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Sample records for keff calculation green

  1. Developpement de methodes de calcul de coefficients de sensibilite des sections efficaces multigroupes autoprotegees et de sensibilite implicite du keff aux densites isotopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime

    Since deterministic codes use a multigroup scheme, self-shielding calculations are required before one can carry out neutron transport calculations. These calculations are used to obtain multigroup cross sections where flux depressions at resonance energies are properly taken into account. For each system where a transport solution is required, self-shielding calculations must be carried out beforehand. Multigroup cross sections in the resonant energy range are therefore system-dependent quantities. This means that a variation on a reactor parameter, an isotopic density for example, will have an impact on the resonant self-shielded cross sections. It is therefore relevant to distinguish between two types of effects resulting from a variation on a given parameter. This parameter can explicitly appear in the transport equation (for example, an isotopic density explicitly appears through the macroscopic cross sections of the corresponding mixture) and perturb the multiplication factor keff (or any other quantity obtained from solving the transport equation). This is called an explicit effect. This parameter variation can also affect self-shielding calculations and perturb resonant multigroup cross sections, which can themselves cause a variation of keff. This is what we refer to as an implicit effect. In general, the keff perturbations resulting from the implicit effect have the opposite sign of those resulting from the explicit effect. When a variation on a parameter leads to a perturbation on another parameter, following a transport calculation for instance, we can compute sensitivity coefficients between those two parameters. In this thesis, we consider the self-shielded cross sections and keff sensitivity coefficients to isotopic densities. More precisely, we develop methods to compute the self-shielded cross sections sensitivity to densities arising from two different self-shielding models, an equivalent dilution model and a subgroup model. Once these

  2. A useful observable for estimating keff in fast subcritical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, Paolo; Borreani, Walter; Chersola, Davide; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Ricco, Gianni; Ripani, Marco

    2017-09-01

    The neutron multiplication factor keff is a key quantity to characterize subcritical neutron multiplying devices and for understanting their physical behaviour, being related to the fundamental eigenvalue of Boltzmann transport equation. Both the maximum available power - and all quantities related to it, like, e.g. the effectiveness in burning nuclear wastes - as well as reactor kinetics and dynamics depend on keff. Nevertheless, keff is not directly measurable and its determination results from the solution of an inverse problem: minimizing model dependence of the solution for keff then becomes a critical issue, relevant both for practical and theoretical reasons.

  3. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  4. Green dyadic calculations for inhomogeneous optical media

    PubMed

    Hartman

    2000-06-01

    A difference equation obtained for the reassociated Green dyadic formalism is exploited to obtain solutions for the case of a multilayered dielectric medium: Computation of limits as layers become progressively thinner leads to a parallel development for the case of a dielectric varying continuously in a single direction. A demonstration example then shows how discrete and continuous techniques can be combined into a hybrid formulation. Finally, numerical computations are presented for the simple case of a dipole, illustrating convergence of the difference equation solutions to the differential equation solution.

  5. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses: Criticality (keff) Predictions

    DOE PAGES

    Scaglione, John M.; Mueller, Don E.; Wagner, John C.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most important remaining challenges associated with expanded implementation of burnup credit in the United States is the validation of depletion and criticality calculations used in the safety evaluation—in particular, the availability and use of applicable measured data to support validation, especially for fission products (FPs). Applicants and regulatory reviewers have been constrained by both a scarcity of data and a lack of clear technical basis or approach for use of the data. In this study, this paper describes a validation approach for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety (keff) evaluations based on best-available data and methodsmore » and applies the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The criticality validation approach utilizes not only available laboratory critical experiment (LCE) data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the French Haut Taux de Combustion program to support validation of the principal actinides but also calculated sensitivities, nuclear data uncertainties, and limited available FP LCE data to predict and verify individual biases for relevant minor actinides and FPs. The results demonstrate that (a) sufficient critical experiment data exist to adequately validate keff calculations via conventional validation approaches for the primary actinides, (b) sensitivity-based critical experiment selection is more appropriate for generating accurate application model bias and uncertainty, and (c) calculated sensitivities and nuclear data uncertainties can be used for generating conservative estimates of bias for minor actinides and FPs. Results based on the SCALE 6.1 and the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section libraries indicate that a conservative estimate of the bias for the minor actinides and FPs is 1.5% of their worth within the

  6. Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of /sup 4/He

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Green's Function Monte Carlo methods have been developed to study the ground state properties of light nuclei. These methods are shown to reproduce results of Faddeev calculations for A = 3, and are then used to calculate ground state energies, one- and two-body distribution functions, and the D-state probability for the alpha particle. Results are compared to variational Monte Carlo calculations for several nuclear interaction models. 31 refs.

  7. Green Function Calculation for Full-potential Multiple Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Nicholson, Don

    2001-03-01

    The Green function in the multiple scattering theory of Korringa(J.Korringa, Physica) 13, 392 (1947)., Kohn and Rostoker(W.Kohn and N.Rostoker, Phys. Rev.) 94, 1111 (1954). provides a very convenient approach to the electronic structure calculation for solids. The Green function was originally developed for muffin-tin potentials(J.S. Faulkner and G.M. Stocks, Phys. Rev.) B 21, 3222 (1980)., but can be generalized to the full potential case in which the one-electron potential associated with each atom is of arbitrary geometric shape. In this talk, we present our numerical techniques for Green function calculation in our newly developed full potential multiple scattering method code. We test the calculated Green function against the analytical expression for the case of three dimensional space filling simple analytic potentials. We show how the surface integral technique is used for the calculation of the single site scattering matrices and irregular solutions. We also discuss the L-convergence properties of the Green function.

  8. Loop calculations for the Green-Schwarz superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, Steven

    1987-03-01

    Several path integrals are calculated for the heterotic string with the Green-Schwarz covariant action. It is shown that if supersymmetry is unbroken, the cosmological constant vanishes to all orders, and one-and two-particle S-matrix elements for massless particles recieve no loop corrections. In addition, the one-loop calculation at finite temperature gives the correct lowest-order free energy.

  9. Variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Carlson, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Pudliner, B.S.

    1995-08-01

    We performed an extensive series of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations for few-body nuclei using a Hamiltonian, H, containing the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN interaction supplemented by a model three-nucleon (3N) potential. These calculations include the ground state binding energy of {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 6}He, {sup 6}Li and {sup 6}Be, low-lying excited states in the A = 6 nuclei, and scattering states of {sup 5}He. The variational wave functions, {Psi}{sub v}(R), include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two- and three-body correlations. These trial functions give upper bounds to the ground-state binding energy {approximately}2% above exact GFMC calculations in {sup 3}H and {sup 4}He.

  10. Green's function formalism for calculating spin-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasetiawan, F.; Karlsson, K.

    1999-09-01

    We propose a formalism for calculating ab initio spin-wave spectra which is based on the many-body temperature Green's function. The main quantity to be calculated is the linear magnetic susceptibility from which all magnetic excitations involving the creation of an additional spin in the system can formally be obtained. The Schwinger functional derivative technique is employed in calculating the self-energy. The approach avoids both the assumption of local spins (Heisenberg model) and the use of a local exchange and correlation interaction (local-density approximation). Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the kernel describing the interaction between electrons in both spin channels. However, this kernel exhibits a nonlocal screened interaction.

  11. EVALUATING METRICS FOR GREEN CHEMISTRIES: INFORMATION AND CALCULATION NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of green chemistries. This methodology called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Ob...

  12. EVALUATING METRICS FOR GREEN CHEMISTRIES: INFORMATION AND CALCULATION NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing a methodology for the evaluation of green chemistries. This methodology called GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Ob...

  13. KefF, the regulatory subunit of the potassium efflux system KefC, shows quinone oxidoreductase activity.

    PubMed

    Lyngberg, Lisbeth; Healy, Jessica; Bartlett, Wendy; Miller, Samantha; Conway, Stuart J; Booth, Ian R; Rasmussen, Tim

    2011-09-01

    Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria protect themselves from the toxic effects of electrophilic compounds by using a potassium efflux system (Kef). Potassium efflux is coupled to the influx of protons, which lowers the internal pH and results in immediate protection. The activity of the Kef system is subject to complex regulation by glutathione and its S conjugates. Full activation of KefC requires a soluble ancillary protein, KefF. This protein has structural similarities to oxidoreductases, including human quinone reductases 1 and 2. Here, we show that KefF has enzymatic activity as an oxidoreductase, in addition to its role as the KefC activator. It accepts NADH and NADPH as electron donors and quinones and ferricyanide (in addition to other compounds) as acceptors. However, typical electrophilic activators of the Kef system, e.g., N-ethyl maleimide, are not substrates. If the enzymatic activity is disrupted by site-directed mutagenesis while retaining structural integrity, KefF is still able to activate the Kef system, showing that the role as an activator is independent of the enzyme activity. Potassium efflux assays show that electrophilic quinones are able to activate the Kef system by forming S conjugates with glutathione. Therefore, it appears that the enzymatic activity of KefF diminishes the redox toxicity of quinones, in parallel with the protection afforded by activation of the Kef system.

  14. Parametric design calculations using Green's function to determine unique source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. L.; Lan, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The energy dependence of the current incident on a macrocell can in principle be determined if the Green's function and the interior flux due to the total current are known. The Green's function is the flux within some portion of the macrocell due to a unit source in each energy group. It was demonstrated that the appropriate solution for the current is obtained for the higher energy groups in a fast reactor example. However, the lower energy groups are very sensitive to the downscattering and the solution even led to negative values for the incident partial current in some energy groups, which is not physical. In this particular example, the preliminary design study was insensitive to the incident current of the lower energy groups. For problems where the lower groups are important, it would seem prudent to abandon the exact solution and use a weighted least squares solution. Such a weighted least squares solution could assign importance for obtaining nearly the exact solution for as many energy groups as possible, while simultaneously making slight adjustments in the higher energy currents to obtain downscatter contributions that will approximately perserve the flux in the lower energy groups.

  15. Green's function calculation of through-bond electronic coupling in donor bridge acceptor model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, O. L.; da Gama, A. A. S.

    1999-12-01

    The Green's function formalism is applied for the calculation of the effective through-bond donor-acceptor coupling in model molecular systems. The calculation is performed at a Hartree-Fock (self-consistent) level, by using semiempirical AM1 and CNDO/S, and ab initio STO-3G methods. The results are compared with that obtained from the splitting of the appropriate levels, by using the Koopmans' theorem, within each one of the selected quantum chemical methods.

  16. Direct calculation of the lattice Green function with arbitrary interactions for general crystals.

    PubMed

    Yasi, Joseph A; Trinkle, Dallas R

    2012-06-01

    Efficient computation of lattice defect geometries such as point defects, dislocations, disconnections, grain boundaries, interfaces, and free surfaces requires accurate coupling of displacements near the defect to the long-range elastic strain. Flexible boundary condition methods embed a defect in infinite harmonic bulk through the lattice Green function. We demonstrate an efficient and accurate calculation of the lattice Green function from the force-constant matrix for general crystals with an arbitrary basis by extending a method for Bravais lattices. New terms appear due to the presence of optical modes and the possible loss of inversion symmetry. By separately treating poles and discontinuities in reciprocal space, numerical accuracy is controlled at all distances. We compute the lattice Green function for a two-dimensional model with broken symmetry to elucidate the role of different coupling terms. The algorithm is generally applicable in two and three dimensions to crystals with arbitrary number of atoms in the unit cell, symmetry, and interactions.

  17. Application of the PSI-NUSS Tool for the Estimation of Nuclear Data Related keff Uncertainties for the OECD/NEA WPNCS UACSA Phase I Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), a methodology titled PSI-NUSS is under development for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into Criticality Safety Evaluation (CSE) with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The primary purpose is to provide a complementary option for the uncertainty assessment related to nuclear data, versus the traditional approach which relies on estimating biases/uncertainties based on validation studies against representative critical benchmark experiments. In the present paper, the PSI-NUSS methodology is applied to quantify nuclear data uncertainties for the OECD/NEA UACSA Exercise Phase I benchmark. One underlying reason is that PSI's CSE methodology developed so far and previously applied for this benchmark was based on using a more conventional approach, involving engineering guesses in order to estimate uncertainties in the calculated effective multiplication factor (keff). Therefore, as the PSI-NUSS methodology aims precisely at integrating a more rigorous treatment of the specific type of uncertainties from nuclear data for CSE, its application to the UACSA is conducted here: nuclear data related uncertainty component is estimated and compared to results obtained by other participants using different codes/libraries and methodologies.

  18. Surface Green's function calculations: a nonrecursive scheme with an infinite number of principal layers.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Aleksey; Dahnovsky, Yuri; Ortiz, J V

    2007-04-07

    A novel computational method for a surface Green's function matrix is introduced for the calculation of electrical current in molecular wires. The proposed nonrecursive approach includes an infinite number of principal layers and yields the second-order matrix equation for the transformed Green's function matrix. The solution is found by the direct diagonalization of the auxiliary matrix without any iteration process. As soon as complex roots of the auxiliary matrix (approximately GS) are calculated, the gaps and the bands in the surface electronic structure are found. It is shown that the solution of a second-order matrix equation determines the spectral density matrix, that is, the density of states for noninteracting electrons. Single and double principal layer models are studied both analytically and numerically. The energy interval for nonvanishing spectral matrices is determined. This method is applicable to matrices of any rank.

  19. Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function calculations on a layered dielectric/ferrite structure

    SciTech Connect

    How, Hoton; Zuo, Xu; Vittoria, Carmine

    2001-06-01

    Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function techniques have been applied to solve the transmission properties of a microstrip line fabricated on top of a single-crystal Y-type hexaferrite substrate. Current potentials are used to construct the Galerkin elements to facilitate solution accuracy even in the FMR region. Transmission coefficients of a microstrip line fabricated on a Y-type hexaferrite substrate were thus calculated, which compared reasonably well with measurements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Analytical calculation of the Green's function and Drude weight for a correlated fermion-boson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvermann, A.; Edwards, D. M.; Fehske, H.

    2010-04-01

    In classical Drude theory the conductivity is determined by the mass of the propagating particles and the mean free path between two scattering events. For a quantum particle this simple picture of diffusive transport loses relevance if strong correlations dominate the particle motion. We study a situation where the propagation of a fermionic particle is possible only through creation and annihilation of local bosonic excitations. This correlated quantum transport process is outside the Drude picture, since one cannot distinguish between free propagation and intermittent scattering. The characterization of transport is possible using the Drude weight obtained from the f-sum rule, although its interpretation in terms of free mass and mean free path breaks down. For the situation studied we calculate the Green's function and Drude weight using a Green's functions expansion technique, and discuss their physical meaning.

  1. The algorithms for calculating synthetic seismograms from a dipole source using the derivatives of Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of calculating complete synthetic seismograms from a point dipole with an arbitrary seismic moment tensor in a plane parallel medium composed of homogeneous elastic isotropic layers is considered. It is established that the solutions of the system of ordinary differential equations for the motion-stress vector have a reciprocity property, which allows obtaining a compact formula for the derivative of the motion vector with respect to the source depth. The reciprocity theorem for Green's functions with respect to the interchange of the source and receiver is obtained for a medium with cylindrical boundary. The differentiation of Green's functions with respect to the coordinates of the source leads to the same calculation formulas as the algorithm developed in the previous work (Pavlov, 2013). A new algorithm appears when the derivatives with respect to the horizontal coordinates of the source is replaced by the derivatives with respect to the horizontal coordinates of the receiver (with the minus sign). This algorithm is more transparent, compact, and economic than the previous one. It requires calculating the wavenumbers associated with Bessel function's roots of order 0 and order 1, whereas the previous algorithm additionally requires the second order roots.

  2. A general method for calculating lattice green functions on the branch cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yen Lee

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for calculating the complex Green function Gij (ω) at any real frequency ω between any two sites i and j on a lattice. Starting from numbers of walks on square, cubic, honeycomb, triangular, bcc, fcc, and diamond lattices, we derive Chebyshev expansion coefficients for Gij (ω) . The convergence of the Chebyshev series can be accelerated by constructing functions f(ω) that mimic the van Hove singularities in Gij (ω) and subtracting their Chebyshev coefficients from the original coefficients. We demonstrate this explicitly for the square lattice and bcc lattice. Our algorithm achieves typical accuracies of 6–9 significant figures using 1000 series terms.

  3. Thermal conductivity calculation of nano-suspensions using green-kubo relations with reduced artificial correlations.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, Murali Gopal; Sundaram, Dilip; Henry, Asegun; Yang, Vigor

    2017-02-07

    The presence of artificial correlations associated with Green-Kubo (GK) thermal conductivity calculations is investigated. The thermal conductivity of nano-suspensions is calculated by equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations using GK relations. Calculations are first performed for a single alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticle dispersed in a water medium. For a particle size of 1 nm and volume fraction of 9%, results show enhancements as high as 235%, which is much higher than the Maxwell model predictions. When calculations are done with multiple suspended particles, no such anomalous enhancement is observed. This is because the vibrations in alumina crystal can act as low frequency perturbations, which can travel long distances through the surrounding water medium, characterized by higher vibration frequencies. As a result of the periodic boundaries, they re-enter the system resulting in a circular resonance of thermal fluctuations between the alumina particle and its own image, eventually leading to artificial correlations in the heat current autocorrelation function (HCACF), which when integrated yields abnormally high thermal conductivities. Adding more particles presents 'obstacles' with which the fluctuations interact and get dissipated, before they get fed back to the periodic image. A systematic study of the temporal evolution of HCACF indicates that the magnitude and oscillations of artificial correlations decrease substantially with increase in the number of suspended nanoparticles.

  4. A New Green's Function for the Wake Potential Calculation of the SLAC S-band Constant Gradient Accelerating Section

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A,; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    The behavior of the longitudinal wake fields excited by a very short bunch in the SLAC S-band constant gradient accelerating structures has been studied. Wake potential calculations were performed for a bunch length of 10 microns using the author's code to obtain a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. We have calculated six accelerating sections in the series (60-ft) to find the stationary solution. While analyzing the computational results we have found a new formula for the Green's function. Wake potentials, which are calculated using this Green's function are in amazingly good agreement with numerical results over a wide range of bunch lengths. The Green's function simplifies the wake potential calculations and can be easily incorporated into the tracking codes. This is very useful for beam dynamics studies of the linear accelerators of LCLS and FACET.

  5. Calculation of the vacuum Green's function valid for high toroidal mode number in tokamaks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Morrell; Turnbull, Alan

    2005-10-01

    The present evaluation of the Green's function used for the magmetic scalar potential in vacuum calculations for axisymmetric geometry in the vacuum segments of gato, pest and other mhd stability codes has been found to be deficient for moderately high toroidal mode numbers. This was due to the loss of numerical precision arising from the upward recursion relation used for generating the functions to high mode numbers. The recursion is initiated from the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. To ameliorate this, a direct integration of the integral representation of the function was crafted to achieve the necessary high accuracy for moderately high mode numbers. At very high mode numbers the loss of numerical precision due to the oscillatory behavior of the integrand is further avoided by judiciously deforming the integration contour in the complex plane. Machine precision, roughly 14 -- 16 digits, accuracy can be achieved by using a combination of both these techniques.

  6. General theory for calculating disorder-averaged Green's function correlators within the coherent potential approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenyi; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We report a diagrammatic method to solve the general problem of calculating configurationally averaged Green's function correlators that appear in quantum transport theory for nanostructures containing disorder. The theory treats both equilibrium and nonequilibrium quantum statistics on an equal footing. Since random impurity scattering is a problem that cannot be solved exactly in a perturbative approach, we combine our diagrammatic method with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) so that a reliable closed-form solution can be obtained. Our theory not only ensures the internal consistency of the diagrams derived at different levels of the correlators but also satisfies a set of Ward-like identities that corroborate the conserving consistency of transport calculations within the formalism. The theory is applied to calculate the quantum transport properties such as average ac conductance and transmission moments of a disordered tight-binding model, and results are numerically verified to high precision by comparing to the exact solutions obtained from enumerating all possible disorder configurations. Our formalism can be employed to predict transport properties of a wide variety of physical systems where disorder scattering is important.

  7. Hybrid method for the precise calculation of the general dyadic Greens functions for SAW and leaky wave substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the generalized method for calculation of the 16-element Green's function for analysis of surface acoustic waves has proven crucial to develop more sophisticated transducers. The generalized Green's function provides a precise relationship between the acoustic stresses and electric displacement on the three mechanical displacements and electric potential. This generalized method is able to account for mass loading effects which is absent in the effective permittivity approach. However, the calculation is numerically intensive and may lead to numerical instabilities when solving for both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors simultaneously. In this work, the general eigenvalue problem was modified to eliminate the numerical instabilities in the solving procedure. An algorithm is also presented to select the proper eigenvalues rapidly to facilitate analysis for all types of acoustic propagation. The 4 x 4 Green's functions and effective permittivities were calculated for materials supporting Rayleigh, leaky, and leaky longitudinal waves as demonstration of the method.

  8. Direct calculation of modal contributions to thermal conductivity via Green-Kubo modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    We derived a new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA). The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode’s contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. As an example, we applied the GMKA method to crystalline and amorphous silicon. The modal contributions at each frequency result from the analysis and thereby allow one to apply a quantum correction to the mode heat capacity to determine the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. The predicted temperature dependent thermal conductivity for amorphous silicon shows the best agreement with experiments to date. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  9. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software. National Stormwater Calculator

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementat...

  10. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software. National Stormwater Calculator

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementat...

  11. Accurate calculation of Green functions on the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yen Lee

    2011-07-01

    We write the Green function of the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice in a piecewise form covering the entire real frequency axis. Each piece is a single integral involving modified Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. The smoothness of the integrand allows both real and imaginary parts of the Green function to be computed quickly and accurately for any dimension d and any real frequency, and the computational time scales only linearly with d.

  12. Flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo method: calculation of the Green's function in imaginary time.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Nikolaos G; Manousakis, Efstratios

    2013-10-01

    The diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method is a numerical technique which samples the entire diagrammatic series of the Green's function in quantum many-body systems. In this work, we incorporate the flat histogram principle in the diagrammatic Monte Carlo method, and we term the improved version the "flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo" method. We demonstrate the superiority of this method over the standard DiagMC in extracting the long-imaginary-time behavior of the Green's function, without incorporating any a priori knowledge about this function, by applying the technique to the polaron problem.

  13. Flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo method: Calculation of the Green's function in imaginary time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantis, Nikolaos G.; Manousakis, Efstratios

    2013-10-01

    The diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method is a numerical technique which samples the entire diagrammatic series of the Green's function in quantum many-body systems. In this work, we incorporate the flat histogram principle in the diagrammatic Monte Carlo method, and we term the improved version the “flat histogram diagrammatic Monte Carlo” method. We demonstrate the superiority of this method over the standard DiagMC in extracting the long-imaginary-time behavior of the Green's function, without incorporating any a priori knowledge about this function, by applying the technique to the polaron problem.

  14. Comparison of the Green-Kubo and homogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics methods for calculating thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongre, B.; Wang, T.; Madsen, G. K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Different molecular dynamics methods like the direct method, the Green-Kubo (GK) method and homogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (HNEMD) method have been widely used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity ({κ }{\\ell }). While the first two methods have been used and compared quite extensively, there is a lack of comparison of these methods with the HNEMD method. Focusing on the underlying computational parameters, we present a detailed comparison of the GK and HNEMD methods for both bulk and vacancy Si using the Stillinger-Weber potential. For the bulk calculations, we find both methods to perform well and yield {κ }{\\ell } within acceptable uncertainties. In case of the vacancy calculations, HNEMD method has a slight advantage over the GK method as it becomes computationally cheaper for lower {κ }{\\ell } values. This study could promote the application of HNEMD method in {κ }{\\ell } calculations involving other lattice defects like nanovoids, dislocations, interfaces.

  15. Calculating the carbon emissions associated with San Jose's Green Vision goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Prada, L.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the City of San Jose adopted a Green Vision that includes 10 measurable goals, which aim to promote job growth in clean tech and preserve the environment. The goals include a 50% reduction of per capita energy use, a 100% diversion of waste from landfill, a 100% recycling or reuse of wastewater, and the building or retro fitting of 50 million square feet of green buildings. While there are clear benefits from these initiatives, it is unclear how these changes will affect emissions of greenhouse gases and what contribution the Green Vision will have on the total carbon emissions of the city. Using San Jose as a case study this work will first estimate citywide baseline carbon emissions using data from the last decade. We then will describe efforts to compute the change in carbon emissions associated with each of the city’s green vision goals. The intention of this work is to develop a set of metrics that other cities and institutions can use to better quantify the carbon emissions associated with their current and future ‘green’ initiatives.

  16. Free radicals generated during oxidation of green tea polyphenols: electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Severino, Joyce Ferreira; Goodman, Bernard A; Kay, Christopher W M; Stolze, Klaus; Tunega, Daniel; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Pirker, Katharina F

    2009-04-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the redox properties of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs) (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG). Aqueous extracts of green tea and these individual phenols were autoxidized at alkaline pH and oxidized by superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) radicals in dimethyl sulfoxide. Several new aspects of the free radical chemistry of GTPs were revealed. EGCG can be oxidized on both the B and the D ring. The B ring was the main oxidation site during autoxidation, but the D ring was the preferred site for O(2)(-) oxidation. Oxidation of the D ring was followed by structural degradation, leading to generation of a radical identical to that of oxidized gallic acid. Alkaline autoxidation of green tea extracts produced four radicals that were related to products of the oxidation of EGCG, EGC, ECG, and gallic acid, whereas the spectra from O(2)(-) oxidation could be explained solely by radicals generated from EGCG. Assignments of hyperfine coupling constants were made by DFT calculations, allowing the identities of the radicals observed to be confirmed.

  17. Validation of back-calculated body lengths and timing of growth mark deposition in Hawaiian green sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Goshe, Lisa R; Snover, Melissa L; Hohn, Aleta A; Balazs, George H

    2016-05-01

    Somatic growth rate data for wild sea turtles can provide insight into life-stage durations, time to maturation, and total lifespan. When appropriately validated, the technique of skeletochronology allows prior growth rates of sea turtles to be calculated with considerably less time and labor than required by mark--recapture studies. We applied skeletochronology to 10 dead, stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas that had previously been measured, tagged, and injected with OTC (oxytetracycline) during mark-recapture studies in Hawaii for validating skeletochronological analysis. We tested the validity of back-calculating carapace lengths (CLs) from diameters of LAGs (lines of arrested growth), which mark the outer boundaries of individual skeletal growth increments. This validation was achieved by comparing CLs estimated from measurements of the LAG proposed to have been deposited closest to the time of tagging to actual CLs measured at the time of tagging. Measureable OTC-mark diameters in five turtles also allowed us to investigate the time of year when LAGs are deposited. We found no significant difference between CLs measured at tagging and those estimated through skeletochronology, which supports calculation of somatic growth rates by taking the difference between CLs estimated from successive LAG diameters in humerus bones for this species. Back-calculated CLs associated with the OTC mark and growth mark deposited closest to tagging indicated that annual LAGs are deposited in the spring. The results of this validation study increase confidence in utilization of skeletochronology to rapidly obtain accurate age and growth data for green turtles.

  18. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  19. First-principles transport calculation method based on real-space finite-difference nonequilibrium Green's function scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomoya; Egami, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Kikuji

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an efficient nonequilibrium Green's function transport calculation procedure based on the real-space finite-difference method. The direct inversion of matrices for obtaining the self-energy terms of electrodes is computationally demanding in the real-space method because the matrix dimension corresponds to the number of grid points in the unit cell of electrodes, which is much larger than that of sites in the tight-binding approach. The procedure using the ratio matrices of the overbridging boundary-matching technique [Y. Fujimoto and K. Hirose, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.67.195315 67, 195315 (2003)], which is related to the wave functions of a couple of grid planes in the matching regions, greatly reduces the computational effort to calculate self-energy terms without losing mathematical strictness. In addition, the present procedure saves computational time to obtain the Green's function of the semi-infinite system required in the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Moreover, the compact expression to relate Green's functions and scattering wave functions, which provide a real-space picture of the scattering process, is introduced. An example of the calculated results is given for the transport property of the BN ring connected to (9,0) carbon nanotubes. The wave-function matching at the interface reveals that the rotational symmetry of wave functions with respect to the tube axis plays an important role in electron transport. Since the states coming from and going to electrodes show threefold rotational symmetry, the states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, the wave function of which exhibits fivefold symmetry, do not contribute to the electron transport through the BN ring.

  20. Time domain half-space dyadic Green's functions for eddy-current calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    The field due to an impulsive current dipole embedded in a half-space conductor adjoining a nonconducting half space is given by an exact solution of the quasistatic field equations. This solution has been used to construct a half-space dyadic Green's function containing a term for an unbounded conductor plus terms representing the field reflected at the interface between conducting and nonconducting regions. The resulting kernel can be used in the formulation of time-dependent scattering problems to express the electric field in a conductor as an integral over an electric dipole distribution.

  1. Numerical Green's functions in optical potential calculations for positron scattering from argon and neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartschat, K.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    An optical potential method was applied to the calculation of positron scattering from the noble gases in order to determine the effect of open excitation channels on the shape of differential scattering cross sections.

  2. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  3. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: First-principles calculations and Green's function transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Sridhar; Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Charles, James; Miao, Kai; Kubis, Tillmann; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2017-02-01

    Heat transfer across metal-semiconductor interfaces involves multiple fundamental transport mechanisms such as elastic and inelastic phonon scattering, and electron-phonon coupling within the metal and across the interface. The relative contributions of these different transport mechanisms to the interface conductance remains unclear in the current literature. In this work, we use a combination of first-principles calculations under the density functional theory framework and heat transport simulations using the atomistic Green's function (AGF) method to quantitatively predict the contribution of the different scattering mechanisms to the thermal interface conductance of epitaxial CoSi2-Si interfaces. An important development in the present work is the direct computation of interfacial bonding from density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and hence the avoidance of commonly used "mixing rules" to obtain the cross-interface force constants from bulk material force constants. Another important algorithmic development is the integration of the recursive Green's function (RGF) method with Büttiker probe scattering that enables computationally efficient simulations of inelastic phonon scattering and its contribution to the thermal interface conductance. First-principles calculations of electron-phonon coupling reveal that cross-interface energy transfer between metal electrons and atomic vibrations in the semiconductor is mediated by delocalized acoustic phonon modes that extend on both sides of the interface, and phonon modes that are localized inside the semiconductor region of the interface exhibit negligible coupling with electrons in the metal. We also provide a direct comparison between simulation predictions and experimental measurements of thermal interface conductance of epitaxial CoSi2-Si interfaces using the time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Importantly, the experimental results, performed across a wide temperature range, only agree well with

  4. Transport equation approach to calculations of Hadamard Green functions and non-coincident DeWitt coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Building on an insight due to Avramidi, we provide a system of transport equations for determining key fundamental bitensors, including derivatives of the world function, σ(x,x'), the square root of the Van Vleck determinant, Δ1/2(x,x'), and the tail term, V(x,x'), appearing in the Hadamard form of the Green function. These bitensors are central to a broad range of problems from radiation reaction to quantum field theory in curved spacetime and quantum gravity. Their transport equations may be used either in a semi-recursive approach to determining their covariant Taylor series expansions, or as the basis of numerical calculations. To illustrate the power of the semi-recursive approach, we present an implementation in Mathematica, which computes very high order covariant series expansions of these objects. Using this code, a moderate laptop can, for example, calculate the coincidence limit [a7(x,x)] and V(x,x') to order (σa)20 in a matter of minutes. Results may be output in either a compact notation or in xTensor form. In a second application of the approach, we present a scheme for numerically integrating the transport equations as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. As an example application of the scheme, we integrate along null geodesics to solve for V(x,x') in Nariai and Schwarzschild spacetimes.

  5. An Approach for Validating Actinide and Fission Product Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses--Criticality (keff) Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Mueller, Don; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant remaining challenges associated with expanded implementation of burnup credit in the United States is the validation of depletion and criticality calculations used in the safety evaluation - in particular, the availability and use of applicable measured data to support validation, especially for fission products. Applicants and regulatory reviewers have been constrained by both a scarcity of data and a lack of clear technical basis or approach for use of the data. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff have noted that the rationale for restricting their Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit (ISG-8) to actinide-only is based largely on the lack of clear, definitive experiments that can be used to estimate the bias and uncertainty for computational analyses associated with using burnup credit. To address the issue of validation, the NRC initiated a project with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to (1) develop and establish a technically sound validation approach (both depletion and criticality) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) criticality safety evaluations based on best-available data and methods and (2) apply the approach for representative SNF storage and transport configurations/conditions to demonstrate its usage and applicability, as well as to provide reference bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the criticality (k{sub eff}) validation approach, and resulting observations and recommendations. Validation of the isotopic composition (depletion) calculations is addressed in a companion paper at this conference. For criticality validation, the approach is to utilize (1) available laboratory critical experiment (LCE) data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the French Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) program to support validation of the principal actinides and (2) calculated sensitivities, nuclear data uncertainties, and the limited available fission

  6. Benchmarking the performance of density functional theory based Green's function formalism utilizing different self-energy models in calculating electronic transmission through molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Prociuk, Alexander; Van Kuiken, Ben; Dunietz, Barry D

    2006-11-28

    Electronic transmission through a metal-molecule-metal system is calculated by employing a Green's function formalism in the scattering based scheme. Self-energy models representing the bulk and the potential bias are used to describe electron transport through the molecular system. Different self-energies can be defined by varying the partition between device and bulk regions of the metal-molecule-metal model system. In addition, the self-energies are calculated with different representations of the bulk through its Green's function. In this work, the dependence of the calculated transmission on varying the self-energy subspaces is benchmarked. The calculated transmission is monitored with respect to the different choices defining the self-energy model. In this report, we focus on one-dimensional model systems with electronic structures calculated at the density functional level of theory.

  7. Raman spectra and DFT calculations for tetraterpene hydrocarbons from the L race of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Hye Jin; Waqued, Sergio; Thapa, Hem R.; Han, Arum; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Laane, Jaan; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2017-02-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be used as a renewable source for producing transportation fuels. In the L race of B. braunii the tetraterpene known as lycopadiene accumulates as the main hydrocarbon. Lycopadiene biosynthesis begins with the production of the eight carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) containing molecule lycopaoctaene, which is reduced to lycopadiene through four intermediates containing less C=C bonds. While the biosynthetic pathway for these hydrocarbons has recently been deciphered, a spectroscopic understanding of the molecular structure for these molecules remains to be reported. Here we describe the vibrational frequency assignments for all six L race hydrocarbons using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, showing that these molecules have between 312 and 348 vibrational frequencies. Experimental Raman spectroscopy analysis shows the regions for ν(C=C) stretch and CH2/CH3 bending vibrations offer unique spectral signatures allowing for the differentiation of several of the hydrocarbons from each other.

  8. Green Function Calculations of Properties for the Magnetocaloric Layered Structures Based Upon FeMnAsP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F.

    2016-11-01

    The alternating Fe-Mn layered structures of the compounds FeMnAsxP1-x display properties which have been demonstrated experimentally as very promising as far as commercial applications of the magnetocaloric effect are concerned. However, the theoretical literature on this and other families of magnetocaloric compounds still adopts simple molecular-field models in the description of important statistical mechanical properties like the entropy variation that accompanies applied isothermal magnetic field cycling, as well as the temperature variation following adiabatic magnetic field cycles. In the present paper, a random phase approximation Green function theoretical treatment is applied to such structures. The advantages of such approach are well known since the details of the crystal structure are easily incorporated in the model, as well as a precise description of correlations between neighbor spins can be obtained. We focus on a simple one-exchange parameter Heisenberg model, and the observed first-order phase transitions are reproduced by the introduction of a biquadratic term in the Hamiltonian whose origin is related both to the magnetoelastic coupling with the phonon spectrum in these compounds as well as with the values of spins in the Fe and Mn ions. The calculations are compared with experimental magnetocaloric data for the FeMnAsxP1-x compounds. In particular, the magnetic field dependence for the entropy variation at the transition temperature predicted from the Landau theory of continuous phase transitions is reproduced even in the case of discontinuous transitions.

  9. Calculation of the second term of the exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for diffusion-controlled chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik

    2016-01-01

    The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms.

  10. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ``end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified.

  11. Eleventh-order calculation of Ising-limit Green's functions for scalar quantum field theory in arbitrary space-time dimension [ital D

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M. ); Boettcher, S. )

    1995-02-15

    This paper extends an earlier high-temperature lattice calculation of the renormalized Green's function of a [ital D]-dimensional Euclidean scalar quantum field theory in the Ising limit. The previous calculation included all graphs through sixth order. Here, we present the results of an eleventh-order calculation. The extrapolation to the continuum limit in the previous calculation was rather clumsy and did not appear to converge when [ital D][gt]2. Here, we present an improved extrapolation which gives uniformly good results for all real values of the dimension between [ital D]=0 and [ital D]=4. We find that the four-point Green's function has the value 0.620[plus minus]0.007 when [ital D]=2 and 0.98[plus minus]0.01 when [ital D]=3 and that the six-point Green's function has the value 0.96[plus minus]0.03 when [ital D]=2 and 1.2[plus minus]0.2 when [ital D]=3.

  12. New heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes from indazole: Synthesis, tautomerism, alkylation studies, spectroscopic characterization and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorhaji, Soodabeh; Pordel, Mehdi; Ramezani, Shirin

    2016-09-01

    Tautomerism and alkylation studies on the green intermediate 2-(5-hydroxyimino-1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-4-indazolyliden)-2-phenylacetonitrile led to the synthesis of new heterocyclic green, blue and orange dyes in high yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and analytical data. The optical properties of the dyes were spectrally characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and results show that they exhibited interesting photophysical properties. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of these dyes have been studied and the absorption band in polar solvents undergoes a red shift. Density functional theory calculations of the dyes were performed to provide the optimized geometries and relevant frontier orbitals. Calculated electronic absorption spectra were also obtained by time-dependent density functional theory method.

  13. Green function approach for the ab initio calculation of the optical and magneto-optical properties of solids:  Accounting for dynamical many-body effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlov, A.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.

    2003-12-01

    An approach for the calculation of the optical and magneto-optical properties of solids based on the one-particle Green function is introduced in the framework of the linear muffin-tin orbital method. The approach keeps all advantages of the more accurate Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme as the possibility to account for many-body effects in terms of the nonlocal energy dependent self-energy but is numerically much more efficient. Application of various proposed model self-energies for the calculation of the optical properties of bulk Ni and Fe demonstrates the great potential of the new scheme.

  14. A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. J.; Pendry, J. B.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present an updated version of our ONYX program for calculating photonic band structures using a non-orthogonal finite difference time domain method. This new version employs the same transparent formalism as the first version with the same capabilities for calculating photonic band structures or causal Green's functions but also includes extra subroutines for the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. Both the electric and magnetic fields are placed onto a discrete lattice by approximating the spacial and temporal derivatives with finite differences. This results in discrete versions of Maxwell's equations which can be used to integrate the fields forwards in time. The time required for a calculation using this method scales linearly with the number of real space points used in the discretization so the technique is ideally suited to handling systems with large and complicated unit cells.

  15. Ab initio self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function calculations of semi-magic nuclei: Numerical implementation at second order with a two-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somà, V.; Barbieri, C.; Duguet, T.

    2014-02-01

    Background: The newly developed self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function approach represents a promising path to the ab initio description of mid-mass open-shell nuclei. The formalism based on a two-nucleon interaction and the second-order truncation of Gorkov's self-energy has been described in detail in Ref. [Somà, Duguet, and Barbieri, Phys. Rev. C 84, 064317 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevC.84.064317]. Purpose: The objective is to discuss the methodology used to solve Gorkov's equation numerically and to gauge its performance in view of carrying out systematic calculations of medium-mass nuclei in the future. In doing so, different sources of theoretical error and degrees of self-consistency are investigated. Methods: We employ Krylov projection techniques with a multi-pivot Lanczos algorithm to efficiently handle the growth of poles in the one-body Green's function that arises as a result of solving Gorkov's equation self-consistently. We first characterize the numerical scaling of Gorkov's calculations based on full self-consistency and on a partially self-consistent scheme coined as "sc0". Using small model spaces, the Krylov projection technique is then benchmarked against exact diagonalization of the original Gorkov matrix. Next, the convergence of the results as a function of the number Nℓ of Lanczos iterations per pivot is investigated in large model spaces. Eventually, the convergence of the calculations with the size of the harmonic oscillator model space is examined. Results: Gorkov self-consistent Green's function (SCGF) calculations performed on the basis of Krylov projection techniques display a favorable numerical scaling that authorizes systematic calculations of mid-mass nuclei. The Krylov projection selects efficiently the appropriate degrees of freedom while spanning a very small fraction of the original space. For typical large-scale calculations of mid-mass nuclei, a Krylov projection making use of Nℓ≈50 yields a sufficient degree of accuracy

  16. Versatile and green synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations, crystal structure and DFT calculations of 1,2,3‒triazole‒based sulfonamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Sadighian, Hamed; Abdoli, Morteza; Sahandi, Morteza

    2017-03-01

    A green, and practically reliable method for the synthesis of novel 1,2,3‒triazole-based sulfonamides via copper (I)‒catalyzed azide‒alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction was reported. The desired products were characterized by CHN analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI-MS spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimization and molecular orbital calculations. Mild and green reaction conditions, atom-economic and high yields (61-91%) make this protocol an attractive option for the synthesis of 1,2,3‒triazoles bearing sulfonamide moiety. Geometrical structures, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C chemical shift values, Mulliken charge distribution and electrophilicity index (HOMO-LUMO analysis) of the characterized structure of 3f in the ground state have been calculated with the aid of DFT studies. The calculated chemical shifts (NMR) and vibrational frequencies (FT-IR) are in compliance with the experimental findings. The aim of the DFT study was to make a reasonable assignment of vibrational bands and chemical shifts.

  17. Non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for GaN-based terahertz-quantum cascade laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, H.; Kubis, T.; Hosako, I.; Hirakawa, K.

    2012-04-01

    We theoretically investigated GaN-based resonant phonon terahertz-quantum cascade laser (QCL) structures for possible high-temperature operation by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It was found that the GaN-based THz-QCL structures do not necessarily have a gain sufficient for lasing, even though the thermal backfilling and the thermally activated phonon scattering are effectively suppressed. The main reason for this is the broadening of the subband levels caused by a very strong interaction between electrons and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN.

  18. Dissipation rate study and pre-harvest intervals calculation of imidacloprid and oxamyl in exported Egyptian green beans and chili peppers after pestigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Dasenaki, Marilena; Bletsou, Anna; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2018-02-01

    Two QuEChERS-based methods were developed and validated, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection, in order to accurately determine residues of imidacloprid and oxamyl in green beans and chili peppers after treatment via irrigation system under field conditions in Egyptian farms. The validation included experiments for specificity, linearity, trueness, precision, matrix effect and limits of detection and quantification according to European Commission standards. The dissipation rates of both pesticides in green beans and chili peppers were studied and the pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) were calculated. The LOQ values of imidacloprid were 0.47 and 2.6μg/kg in green beans and chili peppers, respectively, while for oxamyl the LOQs were 2.9 and 0.67μg/kg, respectively. No PHI of imidacloprid is required, while for oxamyl it was found that still after 21days, its residues' concentration on both crops was significantly higher than the maximum residue limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SCALE Sensitivity Calculations Using Contributon Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Perfetti, Chris; Williams, Mark L; Petrie Jr, Lester M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequence computes the sensitivity of k-eff to each constituent multigroup cross section using adjoint techniques with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. A new technique to simultaneously obtain the product of the forward and adjoint angular flux moments within a single Monte Carlo calculation has been developed and implemented in the SCALE TSUNAMI-3D analysis sequence. A new concept in Monte Carlo theory has been developed for this work, an eigenvalue contributon estimator, which is an extension of previously developed fixed-source contributon estimators. A contributon is a particle for which the forward solution is accumulated, and its importance to the response, which is equivalent to the adjoint solution, is simultaneously accumulated. Thus, the contributon is a particle coupled with its contribution to the response, in this case keff. As implemented in SCALE, the contributon provides the importance of a particle exiting at any energy or direction for each location, energy and direction at which the forward flux solution is sampled. Although currently implemented for eigenvalue calculations in multigroup mode in KENO, this technique is directly applicable to continuous-energy calculations for many other responses such as fixed-source sensitivity analysis and quantification of reactor kinetics parameters. This paper provides the physical bases of eigenvalue contributon theory, provides details of implementation into TSUNAMI-3D, and provides results of sample calculations.

  20. Source inversion analysis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using Green's functions calculated from a 3-D heterogeneous structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Maeda, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Kunugi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Source inversion analysis using near-source strong-motion records with an assumption of 1-D underground structure models has revealed the overall characteristics of the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake. This assumption for the structure model is acceptable because the seismic waves radiated during the Tohoku-Oki event were rich in the very-low-frequency contents lower than 0.05 Hz, which are less affected by the small-scale heterogeneous structure. The analysis using more reliable Green's functions even in the higher-frequency range considering complex structure of the subduction zone will illuminate more detailed rupture process in space and time and the transition of the frequency dependence of the wave radiation for the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this study, we calculate the near-source Green's functions using a 3-D underground structure model and perform the source inversion analysis using them. The 3-D underground structure model used in this study is the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2012). A curved fault model on the Pacific plate interface is discretized into 287 subfaults at ~20 km interval. The Green's functions are calculated using GMS (Aoi et al., 2004), which is a simulation program package for the seismic wave field by the finite difference method using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). Computational region is 136-146.2E in longitude, 34-41.6N in latitude, and 0-100 km in depth. The horizontal and vertical grid intervals are 200 m and 100 m, respectively, for the shallower region and those for the deeper region are tripled. The number of the total grids is 2.1 billion. We derive 300-s records by calculating 36,000 steps with a time interval of 0.0083 second (120 Hz sampling). It takes nearly one hour to compute one case using 48 Graphics Processing Units (GPU) on TSUBAME2.0 supercomputer owned by Tokyo Institute of Technology. In total, 574 cases are

  1. Finite element calculations for aerodynamic coefficients of a 3-dimensional body in subsonic flow using Green's function method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagizawa, Mitsunori; Kikuchi, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    An accurate method for evaluating the derivatives along circular paths on the surface is proposed. Calculations are made on various practical configurations such as wing-body combinations, tandem wings, wings with dihedral angles at sideslip, ground effects, interference between a sphere and wind tunnel, etc. Comparisons with experiment show good agreement.

  2. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  3. An efficient nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory approach for calculating electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional electrodes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zekan; Li, Rui; Hou, Shimin; Xue, Zengquan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2007-11-21

    An efficient self-consistent approach combining the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism with density functional theory is developed to calculate electron transport properties of molecular devices with quasi-one-dimensional (1D) electrodes. Two problems associated with the low dimensionality of the 1D electrodes, i.e., the nonequilibrium state and the uncertain boundary conditions for the electrostatic potential, are circumvented by introducing the reflectionless boundary conditions at the electrode-contact interfaces and the zero electric field boundary conditions at the electrode-molecule interfaces. Three prototypical systems, respectively, an ideal ballistic conductor, a high resistance tunnel junction, and a molecular device, are investigated to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach.

  4. Non-equilibrium Green's function calculation of AlGaAs-well-based and GaSb-based terahertz quantum cascade laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, H. Hosako, I.

    2015-03-16

    We investigate the performance of terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) based on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}As and GaSb/AlGaSb material systems to realize higher-temperature operation. Calculations with the non-equilibrium Green's function method reveal that the AlGaAs-well-based THz-QCLs do not show improved performance, mainly because of alloy scattering in the ternary compound semiconductor. The GaSb-based THz-QCLs offer clear advantages over GaAs-based THz-QCLs. Weaker longitudinal optical phonon–electron interaction in GaSb produces higher peaks in the spectral functions of the lasing levels, which enables more electrons to be accumulated in the upper lasing level.

  5. Ab initio self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function calculations of semimagic nuclei: Formalism at second order with a two-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somà, V.; Duguet, T.; Barbieri, C.

    2011-12-01

    An ab initio calculation scheme for finite nuclei based on self-consistent Green's functions in the Gorkov formalism is developed. It aims at describing properties of doubly magic and semimagic nuclei employing state-of-the-art microscopic nuclear interactions and explicitly treating pairing correlations through the breaking of U(1) symmetry associated with particle number conservation. The present paper introduces the formalism necessary to undertake applications at (self-consistent) second order using two-nucleon interactions in a detailed and self-contained fashion. First applications of such a scheme will be reported soon in a forthcoming publication. Future works will extend the present scheme to include three-nucleon interactions and implement more advanced truncation schemes.

  6. The calculation of ionization energies by perturbation, configuration interaction and approximate coupled pair techniques and comparisons with green's function methods for Ne, H 2O and N 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacskay, George B.

    1980-05-01

    The vertical valence ionization potentials of Ne, H 2O and N 2 have been calculated by Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation and configuration interaction methods. The calculations were carried out in the space of a single determinant reference state and its single and double excitations, using both the N and N - 1 electron Hartree-Fock orbitals as hole/particle bases. The perturbation series for the ion state were generally found to converge fairly slowly in the N electron Hartree-Fock (frozen) orbital basis, but considerably faster in the appropriate N - 1 electron RHF (relaxed) orbital basis. In certain cases, however, due to near-degeneracy effects, partial, and even complete, breakdown of the (non-degenerate) perturbation treatment was observed. The effects of higher excitations on the ionization potentials were estimated by the approximate coupled pair techniques CPA' and CPA″ as well as by a Davidson type correction formula. The final, fully converged CPA″ results are generally in good agreement with those from PNO-CEPA and Green's function calculations as well as experiment.

  7. Correlation of nuclear criticality safety computer codes with plutonium benchmark experiments and derivation of subcritical limits. [MGBS, TGAN, KEFF, HRXN, GLASS, ANISN, SPBL, and KENO

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H.K.

    1981-10-01

    A compilation of benchmark critical experiments was made for essentially one-dimensional systems containing plutonium. The systems consist of spheres, series of experiments with cylinders and cuboids that permit extrapolation to infinite cylinders and slabs, and large cylinders for which separability of the neutron flux into a product of spatial components is a good approximation. Data from the experiments were placed in a form readily usable as computer code input. Aqueous solutions of Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ are treated as solutions of PuO/sub 2/ in nitric acid. The apparent molal volume of PuO/sub 2/ as a function of plutonium concentration was derived from analyses of solution density data and was incorporated in the Savannah River Laboratory computer codes along with density tables for nitric acid. The biases of three methods of calculation were established by correlation with the benchmark experiments. The oldest method involves two-group diffusion theory and has been used extensively at the Savannah River Laboratory. The other two involve S/sub n/ transport theory with, in one method, Hansen-Roach cross sections and, in the other, cross sections derived from ENDF/B-IV. Subcritical limits were calculated by all three methods. Significant differences were found among the results and between the results and limits currently in the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactor (ANSI N16.1), which were calculated by yet another method, despite the normalization of all four methods to the same experimental data. The differences were studied, and a set of subcritical limits was proposed to supplement and in some cases to replace those in the ANSI Standard, which is currently being reviewed.

  8. Combined quantum-mechanical molecular mechanics calculations with NWChem and AMBER: Excited state properties of green fluorescent protein chromophore analogue in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pirojsirikul, Teerapong; Götz, Andreas W; Weare, John; Walker, Ross C; Kowalski, Karol; Valiev, Marat

    2017-07-05

    Combined quantum mechanical molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations have become a popular methodology for efficient and accurate description of large molecular systems. In this work we introduce our development of a QM/MM framework based on two well-known codes-NWChem and AMBER. As an initial application area we are focused on excited state properties of small molecules in an aqueous phase using an analogue of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore as a particular test case. Our approach incorporates high level coupled cluster theory for the analysis of excited states providing a reliable theoretical analysis of effects of an aqueous solvation environment on the photochemical properties of the GFP chromophore. Using a systematic approach, which involves comparison of gas phase and aqueous phase results for different protonation states and conformations, we resolve existing uncertainties regarding the theoretical interpretation of experimental data. We observe that the impact of aqueous environment on charged states generally results in blue shifts of the absorption spectra, but the magnitude of the effect is sensitive to both protonation state and conformation and can be rationalized based on charge movement into the area of higher/lower external electrostatic potentials. At neutral pH levels the experimentally observed absorption signal is most likely coming from the phenol protonated form. Our results also show that the high level electron correlated method is essential for a proper description of excited states of GFP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. General Green's-function formalism for transport calculations with spd Hamiltonians and giant magnetoresistance in Co- and Ni-based magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanvito, S.; Lambert, C. J.; Jefferson, J. H.; Bratkovsky, A. M.

    1999-05-01

    A general Green's-function technique for elastic spin-dependent transport calculations is presented, which (i) scales linearly with system size and (ii) allows straightforward application to general tight-binding Hamiltonians (spd in the present work). The method is applied to studies of conductance and giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of magnetic multilayers in current perpendicular to planes geometry in the limit of large coherence length. The magnetic materials considered are Co and Ni, with various nonmagnetic materials from the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal series. Realistic tight-binding models for them have been constructed with the use of density functional calculations. We have identified three qualitatively different cases which depend on whether or not the bands (densities of states) of a nonmagnetic metal (i) form an almost perfect match with one of spin subbands of the magnetic metal (as in Cu/Co spin valves), (ii) have almost pure sp character at the Fermi level (e.g., Ag), and (iii) have almost pure d character at the Fermi energy (e.g., Pd, Pt). The key parameters which give rise to a large GMR ratio turn out to be (i) a strong spin polarization of the magnetic metal, (ii) a large energy offset between the conduction band of the nonmagnetic metal and one of spin subbands of the magnetic metal, and (iii) strong interband scattering in one of spin subbands of a magnetic metal. The present results show that GMR oscillates with variation of the thickness of either nonmagnetic or magnetic layers, as observed experimentally.

  10. Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Laville, Cedric; Dyrda, James; Mennerdahl, Dennis; Golovko, Yury; Raskach, Kirill; Tsiboulia, Anatoly; Lee, Gil Soo; Woo, Sweng-Woong; Bidaud, Adrien; Patel, Amrit; Bledsoe, Keith C; Rearden, Bradley T; Gulliford, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

  11. Neutronics calculation of RTP core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie B.; Zin, Muhammad Rawi B. Mohamed; Karim, Julia Bt. Abdul; Bayar, Abi Muttaqin B. Jalal; Usang, Mark Dennis Anak; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff B.; Hamzah, Na'im Syauqi B.; Said, Norfarizan Bt. Mohd; Jalil, Muhammad Husamuddin B.

    2017-01-01

    Reactor calculation and simulation are significantly important to ensure safety and better utilization of a research reactor. The Malaysian's PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) achieved initial criticality on June 28, 1982. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes. Since early 90s, neutronics modelling were used as part of its routine in-core fuel management activities. The are several computer codes have been used in RTP since then, based on 1D neutron diffusion, 2D neutron diffusion and 3D Monte Carlo neutron transport method. This paper describes current progress and overview on neutronics modelling development in RTP. Several important parameters were analysed such as keff, reactivity, neutron flux, power distribution and fission product build-up for the latest core configuration. The developed core neutronics model was validated by means of comparison with experimental and measurement data. Along with the RTP core model, the calculation procedure also developed to establish better prediction capability of RTP's behaviour.

  12. Impact of nuclear data uncertainty on safety calculations for spent nuclear fuel geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, J. J.; Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Vasiliev, A.; Pecchia, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Caruso, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the design of a spent nuclear fuel disposal system, one necessary condition is to show that the configuration remains subcritical at time of emplacement but also during long periods covering up to 1,000,000 years. In the context of criticality safety applying burn-up credit, k-eff eigenvalue calculations are affected by nuclear data uncertainty mainly in the burnup calculations simulating reactor operation and in the criticality calculation for the disposal canister loaded with the spent fuel assemblies. The impact of nuclear data uncertainty should be included in the k-eff value estimation to enforce safety. Estimations of the uncertainty in the discharge compositions from the CASMO5 burn-up calculation phase are employed in the final MCNP6 criticality computations for the intact canister configuration; in between, SERPENT2 is employed to get the spent fuel composition along the decay periods. In this paper, nuclear data uncertainty was propagated by Monte Carlo sampling in the burn-up, decay and criticality calculation phases and representative values for fuel operated in a Swiss PWR plant will be presented as an estimation of its impact.

  13. The Green`s function method for critical heterogeneous slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the Green`s Function Method (GFM) has been employed to obtain benchmark-quality results for nuclear engineering and radiative transfer calculations. This was possible because of fast and accurate calculations of the Green`s function and the associated Fourier and Laplace transform inversions. Calculations have been provided in one-dimensional slab geometries for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. A heterogeneous medium is analyzed as a series of homogeneous slabs, and Placzek`s lemma is used to extend each slab to infinity. This allows use of the infinite medium Green`s function (the anisotropic plane source in an infinite homogeneous medium) in the solution. To this point, a drawback of the GFM has been the limitation to media with c < 1, where c is the number of secondary particles produced in a collision. Clearly, no physical steady-state solution exists for an infinite medium that contains an infinite source and is described by c >1; however, mathematical solutions exist which result in oscillating Green`s functions. Such calculations are briefly discussing. The limitation to media with c < 1 has been relaxed so that the Green`s function may also be calculated for media with c {ge} 1. Thus, materials that contain fissionable isotopes may be modeled.

  14. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. Inversion of H/V in layered media from seismic ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory and on improved calculation of Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is widely used to assess the dominant frequency of soil sites. Measurements are relatively simple as only one station is needed. It has been recently proposed a theoretical basis linking ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory. In this theory the directional energy density computed as the average spectral density of motion at a point, is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function at the observation point. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In order to efficiently compute the imaginary part of Green's functions in a layered medium we start from an integral on the complex k plane and, using Harkrider's nomenclature, separate formulae for body-, Rayleigh-, and Love-wave components to the spectral densities are obtained. Then the poles allow for integration using the Cauchy residue theorem plus some contributions from branch integrals. It is possible to isolate pseudo reflections from ImG11 and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (from an a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V )2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer controls the slope in high frequency. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the estimate of ImG11 will be improved. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712, by the MINECO research project CGL2010-16250, Spain, by the EU with FEDER, and the AXA Research Fund.

  16. Stormwater Calculator (SWC) webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Jason Berner presents EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator developed to help support local, state and national stormwater management objectives and regulatory efforts to reduce runoff using green infrastructure practices as low impact development controls.

  17. Greening Government Offices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    labeled products are generally 20 percent more water- efficient than similar products  Green Seal Assesses a broad range of environmental impacts ... environmental impacts of paper production and dis posal. The underlying data are updated regularly. v mGo Links » v...Purchasing green office products  Reducing fuel consumption  Saving water and energy  Calculating environmental benefits  Eliciting behavior change

  18. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green’s functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model overpredicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  19. Green Synthesis, Spectrofluorometric Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Heterocyclic Compound from Chalcone on the Basis of in Vitro and Quantum Chemistry Calculation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman A

    2017-05-01

    2-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl)-8-methoxy-5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile (ABDC) was synthesized by the reaction of (2E)-2-(4 bromobenzylidene) - 6 -methoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (Chalcone) with malononitrile and ammonium acetate under microwave irradiation. Chalcone was synthesised by the reaction 4-bromobenzaldehyd, 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalin-1-one under the same condition. Structure of ABDC was conformed by (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-IR, EI-MS spectral studies and elemental analysis. The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of ABDC have been studied in solvents of different polarities, and the data were used to study the solvatochromic properties such as excitation coefficient, stokes shift, oscillator strength, transition dipole moment and fluorescence quantum yield. The absorption maximum and fluorescence emission maximum was observed red shift when increase solvent polarity n-Hexane to DMSO. ABDC undergoes solubilization in different micelles and may be used as a probe and quencher to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB and SDS. The anti-bacterial activity of chalcone and its cyclized product ABDC was tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria was determined with the reference of standard drug Tetracycline. Results showed that the ABDC is better anti-bacterial agent as compared to chalcone. The anti-bacterial activity was further supported by the quantum chemistry calculation.

  20. Green-house gas mitigation capacity of a small scale rural biogas plant calculations for Bangladesh through a general life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khondokar M; Melville, Lynsey; Fulford, David; Huq, Sm Imamul

    2017-10-01

    Calculations towards determining the greenhouse gas mitigation capacity of a small-scale biogas plant (3.2 m(3) plant) using cow dung in Bangladesh are presented. A general life cycle assessment was used, evaluating key parameters (biogas, methane, construction materials and feedstock demands) to determine the net environmental impact. The global warming potential saving through the use of biogas as a cooking fuel is reduced from 0.40 kg CO2 equivalent to 0.064 kg CO2 equivalent per kilogram of dung. Biomethane used for cooking can contribute towards mitigation of global warming. Prior to utilisation of the global warming potential of methane (from 3.2 m(3) biogas plant), the global warming potential is 13 t of carbon dioxide equivalent. This reduced to 2 t as a result of complete combustion of methane. The global warming potential saving of a bioenergy plant across a 20-year life cycle is 217 t of carbon dioxide equivalent, which is 11 t per year. The global warming potential of the resultant digestate is zero and from construction materials is less than 1% of total global warming potential. When the biogas is used as a fuel for cooking, the global warming potential will reduce by 83% compare with the traditional wood biomass cooking system. The total 80 MJ of energy that can be produced from a 3.2 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant would replace 1.9 t of fuel wood or 632 kg of kerosene currently used annually in Bangladesh. The digestate can also be used as a nutrient rich fertiliser substituting more costly inorganic fertilisers, with no global warming potential impact.

  1. Green Thunderstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1993-11-01

    Green thunderstorms are observed occasionally, yet with one exception they have received no scientific attention, experimental or theoretical. Fraser suggested that thunderstorms themselves are not green but that a thick thunderstorm provides a dark backdrop for green airlight near sundown. Greenness is a consequence of reddened sunlight illuminating selective scatterers along the observer's line of sight. Bohron's alternative explanation is that green thunderstorms may be a consequence of the intrinsic blueness of clouds because of selective absorption by pure water, liquid or solid. Most clouds are so thin that the light transmitted by them is not markedly colored because of selective absorption. Only the most massive clouds-large both vertically and horizontally-are thick enough to shift the color of incident sunlight upon transmission. If that incident light is sunlight reddened at sundown, the transmitted light can be perceptually green. These two explanations do not exclude one another but allow for multiple causes, including those not yet identified.

  2. Calculating the green in green: What's an urban tree worth?

    Treesearch

    Gail Wells; Geoffrey Donovan

    2010-01-01

    For urban dwellers, trees soften a city’s hard edges and surfaces, shade homes and streets, enhance neighborhood beauty, filter the air, mitigate storm runoff, and absorb carbon dioxide. Trees may even reduce crime and improve human health. However, these benefits have not been well quantified, making it difficult for urban planners and property owners to weigh their...

  3. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  4. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  5. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  6. Green Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Tool represents infiltration-based stormwater control practices. It allows modelers to select a BMP type, channel shape and BMP unit dimensions, outflow control devices, and infiltration method. The program generates an HSPF-formatted FTABLE.

  7. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  8. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  9. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  10. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  11. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  12. Metaheuristics-Assisted Combinatorial Screening of Eu(2+)-Doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N Compositional Space in Search of a Narrow-Band Green Emitting Phosphor and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Woong; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Minseuk; Hong, Sung Un; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-08-21

    A metaheuristics-based design would be of great help in relieving the enormous experimental burdens faced during the combinatorial screening of a huge, multidimensional search space, while providing the same effect as total enumeration. In order to tackle the high-throughput powder processing complications and to secure practical phosphors, metaheuristics, an elitism-reinforced nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was employed in this study. The NSGA-II iteration targeted two objective functions. The first was to search for a higher emission efficacy. The second was to search for narrow-band green color emissions. The NSGA-II iteration finally converged on BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphors in the Eu(2+)-doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N compositional search space. The BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphor, which was synthesized with no human intervention via the assistance of NSGA-II, was a clear single phase and gave an acceptable luminescence. The BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphor as well as all other phosphors that appeared during the NSGA-II iterations were examined in detail by employing powder X-ray diffraction-based Rietveld refinement, X-ray absorption near edge structure, density functional theory calculation, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The thermodynamic stability and the band structure plausibility were confirmed, and more importantly a novel approach to the energy transfer analysis was also introduced for BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphors.

  13. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  14. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  15. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  16. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  17. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  18. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of IBS. Thinning bones (osteoporosis): Caffeine from green coffee and other sources can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, limit caffeine consumption to less than 300 mg per day (approximately ...

  19. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  20. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  1. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  2. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  3. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Magnetic properties of MnBi based alloys: First-principles calculations for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe cases

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, YK; Park, J; Mryasov, ON; Kim, SG; Kim, S; Lee, J; Abo, GS; Choi, CJ; Lee, J

    2013-05-01

    First-principles calculations of fundamental magnetic properties were performed for ordered MnBi, MnBi-Co, and MnBi-Co-Fe alloys to evaluate maximum energy product (BH)(max). Full potential linear-augmented plane wave (FLAPW) and linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) were used and found to give a reasonable description of saturation magnetization (M-s), effective anisotropy constant (K-eff), and Curie temperature (T-c) for NiAs-structured MnBi crystal. We found that upon addition of Co, the M-s and K-eff increased, while T-c reduced. The magnetic anisotropy changed from weak anisotropy easy plane for MnBi to the strong easy axis anisotropy for MnBi-Co and MnBi-Co-Fe. (C) 2013 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  6. Criticality calculations with MCNP{sup TM}: A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendius, P.W.; Harmon, C.D. II; Busch, R.D.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Forster, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this Primer is to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst to perform computer calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Because of the closure of many experimental facilities, reliance on computer simulation is increasing. Often the analyst has little experience with specific codes available at his/her facility. This Primer helps the analyst understand and use the MCNP Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality analyses. It assumes no knowledge of or particular experience with Monte Carlo codes in general or with MCNP in particular. The document begins with a Quickstart chapter that introduces the basic concepts of using MCNP. The following chapters expand on those ideas, presenting a range of problems from simple cylinders to 3-dimensional lattices for calculating keff confidence intervals. Input files and results for all problems are included. The Primer can be used alone, but its best use is in conjunction with the MCNP4A manual. After completing the Primer, a criticality analyst should be capable of performing and understanding a majority of the calculations that will arise in the field of nuclear criticality safety.

  7. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  8. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  9. Facile luminescent tuning of Zn(II)/Hg(II) complexes based on flexible, semi-rigid and rigid polydentate Schiff bases from blue to green to red: structural, photophysics, electrochemistry and theoretical calculations studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2015-05-07

    The photophysical properties of Zn(II)/Hg(II) Schiff base complexes could be fine and predictably tuned over a wide range of wavelengths by changing the ligand structures. A new series of polydentate Schiff base-type ligands, N,N'-bis(2-pyridinylethylidene)R(3)-1,2-diamine (), which contain a flexible, semi-rigid or rigid group (R(3) = butyl, cyclohexane, tolyl and phenylene), has been designed and employed for synthetizing new mononuclear or binuclear trans Zn(II)/Hg(II) complexes with a general formula of [M()Cl2] ( = N,N'-bis(2-pyridinylethylidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine, M = Zn, ; M = Hg, ), [M()Cl2] ( = N,N'-bis(2-pyridinylethylidene)toluene-3,4-diamine, M = Zn, ; M = Hg, ), [M2()Cl4]·nCH2Cl2 ( = N,N'-bis(2-pyridinylmethylene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, M = Zn, n = 0, ; M = Hg, n = 1, ), [M2()Cl4]·nCH3OH ( = N,N'-bis(2-pyridinylethylidene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, M = Zn, n = 1, ; M = Hg, n = 0, ), [M2()Cl4] ( = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-pyridinylmethylene)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, M = Zn, ; M = Hg, ), [M2()Cl4]·nCH3CN ( = N,N'-bis(3-methoxy-2-pyridinylmethylene)butane-1,4-diamine, M = Zn, n = 4, ; M = Hg, n = 0, ). All the ligands and complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and (1)H NMR spectra. Twelve structures of , , , , , and crystallized in three different conditions are further determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Their properties are fully characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra both in solution and the solid state at room temperature. The luminescence color of these Zn(II)/Hg(II) Schiff base complexes could be tuned from blue to green to red (429-639 nm for , 434-627 nm for ) in solution by changing the ligand conjugated systems from flexibile () to semi-rigid () to rigid (). The spectra of the free Schiff bases are centered around 402-571 nm, which are perturbed upon the coordination to the Zn(II)/Hg(II) ion. Both the electrochemical data and TD-DFT calculations show that the HOMO-LUMO band gap from

  10. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  12. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  13. Green Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of small gullies on the north wall of a crater within the much larger Green Crater in Noachis Terra, Mars. The gullies might have formed by seepage and runoff of ground water; others have suggested that melting snow or ice might create such gullies. The crater floor exhibits a field of sand dunes and some wispy, dark streaks left by passing dust devils.

    Location near: 53.0oS, 8.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  14. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  15. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Streets Transforming Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In its 6 years, the Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) Partnership grants program has generated nearly $18 million for over 90 projects throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, including work that has created a collective 8 miles of green streets.

  17. What is green?

    SciTech Connect

    Satyanarayana, D.V.

    1998-12-31

    The definition of Green as it pertains to Green Chemicals or Green Corrosion Inhibition seems to be vague. Even though the scientific and engineering communities use this word frequently, there seems to be a lack of consensus on the definition. The paper describes the various definitions and their overall impact on Green.

  18. Biscalar and Bivector Green's Functions in de Sitter Space Time

    PubMed Central

    Narlikar, J. V.

    1970-01-01

    Biscalar and bivector Green's functions of wave equations are calculated explicitly in de Sitter space time. The calculation is performed by considering the electromagnetic field generated by the spontaneous creation of an electric charge. PMID:16591816

  19. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase, use and disposal of electronics.The EEBC estimates the environmental and economic benefits of: Purchasing Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered products; Enabling power management features on computers and monitors above default percentages; Extending the life of equipment beyond baseline values; Reusing computers, monitors and cell phones; and Recycling computers, monitors, cell phones and loads of mixed electronic products.The EEBC may be downloaded as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.See https://www.federalelectronicschallenge.net/resources/bencalc.htm for more details.

  20. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees and other green space, can be a low-cost alternative to promote frequency and duration of outdoor physical activity. Street trees and other green space may increase outdoor physical activity levels by providing shade, improving aesthetics, and promoting social engagement. Though street trees and green space provide many benefits and are publicly accessible at all times, these resources are not evenly distributed between neighborhoods. An objective analysis of street tree cover and green space in 6,407 block groups across 10 urban areas was conducted using fine-scale land cover data. Distribution of green infrastructure was then analyzed by minority status, income, car ownership, housing density, and employment density. The objective measure of street tree cover and green space is based on 1-meter resolution land cover data from the U.S. EPA-led EnviroAtlas. Tree cover was analyzed along each side of walkable road centerlines in the areas where sidewalks are estimated to be. Green space was calculated within 25 meters of road centerlines. Percent tree cover and green space per city block were then summarized to census block group (CBG). CBG demographics from the U.S. Census and built env

  1. Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations with SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Rearden, Bradley T

    2013-01-01

    SCALE 6.2 provides numerous updates in nuclear data, nuclear data processing, and computational tools utilized in the criticality safety calculational sequences relative to SCALE 6.1. A new 252-group ENDF/B-VII.0 multigroup neutron library, improved ENDF/B-VII.0 continuous energy data, as well as the previously deployed 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron library are included in SCALE 6.2 for criticality safety analysis. The performance of all three libraries for keff calculations is examined with a broad sampling of critical experiment models covering a range of fuels and moderators. Critical experiments from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE) that are available in the SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) are used in this validation effort. Over 300 cases are used in the validation of KENO V.a, and a more limited set of approximately 50 configurations are used for KENO-VI validation. Additionally, some KENO V.a cases are converted to KENO-VI models so that an equivalent set of experiments can be used to validate both codes. For continuous-energy calculations, SCALE 6.2 provides improved performance relative to SCALE 6.1 in most areas with notable improvements in fuel pin lattice cases, particularly those with mixed oxide fuel. Multigroup calculations with the 252-group library also demonstrate improved performance for fuel lattices, uranium (high and intermediate enrichment) and plutonium metal experiments, and plutonium solution systems. Overall, SCALE 6.2 provides equivalent or smaller biases than SCALE 6.1, and the two versions of KENO provide similar results on the same suite of problems.

  2. Calculator Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Casey; And Others

    This valuable collection of materials was developed to incorporate the calculator as an instructional aid in ninth- and tenth-grade general and basic mathematics classes. The materials are also appropriate for grades 7 and 8. After an introductory section which teaches the use of the calculator, four games and activities are described. For these…

  3. Calculation of radiation hazard connected with the SAD spallation target replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorecki, Władysław

    2007-09-01

    The Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is a device coupled with existing 660 MeV proton accelerator (max beam current 3.2 μA). The main characteristic parameters of the core are: MOX fuel, keff=0.95, fission power 27.6 kW, Pb reflector. The SAD target consists of one central and 18 hexagonal (36 mm pitch) Pb prisms in two concentric layers. The main goal of the calculations, is the evaluation of the radiation hazard connected with replacement of the target elements after planned six months working period. The total induced radioactivity and its spatial distributions in the target elements were presented elsewhere. Here the longitudinal distribution and the time evolution of the gamma/beta emmiters activity, their spectra in the most active central target element and adequate radiation exposure are shown. The attenuation factors for these gamma ray spectra for commonly used shielding materials (Pb, Fe) are calculated as well. The MCNPX code is used for radioisotope production calculations. Gamma and beta spectra are calculated using modified EvIzo program and TORI database. Methods and tools used for gamma spectra simulation are checked using the results obtained in the experiment with bare Pb cylindrical target.

  4. MEMS Calculator

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  5. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  6. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  7. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  8. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  10. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  11. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  12. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  13. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  14. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  15. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  16. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  17. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  18. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  19. Greening radiology.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Prasanth M; Siegel, Eliot; Kunce, Amy

    2011-11-01

    Reducing energy consumption has increased in importance with rising energy prices and funding cutbacks. With the introduction of electronic medical records on the rise in all fields of medicine, there will be a large jump in the number of computers in health care. Radiologist have the unique opportunity, as technological leaders, to direct energy efficiency measures as a means of cost savings and the reduction of airborne by-products from energy production to improve patients' lives. The aim of this study was to assess the many workstations and monitors throughout the authors' department to determine their electrical consumption and cost. Equipment was monitored using an electricity meter during both active and standby states. Cost per kilowatt-hour was calculated at $0.11, not including taxes and fees. Any given monitor left on 24/7 would annually consume between 49.5 and 1,399.84 kWh, costing from $5.45 to $153.98. A single workstation left on 24/7 would use 455.65 to 2,358.72 kWh, costing from $59.91 to $259.46. In aggregate, all workstations and monitors would use approximately 137,759.54 kWh, costing $15,153.55. If all equipment were shut down after an 8-hour workday, the department would consume about 32,633.64 kWh, costing $3,589.70 thereby saving 83,866.6 kWh and $9,225.33. Although computers in the remainder of the hospital may use less energy than workstations, this serves as a predictive model for potential energy consumption and cost. With the increasing necessity of cost savings and energy reduction, this small and simple step, implemented hospital-wide, will lead to much larger cost savings across institutions. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  20. Green Streets Help Baltimore, Others

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fifteen Green Streets, Green Towns, Green Jobs (G3) grants for will support projects in three states, including the conversion of hard surfaces to green space at Sarah’s Hope, a homeless shelter in a troubled Baltimore neighborhood.

  1. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  2. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  3. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  4. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  5. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  6. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  7. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  8. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  9. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  10. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  11. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  12. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  13. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  14. Firewood calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Curtis, A.B.; Darwin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Rotating cardboard discs are used to read off total tree or topwood firewood volume (tons or cords) that can be expected from trees of d.b.h. 6 to 24 inches and tree height 10 to 90 feet. One side of the calculator is used for broadleaved species with deliquescent crowns and the other side for braodleaves with excurrent crowns.

  15. Indocyanine green video angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frambach, Donald A.

    1994-06-01

    Over the last two years, ophthalmologists have begun to use indocyanine green angiography as a supplement to fluorescein angiography. Unlike fluorescein, indocyanine green absorbs near infrared and emits slightly longer infrared light. Therefore, indocyanine green angiography images structures deeper in the retina and through blood, pigment, and turbid serous fluid that accumulates in a number of diseases. In addition, indocyanine green shows very different properties of dye leakage than does fluorescein and this can be used to identify certain abnