

  1. 78 FR 10631 - List of Allottees or Heirs Determined To Receive Monetary Compensation Under the White Earth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Bellanger-Knorr, Laurie Kay......... None F5340800003 S3 Benford, Paulein None F534082135 B1D Brown, Gerda Herta None F534080320 A Bush, Jr., Charles Eugene/John...... None F534082074 A1A1C Spadino, Ernest Ryan... Swanson, Jr., Richard D None F534080834 A7A Thomas, John Charles None F534080517 B6C1A Thomas, John...

  2. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkvorets, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  3. The Flames of War and the Fire of the Homefront -- The Thomas T. Taylor Family and Gender Relations During the American Civil War, 1861-1865

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-12

    rare. Combat conditions, foul weather, and limited storage space at the front-lines hampered the efforts of many soldiers to bring ’ Peter Maslowski and...name, Antoinette ] Taylor as the most complete lady of my acquaintance."’ 4 8 471bid., Box 2, Folder 3, 23 April 1865 letter from T.T. to M.A. Taylor. 4...Temple University Press, 1990. Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Maslowski, Peter , and Millett

  4. Conversion of experimental half-life to effective electron neutrino mass in 0nubetabeta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Smolnikov, Anatoly; Grabmayr, Peter

    2010-02-15

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) collaboration will be searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. As a result it will measure the half-life T{sub 1/2} of this rare process; or at least a new value for the lower limit for T{sub 1/2} will be derived. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment on the effective electron neutrino mass depends on the theoretical value for the nuclear matrix element M and the kinematical phase space factor G.In this Brief Report we focus on existing difficulties in applying the dimensionless values of M calculated by various theoretical groups, which use different methods and parametrizations. The implicit radius dependencies in M and G are discussed. Resulting values of the neutrino mass are tabulated for various representative half-lives T{sub 1/2} representing the sensitivity of the various phases of the GERDA experiment.

  5. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host’s defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakAF316L) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into

  6. Kamstrupp's Wow-Effect: Re-Examined and Expanded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is…

  7. Kamstrupp's Wow-Effect: Re-Examined and Expanded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is…

  8. A GLIMPSE INTO THE EYE OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AT EPA KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was given at the Texas Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting in Round Rock, TX on October 12, 2005. The keynote address was focused on the conditions after Katrins, organizing response, field response, EPA's role in emergency response, what is EPA doi...

  9. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  10. Correlation between cancer mortality and alcoholic beverage in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, S.; Ikeda, M.

    1979-01-01

    Geographical correlations between standardized, mortality ratios (SMRs) of cancers and consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages (saké synthetic saké, shochu, beer, wine, and whisky), of cigarettes, and urbanization were examined for all 46 prefectures in Japan. Suggestive correlations were observed between cancer of the oesophagus in males and both shochu and whisky (r = 0.27 and 0.22 respectively), between cancer of the rectum in males and wine (r = 0.45), and between cancer of the prostate and shochu (r = 0.50). These correlations were also confirmed in the partial correlations between SMRs of cancers and consumption of alcoholic beverages, controlling for the two variables urbanization and consumption of cigarettes. Alhtough cancers of other sites were also correlated with certain types of alcoholic beverages, their associations seemed to be secondary to other factors. The validity of higher-order partial correlations and the problems of correlation study are also referred to. PMID:508570

  11. Aggregation of colloidal particles with a finite interparticle attraction energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wan Y.; Liu, Jun; Shih, Wei-Heng; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1991-03-01

    Aggregation of colloidal particles with a finite attraction energy was investigated with computer simulations and with gold particles coated with a surfactant. Computer simulations were carried out with the Shih-Aksay-Kikuchi (SAK) model, which incorporates a finite nearest-neighbor attraction energy- E into the diffusion-limited-cluster-aggregation (DLCA) model. Both the computer simulations and the experiments showed that (i) with a finite interparticle attraction energy, aggregates can still remain fractal, and (ii) the fractal dimension remains unchanged at large interparticle attraction energies and increases when the interparticle attraction energy is smaller than 4 k B T where T is the temperature and K B is the Boltzmann constant. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results suggests that the reversible aggregation process in a colloidal system can be represented by the SAK model.

  12. Protein kinase A contributes to the negative control of Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Barrett, LaKisha; Orlova, Marianna; Maziarz, Marcin; Kuchin, Sergei

    2012-02-01

    Snf1 protein kinase regulates responses to glucose limitation and other stresses. Snf1 activation requires phosphorylation of its T-loop threonine by partially redundant upstream kinases (Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1). Under favorable conditions, Snf1 is turned off by Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase. The reg1 mutation causes increased Snf1 activation and slow growth. To identify new components of the Snf1 pathway, we searched for mutations that, like snf1, suppress reg1 for the slow-growth phenotype. In addition to mutations in genes encoding known pathway components (SNF1, SNF4, and SAK1), we recovered "fast" mutations, designated fst1 and fst2. Unusual morphology of the mutants in the Σ1278b strains employed here helped us identify fst1 and fst2 as mutations in the RasGAP genes IRA1 and IRA2. Cells lacking Ira1, Ira2, or Bcy1, the negative regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), exhibited reduced Snf1 pathway activation. Conversely, Snf1 activation was elevated in cells lacking the Gpr1 sugar receptor, which contributes to PKA signaling. We show that the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 is phosphorylated in vivo on a conserved serine (Ser1074) within an ideal PKA motif. However, this phosphorylation alone appears to play only a modest role in regulation, and Sak1 is not the only relevant target of the PKA pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that PKA, which integrates multiple regulatory inputs, could contribute to Snf1 regulation under various conditions via a complex mechanism. Our results also support the view that, like its mammalian counterpart, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), yeast Snf1 participates in metabolic checkpoint control that coordinates growth with nutrient availability.

  13. Peasant struggles and social change: migration, households and gender in a rural Turkish society.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, S M

    1994-01-01

    "This article sheds light on the interrelationship of seasonal migration, subsistence production and peasant relations in a community (Sakli) located in Turkey's northwestern countryside.... While migrant labor is understood by local villagers as forming part of a continual battle to preserve local tradition and kinship ties, this article shows how it reduces the dominion of landlords while creating internal household differentiation and gendered hierarchies." excerpt

  14. Analysis of complications following posterior vertebral column resection for the treatment of severe angular kyphosis greater than 100°.

    PubMed

    Atici, Yunus; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Kargin, Deniz; Mert, Muhammed; Albayrak, Akif; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the complications, efficacy and safety of posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) in severe angular kyphosis (SAK) greater than 100°. The medical records of 17 patients (mean age 17.9 (range, 9-27) years) with SAK who underwent PVCR, were reviewed. Mean follow-up period was 32.2 (range, 24-64) months. Diagnosis of the patients included congenital kyphosis in 11 patients, post-tuberculosis kyphosis in 3 patients and neurofibromatosis in 3 patients. The sagittal plane parameters (local kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope and pelvic incidence) were measured in the preoperative and the early postoperative periods and during the last follow-up on the lateral radiographs. The mean preoperative localized kyphosis angle was 121.8° (range, 101°-149°). The mean local kyphosis angle (LKA) was 71.5° at postoperatively evaluation (p < 0.05). Complications were detected in 12 patients (70.6%) with spinal shock in 4 patients, hemothorax in 3 patients, postoperative infection in 2 patients, dural laceration in 2 patients, neurological deficit in 2 patients (1 paraplegia and 1 root injury), the shifted cage in 2 patients and rod fracture in 2 patients. Neurological events occurred in six patients (35%) with temporary neurological deficit in 5 patients and permanent neurological deficit in 1 patient. PVCR is an efficient and a successful technique for the correction of SAK. However, it can lead to a large number of major complications in SAK greater than 100°. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Jet Exhaust Blast Impingements on Graphite-Epoxy Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    a weak ductile epoxy matrix. The properties that can be emphasized by lamination are strength, stiffness, low weight, corrosion resistance, wear...to the exhaust flow). This variable was 24 also fixed due to time and cost constraints. The selected variables are the worst case conditions believed...purposes as it gives consistent results even though they are low . 34 F, FIGURE 13: CUTTING MACHINE USED FOR LARGE CUTS AND ALL CUTS ON 1/2 INCH SAkMPLE

  16. NikA/TcsC Histidine Kinase Is Involved in Conidiation, Hyphal Morphology, and Responses to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Chemicals in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Daisuke; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Toyotome, Takahito; Yoshimi, Akira; Abe, Keietsu; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Gonoi, Tohru; Kawamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The fungal high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is composed of a two-component system (TCS) and Hog1-type mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A group III (Nik1-type) histidine kinase plays a major role in the HOG pathway of several filamentous fungi. In this study, we characterized a group III histidine kinase, NikA/TcsC, in the life-threatening pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus. A deletion mutant of nikA showed low conidia production, abnormal hyphae, marked sensitivity to high osmolarity stresses, and resistance to cell wall perturbing reagents such as congo red and calcofluor white, as well as to fungicides such as fludioxonil, iprodione, and pyrrolnitrin. None of these phenotypes were observed in mutants of the SskA response regulator and SakA MAPK, which were thought to be downstream components of NikA. In contrast, in response to fludioxonil treatment, NikA was implicated in the phosphorylation of SakA MAPK and the transcriptional upregulation of catA, dprA, and dprB, which are regulated under the control of SakA. We then tested the idea that not only NikA, but also the other 13 histidine kinases play certain roles in the regulation of the HOG pathway. Interestingly, the expression of fos1, phkA, phkB, fhk5, and fhk6 increased by osmotic shock or fludioxonil treatment in a SakA-dependent manner. However, deletion mutants of the histidine kinases showed no significant defects in growth under the tested conditions. Collectively, although the signal transduction network related to NikA seems complicated, NikA plays a crucial role in several aspects of A. fumigatus physiology and, to a certain extent, modulates the HOG pathway. PMID:24312504

  17. Structural Response of Flat Panels to Hydraulic Ram Pressure Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    OFFICE SYM*Ok 4i. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Weapons Center (fApplikabit) 6C. ADDRESS ( Cuty . Sak a" ZIP Cau&) 7b. ADDRESS (0u&. SON*. amd ZIP...theory and hydraulic ram pressure loading. The SATANS code was limited to elastic motion of shells of revolution, but was computationally efficient. The...of classical linear elastic fracture mechanics has been succesfsfully used to predict the residual structural capability of ballistically damaged

  18. A New Radiological Sign for Severe Angular Kyphosis: “The Baltalimani Sign”

    PubMed Central

    Aycan, Osman Emre; Mert, Muhammed; Kargin, Deniz; Albayrak, Akif; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective diagnostic study. Purpose To define a new radiological sign, “Baltalimani sign,” in severe angular kyphosis (SAK) and to report its relationship with the risk of neurological deficits and deformity severity. Overview of Literature Baltalimani sign was previously undefined in the literature. Methods We propose Baltalimani sign as the axial orientation of the vertebrae that are located above or below the apex of angular kyphosis on anteroposterior radiographs. Patients with SAK of various etiologies with kyphotic angles ≥90° were selected and evaluated for the presence of Baltalimani sign. Demographic data of the patients including age, gender, etiology, neurological status, local kyphosis angles, and the location of the kyphosis apex were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of Baltalimani sign for the risk of the neurological deficits were evaluated by the IBM SPSS ver. 20.0. A p-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cohen's kappa was used for analysis of interrater agreement. Results The mean local kyphosis angle in all patients was 124.2° (range, 90°–169°), and 15 of 40 (37.5%) patients had neurological deficits. Baltalimani sign was seen in 13 of 15 patients with neurological deficits (p=0.001). Baltalimani sign showed a sensitivity and specificity PPV and NPV of 61.9%, 86.7%, 89.5%, and 68.8% for the risk of the neurological deficits in SAK patients, respectively. Cohen's kappa value was moderate (κ=0.506). Conclusions The detection of Baltalimani sign in SAK may indicate severity of deformity and the risk of neurological deficits. PMID:27994794

  19. Operator-valued measures and linear operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Marian

    2008-01-01

    We study operator-valued measures , where stands for the space of all continuous linear operators between real Banach spaces X and Y and [Sigma] is a [sigma]-algebra of sets. We extend the Bartle-Dunford-Schwartz theorem and the Orlicz-Pettis theorem for vector measures to the case of operator-valued measures. We generalize the classical Vitali-Hahn-Saks theorem to sets of operator-valued measures which are compact in the strong operator topology.

  20. A New Radiological Sign for Severe Angular Kyphosis: "The Baltalimani Sign".

    PubMed

    Atici, Yunus; Aycan, Osman Emre; Mert, Muhammed; Kargin, Deniz; Albayrak, Akif; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent

    2016-12-01

    Retrospective diagnostic study. To define a new radiological sign, "Baltalimani sign," in severe angular kyphosis (SAK) and to report its relationship with the risk of neurological deficits and deformity severity. Baltalimani sign was previously undefined in the literature. We propose Baltalimani sign as the axial orientation of the vertebrae that are located above or below the apex of angular kyphosis on anteroposterior radiographs. Patients with SAK of various etiologies with kyphotic angles ≥90° were selected and evaluated for the presence of Baltalimani sign. Demographic data of the patients including age, gender, etiology, neurological status, local kyphosis angles, and the location of the kyphosis apex were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of Baltalimani sign for the risk of the neurological deficits were evaluated by the IBM SPSS ver. 20.0. A p-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cohen's kappa was used for analysis of interrater agreement. The mean local kyphosis angle in all patients was 124.2° (range, 90°-169°), and 15 of 40 (37.5%) patients had neurological deficits. Baltalimani sign was seen in 13 of 15 patients with neurological deficits (p=0.001). Baltalimani sign showed a sensitivity and specificity PPV and NPV of 61.9%, 86.7%, 89.5%, and 68.8% for the risk of the neurological deficits in SAK patients, respectively. Cohen's kappa value was moderate (κ=0.506). The detection of Baltalimani sign in SAK may indicate severity of deformity and the risk of neurological deficits.

  1. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  2. Superficial Automated Keratopigmentation for Iris and Pupil Simulation Using Micronized Mineral Pigments and a New Puncturing Device: Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alejandra E; Amesty, Maria A; El Bahrawy, Mohammed; Rey, Severino; Alio Del Barrio, Jorge; Alio, Jorge L

    2017-09-01

    To study the outcomes and tolerance of micronized mineral pigments for corneal tattooing, using a superficial automated keratopigmentation (SAK) technique in an experimental animal model and a new puncture device to inject the pigments into the corneal stroma. Forty eyes of 40 New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. The animals were divided into groups A and B. Both groups underwent SAK using a new automated keratopigmentation device. Micronized mineral pigments were injected through the epithelium into the corneal stroma to replicate the iris color in 25 eyes (group A), and black color was used to replicate the pupil in 15 eyes (group B). Slit-lamp examination was performed to evaluate the outcome. Histopathological examination was also performed to ascertain the presence of pigment dispersion, inflammation, and/or neovascularization. All 40 eyes showed good cosmetic appearance after keratopigmentation. No intraoperative complications were detected. At the first week, mild or moderated conjunctival injection was observed in 13 eyes and transitory corneal epithelial defects were also detected in 27 eyes. Examination was unremarkable 2, 4, and 6 months after surgery. No neovascularization was detected in any case in the histopathology study. SAK using a new automated puncture device and micronized mineral pigments achieved good cosmetic outcomes for iris and pupil simulation. This method could be a valid alternative to treat serious cosmetic eye problems that affect the superficial cornea or functional problems, such as photophobia or diplopia secondary to iris defects or trauma.

  3. Molecular Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild-Type Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Abuduli, Alimu; Aydin, Yıldız; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Onay, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) genotypes including 12 males and 12 females were evaluated using SSR, RAPD, ISSR, and ITS markers yielding 40, 703, 929 alleles, and 260-292 base pairs for ITS1 region, respectively. The average number of alleles produced from SSR, RAPD, and ISSR primers were 5.7, 14, and 18, respectively. The grouping pattern obtained from Bayesian clustering method based on each marker dataset was produced. Principal component analyses (PCA) of molecular data was investigated and neighbor joining dendrograms were subsequently created. Overall, the results indicated that ISSR and RAPD markers were the most powerful to differentiate the genotypes in comparison with other types of molecular markers used in this study. The ISSR results indicated that male and female genotypes were distinctly separated from each other. In this frame, M9 (Alaçatı) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) were the closest genotypes and while F11 (Seferihisar) and F12 (Bornova/Gökdere) genotypes fall into same cluster and showing closer genetic relation. The RAPD pattern indicated that M8 (Urla) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios), and F10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) and F11 (Seferihisar) genotypes were the closest male and female genotypes, respectively.

  4. HEROICA: an underground facility for the fast screening of germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Maneschg, W.; Barros, N.; Benato, G.; Brugnera, R.; Costa, F.; Falkenstein, R.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hegai, A.; Hemmer, S.; Hult, M.; Jänner, K.; Kihm, T.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Modenese, L.; Pandola, L.; Reissfelder, M.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Turcato, M.; Ur, C.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Westermann, J.

    2013-06-01

    HEROICA (Hades Experimental Research Of Intrinsic Crystal Appliances) is an infrastructure to characterize germanium detectors and has been designed and constructed at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory, located in Mol (Belgium). Thanks to the 223 m overburden of clay and sand, the muon flux is lowered by four orders of magnitude. This natural shield minimizes the exposure of radio-pure germanium material to cosmic radiation resulting in a significant suppression of cosmogenic activation in the germanium detectors. The project has been strongly motivated by a special production of germanium detectors for the GERDA experiment. GERDA, currently collecting data at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN, is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In the near future, GERDA will increase its mass and sensitivity by adding new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. The production of the BEGe detectors is done at Canberra in Olen (Belgium), located about 30 km from the underground test site. Therefore, HADES is used both for storage of the crystals over night, during diode production, and for the characterization measurements. A full quality control chain has been setup and tested on the first seven prototype detectors delivered by the manufacturer at the beginning of 2012. The screening capabilities demonstrate that the installed setup fulfills a fast and complete set of measurements on the diodes and it can be seen as a general test facility for the fast screening of high purity germanium detectors. The results are of major importance for a future massive production and characterization chain of germanium diodes foreseen for a possible next generation 1-tonne double beta decay experiment with 76Ge.

  5. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  6. Dynamic Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen isotopomer mixtures in-line at TILO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. J.; Telle, H. H.; Bornschein, B.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-01

    The pure rotational and vibration-rotational Stokes Raman spectra of flowing gaseous mixtures of the hydrogen isotopomers H2, HD, and D2 were measured in order to test the performance of the proposed tritium purity monitoring system designed for the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) mass experiment, which utilises 532 nm CW laser excitation and fibre-coupled scattered light collection, exploiting 90° excitation observation geometry. Short (100-300 s) exposure times were used to simulate the real-time in-line measurement of hydrogen isotopomer composition at the low (~ 100-150 mbar) pressure required for KATRIN. At 100 s exposure time, an in-line sensitivity of better than 1% was achieved for dynamic changes in the sample gas composition.

  7. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    well (Lapata and Brew , 1999). In this case, the fact that a chair is a physical GOAL makes it more likely that tied means “to physically attach”. These...Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel. Katrin Erk (2005). Frame assignment as word sense disambiguation. In Proceed- ings of the Sixth...Generation (INLG-2002), pp. 17–24. Harriman, NY. Maria Lapata and Chris Brew (1999). Using subcategorization to resolve verb class ambiguity. In

  8. Actigraphy of Wrist and Ankle for Measuring Sleep Duration in Altitude Travelers.

    PubMed

    Latshang, Tsogyal Daniela; Mueller, Daniela Juliana; Lo Cascio, Christian Maurizio; Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Latshang, Tsogyal Daniela, Daniela Juliana Mueller, Christian Maurizio Lo Cascio, Anne-Christin Stöwhas, Katrin Stadelmann, Noemi Tesler, Peter Achermann, Reto Huber, Malcolm Kohler, and Konrad Ernst Bloch. Actigraphy of wrist and ankle for measuring sleep duration in altitude travelers. High Alt Med Biol. 17:194-202, 2016-Aims: Actigraphy might be convenient to assess sleep disturbances in altitude field studies. Therefore, we evaluated whether actigraphy accurately measures sleep duration in healthy subjects traveling to altitude.

  9. Polymers from plants to develop biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Udo

    2005-11-01

    Katrin Neumann et al. have recently shown that transgenic tobacco and potato plants can accumulate high levels of cyanophycin, a possible source for poly-aspartate. This work opens the way to the future production of biodegradable plastics using a plant-based production system. Several problems need to be overcome first, such as growth retardation as a result of cyanophycin accumulating in the cytosol, and a co-production system needs to be developed for economical reasons.

  10. Swine Influenza A Outbreak, Fort Dix, New Jersey, 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Incorporated, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; ‡Northeast Center for Special Care, Lake Katrine, New York, USA; and §Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute , New...assessment, and enhanced surveillance resulted from excellent collaboration between Fort Dix, New Jersey Department of Health, Walter Reed Army Institute ...even less contact with other companies. On arrival, recruits received the 1975–1976 influenza vaccine (A/Port Chalmers/1/73 [H3N2], A/Scotland/840

  11. The MGDO software library for data analysis in Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Finnerty, P.; Kröninger, K.; Lenz, D.; Liu, J.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R.; Nguyen, K. D.; Pandola, L.; Schubert, A. G.; Volynets, O.; Zavarise, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda and Majorana experiments will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using isotopically enriched high-purity germanium detectors. Although the experiments differ in conceptual design, they share many aspects in common, and in particular will employ similar data analysis techniques. The collaborations are jointly developing a C++ software library, MGDO, which contains a set of data objects and interfaces to encapsulate, store and manage physical quantities of interest, such as waveforms and high-purity germanium detector geometries. These data objects define a common format for persistent data, whether it is generated by Monte Carlo simulations or an experimental apparatus, to reduce code duplication and to ease the exchange of information between detector systems. MGDO also includes general-purpose analysis tools that can be used for the processing of measured or simulated digital signals. The MGDO design is based on the Object-Oriented programming paradigm and is very flexible, allowing for easy extension and customization of the components. The tools provided by the MGDO libraries are used by both Gerda and Majorana.

  12. The performance of the Muon Veto of the G erda experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schütz, A.-K.; Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D.

    2016-05-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0ν β β decay of ^{76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of \\varepsilon _\\upmu d=(99.935± 0.015) % was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of \\varepsilon _{\\upmu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3}) % was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of {BI}_{μ }=(3.16 ± 0.85)× 10^{-3} cts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot year) at Q_{β β }.

  13. Double Beta Decay Experiments: Present Status and Prospects for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 × 10-5) are obtained. In the second part of the review prospects of search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ∼ (0.01-0.1) eV are discussed. The main attention is paid to experiments of CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, EXO, KamLAND-Zen-2, SuperNEMO and SNO+. Possibilities of low-temperature scintillating bolometers on the basis of inorganic crystals (ZnSe, ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, CaMoO4 and CdWO4) are considered too.

  14. Towards a Precision Measurement of the Tritium Helium-3 Mass Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Edmund; Rana, Raman; Wesson, Bridget; Erickson, Austin

    2012-03-01

    Fitting a low-energy beta-decay spectrum near its endpoint is a direct method for determining the absolute mass scale of electron neutrinos. This is the subject of the large-scale tritium beta-decay experiment KATRIN. Besides a value (or a limit) for a sum of squares of neutrino mass eigenvalues, the fit to KATRIN data, with absolute energy calibration, will also produce a value for ``the electron endpoint for zero neutrino mass'' which is closely related to the Q-value for the beta-decay. Hence, an independent value for the tritium beta-decay Q-value, derived from the 3T - 3He mass difference, can provide a strong test of the systematics of KATRIN. The Florida State University precision Penning trap mass spectrometer has previously produced the most precise values of more than 26 atomic masses, many of which have application to neutrinoless double-beta-decay and to determining fundamental constants. The system is currently being modified for measurements of ions with small m/q ratio, and that are radioactive, to enable a precise measurement of the tritium helium-3 mass difference.

  15. Final scientific and technical report: New experiments to measure the neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2016-11-19

    In this work, we made material progress towards future measurements of the mass of the neutrino. The neutrino is a fundamental particle, first observed in the 1950s and subjected to particularly intense study over the past 20 years. It is now known to have some, non-zero mass, but we are in an unusual situation of knowing the mass exists but not knowing what value it takes. The mass may be determined by precise measurements of certain radioactive decay distributions, particularly the beta decay of tritium. The KATRIN experiment is an international project which is nearing the beginning of a tritium measurement campaign using a large electrostatic spectrumeter. This research included participation in KATRIN, including construction and delivery of a key calibration subsystem, the ``Rear Section''. To obtain sensitivity beyond KATRIN's, new techniques are required; this work included R\\&D on a new technique we call CRES (Cyclotron Resonance Electron Spectroscopy) which has promise to enable even-more-sensitive tritium decay measurements. We successfully carried out CRES spectroscopy in a model system in 2014, making an important step towards the design of a next-generation tritium experiment with new neutrino mass measurement abilities.

  16. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  17. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  18. Design and Implementation of an Audit Subsystem for a Separation Kernel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    LPSK time source 16  Detection of a SAK invocation.  The shutdown, power down or halt of a platform.  Detection of duplicate MAC addresses D...by Solaris . The main advantage of a 24 binary log file is that it is small when compared to a text-based format. It is also highly flexible with...logs collected by the LPSK can be converted to these formats at a later stage if there is such a requirement. Solaris also takes a similar approach

  19. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new

  20. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  1. Impact of Structural Damping Nonlinearity in Transonic Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Then, from Eq. (2-10) and (2-11) the lift and moment can be expressed as L=(Lhr + iLhi)(A - iB)eik’ + (Lar + L,)(C iD)eikr (2-3ř) M = ( Mhr + iMhi)(A...L.i -Sk 2 + L ,,, 0 H= -Sa k’ - Mhr -Mhi -I,,hk’ + k•, - M.,, -M•, -kd Mhi -Sak’ - Mhr M• -Iak2 + k. - Mar 0 0 0 -Idk2 0 kd - Idk 2 0 0 0 Idk2 0 (2-39

  2. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  3. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  4. Ciprofloxacin and Trimethoprim Cause Phage Induction and Virulence Modulation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Christiane; Köller, Johanna; Wolz, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus strains of human origin, phages which integrate into the chromosomal gene coding for β-hemolysin (hlb) are widely distributed. Most of them encode accessory virulence determinants such as staphylokinase (sak) or enterotoxins. Here, we analyzed the effects of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on phage induction and expression of phage-encoded virulence factors by using isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis for which the induction of hlb-converting phages was demonstrated in vivo (C. Goerke, S. Matias y Papenberg, S. Dasbach, K. Dietz, R. Ziebach, B. C. Kahl, and C. Wolz, J. Infect. Dis. 189:724-734, 2004) as well as a φ13 lysogen of phage-cured strain 8325-4. Treatment of lysogens with subinhibitory concentrations of either antibiotic resulted in (i) delysogenization of strains resembling the isolates picked up after chronic lung infection and (ii) replication of phages in the bacterial host in a dose-dependent manner. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in enhanced recA transcription, indicating involvement of the SOS response in phage mobilization. Induction of φ13 was linked to elevated expression of the phage-encoded virulence gene sak, chiefly due to the activation of latent phage promoters. In summary, we could show the induction of hlb-converting phages and a subsequent virulence modulation of the host bacterium by ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. PMID:16377683

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  6. Bacteriocin production and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Staliano, Cristina Dini; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2015-06-01

    Survival, bacteriocin(s) production, and antilisterial effect of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a were evaluated in a potentially synbiotic cheese spread, throughout storage at 4 °C and 15 °C for up to 28 days, using culture-dependent (plate count) and culture-independent (qPCR) methods. Bacteriocin(s) production in the food product was monitored by phenotypic and molecular (RT-qPCR) techniques. Three cheese spread trials (T) containing the prebiotic fiber inulin were produced in duplicates and studied: T1 (control - without inoculation of lactic acid bacteria); T2 (inoculated with the non-bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei ATCC 15521 strain), and T3 (inoculated with the bacteriocinogenic Lb. sakei 2a strain). The cheese spreads were challenged with Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 4b and 1/2a, individually added to the food product. The counts of Lb. sakei 2a in the cheese spread T3 remained high during storage and the growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited at both temperatures, especially L. monocytogenes 4b in the food product kept at 15 °C due to the production of bacteriocins (up to 6,400 AU/mL). Expression of the genes sakP and sakQ encoding for bacteriocins production during the cheese spread storage was demonstrated. Lb. sakei 2a can be used for production of potentially synbiotic cheese spreads with increased safety.

  7. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  8. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of β and γ subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its β and γ subunits. PMID:16201971

  9. Nest survival of piping plovers at a dynamic reservoir indicates an ecological trap for a threatened population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 60 years, reservoirs have reshaped riverine ecosystems and transformed breeding habitats used by the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). Currently, 29 % of the Northern Great Plains plover population nests at reservoirs that might function as ecological traps because reservoirs have more diverse habitat features and greater dynamics in water levels than habitats historically used by breeding plovers. We examined factors influencing daily survival rates (DSR) of 346 plover nests at Lake Sakakawea (SAK; reservoir) during 2006–2009 by evaluating multiple a priori models, and we used our best model to hindcast nest success of plovers during 1985–2009. Our observed and hindcast estimates of nest success were low compared to published estimates. Previous findings indicate that plovers prefer nest sites that are low relative to water level. We found that elevation of nests above the water level had a strong positive correlation with DSR because water levels of SAK typically increased throughout the nesting period. Habitat characteristics on the reservoir differ from those that shaped nest-site selection for plovers. Accordingly, extraordinary nest loss occurs there in many years, largely due to inundation of nests, and based on low fledging rates those losses were not compensated by potential changes in chick survival. Therefore, our example supports the concept of ecological traps in birds because it addresses quantitative assessments of habitat preference and productivity over 25 years (since species listing) and affects a large portion of the population.

  10. Transcription of the toxin genes present within the Staphylococcal phage phiSa3ms is intimately linked with the phage's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Paul; Waldor, Matthew K

    2003-12-01

    phiSa3ms, a lysogenic bacteriophage encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEG, and SEK and the fibrinolytic enzyme staphylokinase (Sak), was identified in the unannotated genome sequence of the hypervirulent community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain 476. We found that mitomycin C induction of phiSa3ms led to increased transcription of all four virulence factors. The increase in sea and sak transcription was a result of read-through transcription from upstream latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy number. The majority of the seg2 and sek2 transcripts were shown to initiate from the upstream phage cI promoter and hence were regulated by factors influencing cI transcription. The lysogeny module of phiSa3ms was shown to have some lambda-like features with divergent cI and cro genes. Band shift assays were used to identify binding sites for both CI and Cro within the region between these genes, suggesting a mechanism of control for the phiSa3ms lytic-lysogenic switch. Our findings suggest that the production of phage-encoded virulence factors in S. aureus may be regulated by processes that govern lysogeny.

  11. Updated constraints on the light-neutrino exchange mechanisms of the 0νββ-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefánik, Dušan; Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    The neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay associated with light neutrino exchange mechanisms, which are due to both left-handed V-A and right-handed V+A leptonic and hadronic currents, is discussed by using the recent progress achieved by the GERDA, EXO and KamlandZen experiments. The upper limits for effective neutrino mass mββ and the parameters <λ> and <η> characterizing the right handed current mechanisms are deduced from the data on the 0νββ-decay of 76Ge and 136Xe using nuclear matrix elements calculated within the nuclear shell model and quasiparticle random phase approximation and phase-space factors calculated with exact Dirac wave functions with finite nuclear size and electron screening. The careful analysis of upper constraints on effective lepton number violating parameters assumes a competition of the above mechanisms and arbitrary values of involved CP violating phases.

  12. Extracting information from 0νββ decay and LHC pp-cross sections: Limits on the left-right mixing angle and right-handed boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-10-01

    The existence of massive neutrinos forces the extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, to accommodate them and/or right-handed currents. This is one of the fundamental questions in todays's physics. The consequences of it would reflect upon several decay processes, like the very exotic nuclear double-beta-decay. By the other hand, high-energy proton-proton reactions of the type performed at the LHC accelerator can provide information about the existence of a right-handed generation of the W and Z-bosons. Here we shall address the possibility of performing a joint analysis of the results reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations (σ(pp- > 2l + jets)) and the latest measurements of nuclear-double-beta decays reported by the GERDA and EXO collaborations.

  13. LArGe: Background suppression using liquid argon (LAr) scintillation for 0 νββ decay search with enriched germanium (Ge) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, M.; Peiffer, P.; Schönert, S.

    2007-10-01

    Measurements with a bare p-type high purity germanium diode (HPGe) submerged in a 19 kg liquid argon (LAr) scintillation detector at MPIK-Heidelberg are reported. The liquid argon-germanium system (LArGe) is operated as a 4 π anti-Compton spectrometer to suppress backgrounds in the HPGe. This R&D is carried out in the framework of the Gerda experiment which searches for 0 νββ decays with HPGe detectors enriched in 76Ge. The goal of this work is to develop a novel method to discriminate backgrounds in 0 νββ search which would ultimately allow to investigate the effective neutrino mass free of background events down to the inverse mass hierarchy scale. Other applications in low-background counting are expected.

  14. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  15. Extracting information from 0νββ decay and LHC pp-cross sections: Limits on the left-right mixing angle and right-handed boson mass

    SciTech Connect

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-10-28

    The existence of massive neutrinos forces the extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, to accommodate them and/or right-handed currents. This is one of the fundamental questions in todays’s physics. The consequences of it would reflect upon several decay processes, like the very exotic nuclear double-beta-decay. By the other hand, high-energy proton-proton reactions of the type performed at the LHC accelerator can provide information about the existence of a right-handed generation of the W and Z-bosons. Here we shall address the possibility of performing a joint analysis of the results reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations (σ(pp− > 2l + jets)) and the latest measurements of nuclear-double-beta decays reported by the GERDA and EXO collaborations.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  17. Gator: a low-background counting facility at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A. D.; Askin, A.; Angle, J.; Aprile, E.; Bruch, T.; Kish, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Manalaysay, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Schumann, M.

    2011-08-01

    A low-background germanium spectrometer has been installed and is being operated in an ultra-low background shield (the Gator facility) at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy (LNGS). With an integrated rate of ~ 0.16 events/min in the energy range between 100-2700 keV, the background is comparable to those of the world's most sensitive germanium detectors. After a detailed description of the facility, its background sources as well as the calibration and efficiency measurements are introduced. Two independent analysis methods are described and compared using examples from selected sample measurements. The Gator facility is used to screen materials for XENON, GERDA, and in the context of next-generation astroparticle physics facilities such as DARWIN.

  18. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ2 test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  19. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  20. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  1. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tian; Elbing, Karin; Hohmann, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    It recently became apparent that the highly conserved Snf1p protein kinase plays roles in controlling different cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in addition to its well-known function in glucose repression/derepression. We have previously reported that Snf1p together with Gis4p controls ion homeostasis by regulating expression of ENA1, which encodes the Ena1p Na(+) extrusion system. In this study we found that Snf1p is rapidly phosphorylated when cells are exposed to NaCl and this phosphorylation is required for the role of Snf1p in Na(+) tolerance. In contrast to activation by low glucose levels, the salt-induced phosphorylation of Snf1p promoted neither phosphorylation nor nuclear export of the Mig1p repressor. The mechanism that prevents Mig1p phosphorylation by active Snf1p under salt stress does not involve either hexokinase PII or the Gis4p regulator. Instead, Snf1p may mediate upregulation of ENA1 expression via the repressor Nrg1p. Activation of Snf1p in response to glucose depletion requires any of the three upstream protein kinases Sak1p, Tos3p and Elm1p, with Sak1p playing the most prominent role. The same upstream kinases were required for salt-induced Snf1p phosphorylation, and also under these conditions Sak1p played the most prominent role. Unexpectedly, however, it appears that Elm1p plays a dual role in acquisition of salt tolerance by activating Snf1p and in a presently unknown parallel pathway. Together, these results indicate that under salt stress Snf1p takes part in a different pathway from that during glucose depletion and this role is performed together as well as in parallel with its upstream kinase Elm1p. Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae), a critically endangered aquatic plant endemic to Japan, and implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takashi; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK). The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 to 1.93, whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.33 and from 0.10 to 0.24, respectively. With the exception of SAK, all populations contained multiple clones, but our results indicated low levels of within-population genetic diversity. The populations NIK and NAS comprised few large or middle-sized genets and many small genets. The populations NIK and NAS were suggested to comprise large old, old fragmented, and/or young small genets resulting from seedling establishment. All four populations were differentiated, and gene flow between the populations was restricted (average level of gene flow (Nm) = 0.122, G' ST  = 0.639). Of the total genetic diversity, 67.20 and 9.13% were attributable to inter- and intra-population diversity, respectively. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two or three well-differentiated groups of populations. Cluster I comprised one population (NIK) and cluster II comprised the remaining populations at K = 2. The populations NIK, NAS, and the remaining populations were assigned to clusters I, II, and III, respectively, at K = 3. For conservation practices, we recommend that each cluster be regarded as a different management unit. We further suggest that artificial gene flow among MOK and SAK populations is an appropriate option, whereas NIK should not be reinforced with genotypes from the remaining populations.

  3. Gaseous 83mKr generator of monoenergetic electrons based on 83Rb deposited in zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentkerestiová, J.; Vénos, D.; Slezák, M.

    2017-09-01

    The gaseous 83mKr electron source is currently used in neutrino mass experiments KATRIN and Project 8, dark matter experiments XENON, LUX and DarkSide, and ALICE (CERN) experiment. The main attractive features of this radioactive noble gas are its monoenergetic conversion electrons with well known energies and a half-life of 1.8 h, which is short enough to avoid any long-lasting contamination of the system. The long half-life of the mother 83Rb isotope (T1/2 = 86.2 d) enables more time demanding measurement. Particularly, in the neutrino mass experiments with gaseous tritium in which the 83mKr is applied in the same manner as the tritium, the K-32 conversion electrons with energy conveniently close to the beta spectrum endpoint represent an important test and calibration tool. Here, the design and characteristics of the gaseous 83mKr generator, including the 83mKr source itself, for KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment are presented.

  4. Featured Image: The Q Continuum Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Each frame in this image (click for the full view!) represents a different stage in the simulated evolution of our universe, ending at present day in the rightmost panel. In a recently-published paper, Katrin Heitmann (Argonne National Laboratory) and collaborators reveal the results from and challenges inherent in the largest cosmological simulation currently available: the Q Continuum simulation. Evolving a volume of (1300 Mpc)3, this massive N-body simulation tracks over half a trillion particles as they clump together as a result of their mutual gravity, imitating the evolution of our universe over the last 13.8 billion years. Cosmological simulations such as this one are important for understanding observations, testing analysis pipelines, investigating the capabilities of future observing missions, and much more. For more information and the original image (as well as several other awesome images!), see the paper below.Citation:Katrin Heitmann et al 2015 ApJS 219 34. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/219/2/34

  5. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Bodine, Laura; Enomoto, Sanshiro; Kallander, Matthew; Machado, Eric; Parno, Diana; Robertson, Hamish; Trims Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upcoming KATRIN and Project 8 experiments will measure the model-independent effective neutrino mass through the kinematics near the endpoint of tritium beta-decay. A critical systematic, however, is the understanding of the molecular final-state distribution populated by tritium decay. In fact, the current theory incorporated in the KATRIN analysis framework predicts an observable that disagrees with an experimental result from the 1950s. The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment will reexamine branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question.We will give an update on simulation software, analysis tools, and the apparatus, including early commissioning results. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  6. Kassiopeia: a modern, extensible C++ particle tracking package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furse, Daniel; Groh, Stefan; Trost, Nikolaus; Babutzka, Martin; Barrett, John P.; Behrens, Jan; Buzinsky, Nicholas; Corona, Thomas; Enomoto, Sanshiro; Erhard, Moritz; Formaggio, Joseph A.; Glück, Ferenc; Harms, Fabian; Heizmann, Florian; Hilk, Daniel; Käfer, Wolfgang; Kleesiek, Marco; Leiber, Benjamin; Mertens, Susanne; Oblath, Noah S.; Renschler, Pascal; Schwarz, Johannes; Slocum, Penny L.; Wandkowsky, Nancy; Wierman, Kevin; Zacher, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The Kassiopeia particle tracking framework is an object-oriented software package using modern C++ techniques, written originally to meet the needs of the KATRIN collaboration. Kassiopeia features a new algorithmic paradigm for particle tracking simulations which targets experiments containing complex geometries and electromagnetic fields, with high priority put on calculation efficiency, customizability, extensibility, and ease-of-use for novice programmers. To solve Kassiopeia's target physics problem the software is capable of simulating particle trajectories governed by arbitrarily complex differential equations of motion, continuous physics processes that may in part be modeled as terms perturbing that equation of motion, stochastic processes that occur in flight such as bulk scattering and decay, and stochastic surface processes occurring at interfaces, including transmission and reflection effects. This entire set of computations takes place against the backdrop of a rich geometry package which serves a variety of roles, including initialization of electromagnetic field simulations and the support of state-dependent algorithm-swapping and behavioral changes as a particle’s state evolves. Thanks to the very general approach taken by Kassiopeia it can be used by other experiments facing similar challenges when calculating particle trajectories in electromagnetic fields. It is publicly available at https://github.com/KATRIN-Experiment/Kassiopeia.

  7. Dark matter in the local group of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, P. D.; Buettner, D. J.

    We describe the neutrino flavor (e = electron, μ = muon, τ = tau) masses as mi=e,μ,τ = m + Δmi with |Δmi| m < 1 and probably |Δmi| m ≪ 1. The quantity m is the degenerate neutrino mass. Because neutrino flavor is not a quantum number, this degenerate mass appears in the neutrino equation-of-state [P. D. Morley and D. J. Buettner, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (2014), doi:10.1142/s0218271815500042.]. We apply a Monte Carlo computational physics technique to the Local Group (LG) of galaxies to determine an approximate location for a Dark Matter embedding Condensed Neutrino Object (CNO) [P. D. Morley and D. J. Buettner, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D (2016), doi:10.1142/s0218271816500899.]. The calculation is based on the rotational properties of the only spiral galaxies within the LG: M31, M33 and the Milky Way. CNOs could be the Dark Matter everyone is looking for and we estimate the CNO embedding the LG to have a mass 5.17 × 1015 M⊙ and a radius 1.316 Mpc, with the estimated value of m ≃ 0.8 eV/c2. The up-coming KATRIN experiment [https://www.katrin.kit.edu.] will either be the definitive result or eliminate condensed neutrinos as a Dark Matter candidate.

  8. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  9. Kassiopeia: a modern, extensible C++ particle tracking package

    DOE PAGES

    Furse, Daniel; Groh, Stefan; Trost, Nikolaus; ...

    2017-05-16

    The Kassiopeia particle tracking framework is an object-oriented software package using modern C++ techniques, written originally to meet the needs of the KATRIN collaboration. Kassiopeia features a new algorithmic paradigm for particle tracking simulations which targets experiments containing complex geometries and electromagnetic fields, with high priority put on calculation efficiency, customizability, extensibility, and ease-of-use for novice programmers. To solve Kassiopeia's target physics problem the software is capable of simulating particle trajectories governed by arbitrarily complex differential equations of motion, continuous physics processes that may in part be modeled as terms perturbing that equation of motion, stochastic processes that occur inmore » flight such as bulk scattering and decay, and stochastic surface processes occurring at interfaces, including transmission and reflection effects. This entire set of computations takes place against the backdrop of a rich geometry package which serves a variety of roles, including initialization of electromagnetic field simulations and the support of state-dependent algorithm-swapping and behavioral changes as a particle's state evolves. Thanks to the very general approach taken by Kassiopeia it can be used by other experiments facing similar challenges when calculating particle trajectories in electromagnetic fields. It is publicly available at https://github.com/KATRIN-Experiment/Kassiopeia.« less

  10. Some New Generalized Difference Spaces of Nonabsolute Type Derived from the Spaces ℓp and ℓ∞

    PubMed Central

    Başar, Feyzi; Karaisa, Ali

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the sequence space ℓpλ(B) of none absolute type which is a p-normed space and BK space in the cases 0 < p < 1 and 1 ⩽ p ⩽ ∞, respectively, and prove that ℓpλ(B) and ℓp are linearly isomorphic for 0 < p ⩽ ∞. Furthermore, we give some inclusion relations concerning the space ℓpλ(B) and we construct the basis for the space ℓpλ(B), where 1 ⩽ p < ∞. Furthermore, we determine the alpha-, beta- and gamma-duals of the space ℓpλ(B) for 1 ⩽ p ⩽ ∞. Finally, we investigate some geometric properties concerning Banach-Saks type p and give Gurarii's modulus of convexity for the normed space ℓpλ(B). PMID:24348151

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    l(it SAk mCvm 4. t* UN~,S " Air ’No 77 ~ 󈧰lpwtnpM. , , r , ,- -*--mvt pA-4tar " - -~ r ; rt~y~’~’iT’IN ~I i~4;y j ~ 1’c>~~W’( GfK~?~ .NRE R-2103L...AF November 1977 Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines J. R. Nelson A Project AIR FORCE report prepared for the United States Air Force Rend...for cost data and operational and maintenance practices that could be profitable fur the Air Force. Refs. (WH) I I(’t ASS IFIED - ... - .’- . -.- -IN

  12. Electronic Pair-Binding and Hund's Rule Violations in Doped C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong-Chen; Kivelson, Steven

    We calculate the electronic properties of the t-J model on a C60 molecule using the density-matrix renormalization group and show that Hund's first rule is violated and that for an average of three added electron per molecule, an effective attraction (pair-binding) arises for intermediate values of t=J. Specifically, it is energetically favorable to put four electrons on one C60 and two on a second rather than putting three on each. Our results show that a dominantly electronic mechanism of superconductivity is possible in doped C60. HCJ and SAK were supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  13. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed.

  14. The SCFSlimb E3 ligase complex regulates asymmetric division to inhibit neuroblast overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Wang, Cheng; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Aw, Sherry S Y; Koe, Chwee T; Wong, Jack J L; Yu, Fengwei; Ang, Beng T; Tang, Carol; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila larval brain neuroblasts divide asymmetrically to balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the SCFSlimb E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is composed of Cul1, SkpA, Roc1a and the F-box protein Supernumerary limbs (Slimb), inhibits ectopic neuroblast formation and regulates asymmetric division of neuroblasts. Hyperactivation of Akt leads to similar neuroblast overgrowth and defects in asymmetric division. Slimb associates with Akt in a protein complex, and SCFSlimb acts through SAK and Akt to inhibit neuroblast overgrowth. Moreover, Beta-transducin repeat containing, the human ortholog of Slimb, is frequently deleted in highly aggressive gliomas, suggesting a conserved tumor suppressor-like function. PMID:24413555

  15. Is Lebesgue measure the only [sigma]-finite invariant Borel measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elekes, Marton; Keleti, Tamas

    2006-09-01

    S. Saks and recently R.D. Mauldin asked if every translation invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure on is a constant multiple of Lebesgue measure. The aim of this paper is to investigate the versions of this question, since surprisingly the answer is "yes and no," depending on what we mean by Borel measure and by constant. According to a folklore result, if the measure is only defined for Borel sets, then the answer is affirmative. We show that if the measure is defined on a [sigma]-algebra containing the Borel sets, then the answer is negative. However, if we allow the multiplicative constant to be infinity, then the answer is affirmative in this case as well. Moreover, our construction also shows that an isometry invariant [sigma]-finite Borel measure (in the wider sense) on can be non-[sigma]-finite when we restrict it to the Borel sets.

  16. The Weakly Coupled Pfaffian as a Type I Quantum Hall Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2011-03-01

    The Pfaffian phase of electrons in the proximity of a half-filled Landau level is understood to be a p + ip superconductor of composite fermions. We consider the properties of this paired quantum Hall phase when the pairing scale is small, i.e. in the weak-coupling, BCS, limit, where the coherence length is much larger than the charge screening length. We find that, as in a Type I superconductor, the vortices attract so that, upon varying the magnetic field from its magic value at ν = 5 / 2 , the system exhibits Coulomb frustrated phase separation. We propose that the weakly and strongly coupled Pfaffian states exemplify a general dichotomy between Type I and Type II quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported in part by NSF grants DMR-1006608 and PHY-1005429 (SAP, SLS), DMR-0758356 (SAK) and DMR-0704151 (BZS).

  17. Sensing pressure with ion channels.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Honoré, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Opening of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) is the earliest event occurring in mechanosensory transduction. The molecular identity of mammalian SACs has long remained a mystery. Only very recently, Piezo1 and Piezo2 have been shown to be essential components of distinct SACs and moreover, purified Piezo1 forms cationic channels when reconstituted into artificial bilayers. In line with these findings, dPiezo was demonstrated to act in the Drosophila mechanical nociception pathway. Finally, the 3D structure of the two-pore domain potassium channel (K(2P)), TRAAK [weakly inward rectifying K⁺ channel (TWIK)-related arachidonic acid stimulated K⁺ channel], has recently been solved, providing valuable information about pharmacology, selectivity and gating mechanisms of stretch-activated K⁺ channels (SAKs). These recent findings allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of molecular and cellular mechanotransduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Designer and natural peptide toxin blockers of the KcsA potassium channel identified by phage display

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ruiming; Dai, Hui; Mendelman, Netanel; Cuello, Luis G.; Chill, Jordan H.; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide neurotoxins are powerful tools for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Limiting broader use, most receptors lack an identified toxin that binds with high affinity and specificity. This paper describes isolation of toxins for one such orphan target, KcsA, a potassium channel that has been fundamental to delineating the structural basis for ion channel function. A phage-display strategy is presented whereby ∼1.5 million novel and natural peptides are fabricated on the scaffold present in ShK, a sea anemone type I (SAK1) toxin stabilized by three disulfide bonds. We describe two toxins selected by sorting on purified KcsA, one novel (Hui1, 34 residues) and one natural (HmK, 35 residues). Hui1 is potent, blocking single KcsA channels in planar lipid bilayers half-maximally (Ki) at 1 nM. Hui1 is also specific, inhibiting KcsA-Shaker channels in Xenopus oocytes with a Ki of 0.5 nM whereas Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels are blocked over 200-fold less well. HmK is potent but promiscuous, blocking KcsA-Shaker, Shaker, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels with Ki of 1–4 nM. As anticipated, one Hui1 blocks the KcsA pore and two conserved toxin residues, Lys21 and Tyr22, are essential for high-affinity binding. Unexpectedly, potassium ions traversing the channel from the inside confer voltage sensitivity to the Hui1 off-rate via Arg23, indicating that Lys21 is not in the pore. The 3D structure of Hui1 reveals a SAK1 fold, rationalizes KcsA inhibition, and validates the scaffold-based approach for isolation of high-affinity toxins for orphan receptors. PMID:26627718

  19. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  20. Poultry-Like pA+ Biotype of Staphylococcus aureus CC346/084 Clone in Human Population.

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to analyse the prevalence of P-like pA+ biotype of S. aureus in material from healthy and diseased individuals, not employed at slaughterhouses or meat processing plants, and (2) to analyse the relatedness of these strains and their genetic variability. The study included 344 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients with staphylococcal infections and from healthy carriers. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined on the basis of fibrinolysin and β-haemolysin production, coagulation of bovine plasma, and type of growth on crystal violet agar. Additionally, the strains were tested for the synthesis of protein A in order to distinguish between P-like pA+ and poultry biotypes. Fibrinolysin gene (sak) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected by means of PCR. The clonal structure of studied strains was analysed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of spa gene. Finally, the strains were typed with a basic set of 23 bacteriophages. The strains belonging to P-like pA+ biotype corresponded to nearly 20 % of all the studied strains. In contrast to the human biotype, they formed one clonal complex, spa-CC346/084. The P-like pA+ biotype strains did not synthesize fibrinolysin, lacked the sak gene, and showed susceptibility to methicillin. In contrast to the human biotype strains, they belonged mostly to phage group II. The P-like pA+ biotype strains, previously described solely in meat products and meat industry workers, can be also present in hospitalized patients and extra-hospital carriers. These strains form a single, fibrinolysin-negative, clonal complex t084/CC346.

  1. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  2. Identification by targeted differential display of an immediate early gene encoding a putative serine/threonine kinase.

    PubMed

    Donohue, P J; Alberts, G F; Guo, Y; Winkles, J A

    1995-04-28

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 mitogenic signal transduction is mediated in part by gene products that are specifically expressed in response to cell surface receptor binding and activation. We have used a targeted differential display method to identify FGF-1-inducible genes in murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Here we report that one of these genes is predicted to encode a novel serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. This putative kinase has been named Fnk, for FGF-inducible kinase. The deduced Fnk amino acid sequence has 49, 36, 33, 32, and 22% overall identity to mouse serum-inducible kinase (Snk), mouse polo-like kinase (Plk), Drosophila polo, Saccharomyces Cdc5, and mouse Snk/Plk-akin kinase (Sak), respectively. These proteins are all members of the polo subfamily of structurally related serine/threonine kinases. The Plk, polo, Cdc5, and Sak kinases are required for cell division. FGF-1 induction of Fnk mRNA expression is first detected at 30 min after mitogen addition, reflects transcriptional activation, and does not require de novo protein synthesis. FGF-2, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, calf serum, or phorbol myristate acetate treatment of quiescent cells also induces fnk gene expression. Fnk mRNA is expressed in vivo in a tissue-specific manner, with relatively high levels detected in newborn and adult mouse skin. These results indicate that Fnk may be a transiently expressed protein kinase involved in the early signaling events required for growth factor-stimulated cell cycle progression.

  3. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline.

    PubMed

    Anteau, Michael J; Sherfy, Mark H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2)) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  4. Modular design of a novel chimeric protein with combined thrombin inhibitory activity and plasminogen-activating potential.

    PubMed

    Wirsching, Frank; Luge, Cornelia; Schwienhorst, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    In order to design plasminogen activators with improved thrombolytic properties we sought to construct the bifunctional protein HLS-2 which combines both a plasminogen-activating and an anticoagulative activity. The chimeric protein comprises four elements: a derivative of thrombin inhibitor hirudin, a 6-amino acid spacer, the sequence of plasminogen-activator staphylokinase (Sak), and a 13-amino acid expression tag at the C-terminus. The gene of the fusion protein was obtained by SOE-PCR, cloned into pCANTAB5E, and expressed in E. coli BL21. HLS-2 was purified from periplasmatic extracts and characterized by Western blotting. Plasminogen-activation of HLS-2 and of Sak in equimolar mixtures with plasminogen showed near equivalence as measured by plasmin-mediated cleavage of chromogenic substrate S-2403. For catalytic amounts of plasminogen-activator, however, HLS-2 was less effective by a factor of 1.7. HLS-2 also inhibited both the amidolytic and the fibrinolytic activities of thrombin. Similar concentrations of either commercial HV1 (42 pmol/L) or HLS-2 (250 pmol/L) were required to halve the initial rate of thrombin reaction with fluorogenic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-AMC, suggesting the retention of high-affinity inhibition of thrombin by the fusion protein sufficiently strong to substitute anticoagulative comedication during fibrinolytic treatment. The results provide a rationale for further testing the efficacy of HLS-2 for the lysis of platelet-rich arterial blood clots and for the prevention of reocclusion after thrombolysis.

  5. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange in a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Tracy; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands, in their pristine state, are important long-term sinks of carbon. The extraction of peat for agricultural purposes or for biofuel leads to a shift in the carbon dynamics. Changes in environmental conditions post extraction may also allow for invasive species to establish and spread across the peatland. Many studies have shown the benefits and advantages of various restoration management practices, but few studies have explored the carbon exchange from unrestored peatlands. Our study reports the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Québec at both the plant community scale using static chambers, and at the ecosystem scale using an eddy covariance flux tower, over two complete years. Extraction of the Saint-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska peatland (SAK) started in the early 1970's and was halted in 1999. No restoration efforts have been implemented and the remnant ditches remain unblocked. The site consists of sparse patches of Eriophorum and a vast area of bare peat. Consequently, SAK is an overall source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an annual total of 153 g C m-2 and 241 g C m-2 in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015, respectively, and an average annual total of 1 g C m-2yr-1 in CH4 emissions. Phragmites and Typha, both invasive species, have established themselves in the ditches and are sources of methane; partly explaining the increased emissions in carbon fluxes to the atmosphere post extraction. Results from this study will help managers assess the importance of post-extraction peatland restoration, by comparing the differences in CO2 and CH4 exchange between restored and unrestored peatlands.

  6. Selection Indicates Preference in Diverse Habitats: A Ground-Nesting Bird (Charadrius melodus) Using Reservoir Shoreline

    PubMed Central

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies. PMID:22299037

  7. What triggers grass endophytes to switch from mutualism to pathogenism?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Carla J; Cox, Murray P; Scott, Barry

    2011-02-01

    Symbioses between cool season grasses and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae are an integral component of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. An excellent experimental model is the association between the biotrophic fungus Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass). The fungal partner produces a suite of secondary metabolites that protect the host from various biotic and abiotic stresses. The plant host provides a source of nutrients and a mechanism of dissemination via seed transmission. Crucial mechanisms that maintain a stable mutualistic association include signaling through the stress activated MAP kinase pathway and production of reactive oxygen species by the fungal NADPH oxidase (Nox) complex. Disruption of components of the Nox complex (NoxA, NoxR and RacA), or the stress-activated MAP kinase (SakA), leads to a breakdown in this finely balanced association, resulting in pathogenic infection instead of mutualism. Hosts infected with fungi lacking a functional Nox complex, or the stress-activated MAP kinase, display a stunted phenotype and undergo premature senescence, while the fungus switches from restricted to proliferative growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie these physiological changes, high throughput mRNA sequencing has been used to analyze the transcriptomes of both host and symbiont in wild-type and a mutant association. In the ΔsakA mutant association, a dramatic up-regulation of fungal hydrolases and transporters was observed, changes consistent with a switch from restricted symbiotic to proliferative pathogenic growth. Analysis of the plant transcriptome revealed dramatic changes in expression of host genes involved in pathogen defense, transposon activation and hormone biosynthesis and response. This review highlights how finely tuned grass-endophyte associations are, and how interfering with the signaling pathways involved in maintenance of these associations can trigger a change from mutualistic to

  8. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    PubMed Central

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  9. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A Ground-Nesting bird (charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Wiltermuth, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m 2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  10. Stepwise evolution of the centriole-assembly pathway.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Machado, Pedro; Branco, Pedro; Tavares-Cadete, Filipe; Rodrigues-Martins, Ana; Pereira-Leal, José B; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2010-05-01

    The centriole and basal body (CBB) structure nucleates cilia and flagella, and is an essential component of the centrosome, underlying eukaryotic microtubule-based motility, cell division and polarity. In recent years, components of the CBB-assembly machinery have been identified, but little is known about their regulation and evolution. Given the diversity of cellular contexts encountered in eukaryotes, but the remarkable conservation of CBB morphology, we asked whether general mechanistic principles could explain CBB assembly. We analysed the distribution of each component of the human CBB-assembly machinery across eukaryotes as a strategy to generate testable hypotheses. We found an evolutionarily cohesive and ancestral module, which we term UNIMOD and is defined by three components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP and BLD10/CEP135), that correlates with the occurrence of CBBs. Unexpectedly, other players (SAK/PLK4, SPD2/CEP192 and CP110) emerged in a taxon-specific manner. We report that gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of CBB components and show that, in the case of BLD10/CEP135, this is a source of tissue specificity in CBB and flagella biogenesis. Moreover, we observe extreme protein divergence amongst CBB components and show experimentally that there is loss of cross-species complementation among SAK/PLK4 family members, suggesting species-specific adaptations in CBB assembly. We propose that the UNIMOD theory explains the conservation of CBB architecture and that taxon- and tissue-specific molecular innovations, gained through emergence, duplication and divergence, play important roles in coordinating CBB biogenesis and function in different cellular contexts.

  11. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  12. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health.

    PubMed

    Umu, Özgün C O; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Hernández, Pablo E; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning.

  13. Overview of the Project 8 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevender, Brent; Project 8 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of the Project 8 experiment, a concept for the next-generation direct neutrino mass measurement after KATRIN, with a sensitivity goal to cover the range of neutrino masses allowed by the inverted mass hierarchy. Project 8 is a tritium endpoint experiment based on Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) of beta decay electrons from an atomic tritium source. We demonstrate how this combination can offer advantages in both statistical and systematic uncertainties compared to existing technologies. We then present our staged approach to develop the technology for the final experiment, including a discussion of the demanding specifications for an atomic tritium source. This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S.

  14. SDAV Viz July Progress Update: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer

    2012-07-30

    SDAV Viz July Progress Update: (1) VPIC (Vector Particle in Cell) Kinetic Plasma Simulation Code - (a) Implemented first version of an in-situ adapter based on Paraview CoProcessing Library, (b) Three pipelines: vtkDataSetMapper, vtkContourFilter, vtkPistonContour, (c) Next, resolve issue at boundaries of processor domains; add more advanced viz/analysis pipelines; (2) Halo finding/merger trees - (a) Summer student Wathsala W. from University of Utah is working on data-parallel halo finder algorithm using PISTON, (b) Timo Bremer (LLNL), Valerio Pascucci (Utah), George Zagaris (Kitware), and LANL people are interested in using merger trees for tracking the evolution of halos in cosmo simulations; discussed possible overlap with work by Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann (Argonne) during their visit to LANL 7/11; (3) PISTON integration in ParaView - Now available from ParaView github.

  15. Investigation of durability of optical coatings in highly purified tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Schoenung, K.; Bornschein, B.; Rolli, R.; Schaefer, V.; Sturm, M.

    2015-03-15

    Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of expo-sure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated. Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy. (authors)

  16. Post service examination of turbomolecular pumps after stress testing with Kg-scale tritium throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, F.; Roelling, M.

    2015-03-15

    Turbomolecular pumps (TMP) will be used with large amounts of tritium in future fusion machines like ITER, DEMO and in the KATRIN Experiment. In this work, a stress test of a large, magnetically levitated TMP (Leybold MAG W2800) with a tritium throughput of 1.1 kg over 384 days of operation was performed at TLK. After this, the pump was dismantled and the tritium uptake in several parts was deter-mined. Especially the non-metallic parts of the pump have absorbed large amounts of tritium and are most likely responsible for the observed pollution of the process gas. The total tritium uptake of the TMP was estimated with 0.1-1.1 TBq. No radiation-induced damages were found on the inner parts of the pump. The TMP showed no signs of functional limitations during the 384 days of operation. (authors)

  17. Forbidden unique beta-decays and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of the electron spectrum in beta-decays provides a robust direct determination of the values of neutrino masses. The planned rhenium beta-decay experiment, called the "Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment" (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which is expected to collect data in a near future. In this contribution we discuss the spectrum of emitted electrons close to the end point in the case of the first unique forbidden beta-decay of 79Se, 107Pd and 187Re. It is found that the p3/2-wave emission dominates over the s1/2-wave. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed beta-decay of 3H.

  18. The Absolute Mass of Neutrino and the First Unique Forbidden β-DECAY of 187Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment MARE might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the tritium β-decay experiment KATRIN, which will start data taking in 2011 and will proceed for five years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β-decay of 187Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s-wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos the Kurie function for the rhenium β-decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the endpoint is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed βof 3H.

  19. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Muto, Kazuo; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium β decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed β decay of H3.

  20. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-15

    The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.

  1. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background.

  2. Kamstrupp's wow-effect: re-examined and expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-12-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is followed by our discussion of aspects of her study within the context of a basic understanding that entry-level pre-service teachers need to fully understand both the process of learning and scientific principles as these are important foundational factors in determining whether or not the wow-effect will occur as expected. Finally, our review team presents multiple areas in Kamstrupp's article as potential points for further elaboration.

  3. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  4. Upper Bound of 0.28 eV on Neutrino Masses from the Largest Photometric Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shaun A.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to and when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w{ne}-1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700 000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3 (Gpc h{sup -1}){sup 3} and redshift range 0.45KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection.

  5. Hiding an elephant: heavy sterile neutrino with large mixing angle does not contradict cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, F.; Chudaykin, A.; Gorbunov, D.

    2017-06-01

    We study a model of a keV-scale sterile neutrino with a relatively large mixing with the Standard Model sector. Usual considerations predict active generation of such particles in the early Universe, which leads to constraints from the total Dark Matter density and absence of X-ray signal from sterile neutrino decay. These bounds together may deem any attempt of creation of the keV scale sterile neutrino in the laboratory unfeasible. We argue that for models with a hidden sector coupled to the sterile neutrino these bounds can be evaded, opening new perspectives for the direct studies at neutrino experiments such as Troitsk ν-mass and KATRIN. We estimate the generation of sterile neutrinos in scenarios with the hidden sector dynamics keeping the sterile neutrinos either massless or superheavy in the early Universe. In both cases the generation by oscillations from active neutrinos in plasma is suppressed.

  6. Satellite Altimetry Outreach During Hurricane Rita: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leben, R.; Born, G. H.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was th e most costly on record with estimated d amages in th e U.S. of over 100 billion. What may hav e been lost in the signif icant after math of these storms is the pr imary role th at Gulf of Mexico oceanography played in this very active hurricane season. The four most destructive storms - Dennis (1.84 B), Katrin a (80B), Rita (9.4B) , and Wilma ($14.4 B) - all interacted w ith deep warm ocean currents in th e Gulf contributing to the intensity of these storms and their destructive po ten tial. In the aftermath of Hurrican e K atr ina and during Hurricane Rita we made a concer ted effort to tell this story through satellite altimetry ou treach activ ities at the Un iversity of Colorado, Boulder .

  7. Changes to Irradiation Conditions of VVER-1000 Surveillance Specimens Resulting from Fuel Assemblies with Greater Fuel Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, Pavel; Kochkin, Viacheslav; Erak, Dmitry; Makhotin, Denis; Reshetnikov, Alexandr; Timofeev, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the work was to obtain experimental data on the influence of newtype fuel assemblies with higher fuel rods on the irradiation conditions of surveillance specimens installed on the baffe of VVER-1000. For this purpose, two surveillance sets with container assemblies of the same design irradiated in reactors with different fuel assemblies in the core were investigated. Measurements of neutron dosimeters from these sets and retrospective measurements of 54Mn activity accumulated in each irradiated specimen allow a detailed distribution of the fast neutron flux in the containers to be obtained. Neutron calculations have been done using 3D discrete ordinate code KATRIN. On the basis of the obtained results, a change of the lead factor due to newtype fuel assemblies was evaluated for all types of VVER-1000 container assemblies.

  8. Constraining dynamical neutrino mass generation with cosmological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koksbang, S. M.; Hannestad, S.

    2017-09-01

    We study models in which neutrino masses are generated dynamically at cosmologically late times. Our study is purely phenomenological and parameterized in terms of three effective parameters characterizing the redshift of mass generation, the width of the transition region, and the present day neutrino mass. We also study the possibility that neutrinos become strongly self-interacting at the time where the mass is generated. We find that in a number of cases, models with large present day neutrino masses are allowed by current CMB, BAO and supernova data. The increase in the allowed mass range makes it possible that a non-zero neutrino mass could be measured in direct detection experiments such as KATRIN. Intriguingly we also find that there are allowed models in which neutrinos become strongly self-interacting around the epoch of recombination.

  9. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexlin, G.

    2008-11-01

    Direct neutrino mass measurements are based on high precision spectroscopy studies close to the kinematic end-point of low-energy β-emitters such as 3H and 187Re. Relying only on energy-momentum conservation in β-decay, they offer the only model-independent method to measure the absolute ν-mass scale with sub-eV sensitivity. The two most sensitive detection principles, electrostatic retarding spectrometers and microbolometers, are complementary to each other, and two experiments are currently being prepared to explore ν-masses down to m(ν) = 200 meV. β-spectroscopy will thus allow to constrain the role of neutrino hot dark matter in structure formation, as well as to explore the parameter region of ν-mass scenarios with quasi-degenerate pattern. The MARE project will investigate the β-decay of 187Re with bolometers based on metallic Re and AgReO4 in a two-staged approach: in a phase-I set-up a sensitivity of m(ν) = 2 eV is expected, forming the basis for a later sub-eV phase-II. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is currently being set-up on the site of Tritium Laboratory at KIT. The experiment will combine an ultra-luminous windowless gaseous tritium source with a high resolution electrostatic spectrometer and offer an unprecedented precision in β-decay studies, pushing this technique to its technological limits. First KATRIN measurements with 3H after successful system integration are expected for mid-2011. This contribution gives a status report and outlook for both experiments and discusses the impact of direct ν-mass experiments on astroparticle physics.

  10. Signal modeling of high-purity Ge detectors with a small read-out electrode and application to neutrinoless double beta decay search in Ge-76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Ur, C. A.; Budjáš, D.; Bellotti, E.; Brugnera, R.; Cattadori, C. M.; di Vacri, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Pandola, L.; Schönert, S.

    2011-03-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge using high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge. The analysis of the signal time structure provides a powerful tool to identify neutrinoless double beta decay events and to discriminate them from gamma-ray induced backgrounds. Enhanced pulse shape discrimination capabilities of Broad Energy Germanium detectors with a small read-out electrode have been recently reported. This paper describes the full simulation of the response of such a detector, including the Monte Carlo modeling of radiation interaction and subsequent signal shape calculation. A pulse shape discrimination method based on the ratio between the maximum current signal amplitude and the event energy applied to the simulated data shows quantitative agreement with the experimental data acquired with calibration sources. The simulation has been used to study the survival probabilities of the decays which occur inside the detector volume and are difficult to assess experimentally. Such internal decay events are produced by the cosmogenic radio-isotopes 68Ge and 60Co and the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. Fixing the experimental acceptance of the double escape peak of the 2.614 MeV photon to 90%, the estimated survival probabilities at Qββ = 2.039 MeV are (86+/-3)% for 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decays, (4.5+/-0.3)% for the 68Ge daughter 68Ga, and (0.9+0.4-0.2)% for 60Co decays.

  11. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Markus; Belloni, Francesca; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan; Rouki, Chariklia

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA) pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν) or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external). Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  12. Improving axion detection sensitivity in high purity germanium detector based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; Elliott, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to their excellent energy resolution and low energy threshold, high purity germanium (HPGe) crystals are widely used in low background experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay, e.g. the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and the GERDA experiments, and low mass dark matter, e.g. the CDMS and the EDELWEISS experiments. A particularly interesting candidate for low mass dark matter is the axion, which arises from the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem and has been searched for in many experiments. Due to axion-photon coupling, the postulated solar axions could coherently convert to photons via the Primakeoff effect in periodic crystal lattices, such as those found in HPGe crystals. The conversion rate depends on the angle between axions and crystal lattices, so the knowledge of HPGe crystal axis is important. In this talk, we will present our efforts to improve the HPGe experimental sensitivity to axions by considering the axis orientations in multiple HPGe crystals simultaneously. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  13. Cosmetovigilance: definition, regulation and use "in practice".

    PubMed

    Vigan, Martine; Castelain, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetovigilance is a recent concept. The term itself has just been indexed. It is a form of health public surveillance with a public health objective; it therefore differs from the surveillance carried out by industrialists, who aim at the safety of the product for commercial purposes, and differs from peer surveillance (Revidal-Gerda), whose purpose is medical. Cosmetovigilance concerns cosmetic products. The 2006 European resolution has laid the ground work for a cosmetovigilance system based on case notifications. As of 2013, the new European regulation requires that serious undesirable effects reported to the competent authority should be transmitted to the competent authorities of the other Member States and to the person responsible for the cosmetic product. Two problems are yet to be solved: causality assessment and reporting categories. Cosmetovigilance systems are genuine means of obtaining information on the safety of cosmetic products and their ingredients. They can be used by Europe to check that new directives ensure a high level of safety. Cosmetovigilance makes it possible to rule out or control potentially hazardous ingredients and can thus set our minds at ease about the products placed on the market.

  14. A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Harris, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

  15. Combining data from high-energy pp-reactions and neutrinoless double-beta decay: Limits on the mass of the right-handed boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Suhonen, Jouni; Zuber, Kai

    2016-10-01

    From the recently established lower-limits on the nonobservability of the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge (GERDA collaboration) and 136Xe (EXO-200 and KamLAND-Zen collaborations), combined with the ATLAS and CMS data, we extract limits for the left-right (LR) mixing angle, ζ, of the SU(2)L ×SU(2)R electroweak Hamiltonian. For the theoretical analysis, which is a model dependent, we have adopted a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak Interactions belonging to the SU(2)L ×SU(2)R representation. The nuclear-structure input of the analysis consists of a set of matrix elements and phase-space factors, and the experimental lower-limits for the half-lives. The other input are the ATLAS and CMS cross-section measurements of the pp-collisions into two-jets and two-leptons, performed at the large hadron collider (LHC). Our analysis yields the limit ζ < 10-3 for MR > 3TeV, by combining the model-dependent limits extracted from the double-beta-decay measurements and those extracted from the results of the CMS and ATLAS measurements.

  16. Dreams and Reality of Using Naked Ge Detectors in Liquid Nitrogen Status (Long-Term Stability) of GENIUS-TF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, Irina V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Hans V.

    2008-04-01

    GENIUS-TF-II is a setup of six naked high purity Ge detectors (15 kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso. It has been installed in October, 2004 - after the first four naked Ge detectors had been installed on May 5, 2003 (GENIUS-TF-I). The GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) is the first and up to now only setup ever testing the novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays in particular underground. The goal of GENIUS-TF was to test some key operational parameters of the full GENIUS project in 1997.1-6 Simultaneous physical goal was to search for the annual modulation of the Dark Matter signal.12,25 After operation of GENIUS-TF over three years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15 kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: 1. Background from 222Rn diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. 2. Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen as result of increasing leakage current. None of the six detectors is running after three years with the nominal leakage current. Three of the six detectors do not work any more at all. The results of our three years of investigation of the long-term stability casts serious doubt on the possibility to perform a full GENIUS project - or its copies GERDA or CAMEO/GEM.

  17. Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Cattan, Mima; Conradsson, Mia; Näsman, Marina; Gustafsson, Yngve

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of loneliness among the oldest old within a 10-year period and studied the influence of various sociodemographic, social and health characteristics on loneliness. The study used population-based data from the Umeå85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) for the years 2000-2002, 2005-2007 and 2010-2012 including 85-year-old, 90-year-old and ⩾95-year-old participants. A final sample of 304 participants in 2000-2002, 329 participants in 2005-2007 and 401 participants in 2010-2012 was included in the analyses. Although the level of loneliness was already high in 2000-2002 (49.3% reported frequent loneliness), the results showed limited changes in loneliness during the 10-year study period. Loneliness was closely related to living alone, depressive symptoms and living in institutional settings. Although societal changes such as solitary living and growing urbanization suggest a changing trend in loneliness, we found that the prevalence of loneliness was relatively stable in this study. Nevertheless, loneliness is common among the oldest old and a focus on social issues related to living arrangements and on depressive symptoms is important in understanding loneliness.

  18. Risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age: a population-based cohort study with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Sofia; Mathillas, Johan; Wallin, Karin; Olofsson, Birgitta; Allard, Per; Gustafson, Yngve

    2014-05-01

    Depressive disorders are common among the very old, but insufficiently studied. The present study aims to identify risk factors for depressive disorders in very old age. The present study is based on the GERDA project, a population-based cohort study of people aged ≥85 years (n = 567), with 5 years between baseline and follow-up. Factors associated with the development of depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria at follow-up were analysed by means of a multivariate logistic regression. At baseline, depressive disorders were present in 32.3 % of the participants. At follow-up, 69 % of those with baseline depressive disorders had died. Of the 49 survivors, 38 still had depressive disorders. Of the participants without depressive disorders at baseline, 25.5 % had developed depressive disorders at follow-up. Baseline factors independently associated with new cases of depressive disorders after 5 years were hypertension, a history of stroke and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale score at baseline. The present study supports the earlier findings that depressive disorders among the very old are common, chronic and malignant. Mild depressive symptoms as indicated by GDS-15 score and history of stroke or hypertension seem to be important risk factors for incident depressive disorders in very old age.

  19. Limiting the effective mass and new physics parameters from 0 ν β β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Ram Lal; Dasgupta, Arnab; Mitra, Manimala

    2016-10-01

    In the light of the recent result from KamLAND-Zen (KLZ) and GERDA Phase-II, we update the bounds on the effective mass and the new physics parameters, relevant for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ). In addition to the light Majorana neutrino exchange, we analyze beyond standard model contributions that arise in left-right symmetry and R-parity violating supersymmetry. The improved limit from KLZ constrains the effective mass of light neutrino exchange down to sub-eV mass regime 0.06 eV. Using the correlation between the 136Xe and 76 half-lives, we show that the KLZ limit individually rules out the positive claim of observation of 0 ν β β for all nuclear matrix element compilation. For the left-right symmetry and R-parity violating supersymmetry, the KLZ bound implies a factor of 2 improvement of the effective mass and the new physics parameters. The future ton scale experiments such as, nEXO will further constrain these models, in particular, will rule out standard as well as Type-II dominating LRSM inverted hierarchy scenario.

  20. Cross Section Measurements of the 76Ge (n ,n' γ) Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) is a topic of great current interest and, as such, is the focus of several experiments and international collaborations. Two of these experiments, Majorana and GERDA, are seeking evidence of 0 νββ in the decay of 76Ge, where the signal would appear as a sharp peak in the energy spectrum at the Q-value of the reaction plus a small amount of recoil energy, or 2039 keV. Due to the high sensitivity of such a measurement, knowledge of background lines is critical. A study of 76Ga β- decay into 76Ge revealed a 2040.70(25)-keV transition from the 3951.70(14)-keV level, which, if populated, could potentially be a background line of concern. In addition to β- decay from 76Ga, a potential population mechanism could be cosmic-ray-induced inelastic neutron scattering. Measurements of the neutron-induced cross section of the 3951.70-keV level have been performed utilizing the 76 Ge (n ,n' γ) reaction at the University of Kentucky at neutron energies ranging from 4.3 to 4.9 MeV. This material is based upon work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant no. PHY-0956310.

  1. Compiling a national resistivity atlas of Denmark based on airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Adrian A. S.; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2016-11-01

    We present a large-scale study of the petrophysical relationship of resistivities obtained from densely sampled ground-based and airborne transient electromagnetic surveys and lithological information from boreholes. The overriding aim of this study is to develop a framework for examining the resistivity-lithology relationship in a statistical manner and apply this framework to gain a better description of the large-scale resistivity structures of the subsurface. In Denmark very large and extensive datasets are available through the national geophysical and borehole databases, GERDA and JUPITER respectively. In a 10 by 10 km grid, these data are compiled into histograms of resistivity versus lithology. To do this, the geophysical data are interpolated to the position of the boreholes, which allows for a lithological categorization of the interpolated resistivity values, yielding different histograms for a set of desired lithological categories. By applying the proposed algorithm to all available boreholes and airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic data we build nation-wide maps of the resistivity-lithology relationships in Denmark. The presented Resistivity Atlas reveals varying patterns in the large-scale resistivity-lithology relations, reflecting geological details such as available source material for tills. The resistivity maps also reveal a clear ambiguity in the resistivity values for different lithologies. The Resistivity Atlas is highly useful when geophysical data are to be used for geological or hydrological modeling.

  2. Updated constraints on the light-neutrino exchange mechanisms of the 0νββ-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Štefánik, Dušan; Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay associated with light neutrino exchange mechanisms, which are due to both left-handed V-A and right-handed V+A leptonic and hadronic currents, is discussed by using the recent progress achieved by the GERDA, EXO and KamlandZen experiments. The upper limits for effective neutrino mass m{sub ββ} and the parameters 〈λ〉 and 〈η〉 characterizing the right handed current mechanisms are deduced from the data on the 0νββ-decay of {sup 76}Ge and {sup 136}Xe using nuclear matrix elements calculated within the nuclear shell model and quasiparticle random phase approximation and phase-space factors calculated with exact Dirac wave functions with finite nuclear size and electron screening. The careful analysis of upper constraints on effective lepton number violating parameters assumes a competition of the above mechanisms and arbitrary values of involved CP violating phases.

  3. MaGe-a Geant4-Based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-Background Germanium Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, Melissa; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Finnerty, Padraic; Henning, Reyco; Gehman, Victor M.; Johnson, Rob A.; Jordan, David V.; Kazkaz, Kareem; Knapp, Markus; Kroninger, Kevin; Lenz, Daniel; Leviner, Lance; Liu, Jing; Liu, Xiang; MacMullin, Sean; Marino, Michael G.; Mokhtarani, Akbar; Pandola, Luciano; Schubert, Alexis G.; Schubert, Jens; Tomei, Claudia; Volynets, Oleksandr

    2011-06-01

    We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, specifically the MAJ ORANA and GE RDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJ ORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium technology to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 76 Ge isotope, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains simulated geometries of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GE ANT 4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simplifies the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics list.

  4. Mutational Analysis of Residues in the Helical Region of the Class IIa Bacteriocin Pediocin PA-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Helén Sophie; Fimland, Gunnar; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2011-01-01

    A 15-mer fragment that is derived from the helical region in the C-terminal half of pediocin PA-1 inhibited the activity of pediocin PA-1. Of 13 other pediocin-like (hybrid) bacteriocins, only the hybrid bacteriocin Sak/Ped was markedly inhibited by the 15-mer fragment. Sak/Ped was the only one of these bacteriocins that had a sequence (in the C-terminal helix-containing half) identical to that of the 15-mer fragment, indicating that the fragment inhibits pediocin-like bacteriocins in a sequence-dependent manner. By replacing (one at a time) all 15 residues in the fragment with Ala or Leu, five residues (K1, A2, T4, N8, and A15) were identified as being especially important for the inhibitory action of the fragment. The results suggest that the corresponding residues (K20, A21, T23, N27, and A34, respectively) in pediocin PA-1 might be involved in interactions between pediocin PA-1 and its receptor. To characterize the environment surrounding these five residues when pediocin PA-1 interacts with target cells, these residues were replaced (one at a time) with a hydrophobic large (Leu) residue, a hydrophilic charged (Asp or Arg) residue, and a small (Ala or Gly) residue. The results revealed that residues A21 and A34 are in a spatially constrained environment, since the replacement with a small (Gly) residue was the only substitution that did not markedly reduce the bacteriocin activity. The positive charge in K20 and the polar amide group in N27 appeared to interact with electronegative groups, since the replacement of these two residues with a positive (Arg) residue was well tolerated, while replacement with a negative (Asp) residue was detrimental to the bacteriocin activity. K20 was in a less constrained environment than N27, since the replacement of K20 with a large hydrophobic (Leu) residue was tolerated fairly well and to a greater extent than N27. T23 seemed to be in an environment that was not restricted with respect to size, polarity, and charge, since

  5. The influence of chemical composition on the properties of Cepheid stars. I. Period-Luminosity relation vs. iron abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, M.; Primas, F.; Mottini, M.; Groenewegen, M.; Bono, G.; François, P.

    2005-01-01

    We have assessed the influence of the stellar iron content on the Cepheid Period-Luminosity (PL) relation by relating the V band residuals from the Freedman et al. (\\cite{fre01}) PL relation to [Fe/H] for 37 Galactic and Magellanic Clouds Cepheids. The iron abundances were measured from FEROS and UVES high-resolution and high-signal to noise optical spectra. Our data indicate that the stars become fainter as metallicity increases, until a plateau or turnover point is reached at about solar metallicity. Our data are incompatible with both no dependence of the PL relation on iron abundance, and with the linearly decreasing behavior often found in the literature (e.g. Kennicutt et al. \\cite{ken98}; Sakai et al. \\cite{sak04}). On the other hand, non-linear theoretical models of Fiorentino et al. (\\cite{fio02}) provide a fairly good description of the data. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla and Paranal Observatories under proposal ID 66.D-0571. Table \\ref{tab:log} is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  6. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  7. Novel wine yeast with mutations in YAP1 that produce less acetic acid during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cordente, Antonio G; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Pretorius, Isak S; Curtin, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Acetic acid, a byproduct formed during yeast alcoholic fermentation, is the main component of volatile acidity (VA). When present in high concentrations in wine, acetic acid imparts an undesirable 'vinegary' character that results in a significant reduction in quality and sales. Previously, it has been shown that saké yeast strains resistant to the antifungal cerulenin produce significantly lower levels of VA. In this study, we used a classical mutagenesis method to isolate a series of cerulenin-resistant strains, derived from a commercial diploid wine yeast. Four of the selected strains showed a consistent low-VA production phenotype after small-scale fermentation of different white and red grape musts. Specific mutations in YAP1, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for oxidative stress tolerance, were found in three of the four low-VA strains. When integrated into the genome of a haploid wine strain, the mutated YAP1 alleles partially reproduced the low-VA production phenotype of the diploid cerulenin-resistant strains, suggesting that YAP1 might play a role in (regulating) acetic acid production during fermentation. This study offers prospects for the development of low-VA wine yeast starter strains that could assist winemakers in their effort to consistently produce wine to definable quality specifications.

  8. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  9. QM-HiFSA-Aided Structure Determination of Succinilenes A–D, New Triene Polyols from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Park, So Hyun; Kwon, Yun; Lee, Sang Kook; Shin, Jongheon; Nam, Joo-Won; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2017-01-01

    Based on profiles of secondary metabolites produced by marine bacteria obtained using LC/MS, succinilenes A–D (1–4), new triene polyols, were discovered from a culture of a Streptomyces strain SAK1, which was collected in the southern area of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The gross structures of 1–4 were primarily determined through analysis of NMR spectra. The double bond geometries of the succinilenes, which could not be established from conventional 1H NMR spectra because of the highly overlapped olefinic signals, were successfully deciphered using the recently developed quantum-mechanics-driven 1H iterative full spin analysis (QM-HiFSA). Succinilenes A–C (1–3) displayed inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, indicating their anti-inflammatory significance. These three compounds (1–3) commonly bear a succinic acid moiety, although succinilene D (4), which did not inhibit NO production, does not have this moiety in its structure. The absolute configurations of succinilenes A–D (1–4) were established through J-based configuration analysis, the modified Mosher’s method following methanolysis, and CD spectral analysis. PMID:28216577

  10. Regular Nanoscale Protein Patterns via Directed Adsorption through Self-Assembled DNA Origami Masks.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Subramaniam, Sivaraman; Stewart, A Francis; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2016-11-16

    DNA origami has become a widely used method for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures with promising applications in various areas of nanotechnology, biophysics, and medicine. Recently, the possibility to transfer the shape of single DNA origami nanostructures into different materials via molecular lithography approaches has received growing interest due to the great structural control provided by the DNA origami technique. Here, we use ordered monolayers of DNA origami nanostructures with internal cavities on mica surfaces as molecular lithography masks for the fabrication of regular protein patterns over large surface areas. Exposure of the masked sample surface to negatively charged proteins results in the directed adsorption of the proteins onto the exposed surface areas in the holes of the mask. By controlling the buffer and adsorption conditions, the protein coverage of the exposed areas can be varied from single proteins to densely packed monolayers. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, regular nanopatterns of four different proteins are fabricated: the single-strand annealing proteins Redβ and Sak, the iron-storage protein ferritin, and the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). We furthermore demonstrate the desorption of the DNA origami mask after directed protein adsorption, which may enable the fabrication of hierarchical patterns composed of different protein species. Because selectivity in adsorption is achieved by electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the exposed surface areas, this approach may enable also the large-scale patterning of other charged molecular species or even nanoparticles.

  11. A key centriole assembly interaction interface between human PLK4 and STIL appears to not be conserved in flies.

    PubMed

    Cottee, Matthew A; Johnson, Steven; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2017-03-15

    A small number of proteins form a conserved pathway of centriole duplication. In humans and flies, the binding of PLK4/Sak to STIL/Ana2 initiates daughter centriole assembly. In humans, this interaction is mediated by an interaction between the Polo-Box-3 (PB3) domain of PLK4 and the coiled-coil domain of STIL (HsCCD). We showed previously that the Drosophila Ana2 coiled-coil domain (DmCCD) is essential for centriole assembly, but it forms a tight parallel tetramer in vitro that likely precludes an interaction with PB3. Here, we show that the isolated HsCCD and HsPB3 domains form a mixture of homo-multimers in vitro, but these readily dissociate when mixed to form the previously described 1:1 HsCCD:HsPB3 complex. In contrast, although Drosophila PB3 (DmPB3) adopts a canonical polo-box fold, it does not detectably interact with DmCCD in vitro Thus, surprisingly, a key centriole assembly interaction interface appears to differ between humans and flies.

  12. Systematic Global Analysis of Genes Encoding Protein Phosphatases in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Dolan, Stephen K.; Fernanda dos Reis, Thaila; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Alowni, Raneem; Jones, Gary W.; Doyle, Sean; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that causes several invasive and noninvasive diseases named aspergillosis. This disease is generally regarded as multifactorial, considering that several pathogenicity determinants are present during the establishment of this illness. It is necessary to obtain an increased knowledge of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes. Protein phosphatases are essential to several signal transduction pathways. We identified 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit-encoding genes in A. fumigatus, of which we were able to construct 24 viable deletion mutants. The role of nine phosphatase mutants in the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol response) pathway was evaluated by measuring phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. We were also able to identify 11 phosphatases involved in iron assimilation, six that are related to gliotoxin resistance, and three implicated in gliotoxin production. These results present the creation of a fundamental resource for the study of signaling in A. fumigatus and its implications in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in this important pathogen. PMID:25943523

  13. A key centriole assembly interaction interface between human PLK4 and STIL appears to not be conserved in flies

    PubMed Central

    Cottee, Matthew A.; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A small number of proteins form a conserved pathway of centriole duplication. In humans and flies, the binding of PLK4/Sak to STIL/Ana2 initiates daughter centriole assembly. In humans, this interaction is mediated by an interaction between the Polo-Box-3 (PB3) domain of PLK4 and the coiled-coil domain of STIL (HsCCD). We showed previously that the Drosophila Ana2 coiled-coil domain (DmCCD) is essential for centriole assembly, but it forms a tight parallel tetramer in vitro that likely precludes an interaction with PB3. Here, we show that the isolated HsCCD and HsPB3 domains form a mixture of homo-multimers in vitro, but these readily dissociate when mixed to form the previously described 1:1 HsCCD:HsPB3 complex. In contrast, although Drosophila PB3 (DmPB3) adopts a canonical polo-box fold, it does not detectably interact with DmCCD in vitro. Thus, surprisingly, a key centriole assembly interaction interface appears to differ between humans and flies. PMID:28202467

  14. Acoustic determination of performance and equivalence of plasminogen activators.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Mirnader; Hayward, Gordon L

    2008-11-01

    A reliable method for the measurement of different plasminogen activators is of great interest for both manufacturing and clinical medicine. A one-step assay based on a thickness shear mode acoustic sensor has been developed for this purpose. Two separate mixtures of substrates (fibrinogen and plasminogen) and enzymes (thrombin and the plasminogen activator) were mixed, and placed on the acoustic sensor surface. During the assay, the resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillating in the thickness shear mode was measured and used to find a characteristic clot dissolution time, from the sample addition to the time at the maximum dissolution rate. Calibrations of the acoustic assay were done for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as for the other plasminogen activators: urokinase (u-PA); streptokinase (SK) and staphylokinase (SAK). All gave relative standard deviations of about 12%. Since the same method was used for all of the activators, their activities were compared, resolving the differences between their unit definitions. Linear relationships were found between urokinase and streptokinase which activate plasminogen directly and between t-PA and staphylokinase which require fibrin as a cofactor. The relationship between the groups was found to curve, indicating the difference between the two mechanisms. The acoustic method, therefore, may be used as a rapid and cost-effective reference method for the standardization and comparison of different plasminogen activators.

  15. Preservation of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 Marine Terrace Deposits along the Southwest Coast of the Osa Peninsula, Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, W. N.; Sak, P. B.

    2007-12-01

    Subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge at the Middle American Trench outboard of the Osa Peninsula results in rapid late Quaternary surface uplift. The distribution of surface uplift corresponds with the imaged bathymetric relief. On the Osa Peninsula, inboard of the northwest flank of the Cocos Ridge, exposures of the Late Pleistocene Puerto Armuelles Formation are recognized. The Puerto Armuelles Fm consists of poorly consolidated sands, silts, and muds from shallow marine, estuarine, and mangrove systems. Along the southwest coast, Puerto Armuelles Fm sediment infills paleo-topographic depressions. AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on 4 marine macrofossil samples yield ages ranging from 38.51 ka B.P. to 42.35 ka B.P. Dates obtained on multiple samples from individual sections are internally consistent, recording younger ages at higher stratigraphic levels within two fining upward deposits. The sections are displaced relative to one another across a northeast striking fault. The two measured stratigraphic sections are used to quantify a minimum Late Pleistocene to recent separation rate of 0.54 m ka-1. A suite of 15 radiocarbon dates on exposures of the Puerto Armuelles Fm from the eastern portion of the Osa Peninsula (Gardner et al., 1992) and 14 radiocarbon dates obtained from equivalent strata along the northwestern portions of the Osa Peninsula (Sak et al., 2004) clearly and consistently indicate a Late Pleistocene age of deposition during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3.

  16. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  17. High osmolarity glycerol response PtcB phosphatase is important for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    PubMed

    Winkelströter, Lizziane K; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Brown, Neil Andrew; Rajendran, Ranjith; Ramage, Gordon; Bovier, Elodie; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Savoldi, Marcela; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungal pathogen that is capable of adapting to different host niches and to avoid host defenses. An enhanced understanding of how, and which, A. fumigatus signal transduction pathways are engaged in the regulation of these processes is essential for the development of improved disease control strategies. Protein phosphatases are central to numerous signal transduction pathways. To comprehend the functions of protein phosphatases in A. fumigatus, 32 phosphatase catalytic subunit encoding genes were identified. We have recognized PtcB as one of the phosphatases involved in the high osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway. The ΔptcB mutant has both increased phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK (SakA) and expression of osmo-dependent genes. The ΔptcB strain was more sensitive to cell wall damaging agents, had increased chitin and β-1,3-glucan, and impaired biofilm formation. The ΔptcB strain was avirulent in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results stress the importance of the HOG pathway in the regulation of pathogenicity determinants and virulence in A. fumigatus.

  18. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  19. Comparative Genome Sequencing of an Isogenic Pair of USA800 Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained before and after Daptomycin Treatment Failure▿†

    PubMed Central

    Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Jones, Marcus; Gourley, Brett L.; Holmes, Michael; Ruf, Rebecca; Balsam, Ashley R.; Boulware, David R.; Kline, Susan; Jawahir, Selina; DeVries, Aaron; Peterson, Scott N.; Daum, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a clinical daptomycin treatment failure in a patient with recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in whom daptomycin was administered after a failed empirical treatment course with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. We had the opportunity to compare the genome sequences of an isogenic pair of daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant MRSA isolates obtained before and after initiation of daptomycin therapy, respectively. The genotype of both isolates was USA800, ST5, SCCmec type IV, agr type II. There was no increase in cell wall thickness in the daptomycin-resistant strain despite having decreased susceptibility to both vancomycin and daptomycin. By comparing the genome sequences by pyrosequencing, we identified a polymorphism (S337L) in the tenth transmembrane segment of the multiple peptide resistance factor, MprF, encoding lysyl phosphatidylglycerol transferase. This enzyme has been shown previously to promote repulsion of daptomycin at the cell surface by addition of positively charged lysine to phosphatidylglycerol. Also, the hlb open reading frame (ORF) encoding the β-toxin was interrupted by a prophage in the daptomycin-susceptible strain; this phage was missing in the daptomycin-resistant isolate and the hlb ORF was restored. Loss of the phage in the resistant isolate also resulted in loss of the virulence factor genes clpP, scn, and sak. This is the first study to use pyrosequencing to compare the genomes of a daptomycin-susceptible/resistant MRSA isolate pair obtained during failed daptomycin therapy in humans. PMID:21343446

  20. Caloric Restriction Extends Yeast Chronological Life Span by Optimizing the Snf1 (AMPK) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret B; Maqani, Nazif; Strickler, Erika; Li, Mingguang; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the homologous yeast SNF1 complex are key regulators of energy metabolism that counteract nutrient deficiency and ATP depletion by phosphorylating multiple enzymes and transcription factors that maintain energetic homeostasis. AMPK/SNF1 also promotes longevity in several model organisms, including yeast. Here we investigate the role of yeast SNF1 in mediating the extension of chronological life span (CLS) by caloric restriction (CR). We find that SNF1 activity is required throughout the transition of log phase to stationary phase (diauxic shift) for effective CLS extension. CR expands the period of maximal SNF1 activation beyond the diauxic shift, as indicated by Sak1-dependent T210 phosphorylation of the Snf1 catalytic α-subunit. A concomitant increase in ADP is consistent with SNF1 activation by ADP in vivo Downstream of SNF1, the Cat8 and Adr1 transcription factors are required for full CR-induced CLS extension, implicating an alternative carbon source utilization for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production and gluconeogenesis. Indeed, CR increased acetyl-CoA levels during the diauxic shift, along with expression of both acetyl-CoA synthetase genes ACS1 and ACS2 We conclude that CR maximizes Snf1 activity throughout and beyond the diauxic shift, thus optimizing the coordination of nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA production with massive reorganization of the transcriptome and respiratory metabolism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Transcriptional Changes in the Transition from Vegetative Cells to Asexual Development in the Model Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Garzia, Aitor; Etxebeste, Oier; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fischer, Reinhard; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Morphogenesis encompasses programmed changes in gene expression that lead to the development of specialized cell types. In the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development involves the formation of characteristic cell types, collectively known as the conidiophore. With the aim of determining the transcriptional changes that occur upon induction of asexual development, we have applied massive mRNA sequencing to compare the expression pattern of 19-h-old submerged vegetative cells (hyphae) with that of similar hyphae after exposure to the air for 5 h. We found that the expression of 2,222 (20.3%) of the predicted 10,943 A. nidulans transcripts was significantly modified after air exposure, 2,035 being downregulated and 187 upregulated. The activation during this transition of genes that belong specifically to the asexual developmental pathway was confirmed. Another remarkable quantitative change occurred in the expression of genes involved in carbon or nitrogen primary metabolism. Genes participating in polar growth or sexual development were transcriptionally repressed, as were those belonging to the HogA/SakA stress response mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. We also identified significant expression changes in several genes purportedly involved in redox balance, transmembrane transport, secondary metabolite production, or transcriptional regulation, mainly binuclear-zinc cluster transcription factors. Genes coding for these four activities were usually grouped in metabolic clusters, which may bring regulatory implications for the induction of asexual development. These results provide a blueprint for further stage-specific gene expression studies during conidiophore development. PMID:23264642

  2. Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Argudín, M A; Dodémont, M; Vandendriessche, S; Rottiers, S; Tribes, C; Roisin, S; de Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Deplano, A; Denis, O

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species.

  3. Reexamination of the long-range Potts model: a multicanonical approach.

    PubMed

    Reynal, S; Diep, H T

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the critical behavior of the one-dimensional q-state Potts model with long-range (LR) interactions 1/r(d+sigma), using a multicanonical algorithm. The recursion scheme initially proposed by Berg is improved so as to make it suitable for a large class of LR models with unequally spaced energy levels. The choice of an efficient predictor and a reliable convergence criterion is discussed. We obtain transition temperatures in the first-order regime which are in far better agreement with mean-field predictions than in previous Monte Carlo studies. By relying on the location of spinodal points and resorting to scaling arguments, we determine the threshold value sigma(c)(q) separating the first- and second-order regimes to two-digit precision within the range 3< or =q < or =9. We offer convincing numerical evidence supporting sigma(c)(q)<1.0 for all q, by virtue of an unusual finite-size effect, namely, finite-size scaling predicts a continuous transition in the thermodynamic limit, despite the first-order nature of the transition at finite size. A qualitative account in terms of correlation lengths is provided. Finally, we find the crossover between the LR and short-range regimes to occur inside a narrow window 1.0Sak's scenario.

  4. Relations between short-range and long-range Ising models.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-06-01

    We perform a numerical study of the long-range (LR) ferromagnetic Ising model with power law decaying interactions (J∝r{-d-σ}) on both a one-dimensional chain (d=1) and a square lattice (d=2). We use advanced cluster algorithms to avoid the critical slowing down. We first check the validity of the relation connecting the critical behavior of the LR model with parameters (d,σ) to that of a short-range (SR) model in an equivalent dimension D. We then study the critical behavior of the d=2 LR model close to the lower critical σ, uncovering that the spatial correlation function decays with two different power laws: The effect of the subdominant power law is much stronger than finite-size effects and actually makes the estimate of critical exponents very subtle. By including this subdominant power law, the numerical data are consistent with the standard renormalization group (RG) prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 281 (1973)], thus making not necessary (and unlikely, according to Occam's razor) the recent proposal by Picco [arXiv:1207.1018] of having a new set of RG fixed points in addition to the mean-field one and the SR one.

  5. Glucose de-repression by yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps.

    PubMed

    García-Salcedo, Raúl; Lubitz, Timo; Beltran, Gemma; Elbing, Karin; Tian, Ye; Frey, Simone; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose de-repression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Co-overexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the Glc-Reg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose de-repression via Snf1-Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1.

  6. SNF1/AMPK pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hedbacker, Kristina; Carlson, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is required for energy homeostasis in mammals, plants, and fungi. SNF1 protein kinase was initially identified by genetic analysis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SNF1 is required primarily for the adaptation of yeast cells to glucose limitation and for growth on carbon sources that are less preferred than glucose, but is also involved in responses to other environmental stresses. SNF1 regulates transcription of a large set of genes, modifies the activity of metabolic enzymes, and controls various nutrient-responsive cellular developmental processes. Like AMPK, SNF1 protein kinase is heterotrimeric. It is phosphorylated and activated by the upstream kinases Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1 and is inactivated by the Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1. Further regulation of SNF1 is achieved through autoinhibition and through control of its subcellular localization. Here we review the current understanding of SNF1 protein kinase pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts. PMID:17981722

  7. Visualization and Treatment of Subclinical Actinic Keratoses with Topical Imiquimod 5% Cream: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Daisy; Kerl, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Background. Imiquimod 5% is licensed for the treatment of external genital warts, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis (AK) and is being used experimentally in various other dermato-oncological conditions. Objective. This observational study shall show that nonmelanoma skin cancer can be detected at its earliest subclinical stage by its reaction with imiquimod and can be cleared by finishing the course of treatment. Material and Methods. In this single arm trial 15 patients with chronically sun-exposed skin who had no clinical evidence of AK were treated with 5% imiquimod cream on the face or scalp for 4 weeks three times per week. Results. During treatment, all patients developed multiple areas with mild to moderate inflammatory skin reactions, such as erythema, induration, and scaling. Biopsies obtained from 12 patients prior to treatment revealed no malignancies. However, in cases with more pronounced inflammation during treatment, targeted biopsies indicated very early malignant alterations. Conclusion. Topical imiquimod treatment of chronically sun-exposed skin without overt clinical signs of AK is able to detect subclinical actinic keratoses (SAK) and to completely clear the lesions, even before they can be clinically diagnosed as AK. In such patients, imiquimod might be able to prevent the evolution of SCC. PMID:24900953

  8. Quantum oscillations in a bilayer with broken mirror symmetry: a minimal model for YBa2Cu3O6+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, Akash; Zhang, Yi; Ramshaw, Brad; Kivelson, Steven

    Using an exact numerical solution and semiclassical analysis, we investigate quantum oscillations (QOs) in a model of a bilayer system with an anisotropic (elliptical) electron pocket in each plane. Key features of QO experiments in the high temperature superconducting cuprate YBCO can be reproduced by such a model, in particular the pattern of oscillation frequencies (which reflect ``magnetic breakdown'' between the two pockets) and the polar and azimuthal angular dependence of the oscillation amplitudes. However, the requisite magnetic breakdown is possible only under the assumption that the horizontal mirror plane symmetry is spontaneously broken and that the bilayer tunneling, t⊥, is substantially renormalized from its `bare' value. Under the assumption that t⊥ = Z ~t⊥(0), where Z ~ is a measure of the quasiparticle weight, this suggests that Z ~ <~ 1 / 20 . Detailed comparisons with new YBa2Cu3O6.58 QO data, taken over a very broad range of magnetic field, confirm specific predictions made by the breakdown scenario. Supported in part by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 (A.V.M.), the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences ``Science at 100 T,'' (B.J.R.) and the National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR 1265593 (S.A.K., YZ).

  9. Polo-like kinases: a team in control of the division.

    PubMed

    van de Weerdt, Barbara C M; Medema, René H

    2006-04-01

    Polo, the founding member of the family of polo-like kinases (Plks) was identified in a Drosophila screen for mutants affecting spindle pole behavior.(1) Several mutants showed defects at their spindle poles and were hence named after the magnetic poles of the earth or geo-magnetic phenomena associated with them, like Polo and Aurora. Currently, the conserved family of Plks consists of many members throughout various species. Multiple Plks are present in mammalian cells (Plk1, Plk2/Snk, Plk3/Fnk/Prk, and Plk4/Sak) and Xenopus (Plx1-3), whereas in other species only one member has been identified, like Polo in Drosophila, Cdc5 in budding yeast and Plo1 in fission yeast. Plks are now viewed as important regulators of multiple functions before and during the mitotic cell division. In this review, we will focus our attention on human Plk1 and its family members Plk2-4 and the many roles they play during mitosis. Furthermore, we will describe the currently knowledge of the regulation of these functions.

  10. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-11-10

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated "structure-activity relationship" for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention.

  11. Search for Majorana neutrinos with the first two years of EXO-200 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Exo-200 Collaboration; Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Beauchamp, E.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Bonatt, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Burenkov, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chambers, C.; Chaves, J.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Daniels, T.; Danilov, M.; Daugherty, S. J.; Davis, C. G.; Davis, J.; Devoe, R.; Delaquis, S.; Didberidze, T.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Feldmeier, W.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hall, C.; Herrin, S.; Hughes, M.; Jewell, M. J.; Jiang, X. S.; Johnson, A.; Johnson, T. N.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Killick, R.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Leonard, F.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Nelson, R.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Ouellet, C.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Rivas, A.; Rowson, P. C.; Rozo, M. P.; Russell, J. J.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Slutsky, S.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Tosi, D.; Twelker, K.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Waite, A.; Walton, J.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Wright, J. D.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Ya. Zeldovich, O.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-06-01

    Many extensions of the standard model of particle physics suggest that neutrinos should be Majorana-type fermions--that is, that neutrinos are their own anti-particles--but this assumption is difficult to confirm. Observation of neutrinoless double-β decay (0νββ), a spontaneous transition that may occur in several candidate nuclei, would verify the Majorana nature of the neutrino and constrain the absolute scale of the neutrino mass spectrum. Recent searches carried out with 76Ge (the GERDA experiment) and 136Xe (the KamLAND-Zen and EXO (Enriched Xenon Observatory)-200 experiments) have established the lifetime of this decay to be longer than 1025 years, corresponding to a limit on the neutrino mass of 0.2-0.4 electronvolts. Here we report new results from EXO-200 based on a large 136Xe exposure that represents an almost fourfold increase from our earlier published data sets. We have improved the detector resolution and revised the data analysis. The half-life sensitivity we obtain is 1.9 × 1025 years, an improvement by a factor of 2.7 on previous EXO-200 results. We find no statistically significant evidence for 0νββ decay and set a half-life limit of 1.1 × 1025 years at the 90 per cent confidence level. The high sensitivity holds promise for further running of the EXO-200 detector and future 0νββ decay searches with an improved Xe-based experiment, nEXO.

  12. Search for Majorana neutrinos with the first two years of EXO-200 data.

    PubMed

    2014-06-12

    Many extensions of the standard model of particle physics suggest that neutrinos should be Majorana-type fermions-that is, that neutrinos are their own anti-particles-but this assumption is difficult to confirm. Observation of neutrinoless double-β decay (0νββ), a spontaneous transition that may occur in several candidate nuclei, would verify the Majorana nature of the neutrino and constrain the absolute scale of the neutrino mass spectrum. Recent searches carried out with (76)Ge (the GERDA experiment) and (136)Xe (the KamLAND-Zen and EXO (Enriched Xenon Observatory)-200 experiments) have established the lifetime of this decay to be longer than 10(25) years, corresponding to a limit on the neutrino mass of 0.2-0.4 electronvolts. Here we report new results from EXO-200 based on a large (136)Xe exposure that represents an almost fourfold increase from our earlier published data sets. We have improved the detector resolution and revised the data analysis. The half-life sensitivity we obtain is 1.9 × 10(25) years, an improvement by a factor of 2.7 on previous EXO-200 results. We find no statistically significant evidence for 0νββ decay and set a half-life limit of 1.1 × 10(25) years at the 90 per cent confidence level. The high sensitivity holds promise for further running of the EXO-200 detector and future 0νββ decay searches with an improved Xe-based experiment, nEXO.

  13. Inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health among old people.

    PubMed

    Viglund, Kerstin; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Strandberg, Gunilla; Lundman, Berit; Nygren, Björn

    2014-01-01

    To explore inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health among older people. Qualitative research has indicated that inner strength is an essential resource for an individual affected by disease. A hypothesis of inner strength as a mediator of the relationship between disease and self-rated health was proposed. The theoretical framework of inner strength was based on the Model of Inner Strength. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample included 6119 participants from Finland and Sweden, in the ages of 65, 70, 75 and 80 years. The GERDA-Botnia questionnaire, which included the Inner Strength Scale and items related to diseases and self-rated health, was sent out between October and December 2010. Structural equation modelling was used to test a hypothesized model. The result indicated that having a disease was associated with poorer self-rated health and a lower degree of inner strength and a higher degree of inner strength was associated with better self-rated health. The result supported the hypothesis by indicating that inner strength partially mediated the relationship between disease and self-rated health. This large cross-sectional study with participants from 65 to 80 years of age from Finland and Sweden showed that inner strength can be a resource for older people affected by disease. Increasing inner strength in older people affected by disease may be one intervention to support experiences of health despite disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The MARE project for neutrino mass measurements from the β-decay of 187Re: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, Saskia; MARE Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The experiment MARE (Microcalorimeters for A Rhenium Experiment) [1] has been introduced at Neutrino 2006 as an experiment complementary to the experiments of Mainz/Troitsk and KATRIN to determine the neutrino mass from single β-decay. Calorimetric low-temperature detectors measure the temperature rise induced by the energy deposition of the β-electron in an absorber of low heat capacity. MARE takes advantage of the β-decaying nuclide with the lowest endpoint energy known to date: 187Re (E0 = 2.47 keV). Using the β-active 187Re as absorber material eliminates the systematic effects from electrons having to leave a source before reaching the detector. It has already been demonstrated in the past that observing the β-decay spectrum of 187Re with calorimetric detectors provides a suitable method to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino from β-endpoint measurements. In a first step, with the experiments MIBETA [2] and MANU [3] a sensitivity of mv lessapprox 15 eV/c2 was achieved, limited by statistics. To compete with the limit of mV lessapprox 0:2 eV/c2 aimed at with KATRIN, MARE will contain several 10000 detectors operated at temperatures around 100 mK. The experiment is divided into two stages: Currently, the first stage MARE-I with 300 detectors and an expected sensitivity of mv lessapprox 2 eV/c2 is being assembled. Two different thermistor concepts, namely compensated- doped silicon semiconductor thermistors and Ir/Ag multilayer transition edge sensors, will be tested in combination with absorbers of metallic rhenium and the dielectric rhenium compound AgReO4 to investigate the systematic uncertainties peculiar to the calorimetric approach. In the second phase MARE-II, large arrays with as many as 10000 detectors each will be deployed. For this second phase, new detector concepts like magnetic calorimeters or kinetic inductance detectors will be tested in parallel to the setting up of MARE-I.

  15. Is lead in tap water still a public health problem? An observational study in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, G. C.; Britton, A.; Gilmour, W. H.; Moore, M. R.; Murray, G. D.; Robertson, S. J.; Womersley, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between tap water lead and maternal blood lead concentrations and assess the exposure of infants to lead in tap water in a water supply area subjected to maximal water treatment to reduce plumbosolvency. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey and collection of kettle water from a representative sample of mothers; blood and further water samples were collected in a random sample of households and households with raised water lead concentrations. SETTING: Loch Katrine water supply area, Glasgow. SUBJECTS: 1812 mothers with a live infant born between October 1991 and September 1992. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 342 mothers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean geometric blood lead concentrations and the prevalence of raised tap water lead concentration. RESULTS: 17% of households had water lead concentration of 10 micrograms/l (48.3 nmol/l) or more in 1993 compared with 49% of households in 1981. Tap water lead remained the main correlate or raised maternal blood lead concentrations and accounted for 62% and 76% of cases of maternal blood lead concentrations above 5 and 10 micrograms/dl (0.24 and 0.48 mumol/l) respectively. The geometric mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.65 micrograms/dl (0.18 mumol/l) in a random sample of mothers and 3.16 micrograms/dl (0.15 mumol/l) in mothers whose tap water lead concentrations were consistently below 2 micrograms/l (9.7 nmol/l). No mother in the study had a blood lead concentration above 25 micrograms/dl (1.21 mumol/l). An estimated 13% of infants were exposed via bottle feeds to tap water lead concentrations exceeding the World Health Organisation's guideline of 10 micrograms/l (48.3 nmol/l). CONCLUSIONS: Tap water lead and maternal blood led concentrations in the Loch Katrine water supply area have fallen substantially since the early 1980s. Maternal blood lead concentrations are well within limits currently considered safe for human health. Tap water lead is still a public health

  16. Beyond low beta-decay Q values

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, M. T.; Suhonen, J.

    2010-11-24

    Beta decays with low Q values can be utilized in the quest to determine the neutrino mass scale. This is being realized in two experiments, KATRIN and MARE, using tritium and {sup 187}Re, respectively. The beta-decay of {sup 187}Re had the lowest known Q value until 2005, when the beta decay of {sup 115}In to the first excited state of {sup 115}Sn was discovered in Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Last year two independent ion trap measurements confirmed that this decay breaks the former record by an order of magnitude.Our theoretical study on this tiny decay channel complemented the experimental effort by the JYFLTRAP group in Finland and HADES underground laboratory in Belgium. A significant discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results was found. This might be explained by various atomic contributions known to grow larger as the Q value decreases. However, the traditional recipes for taking these effects into account break down on this new ultra-low Q value regime, providing new challenges for theorists on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics.

  17. Determining the Neutrino Mass with a Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detector - The Experiment MARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.

    2008-06-01

    In the light of the recent cosmological discussion, the direct measurement of the lightest neutrino mass from single β-decay has become an important issue. Calorimetric low-temperature detectors measure the temperature rise induced by the energy deposition of the β-electron in an absorber of low heat capacity. It has been demonstrated in the past that observing the β-decay spectrum of 187Re provides a suitable method to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino from β-endpoint measurements. In a first step, with the experiments MANU and MIBETA a sensitivity of mve ≤20 eV/c2 was achieved. To compete with the sensitivity of mve ≤ 0.2 eV/c2 aimed at with the KATRIN experiment, a new experiment MARE has been initiated. As a first stage, MARE-I will reach a sensitivity of mve ≤ 2 eV/c2. With 300 detectors mounted, systematic effects of the calorimetric approach will be studied in detail. The second stage MARE-II will consist of several 10000 detectors and aim at a sensitivity of mve ≤ 0.2 eV/c2.

  18. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection.

  19. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  20. Towards high-precision measurement of the Tritium - He-3 mass difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Redshaw, Matthew; Victoria, Juliette; Myers, Edmund

    2004-05-01

    An independent measurement of the mass difference of ^3He-^3T provides an important check of systematic errors in tritium beta-decay experiments that set limits to the electron anti-neutrino mass [1]. Using the precision Penning trap system developed at MIT but recently relocated to Florida State University [2], and the simultaneous two-ion cyclotron frequency measurement technique recently developed at MIT [3], we aim to measure this mass difference to better than 30 meV/c^2, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements [4,5]. Problems being addressed include producing single T^+ ions in the trap without spoiling the vacuum with ^3He, and the extension of the MIT techniques to ions of lighter mass. [1] KATRIN: http://iklau1.fzk.de/tritium [2] See abstract by Redshaw et al. [3] S. Rainville, J.K. Thompson, and D.E. Pritchard, Science 303, 334 (2004). [4] R.S. Van Dyck, D.L. Farnham, and P.B. Schwinberg, PRL 70, 2888 (1993). [5] G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, and C. Thibault, Nuclear Physics A729, 337 (2003).

  1. Advanced data extraction infrastructure: Web based system for management of time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingaryan, S.; Beglarian, A.; Kopmann, A.; Vöcking, S.

    2010-04-01

    During operation of high energy physics experiments a big amount of slow control data is recorded. It is necessary to examine all collected data checking the integrity and validity of measurements. With growing maturity of AJAX technologies it becomes possible to construct sophisticated interfaces using web technologies only. Our solution for handling time series, generally slow control data, has a modular architecture: backend system for data analysis and preparation, a web service interface for data access and a fast AJAX web display. In order to provide fast interactive access the time series are aggregated over time slices of few predefined lengths. The aggregated values are stored in the temporary caching database and, then, are used to create generalizing data plots. These plots may include indication of data quality and are generated within few hundreds of milliseconds even if very high data rates are involved. The extensible export subsystem provides data in multiple formats including CSV, Excel, ROOT, and TDMS. The search engine can be used to find periods of time where indications of selected sensors are falling into the specified ranges. Utilization of the caching database allows performing most of such lookups within a second. Based on this functionality a web interface facilitating fast (Google-maps style) navigation through the data has been implemented. The solution is at the moment used by several slow control systems at Test Facility for Fusion Magnets (TOSKA) and Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN).

  2. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  3. Forbidden unique beta-decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-30

    The measurement of the electron spectrum in beta-decays provides a robust direct determination of the values of neutrino masses. The planned rhenium beta-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which is expected to collect data in a near future. In this contribution we discuss the spectrum of emitted electrons close to the end point in the case of the first unique forbidden beta-decay of {sup 79}Se, {sup 107}Pd and {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p{sub 3/2}-wave emission dominates over the s{sub 1/2}-wave. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed beta-decay of {sup 3}H.

  4. Determining the neutrino mass with cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy—Project 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtari Esfahani, Ali; Asner, David M.; Böser, Sebastian; Cervantes, Raphael; Claessens, Christine; de Viveiros, Luiz; Doe, Peter J.; Doeleman, Shepard; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, Martin; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph A.; Furse, Daniel; Guigue, Mathieu; Heeger, Karsten M.; Jones, A. Mark; Kazkaz, Kareem; Kofron, Jared A.; Lamb, Callum; LaRoque, Benjamin H.; Machado, Eric; McBride, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Michael L.; Monreal, Benjamin; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Nikkel, James A.; Oblath, Noah S.; Pettus, Walter C.; Hamish Robertson, R. G.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn; Saldaña, Luis; Slocum, Penny L.; Sternberg, Matthew G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thümmler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; E Vertatschitsch, Laura; Wachtendonk, Megan; Weintroub, Jonathan; Woods, Natasha L.; Young, André; Zayas, Evan M.

    2017-05-01

    The most sensitive direct method to establish the absolute neutrino mass is observation of the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay spectrum. Cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy (CRES) is a precision spectrographic technique that can probe much of the unexplored neutrino mass range with { O }({eV}) resolution. A lower bound of m({ν }e)≳ 9(0.1) {meV} is set by observations of neutrino oscillations, while the KATRIN experiment—the current-generation tritium beta-decay experiment that is based on magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic (MAC-E) filter—will achieve a sensitivity of m({ν }e)≲ 0.2 {eV}. The CRES technique aims to avoid the difficulties in scaling up a MAC-E filter-based experiment to achieve a lower mass sensitivity. In this paper we review the current status of the CRES technique and describe Project 8, a phased absolute neutrino mass experiment that has the potential to reach sensitivities down to m({ν }e)≲ 40 {meV} using an atomic tritium source.

  5. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double β-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c2 . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c2 by increasing strongly the statistics and—at the same time—reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium β-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of 187Re β-decay or the electron capture of 163Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  6. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  7. Neutrino mass from triton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillation in different fields and by many different experiments we believe that neutrinos have non-vanishing masses in contrast to their current description within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the absolute values of the neutrino masses, which are as important for particle physics as they are for cosmology and astrophysics, cannot be determined by oscillation experiments alone. There are a few ways to determine the neutrino mass scale, but the only model-independent method is the investigation of the electron energy spectrum of a β decay near its endpoint with tritium being the ideal isotope for the classical spectrometer set-up. The tritium β decay experiments at Mainz and Troitsk have recently been finished. At Mainz all relevant systematic uncertainties have been investigated by dedicated experiments yielding an upper limit of m(ν)<2.3eV/c (90% C.L.). The new Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will enhance the sensitivity on the neutrino mass by an ultra-precise measurement of the tritium β decay spectrum near the endpoint by another order of magnitude down to 0.2 eV/c2 by using a very strong windowless gaseous molecular tritium source and a huge ultra-high resolution electrostatic spectrometer of MAC-E-Filter type. The recent achievements in test experiments show, that this very challenging experiment is feasible.

  8. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  9. Assessment of molecular effects on neutrino mass measurements from tritium β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, L. I.; Parno, D. Â. S.; Robertson, R. Â. G. Â. H.

    2015-03-01

    The β decay of molecular tritium currently provides the highest sensitivity in laboratory-based neutrino mass measurements. The upcoming Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will improve the sensitivity to 0.2 eV, making a percent-level quantitative understanding of molecular effects essential. The modern theoretical calculations available for neutrino mass experiments agree with spectroscopic data. Moreover, when neutrino mass experiments performed in the 1980s with gaseous tritium are reevaluated using these modern calculations, the extracted neutrino mass squared values are consistent with zero instead of being significantly negative. However, the calculated molecular final-state branching ratios are in conflict with dissociation experiments performed in the 1950s. We reexamine the theory of the final-state spectrum of molecular-tritium decay and its effect on the determination of the neutrino mass, with an emphasis on the role of the vibrational- and rotational-state distribution in the ground electronic state. General features can be reproduced quantitatively from considerations of kinematics and zero-point motion. We summarize the status of validation efforts and suggest means for resolving the apparent discrepancy in dissociation rates.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-12-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  11. Snf1 Is a Regulator of Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Seip, John; Jackson, Raymond; He, Hongxian; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation are induced under conditions of nitrogen limitation (or a high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio). The regulatory pathway responsible for this induction has not been identified. Here we report that the SNF1 pathway plays a key role in the transition from the growth phase to the oleaginous phase in Y. lipolytica. Strains with a Y. lipolytica snf1 (Ylsnf1) deletion accumulated fatty acids constitutively at levels up to 2.6-fold higher than those of the wild type. When introduced into a Y. lipolytica strain engineered to produce omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Ylsnf1 deletion led to a 52% increase in EPA titers (7.6% of dry cell weight) over the control. Other components of the Y. lipolytica SNF1 pathway were also identified, and their function in limiting fatty acid accumulation is suggested by gene deletion analyses. Deletion of the gene encoding YlSnf4, YlGal83, or YlSak1 significantly increased lipid accumulation in both growth and oleaginous phases compared to the wild type. Furthermore, microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the Ylsnf1 mutant identified significantly differentially expressed genes during de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation in Y. lipolytica. Gene ontology analysis found that these genes were highly enriched with genes involved in lipid metabolism. This work presents a new role for Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in lipid accumulation in this oleaginous yeast. PMID:24056466

  12. From bench to application: current practices in tissue engineering and its realisation at maxillofacial units in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Ralf; El-Moawen, Ahmed; Jung, Ole; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip; Heiland, Max; Kansy, Katinka; Kloss, Frank; Kolk, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 20 years, the highly interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering (TE) has become an established subspecialty in research facilities all over the world. Numerous methods and protocols are available for various research intentions and aims, but there are no data indicating which of these methods and resources are generally used. This study is an overview of the resources and methods that are commonly applied in TE research in general, and in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The DÖSAK collaborative group for TE developed a detailed questionnaire and collected information from participating university hospitals in these three countries. We evaluated the availability of research facilities, in vitro realisation and in vivo designs for animal studies in these departments. 11 units who replied, out of 35 we contacted, conducted research on bone regeneration in interdisciplinary research facilities. 10 departments used xenogeneic and alloplastic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo applications. In this case, the most commonly utilised trademarks were Bio-Oss(®) and CERASORB(®). 9 units used osteoblasts (73%) and 10 proliferation assays in vitro, whereas rats served as the standard animal model for histology/immunohistochemistry in 6. All research units were interested in establishing a platform for research exchange and communication. This study shows that tissue engineering is well established and highly accepted in most participating university hospitals and research facilities. The presented data, together with data published in a foregoing paper will help arrange more readily available standardised procedures for further investigations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and comparison of antibody recognition of conjugates containing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D epitope VII.

    PubMed

    Mezö, Gábor; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Krikorian, Dimitrios; Feijlbrief, Matty; Jakab, Annamária; Tsikaris, Vassilios; Sakarellos, Constantinos; Welling-Wester, Sytske; Andreu, David; Hudecz, Ferenc

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic oligopeptides comprising linear or continuous topographic B-cell epitope sequences of proteins might be considered as specific and small size antigens. It has been demonstrated that the strength and specificity of antibody binding could be altered by conjugation to macromolecules or by modification in the flanking regions. However, no systematic studies have been reported to describe the effect of different carrier macromolecules in epitope conjugates. To this end, the influence of carrier structure and topology on antibody recognition of attached epitope has been studied by comparing the antibody binding properties of a new set of conjugates with tetratuftsin analogue (H-[Thr-Lys-Pro-Lys-Gly](4)-NH(2), T20) sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC(n)), branched chain polypeptide, poly[Lys(Ser(i)-DL-Ala(m))] (SAK), multiple antigenic peptide (MAP), and keyhole limpet hemocyanine (KLH). In these novel constructs, peptide (9)LKNleADPNRFRGKDL(22) ([Nle(11)]-9-22) representing an immunodominant B cell epitope of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D (HSV-1 gD) was conjugated to polypeptides through a thioether or amide bond. Here we report on the preparation of sequential and polymeric polypeptides possessing chloroacetyl groups in multiple copies at the alpha- and/or epsilon-amino group of the polypeptides and its use for the conjugation of epitope peptides possessing Cys at C-terminal position. We have performed binding studies (direct and competitive ELISA) with monoclonal antibody (Mab) A16, recognizing the HSV gD-related epitope, [Nle(11)]-9-22, and conjugates containing identical and uniformly oriented epitope peptide in multiple copies attached to five different macromolecules as carrier. Data suggest that the chemical nature of the carrier and the degree of substitution have marked influence on the strength of antibody binding.

  14. Prion protein gene polymorphism and genetic risk evaluation for scrapie in all Turkish native sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Meydan, H; Yüceer, B; Degirmenci, R; Özkan, M M; Yildiz, M A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prion protein (PrP) gene polymorphism in a total of 1,110 healthy sheep from 18 Turkish native sheep breeds. There were nine alleles and 22 genotypes observed based on codons 136, 154, and 171 of the PrP gene. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds. The most resistant allele to scrapie, ARR, was present in all breeds. The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at low frequencies in İvesi (0.06), Kıvırcık (0.021), Sakız (0.010), Karayaka (0.011), Çine Çaparı (0.012), and Güneykaraman (0.017). In general, the ARQ/ARQ genotype was predominant in all breeds. The most resistant genotype to scrapie, ARR/ARR, was found with the frequency lower than 0.180. The most susceptible genotype, VRQ/VRQ, was found in only Kıvırcık. The TRR and TRH alleles and the genotypes of ARR/TRR, ARR/ARK, and ARH/TRH have been found for the first time in Turkish native sheep breeds. According to these results, all breeds belong to risk group R3 followed by R2. It is propounded that the susceptibility to scrapie increased from eastern to western part of Turkey. Our findings of Turkish native sheep breeds with PrP gene polymorphisms will assist the sheep breeding program for selection of scrapie resistance genotypes to reduce the risk of scrapie.

  15. Memoir and the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia: Reflections on The Center Cannot Hold, Me, Myself, and Them, and the ‘Crumbling Twin Pillars’ of Kraepelinian Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    In 1896 Emil Kraepelin revolutionised the classification of psychosis by identifying what he argued were two natural disease entities: manic-depressive psychosis (bipolar disorder) and dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Kraepelin’s twin pillars have governed psychiatric thinking, practice and research for over a century. However, a growing number of researchers, clinicians, and mental health service users argue contest the claim that there are fundamental differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and call for a symptom-led approach which prioritises subjective experience over diagnostic category. How can the published first-person accounts of experts by experience contribute to this debate? This short paper looks at the representation of psychiatric diagnosis in two much-lauded autobiographies: Kurt Snyder’s Me, Myself, and Them: A Firsthand Account of One Young Person’s Experience with Schizophrenia (2007) and Elyn Saks’ The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness (2007). As well as providing a prognosis and a plan for treatment, the psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, for both these writers, gives shape and meaning to the illness experience and ultimately becomes the pivot or platform from which identity and memoir unfold. Saks and Snyder do not claim to speak for all people who receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia and it would be a mistake to read their texts in this way even if they did. But if the debate about the future of psychiatric nosology is going to respect subjective experience, the insights they and others offer in to the multiple meanings and effects of psychiatric diagnosis more than compel our attention. PMID:25729317

  16. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  17. Effects of Alternative Fuels and Aromatics on Gas-Turbine Particle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Klettlinger, J. L.; Ross, R. C.; Surgenor, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes experiments conducted with a Honeywell GTCP36-150 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to evaluate the effects of varying fuel composition on particle emissions. The APU uses a single-stage compressor stage, gas turbine engine with a can-type combustor to generate bypass flow and electrical power for supporting small aircraft and helicopters. It is installed in a "hush-house" at NASA Glenn Research Center and is configured as a stand-alone unit that can be fueled from an onboard tank or external supply. It operates at constant RPM, but its fuel flow can be varied by changing the electrical load or volume of bypass flow. For these tests, an external bank of resistors were attached to the APU's DC and AC electrical outlets and emissions measurements were made at low, medium and maximum electrical current loads. Exhaust samples were drawn from several points downstream in the exhaust duct and fed to an extensive suite of gas and aerosol sensors installed within a mobile laboratory parked nearby. Aromatic- and sulfur-free synthetic kerosenes from Rentech, Gevo, UOP, Amyris and Sasol were tested and their potential to reduce PM emissions evaluated against a single Jet A1 base fuel. The role of aromatic compounds in regulating soot emissions was also evaluated by adding metered amounts of aromatic blends (Aro-100, AF-Blend, SAK) and pure compounds (tetracontane and 1-methylnaphthalene) to a base alternative fuel (Sasol). Results show that, relative to Jet A1, alternative fuels reduce nonvolatile particle number emissions by 50-80% and--by virtue of producing much smaller particles—mass emissions by 65-90%; fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest reductions. Nonvolatile particle emissions varied in proportion to fuel aromatic content, with additives containing the most complex ring structures producing the greatest emission enhancements.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of the Redβ recombinase from bacteriophage λ.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazuko; Malay, Ali D; Curtis, Fiona A; Sharples, Gary J; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    The Red system of bacteriophage λ is responsible for the genetic rearrangements that contribute to its rapid evolution and has been successfully harnessed as a research tool for genome manipulation. The key recombination component is Redβ, a ring-shaped protein that facilitates annealing of complementary DNA strands. Redβ shares functional similarities with the human Rad52 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) annealing protein although their evolutionary relatedness is not well established. Alignment of Rad52 and Redβ sequences shows an overall low level of homology, with 15% identity in the N-terminal core domains as well as important similarities with the Rad52 homolog Sak from phage ul36. Key conserved residues were chosen for mutagenesis and their impact on oligomer formation, ssDNA binding and annealing was probed. Two conserved regions were identified as sites important for binding ssDNA; a surface basic cluster and an intersubunit hydrophobic patch, consistent with findings for Rad52. Surprisingly, mutation of Redβ residues in the basic cluster that in Rad52 are involved in ssDNA binding disrupted both oligomer formation and ssDNA binding. Mutations in the equivalent of the intersubunit hydrophobic patch in Rad52 did not affect Redβ oligomerization but did impair DNA binding and annealing. We also identified a single amino acid substitution which had little effect on oligomerization and DNA binding but which inhibited DNA annealing, indicating that these two functions of Redβ can be separated. Taken together, the results provide fresh insights into the structural basis for Redβ function and the important role of quaternary structure.

  19. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  20. Characterization of gprK Encoding a Putative Hybrid G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mun-Gu; Kim, Sung Su; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains. The deletion of gprK causes severely impaired asexual development coupled with reduced expression of key developmental activators. Moreover, ΔgprK results in hyper-activation of germination even in the absence of carbon source, and elevated expression and activity of the protein kinase A PkaC1. Furthermore, proliferation of the ΔgprK mutant is restricted on the medium when pentose is the sole carbon source, suggesting that GprK may function in external carbon source sensing. Notably, the absence of gprK results in reduced tolerance to oxidative stress and significantly lowered mRNA levels of the stress-response associated genes sakA and atfA. Activities of catalases and SODs are severely decreased in the ΔgprK mutant, indicating that GprK may function in proper activation of general stress response. The ΔgprK mutant is also defective in gliotoxin (GT) production and slightly less virulent toward the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Transcriptomic studies reveal that a majority of transporters are down-regulated by ΔgprK. In summary, GprK is necessary for proper development, GT production, and oxidative stress response, and functions in down-regulating the PKA-germination pathway. PMID:27584150

  1. Variables associated with general practitioners' knowledge about and diagnostic skills for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Cesare; Valsecchi, Paolo; Bonomi, Silvia; Corsini, Paola; Cacciani, Paolo; Medea, Gerardo; Brignoli, Ovidio; Sacchetti, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the level of knowledge about schizophrenia of primary care doctors working in the city of Brescia, Italy, and variables associated with better information. The study design was devised after 2 joint meetings with leading figures of the Italian College of General Practitioners. A cross-sectional evaluation of 215 general practitioners was performed (June 2002). A random subgroup was selected to participate in a 4-month retest session in order to evaluate the reliability of the schedule (October 2002). The setting was the local health unit of Brescia, which involves 706 primary care doctors working in the city and its province. Of these, 30.5% took part in the study. A structured self-report questionnaire (SAKS) was devised for this study. General practitioners were also asked to rate videotaped cases of 5 patients with different DSM-IV diagnoses. The main outcome measures were the scores from subscales measuring knowledge of schizophrenia symptoms and signs, knowledge of antipsychotics and their adverse events, and correct diagnoses of 5 videotaped cases. Primary care doctors identified positive (79.0%), negative (72.6%) and general (72.1%) symptoms of schizophrenia (p < .001). Of the 5 cases on videotape, they correctly rated a mean of 3.1 cases. The mean percentage of anti-psychotics correctly identified was 34.1% (older) and 51.2% (novel) (p < .001). Better answers were given by doctors who knew the diagnostic criteria, had read books on psychiatry, and had attended previous courses. More teaching on the diagnosis of schizophrenia and clinical psychopharmacology should be given to general practitioners.

  2. Variables Associated With General Practitioners' Knowledge About and Diagnostic Skills for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Turrina, Cesare; Valsecchi, Paolo; Bonomi, Silvia; Corsini, Paola; Cacciani, Paolo; Medea, Gerardo; Brignoli, Ovidio; Sacchetti, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the level of knowledge about schizophrenia of primary care doctors working in the city of Brescia, Italy, and variables associated with better information. Method: The study design was devised after 2 joint meetings with leading figures of the Italian College of General Practitioners. A cross-sectional evaluation of 215 general practitioners was performed (June 2002). A random subgroup was selected to participate in a 4-month retest session in order to evaluate the reliability of the schedule (October 2002). The setting was the local health unit of Brescia, which involves 706 primary care doctors working in the city and its province. Of these, 30.5% took part in the study. A structured self-report questionnaire (SAKS) was devised for this study. General practitioners were also asked to rate videotaped cases of 5 patients with different DSM-IV diagnoses. The main outcome measures were the scores from subscales measuring knowledge of schizophrenia symptoms and signs, knowledge of antipsychotics and their adverse events, and correct diagnoses of 5 videotaped cases. Results: Primary care doctors identified positive (79.0%), negative (72.6%) and general (72.1%) symptoms of schizophrenia (p < .001). Of the 5 cases on videotape, they correctly rated a mean of 3.1 cases. The mean percentage of anti-psychotics correctly identified was 34.1% (older) and 51.2% (novel) (p < .001). Better answers were given by doctors who knew the diagnostic criteria, had read books on psychiatry, and had attended previous courses. Conclusion: More teaching on the diagnosis of schizophrenia and clinical psychopharmacology should be given to general practitioners. PMID:16964313

  3. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  4. Effect of 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the P1798 cortisol-sensitive and non-resistant lymphosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The P1798 lymphosarcoma is a tumor with both cortisol-sensitive (CS) and cortisol-resistant (CR) lines. Although differences between the CS and CR cells have been reported, none can fully explain the detailed mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in CR tumors. Recently, it was shown that 5-azacytidine treatment could generate CS cells from CR SAK lymphoma cells in vitro. The present study examined the effect of combination treatment with 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the growth of the P1798 lymphosarcoma. 5-Azacytidine rendered the P1798 CR tumors partially cortisol-sensitive, and enhanced the cortisol-induced regression of the P1798 CS tumors. Survival of mice bearing both CS and CR P1798 tumors was increased by combination treatment. Similar whole cell and nuclear binding of /sup 3/H-TA were observed in both 5-azacytidine-treated and control P1798 tumors. However, CR nuclei retained 64% of the whole cell binding of /sup 3/H-TA compared to 25-29% nuclear retention in CS tumors. DNA methylation in tumors from 5-azacytidine-treated mice decreased to 53% (CS) and 42% (CR) of control. Since 5-azacytidine did not result in any change in thymidine labeling index or cell cycle distribution in P1798 tumors, it would appear to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic to P1798 tumors. Three cell lines have been isolated from the P1798 lymphosarcoma: two are cortisol-sensitive both in vivo and in vitro, while the other is cortisol-resistant. Results from this study suggest that glucocorticoid resistance is a reversible process, and that the effect of 5-azacytidine on the P1798 CR tumor is at the gene expression level.

  5. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  6. The β subunit of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase directs substrate specificity in response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini G; McCartney, Rhonda R; O'Donnell, Allyson F; Schmidt, Martin C

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae express three isoforms of Snf1 kinase that differ by which β subunit is present, Gal83, Sip1 or Sip2. Here we investigate the abundance, activation, localization and signaling specificity of the three Snf1 isoforms. The relative abundance of these isoforms was assessed by quantitative immunoblotting using two different protein extraction methods and by fluorescence microscopy. The Gal83 containing isoform is the most abundant in all assays while the abundance of the Sip1 and Sip2 isoforms is typically underestimated especially in glass-bead extractions. Earlier studies to assess Snf1 isoform function utilized gene deletions as a means to inactivate specific isoforms. Here we use point mutations in Gal83 and Sip2 and a 17 amino acid C-terminal truncation of Sip1 to inactivate specific isoforms without affecting their abundance or association with the other subunits. The effect of low glucose and alkaline stresses was examined for two Snf1 phosphorylation substrates, the Mig1 and Mig2 proteins. Any of the three isoforms was capable of phosphorylating Mig1 in response to glucose stress. In contrast, the Gal83 isoform of Snf1 was both necessary and sufficient for the phosphorylation of the Mig2 protein in response to alkaline stress. Alkaline stress led to the activation of all three isoforms yet only the Gal83 isoform translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates Mig2. Deletion of the SAK1 gene blocked nuclear translocation of Gal83 and signaling to Mig2. These data strongly support the idea that Snf1 signaling specificity is mediated by localization of the different Snf1 isoforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Riesz-Radon-Fréchet problem of characterization of integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Valerii K.; Mikhalev, Aleksandr V.; Rodionov, Timofey V.

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a survey of results on characterizing integrals as linear functionals. It starts from the familiar result of F. Riesz (1909) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Riemann-Stieltjes integrals on a closed interval, and is directly connected with Radon's famous theorem (1913) on integral representation of bounded linear functionals by Lebesgue integrals on a compact subset of {R}^n. After the works of Radon, Fréchet, and Hausdorff, the problem of characterizing integrals as linear functionals took the particular form of the problem of extending Radon's theorem from {R}^n to more general topological spaces with Radon measures. This problem turned out to be difficult, and its solution has a long and rich history. Therefore, it is natural to call it the Riesz-Radon-Fréchet problem of characterization of integrals. Important stages of its solution are associated with such eminent mathematicians as Banach (1937-1938), Saks (1937-1938), Kakutani (1941), Halmos (1950), Hewitt (1952), Edwards (1953), Prokhorov (1956), Bourbaki (1969), and others. Essential ideas and technical tools were developed by A.D. Alexandrov (1940-1943), Stone (1948-1949), Fremlin (1974), and others. Most of this paper is devoted to the contemporary stage of the solution of the problem, connected with papers of König (1995-2008), Zakharov and Mikhalev (1997-2009), and others. The general solution of the problem is presented in the form of a parametric theorem on characterization of integrals which directly implies the characterization theorems of the indicated authors. Bibliography: 60 titles.

  8. Smoking affects quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Krüskemper, Gertrud; Handschel, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Smoking is a causative factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Unfortunately, only poor data exist regarding the quality of life of smokers vs non-smokers with SCC. The purpose of this study is to show a correlation between variables for comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation and better patient quality of life (LQ). A total collective of 1,761 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DÖSAK-REHAB-STUDIE) yielding 1,652 patients' questionnaires containing 147 items were evaluated. They refer to the periods before (t1) and immediately after surgery (t2), as well as at least 6 months later (t3). LQ was determined by the patient and ranges from 0% to 100%. Significant differences were found between smokers (80%) and non-smokers (20%) with respect to diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. Disabilities and impairments in speech, appearance, chewing/swallowing, pain and LQ were examined. Smokers were more often and more severely affected. Differences were found in the size of the tumour, scar tissue, ingestion, functionality of the facial muscles and a numb feeling in the head and shoulder area. Smoking has a severe effect on the oral cavity. Non-smokers suffer far less from the effects of SCC and the ensuing therapy. During therapy and rehabilitation, the LQ is much higher in non-smokers. This supports the importance of enhanced efforts to inform people about the consequences of smoking so as to prevent them from smoking. Moreover, psychological support might be helpful to give up smoking.

  9. Determinants for further wishes for cosmetic and reconstructive interventions in 1652 patients with surgical treated carcinomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Henrik; Spalthoff, Simon; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Lommen, Julian; Kübler, Norbert R; Krüskemper, Gertrud; Rana, Majeed; Sander, Karoline

    2017-12-01

    The impairment of the appearance is a major problem for patients with carcinomas of the oral cavity. These patients want to recover their preoperative facial appearance. Some do not realize that this is not always possible and hence develop a desire for further cosmetic and reconstructive surgery (CRS) which often causes psychological problems. The desire of patients for CRS (N = 410; 26%) has been acquired in this DÖSAK rehab study including multiple reasons such as medical, functional, aesthetic and psychosocial aspects. They relate to the parameters of diagnosis, treatment and postoperative rehabilitation. Patients without the wish for CRS (N = 1155; 74%) served as control group. For the surgeons, knowledge of the patient's views is relevant in the wish for CRS. Nevertheless, it has hardly been investigated for patients postoperatively to complete resection of oral cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, questionnaires with 147 variables were completed during control appointments. Thirty-eight departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery took part, and 1652 German patients at least 6 months after complete cancer resection answered the questions. Additionally, a physician's questionnaire (N = 1489) was available. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS vers. 22. The patient's assessment of their appearance and scarring are the most important criteria resulting in wishes for CRS. Furthermore, functional limitations such as eating/swallowing, pain of the facial muscles, numb regions in the operating field, dealing with the social environment, return to work, tumour size and location, removal and reconstruction are closely related. The wish for CRS depends on diverse functional psychosocial and psychological parameters. Hence, it has to be issued during conversation to improve rehabilitation. A decision on the medical treatment can be of greater satisfaction if the surgeon knows the patients' needs and is able to compare them with the

  10. Decreased vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus caused by IS256 tempering of WalKR expression.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Christopher R E; Tsuji, Brian; Gao, Wei; Seemann, Torsten; Porter, Jessica L; Doig, Kenneth; Ngo, Dung; Howden, Benjamin P; Stinear, Timothy P

    2013-07-01

    Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains often arise by mutations in the essential two-component regulator walKR; however their impact on walKR function has not been definitively established. Here, we investigated 10 MRSA strains recovered serially after exposure of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) JKD6009 to simulated human vancomycin dosing regimens (500 mg to 4,000 mg every 12 h) using a 10-day hollow fiber infection model. After continued exposure to the vancomycin regimens, two isolates displayed reduced susceptibility to both vancomycin and daptomycin, developing independent IS256 insertions in the walKR 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed a 50% reduction in walKR gene expression in the IS256 mutants compared to the VSSA parent. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter analysis, promoter mapping, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed these findings and showed that the IS256 insertions had replaced two SigA-like walKR promoters with weaker, hybrid promoters. Removal of IS256 reverted the phenotype to VSSA, showing that reduced expression of WalKR did induce the VISA phenotype. Analysis of selected WalKR-regulated autolysins revealed upregulation of ssaA but no change in expression of sak and sceD in both IS256 mutants. Whole-genome sequencing of the two mutants revealed an additional IS256 insertion within agrC for one mutant, and we confirmed that this mutation abolished agr function. These data provide the first substantial analysis of walKR promoter function and show that prolonged vancomycin exposure can result in VISA through an IS256-mediated reduction in walKR expression; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be determined.

  11. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB) in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1) and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1) in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea.

  12. Kinetic Mechanisms of Mutation-dependent Harvey Ras Activation and Their Relevance for Development of Costello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Michael; Lee, Jungwoon; Jeong, Soon Seog; Kim, Jungho; Heo, Jongyun

    2013-01-01

    Costello syndrome is linked to activating mutations of a residue in the p-loop or the NKCD/SAK motifs of Harvey Ras (HRas). More than 10 HRas mutants that induce Costello syndrome have been identified; G12S HRas is the most prevalent of these. However, certain HRas p-loop mutations also are linked to cancer formation that are exemplified with G12V HRas. Despite these relations, specific links between types of HRas mutations and diseases evade definition because some Costello syndrome HRas p-loop mutations, such as G12S HRas, also often cause cancer. This study established novel kinetic parameter-based equations that estimate the value of the cellular fractions of the GTP-bound active form of HRas mutant proteins. Such calculations differentiate between two basic kinetic mechanisms that populate the GTP-bound form of Ras in cells. (i) The increase in GTP-bound Ras by the HRas mutation-mediated perturbation of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of Ras. This generates a broad spectrum of the population of the GTP-bound form of HRas that typically causes Costello syndrome. The upper end of this spectrum of HRas mutants, as exemplified by G12S HRas, can also cause cancer. (ii) The increase in GTP-bound Ras because the HRas mutations perturb the p120GAP action on Ras. This causes production of a significantly high population of the only GTP-bound form of HRas linked merely to cancer formation. The HRas mutant G12V belongs to this category. PMID:24224811

  13. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  14. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei R1333 isolated from smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Rachman, Cinta; Fourrier, Angélique; Dicks, Leon M T; van Reenen, Carol A; Prévost, Herve; Dousset, Xavier

    2011-02-01

    Strain R1333, isolated from commercially available smoked salmon, was identified as Lactobacillus sakei based on biochemical tests, sugar fermentation reactions (API 50 CHL), PCR with species-specific primers and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain R1333 produces a 3811 kDa class IIa bacteriocin, active against Streptococcus caprinus, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus spp., L. sakei, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes. The mode of activity against L. innocua 2030C and L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii ATCC 19119 was bactericidal, resulting in cell lysis and enzyme- and DNA-leakage. The highest level of activity (1600 AU/mL) was recorded when cells were grown at 30°C in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5). Only 800 AU/mL was recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS without Tween 80. Lower levels of bacteriocin production were recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS at 20°C. Peptide R1333 adsorbs at low levels (200 AU/mL) to producer cells. Purification of bacteriocin R1333 was performed by 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by separation on a SepPak C(18) column and reverse-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C(18) column with a linear gradient from 0.1% TFA to 90% acetonitryl. A molecular mass of 3811 kDa was determined by mass spectrometry. Based on mass spectrometry and sequencing of the PCR amplified fragment targeting the sakG gene, L. sakei R1333 is a potential producer of sakacin G. This is the first report of the identification of sakacin G produced by L. sakei isolated from smoked salmon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bloodstream infections, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, S; De Boeck, H; Deplano, A; Phoba, M-F; Lunguya, O; Falay, D; Dauly, N; Verhaegen, J; Denis, O; Jacobs, J

    2017-01-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is known worldwide as an invasive pathogen, but information on S. aureus from bloodstream infections in Central Africa remains scarce. A collection of S. aureus blood culture isolates recovered from hospitals in four provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2009-2013) was assessed. A total of 27/108 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), of which >70% were co-resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides and lincosamides. For MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, resistance to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was <10%. However, 66.7% (72/108) of all isolates harboured the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG. More than three-quarters (84/108, 77.8%) of isolates belonged to CC5, CC8, CC121 or CC152. Genetic diversity was higher among MSSA (31 spa types) compared to MRSA (four spa types). Most MRSA (23/27, 85.2%) belonged to CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V and 17/23 (73.9%) MRSA ST8 were oxacillin susceptible but cefoxitin resistant. Among MRSA and MSSA combined, 49.1% (53/108) and 19.4% (21/108) contained the genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (lukS-lukF PV, PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst, TSST-1), respectively. PVL was mainly detected among MSSA (51/53 isolates harbouring PVL were MSSA, 96.2%) and associated with CC121, CC152, CC1 and CC5. TSST-1 was associated with CC8-spa t1476-SCCmec V. The immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes scn, sak and chp were detected in 81.5% of isolates (88/108, equally represented among MSSA and MRSA). The present study confirms the occurrence of MRSA with high levels of multidrug co-resistance and PVL-positive MSSA among invasive S. aureus isolates in Central Africa.

  16. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  17. Animal and human Staphylococcus aureus associated clonal lineages and high rate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius novel lineages in Spanish kennel dogs: predominance of S. aureus ST398.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-10-25

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) are gaining interest to track the evolution of emerging methicillin-resistant strains in animals and humans. We focused on the characterization of the methicillin-susceptible coagulase-positive staphylococci (MSCoPS) recovered from nasal samples of 98 healthy kennel-dogs. Isolates were typed by spa, agr, MLST and SmaI/ApaI-PFGE. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were investigated. Presence of the human-associated Immune-Evasion-Cluster (IEC) genes was analyzed in MSSA. Twenty-four MSSA, 16 MSSP and one MS Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans were obtained. Thirteen spa-types and 12 sequence-types (STs) were detected among MSSA, with ST398 predominance (7/24, 29.2%). MSSA isolates were enclosed within 6 clonal complexes (no. of isolates): CC5 (8), CC398 (7), CC88 (4), CC45 (2), CC133 (1), and CC22 (1), and one singleton. High clonal diversity was observed among MSSP, and 14 STs (10 of them new) were detected. Twelve (50%) MSSA and 12 (75%) MSSP isolates showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials, with low MSSA penicillin resistance (5 isolates) and high MSSP tetracycline resistance (9 isolates). MSSA isolates ST398, ST133, ST1 and ST2329[new] were susceptible to all antimicrobials and were the only ones lacking the scn, chp and/or sak IEC genes. High diversity of enterotoxin genes was detected among non-ST398/ST133 MSSA isolates. MSSP showed a more homogeneous virulence genes profile. Our results give evidence that dogs can be S. aureus carriers of not only typical human associated lineages but also lineages commonly detected among other animal species. Continue surveillance on CoPS in dogs is required to unveil their role in the dissemination of clones adapted to other animal species.

  18. Molecular characterization of spa type t127, sequence type 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pigs.

    PubMed

    Franco, Alessia; Hasman, Henrik; Iurescia, Manuela; Lorenzetti, Raniero; Stegger, Marc; Pantosti, Annalisa; Feltrin, Fabiola; Ianzano, Angela; Porrero, Maria Concepción; Liapi, Maria; Battisti, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spa type t127, sequence type (ST) 1 isolates, detected in a European baseline survey in holdings of breeding pigs, to determine phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance and to compare the results with those obtained from a collection of t127, ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) clinical isolates. Twenty-four t127, ST1 MRSA from dust sampled in different breeding holdings in Italy, Spain and Cyprus were studied, along with 2 t127, ST1 MRSA from fattening pigs and 11 human t127, ST1 MRSA and MSSA. Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and PFGE. SCCmec elements were characterized by multiplex-PCR and resistance and pathogenicity genes by PCR and microarray. PFGE patterns separated a porcine cluster (PC) from a human cluster (HC), with 75% similarity. The PC carried SCCmec cassette type V, while all isolates of the HC carried SCCmec cassette type IVa. Kanamycin resistance mediated by aadD, fluoroquinolone and erm(A)-mediated macrolide resistance and the absence of the sakA gene were features of the PC only. All isolates of both clusters were positive for LukE-LukD and LuF-LukS-HlgA leukotoxin genes and one human MSSA harboured Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes. Despite differences in the host-specific genetic features, the possibility of PC transmission to humans cannot be excluded. MRSA spa type t127, ST1 from pigs possesses several virulence and resistance genes towards major classes of antimicrobials and may represent a serious therapeutic challenge in case of invasive infections in humans.

  19. Electron capture branching ratio measurements in an ion trap for double beta decay experiments at TITAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, T.; Brodeur, M.; Champagne, C.; Frekers, D.; Krücken, R.; Lapierre, A.; Delheij, P.; Ringle, R.; Ryjkov, V.; Smith, M.; Tanihata, I.; Dilling, J.

    2008-10-01

    Double beta decay (ββ) is a nuclear decay mode expected to appear in at least two varieties, the double-neutrino (2ν) and the zero-neutrino (0ν) mode. The 0νββ-decay is of particular interest as it requires the neutrino to be a Majorana particle. The search for such a decay is presently being carried out or planned in a number of experiments, such as EXO, MAJORANA, GERDA, CUORE, COBRA, NEMO-III and SNO+. The 0ν-decay rate depends on the neutrino mass but, unfortunately, also on a rather complex nuclear matrix element, making the extraction of the mass heavily dependent on the underlying theoretical nuclear model. However, all theoretical models can readily be tested against the 2ν mode, which, unlike its 0ν counterpart, only involves simple Gamow Teller nuclear matrix elements. These elements can be determined experimentally either through charge-exchange reactions or, for the ground-state transition, through the electron capture (EC) or single β-decay of the intermediate odd odd nucleus. The present program is geared towards the measurement of the EC branching ratios (BR). In most cases, these ratios are poorly known or not known at all, because EC is usually suppressed by several orders of magnitude compared to the β-decay counterpart due to energy considerations. Traditional methods for measuring these ratios have so far suffered from overwhelming background generated by these high-energy electrons. Recently, a unique background-free method for measuring EC branching ratios was proposed using the TITAN ion trap at the TRIUMF ISAC (Isotope Separator and ACcelerator) radioactive beam facility. The measurements will make use of the EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap) operating in Penning mode where electrons from the β--decay will be confined by the magnetic field. K-shell X-rays from EC will be detected by seven X-ray detectors located around the trap, thus providing orders of magnitude background suppression and thus ideal low-BR measurement environment.

  20. Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.

    2010-12-01

    wind tunnel investigations and the outcomes from test flights planned for September 2010 at a marine location are discussed. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the significant contributions to this system made by the late Katrin Lehmann whose life was tragically cut short by a hiking accident. Katrin was responsible for the initial design, construction and programming of the UAS elements, and in doing so laid solid foundations for the system. We are indebted to NOAA, for funding this project through the research grant NOAA NA17RJ1231. Thank you also to Mike Marston of NASA, the BAE systems crew Phillip Corcoran and Rafael Gaytan, and Mike Rizen of UCSD Physics workshop for their mission roles. We would also like to thank NSF for long term support of the C4 UAS Program.

  1. Neutrino mass spectrum and future beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Y.; Peres, O. L. G.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2001-09-01

    We study the discovery potential of future beta decay experiments on searches for the neutrino mass in the sub-eV range, and, in particular, KATRIN experiment with sensitivity m>0.3 eV. Effects of neutrino mass and mixing on the beta decay spectrum in the neutrino schemes which explain the solar and atmospheric neutrino data are discussed. The schemes which lead to observable effects contain one or two sets of quasi-degenerate states. Future beta decay measurements will allow to check the three-neutrino scheme with mass degeneracy, moreover, the possibility appears to measure the CP-violating Majorana phase. Effects in the four-neutrino schemes which can also explain the LSND data are strongly restricted by the results of Bugey and CHOOZ oscillation experiments: apart from bending of the spectrum and the shift of the end point one expects appearance of small kink of (<2%) size or suppressed tail after bending of the spectrum with rate below 2% of the expected rate for zero neutrino mass. We consider possible implications of future beta decay experiments for the neutrino mass spectrum, the determination of the absolute scale of neutrino mass and for establishing the nature of neutrinos. We show that beta decay measurements in combination with data from the oscillation and double beta decay experiments will allow to establish the structure of the scheme (hierarchical or non-hierarchical), the type of the hierarchy or ordering of states (normal or inverted) and to measure the relative CP-violating phase in the solar pair of states.

  2. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    Project Manager Henrik Dalgaard for his excellent editorial services and to stud.mag. Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund for her practical assistance with the proceedings. The European Commission under the Regional Development Fund has funded the conference and the publication of the proceedings.

  3. Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, S.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy

  4. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuestling, Sascha; Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P.; Steidl, M.

    2010-12-01

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement (Δ E/ E=5×10 -5) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay ( Emax=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area (˜80 cm 2), a certain energy resolution (Δ E=600 eV @ 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution (˜3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm 2) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. [6], this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement [7]. The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3×10 -3 cps/cm 2 in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10 5 and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  5. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid

  6. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.

  7. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Olga E.; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Kamshilova, Vera V.; Kotlovsky, Yuri V.; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.; Peryanova, Olga V.; Reva, Galina V.; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  8. Time Variation of Seismic Anisotropy, Stress and Cracks on Active Volcanoes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    We summarize measurements of seismic anisotropy and its relation to other geophysical measurements of stress and cracks on eleven active volcanoes; Unzen (Unz), Sakurajima (Sak), Aso, Asama (Asm) and Kirishima (Kir) in Japan; Okmok (Okm) in Alaska, Ruapehu (Rua) and Tongariro (Ton) in New Zealand, Soufriere Hills (Sou) in Montserrat, Kilauea (Kil) in Hawaii and Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) in La Reunion. We used the MFAST shear wave splitting computer code, an objective code that is fully automatic except for the S arrival pick. Fast polarization directions (phi) should be parallel to cracks and hence the maximum horizontal stress direction. Time delays (dt) increase with path length and percent anisotropy, usually related to crack density. Where possible we used S waves from deep earthquakes to ensure that the movement of the earthquakes was not correlated with the volcanic activity. At some volcanoes we used families of repeating events with similar waveforms and at most volcanoes we also computed splitting at earthquakes local to the volcano. We compared the phi and dt variation in time to eruption occurrences and to other available parameters including seismicity rate, b-values, focal mechanisms, isotropic velocity changes from noise cross-correlation, Vp/Vs ratios, Geodetic measurements such as GPS and tilt, and gas flux. All volcanoes had some stations with excellent shear wave arrivals that yielded measureable splitting. Individual measurements showed scatter in most areas, but at most of the volcanoes, moving averages of phi or dt (or both) yielded time variations that correlated with other measurements related to volcanic activity or to stress changes or changes in crack-filling material such as gas flux. The multiplet studies did not yield slowly varying splitting but instead showed distinct jumps in splitting parameters at various times, which appears to be caused in part by cycle skipping. Time resolution of changes depends on the seismicity available

  9. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    amount of geographically diverse data, it is not possible to develop a comprehensive predictive model. Based on the comprehensive phase behavior analysis of Alaska North Slope crude oil, a reservoir simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in viscous oil production can be obtained by selecting the proper injectant gas and by optimizing reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided, which helps in the decision-making process.

  10. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  11. Healthcare- and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Fatal Pneumonia with Pediatric Deaths in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia: Unique MRSA's Multiple Virulence Factors, Genome, and Stepwise Evolution.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga E; Hung, Wei-Chun; Wan, Tsai-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Yachenko, Svetlana V; Teplyakova, Olga V; Kamshilova, Vera V; Kotlovsky, Yuri V; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan V; Sidorenko, Sergey V; Peryanova, Olga V; Reva, Galina V; Teng, Lee-Jene; Salmina, Alla B; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. We herein discussed MRSA and its infections in Krasnoyarsk, Siberian Russia between 2007 and 2011. The incidence of MRSA in 3,662 subjects was 22.0% and 2.9% for healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (HA- and CA-MRSA), respectively. The 15-day mortality rates for MRSA hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia (HAP and CAP) were 6.5% and 50%, respectively. MRSA CAP cases included pediatric deaths; of the MRSA pneumonia episodes available, ≥27.3% were associated with bacteremia. Most cases of HA-MRSA examined exhibited ST239/spa3(t037)/SCCmecIII.1.1.2 (designated as ST239Kras), while all CA-MRSA cases examined were ST8/spa1(t008)/SCCmecIV.3.1.1(IVc) (designated as ST8Kras). ST239Kras and ST8Kras strongly expressed cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin α, PSMα; and δ-hemolysin, Hld) genes, similar to CA-MRSA. ST239Kras pneumonia may have been attributed to a unique set of multiple virulence factors (MVFs): toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), elevated PSMα/Hld expression, α-hemolysin, the staphylococcal enterotoxin SEK/SEQ, the immune evasion factor SCIN/SAK, and collagen adhesin. Regarding ST8Kras, SEA was included in MVFs, some of which were common to ST239Kras. The ST239Kras (strain OC3) genome contained: a completely unique phage, φSa7-like (W), with no att repetition; S. aureus pathogenicity island SaPI2R, the first TSST-1 gene-positive (tst+) SaPI in the ST239 lineage; and a super copy of IS256 (≥22 copies/genome). ST239Kras carried the Brazilian SCCmecIII.1.1.2 and United Kingdom-type tst. ST239Kras and ST8Kras were MDR, with the same levofloxacin resistance mutations; small, but transmissible chloramphenicol resistance plasmids spread widely enough to not be ignored. These results suggest that novel MDR and MVF+ HA- and CA-MRSA (ST239Kras and ST8Kras) emerged in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk) associated with fatal pneumonia, and also with ST

  12. Weathering Rinds and Soil Development on Basaltic Andesite, Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, P. B.; Murphy, M.; Ma, L.; Engel, J.; Pereyra, Y.; Gaillardet, J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    An oriented clast of basaltic andesite collected from the B horizon of a soil developed in a late Quaternary volcanoclastic debris flow on the eastern, windward side of Basse Terre Island, Guadeloupe exhibits weathering patterns like that observed in many clasts from tropical settings. The sample consists of unweathered core material overlain by a ~19 mm thick weathering rind and a narrow ≤ 2mm thick indurated horizon separating the outer portion of the rind from the overlying >10mm of soil matrix material. Elemental variations are constrained by a seven point bulk ICP-AES vertical transect extending from the core, across the rind and ~15 mm into the overlying soil matix and six parallel electron microprobe transections. The porous-hydrated fraction increases from the core to the rind to the surrounding soil from 7±4% to 45±18% to 60±15%, respectively. Like the well-studied clast from the nearby Bras David watershed (Sak et al., 2010) the isovolumetric transformation from core to rind material is marked by a narrow (< 1500 mm) reaction front and elemental depletion. The hierarchy of elemental loss across the core-rind boundary as characterized by open system mass balances varies in order Ca≈Na>Ba>K≈Mn>Mg>Si>Al≈P>Fe»Ti, consistent with the relative reactivity of phases in the clast from plagioclasepyroxeneglass>apatite>ilmenite. Unlike previously studied clasts, the preservation of the rind-soil interface permits characterization of weathering reactions between the weathering clast and surrounding soil matrix. The abrupt (<1000 μm wide) reaction front at the rind-soil interface is marked by the enrichment of Mn, Ba, Al, Mg and K. The enrichment trends may result from soil waters percolating through atmospherically depositioned dust within the upper few meters of the soil profile, as documented in a deep soil profile in the Bras David watershed. The lack of an enrichment signal within the weathering rind suggests that weathering processes active within

  13. Staphylococcus aureus host specificity: comparative genomics of human versus animal isolates by multi-strain microarray.

    PubMed

    Sung, Julia M-L; Lloyd, David H; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2008-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of several mammalian species, particularly humans and cattle. We aimed to (i) identify S. aureus genes associated with host specificity, (ii) determine the relatedness of human and animal isolates, and (iii) identify whether human and animal isolates typically exchanged mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and resistance genes. Using a well-validated seven-strain S. aureus microarray, we compared 56 UK S. aureus isolates that caused infection in cows, horses, goats, sheep and a camel with 161 human S. aureus isolates from healthy carriers and community acquired infections in the UK. We had previously shown that human isolates are clustered into ten dominant and a few minor lineages, each with unique combinations of surface proteins predicted to bind to human proteins. We found that the animal-associated S. aureus clustered into ten lineages, with 61 % assigned to four lineages, ST151, ST771, ST130 and ST873, that were unique to animals. The majority of bovine mastitis was caused by isolates of lineage ST151, ST771 and ST97, but a few human lineages also caused mastitis. S. aureus isolated from horses were more likely to cluster into human-associated lineages, with 54 % of horse-associated S. aureus assigned to the human clusters CC1, CC8 and CC22; along with the presence of some multi-drug resistant strains, this suggests a human origin. This is the most comprehensive genetic comparison of human versus animal S. aureus isolates conducted, and because we used a whole-genome approach we could estimate the key genes with the greatest variability that are associated with host specificity. Several genes conserved in all human isolates were variable or missing in one or more animal lineages, including the well-characterized lineage specific genes fnbA, fnbB and coa. Interestingly, genes carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as chp, scn and sak were less common in animal S. aureus isolates, and bap was not

  14. Validating the regional hydrogeological models with stable isotope data in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Babre, Alise; Popovs, Konārds; Timuhins, Andrejs; Spalviņš, Aivars

    2016-04-01

    Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Praise Worthy Prize, Naples, Italy, 8, pp. 266-276. Terzer, S., Wassenaar, L. I., Araguás-Araguás, L. J., Aggarwal, P. K., 2013. Global Isoscapes for δ18O and δ2H in Precipitation: Improved Prediction Using Regionalized Climatic Regression Models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, pp. 4713-4728 Virbulis, J., Bethers U., Saks T., Sennikovs, J., Timuhins, A., 2013. Hydrogeological Model of the Baltic Artesian Basin. Hydrogeology Journal, 21, pp. 845-862

  15. NapA Mediates a Redox Regulation of the Antioxidant Response, Carbon Utilization and Development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Martínez, Ariann E; Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Sánchez, Olivia; Aguirre, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs) of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs) to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H2O2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A. nidulans life cycle. We also uncover novel NapA roles in repression of sexual development, normal conidiation, conidial mRNA accumulation, and carbon utilization. The phenotypic characterization of ΔgpxA, ΔtpxA, and ΔtpxB single, double and triple peroxiredoxin mutants in wild type or ΔnapA backgrounds shows that none of these Prxs is required for NapA function in H2O2 and menadione resistance. However, these Prxs participate in a minor NapA-independent H2O2 resistance pathway and NapA and TpxA appear to regulate conidiation along the same route. Using transcriptomic analysis we show that during conidial development NapA-dependent gene expression pattern is different from canonical oxidative stress patterns. In the course of conidiation, NapA is required for regulation of at least 214 genes, including ethanol utilization genes alcR, alcA and aldA, and large sets of genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, drug detoxification, carbohydrate utilization and secondary metabolism, comprising multiple oxidoreductases, membrane transporters and hydrolases. In agreement with this, ΔnapA mutants fail to grow or grow very poorly in ethanol, arabinose or fructose as sole carbon sources. Moreover, we show that NapA nuclear localization is induced not only by oxidative stress but also by growth in ethanol and by carbon starvation. Together with our previous work, these results show that SakA-AtfA, Srr

  16. Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from −86.4 to −80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from −50.1 to −43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from −48.2 to −48.0‰ in the C sand and from −48.4 to −46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from −238 to −230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

  17. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  18. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-11-20

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  19. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  20. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  1. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal

  2. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  3. A new myeloarchitectonic map of the human neocortex based on data from the Vogt-Vogt school.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf; Broere, Cees A J; Cerliani, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Katrin Amunts and their numerous associates, will yield a comprehensive 'supermap' of the structural organization of the human neocortex. For the time being, i. e., as long as this 'supermap' is not yet available, our map may provide a tentative frame of reference for (a) the morphological interpretation of the results of functional neuroimaging studies; (b) the selection of starting points (seed voxels, regions-of-interest) in diffusion tractography studies and

  4. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  5. "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis": Correction to Starcke and Brand (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand (Psychological Bulletin, Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-25465-001.) The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to quantify the effects that stress has on decisions made under uncertainty. We hypothesized that stress increases reward seeking and risk taking through alterations of dopamine firing rates and reduces executive control by hindering optimal prefrontal cortex functioning. In certain decision situations, increased reward seeking and risk taking is dysfunctional, whereas in others, this is not the case. We also assumed that the type of stressor plays a role. In addition, moderating variables are analyzed, such as the hormonal stress response, the time between stress onset and decisions, and the participants' age and gender. We included studies in the meta-analysis that investigated decision making after a laboratory stress-induction versus a control condition (k = 32 datasets, N = 1829 participants). A random-effects model revealed that overall, stress conditions lead to decisions that can be described as more disadvantageous, more reward seeking, and more risk taking than nonstress conditions (d = .17). In those situations in which increased reward seeking and risk taking is disadvantageous, stress had significant effects (d = .26), whereas in other situations, no effects were observed (d = .01). Effects were observed under processive stressors (d = .19), but not under systemic ones (d = .09). Moderation analyses did not reveal

  6. Using Uranium-series isotopes to understand processes of rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings: an example from Basse-Terre, French Guadeloupe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Lin Ma1, Yvette Pereyra1, Peter B Sak2, Jerome Gaillardet3, Heather L Buss4 and Susan L Brantley5, (1) University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States, (2) Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, United States, (3) Institute de Physique d Globe Paris, Paris, France, (4) University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, (5) Pennsylvania State University Main Campus, University Park, PA, United States Uranium-series isotopes fractionate during chemical weathering and their activity ratios can be used to determine timescales and rates of soil formation. Such soil formation rates provide important information to understand processes related to rapid soil formation in tropical volcanic settings, especially with respect to their fertility and erosion. Recent studies also highlighted the use of U-series isotopes to trace and quantify atmospheric inputs to surface soils. Such a process is particularly important in providing mineral nutrients to ecosystems in highly depleted soil systems such as the tropical soils. Here, we report U-series isotope compositions in thick soil profiles (>10 m) developed on andesitic pyroclastic flows in Basse-Terre Island of French Guadeloupe. Field observations have shown heterogeneity in color and texture in these thick profiles. However, major element chemistry and mineralogy show some general depth trends. The main minerals present throughout the soil profile are halloysite and gibbsite. Chemically immobile elements such as Al, Fe, and Ti show a depletion profile relative to Th while elements such as K, Mn, and Si show a partial depletion profile at depth. Mobile elements such as Ca, Mg, and Sr have undergone intensive weathering at depths, and an addition profile near the surface, most likely related to atmospheric inputs. (238U/232Th) activity ratios in one soil profile from the Brad David watershed in this study ranged from 0.374 to 1.696, while the (230Th/232Th) ratios ranged from 0.367 to 1.701. A decrease of (238U/232Th) in the

  7. The Kinetic Study of The Hydrothermal Growth of Zno Nanorod Array Films / Zno Nanostieņu Kopu Pārklājuma Hidrotermālās Augšanas Kinētikas Izpēte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbreders, V.; Sarajevs, P.; Mihailova, I.; Tamanis, E.

    2015-10-01

    The simple analysis method has been introduced for the kinetic analysis of the hydrothermal growth. The zinc oxide nanorod arrays have been synthesized via a hydrothermal process. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O) has been used as the precursor in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4) for the formation of ZnO nanostructures. Long-term isothermal growth kinetics of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. The effect of the solution temperature (70-90 ℃) on the kinetics of the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods has been examined. An extensive analysis by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction has revealed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanorod arrays are well-crystalline and possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. These ZnO films have promising potential advantages in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Tiek piedāvāta vienkārša analīzes metode kristālu hidrotennālās augšanas kinētikasizpētei. Labi sakārtotu ZnO nanostieņu kopa tika sintezēta pielieto­jot hidrotennālās augšanas metodi, cinka nitrāta heksahidrāta (Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O) un heksametilēntetramīna (C6H12N4) šķīdumā. Plānās kārtiņas biezuma izmaiņas tika novērotas reālā laikā, pielietojot interferometrijas tehniku. Tika mērīts no sistēmas plānā kārtiņa - pamatne atstarotais lāzerstars; iegūtā interferences aina tika izman­tota plānās kārtiņas biezuma aprēķiniem. ZnO nanostieņu izotermiskās kristalizācijas procesa kinētika tika aprakstīta ar parabolisku likumu. Tika aprēķināts, ka ZnO nanostieņu kopu hidrotennālās augšanas aktivācijas enerģija ir 123kJ/mol. Šī metode ir piemērota viendimensionālas augšanas procesu analīzei un paver jaunas iespējas turpmākiem pētījumiem.

  8. Characterization of residuals from ice particles and droplets sampled in mid-latitude natural and aviation-influenced cirrus and in tropical deep convective cloud systems during ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schulz, Christiane; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Mira; Schneider, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Airborne sampling of cloud particles inside different cirrus cloud types and inside deep convective clouds was conducted during the HALO missions ML-CIRRUS over Europe in March/April 2014 and ACRIDICON over Amazonia in September 2014. ML-CIRRUS aims at the investigation of the for-mation, evolution, microphysical state and radiative effects of different natural and aviation-induced cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. The main objectives of ACRIDICON are the microphysical vertical profiling, vertical aerosol transport and the cloud processing of aerosol particles (compari-son in- and outflow) of tropical deep convective cloud systems in clean and polluted air masses and over forested and deforested regions. The hydrometeors (drops and ice particles) are sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) which has to be installed in the front part of the upper fuselage of the HALO aircraft. Such an intake position implies a size dependent abundance of cloud particles with respect to ambient conditions that was studied by particle trajectory simulations (Katrin Witte, HALO Technical Note 2008-003-A). On the other hand, this sampling location avoids that large ice crystals which could potentially bias the cloud particle sampling by shattering and break-up at the inlet shroud and tip enter the inlet. Both aspects as well as the flight conditions of HALO were taken into account for an optimized CVI design for HALO (HALO-CVI). Interstitial particles are pre-segregated and the condensed phase is evaporated/sublimated by the CVI, such that the residuals from cloud droplets and ice particles (CDR and IPR) can be microphysically and chemically analyzed by respective aerosol sensors located in the cabin. Although an even more comprehensive characterization of CDR and IPR was carried out, we like to report on the following measurements of certain aerosol properties. Particle number concentra-tion and size distribution are measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an

  9. In situ soil moisture and matrix potential - what do we measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    poses quite some concern about deriving field parameters from lab measurements. We will present some insights from the comparison study and highlight the conceptual concerns arising from it. Through this we hope to stimulate a discussion towards more critical revision of measurement assumptions and towards the development of alternative techniques to monitor subsurface states. The sensor comparison study consortium is a cooperation of Wolfgang Durner2, Ines Andrä2, Kai Germer2, Katrin Schulz2, Marcus Schiedung2, Jaqueline Haller-Jans2, Jonas Schneider2, Julia Jaquemotte2, Philipp Helmer2, Leander Lotz2, Thomas Graeff3, Andreas Bauer3, Irene Hahn3, Conrad Jackisch1, Martin Sanda4, Monika Kumpan5, Johann Dorner5, Gerrit de Rooij6, Stephan Wessel-Bothe7, Lorenz Kottmann8, and Siegfried Schittenhelm8. The great support by the team and the Thünen Institute Braunschweig is gratefully acknowledged. 1 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 2 Technical University of Braunschweig, 3 University of Potsdam, 4 Technical University of Prague, 5 Federal Department for Water Management Petzenkirchen, 6 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Halle, 7 ecoTech GmbH Bonn, 8 Julius Kühn Institute Braunschweig

  10. Are non-relativistic neutrinos the dark matter particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2010-06-01

    The dark matter of a spherical, relaxed galaxy cluster is modeled by isothermal, non-interacting fermions; the galaxies and X-ray gas by isothermal classical distributions. A fit to lensing data of the cluster Abell 1689 works well and yields a mass of a few eV. This low value casts doubt on the existence of a Cold Dark Matter particle. The best case is the neutrino, for which in the cluster all 12 left- and righthanded modes are available. The fit gives an average mass 1.45(h/0.70)1/2 eV, with 2% error, while neutrino oscillations bring deviations of order meV. A neutrino mass between 0.2 and 2 eV will be searched in the Katrin experiment in 2012. The ideal value is mν = Yeme = 1.4998 eV, where Ye = 23/4GF1/2me is the Yukawa coupling of the electron. It occurs for reduced Hubble constant h = 0.744 with 4% error, right on top of and slightly sharper than the presently best supernova value of Riess et al. 2009, h = 0.742 with 4.8% error. In the cluster the neutrinos have a temperature of 0.045 K and a de Broglie length of 0.20 mm. They establish a quantum structure of several million light years across, the largest known in the Universe. The virial α-particle temperature of 9.9+/-1.1 keV/kB coincides with the average one of X-rays, while also the gas profile comes out well. Active neutrinos alone with the 1.45 eV mass give some 9.5% dark matter, more than allowed by the cold dark matter papradigm. A dark matter fraction of some 19%, Ων = (h/0.70)-3/20.189 (4), occurs for 12 degrees of freedom, i. e., for 3 families of left plus right handed neutrinos. The sterile modes may be produced in the early universe if there is a small Majorana mass matrix of order meV, on top of the Dirac matrix with ~1.45 eV masses. The neutrinos are free-streaming in the early universe and play no role during the decoupling. But now they are not homogeneous anymore. They condense on the Abell 1689 cluster fairly late, at redshift z~6-8, a prediction testable in future observations

  11. Introducing litter quality to the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS: Effects on short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Hanspeter; Wolf, Annett; Rühr, Nadine; Bugmann, Harald

    2010-05-01

    and 2007 [Rühr(2009)] and present soil carbon stocks [Heim et al.(2009)]. Our Results show, that for short-term soil carbon dynamics, e.g. estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration on an annual basis, the inclusion of the dependency on litter quality is not necessary, as the differences are minor only. However, when considering long-term soil carbon dynamics, e.g. simulated estimates of present soil carbon content, the dependency on litter quality shows effect, as there are correlations with specific site factors such as site location and forest type. The inclusion of the dependence on litter quality therefore may be of importance for the projection of future soil carbon dynamics, as forest types may well be altered due to climatic change. References [Heim et al.(2009)] A. Heim, L. Wehrli, W. Eugster, and M.W.I. Schmidt. Effects of sampling design on the probability to detect soil carbon stock changes at the swiss CarboEurope site Lägeren. Geoderma, 149(3-4):347-354, 2009. [Rühr(2009)] Nadine Katrin Rühr. Soil respiration in a mixed mountain forest : environmental drivers and partitioning of component fluxes. PhD thesis, ETH, 2009. [Smith et al.(2001)] Benjamin Smith, I. Colin Prentice, and Martin T. Sykes. Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: comparing two contrasting approaches within european climate space. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10(6):621-637, 2001. [Tuomi et al.(2008)] Mikko Tuomi, Pekka Vanhala, Kristiina Karhu, Hannu Fritze, and Jari Liski. Heterotrophic soil respiration-Comparison of different models describing its temperature dependence. Ecological Modelling, 211(1-2): 182-190, 2008.

  12. Survival of the lichen model system Circinaria gyrosa before flight to the ISS (EXPOSE R2 mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    potential to space and Mars conditions, contributing to our understanding of extremotolerance and the Lithopanspermia hypothesis [7]. References [1] Rabbow, E., und Rettberg, Petra und Barczyk, Simon und Bohmeier, Maria und Parpart, André und Panitz, Corinna und Horneck, Gerda und von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf und Hoppenbrouwers, Tom und Willnecker, Rainer und Baglioni, Pietro und Demets, René und Dettmann, Jan und Reitz, Guenther (2012) EXPOSE-E: An ESA Astrobiology Mission 1.5 Years in Space. Astrobiology, 12 (5), Seiten 374-386. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0760. [2] De la Torre, R. L.G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A.de los Ríos, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C.S. Cockell, Rettberg P., T. Berger, J.P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frías, P.Gonzalez Melendi M.M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado, R.Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.03.010 (2010). [3] Sanchez, F.J., E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meessen, J. Martinez-Frias, L. Gª Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophyle. Planetary and Space Science 72, 102-110 (2012). [4] de Vera JP and the BIOMEX-Team (2012) Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology. Planetary and Space Science, 74 (1), Seiten 103-110. Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2012.06.010. [5] Meeßen J, Sánchez FJ, Brandt A, Balzer EM, de la Torre R, Sancho LG, de Vera JP, Ott S (2013) Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: Comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research I. Morphological and anatomical characteristics. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 43 (3): 283-303 [6] Meeßen J, Sánchez FJ, Sadowsky A, de Vera JP, de la Torre R, Ott S (2013

  13. Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Kloss, M.; Reitz, G.; Horneck, G.

    2010-05-01

    Cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, Astrobiology, 5/2 127-140Aman, A. (1996) LPS XXVII, 1344-1 [4] de la Torre Noetzel, R.; Sancho, L.G.; Pintado,A.; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Panitz,Corinna; Deutschmann, U.; Reina, M.; Horneck, Gerda (2007): BIOPAN experiment LICHENS on the Foton M2 mission Pre-flight verification tests of the Rhizocarpon geographicum-granite ecosystem. COSPAR [Hrsg.]: Advances in Space Research, 40, Elsevier, S. 1665 - 1671, DOI 10.1016/j.asr.2007.02.022

  14. What makes Aspergillus fumigatus a successful pathogen? Genes and molecules involved in invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Abad, Ana; Fernández-Molina, Jimena Victoria; Bikandi, Joseba; Ramírez, Andoni; Margareto, Javier; Sendino, Javier; Hernando, Fernando Luis; Pontón, Jose; Garaizar, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    -C, fumitremorgin A-C, verruculogen, fumagillin, helvolic acid, aflatoxin B1 and G1, and laeA. Two sections cover genes and molecules related with nutrient uptake, signaling and metabolic regulations involved in virulence, including enzymes, such as serine proteases (alp/asp f 13, alp2, and asp f 18), metalloproteases (mep/asp f 5, mepB, and mep20), aspartic proteases (pep/asp f 10, pep2, and ctsD), dipeptidylpeptidases (dppIV and dppV), and phospholipases (plb1-3 and phospholipase C); siderophores and iron acquisition (sidA-G, sreA, ftrA, fetC, mirB-C, and amcA); zinc acquisition (zrfA-H, zafA, and pacC); amino acid biosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, and cross-pathways control (areA, rhbA, mcsA, lysF, cpcA/gcn4p, and cpcC/gcn2p); general biosynthetic pathway (pyrG, hcsA, and pabaA), trehalose biosynthesis (tpsA and tpsB), and other regulation pathways such as those of the MAP kinases (sakA/hogA, mpkA-C, ste7, pbs2, mkk2, steC/ste11, bck1, ssk2, and sho1), G-proteins (gpaA, sfaD, and cpgA), cAMP-PKA signaling (acyA, gpaB, pkaC1, and pkaR), His kinases (fos1 and tcsB), Ca(2+) signaling (calA/cnaA, crzA, gprC and gprD), and Ras family (rasA, rasB, and rhbA), and others (ace2, medA, and srbA). Finally, we also comment on the effect of A. fumigatus allergens (Asp f 1-Asp f 34) on IA. The data gathered generate a complex puzzle, the pieces representing virulence factors or the different activities of the fungus, and these need to be arranged to obtain a comprehensive vision of the virulence of A. fumigatus. The most recent gene expression studies using DNA-microarrays may be help us to understand this complex virulence, and to detect targets to develop rapid diagnostic methods and new antifungal agents.

  15. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  17. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    the meeting was that all plenary talks presented the state-of-the-art and were at the same time educational and exciting, promoting the multidisciplinary aspects of the research, and thus were inspirational for young scientists considering work in these fields. The plenary talks, each lasting 1 hour, were given by distinguished world experts and some young 'rising stars': Richard Ward, Ulf Leonhardt, Jens Eisert, Michael Berry, Shahn Majid, Arndt von Haeseler, Michio Jimbo, Katrin Wendland, Raymond Goldstein, Mark Trodden, Maria Vozmediano and Giulio Chiribella. The public lecture was given by Francesco Iachello and was open to participants and other people from the Newcastle-Durham region. In addition, talks of 30 minutes duration each and including more technical content, were given in four parallel sessions. Each parallel session had a designated time for informal interaction with the speakers, discussions of new directions of research and for forming new collaborations. The poster session, in a room where posters were exhibited for the duration of the conference, was easily accessible, and had a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, encouraging discussions of work and exchanges of new ideas. To secure a high quality scientific programme, all contributions were reviewed. Another interesting feature of the conference was the Open Forum on the Friday afternoon, which was lively and well attended. It took the form of a question and answer session with a panel chaired by Allan Solomon, with the following members: Gerald Goldin, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Mark Trodden and Giulio Chiribella. The focus was on new directions of research, novel applications and the further development of group theory, education, training and career opportunities for young researchers. The participants were asked to submit questions in advance; examples are: "What is the role of symmetries and conservation principles in deducing underlying physics from experimental data?" and "What are the most

  18. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    revitalization of ecosystem services Key Message 6: Meeting the Challenge To achieve the societal transformation required to meet the climate change challenge, we must overcome a number of significant constraints and seize critical opportunities These include reducing inertia in social and economic systems; building on a growing public desire for governments to act on climate change; removing implicit and explicit subsidies; reducing the influence of vested interests that increase emissions and reduce resilience; enabling the shifts from ineffective governance and weak institutions to innovative leadership in government, the private sector and civil society; and engaging society in the transition to norms and practices that foster sustainability The editors of the volume are all the session chairs: Professor Agus Sari Dr Aled Jones Science Manager Anders Viksø-Nielsen Dr Andreas Barkman Professor Anette Reenberg Professor Ann Henderson-Sellers Professor Anthony J McMichael Dr Anthony Patt Dr Bette Otto-Bliesner Dr Cameron Hepburn Dr Carlos Nobre Dr Carol Turley Dr Chris Hope Professor Chris Turney Professor Claus Felby Professor Coleen Vogel Professor Dale Jamieson Professor Daniel M Kammen Senior Scientist Detlef F Sprinz Professor Diana Ürge-Vorsatz Professor Dorthe Dahl-Jensen PhD Fatima Denton Director Generel Frances Seymour Dr Frank Jotzo Professor Harold Mooney Director Henrik Bindslev Mr Jamie Pittock Professor Jacquie Burgess Dr James E Hansen Professor Jiahua Pan Dr Jill Jäger Professor Jim Skea Professor Johan Rockström Dr John Christensen Professor John Mitchell Professor John R Porter Professor Joyeeta Gupta Professor Jørgen E Olesen Professor Karen O'Brien Dr Kazuhiko Takeuchi Dr Katrine Krogh Andersen Professor Keith Paustian Professor Ken Caldeira Professor Kevin Anderson Dr Koko Warner Professor Konrad Steffen Professor Liping Zhou Professor Louise Fresco Professor Maria Carmen Lemos Professor Mark Ashton Dr Mark Stafford-Smith Dr Martin Claussen Dr Martin

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus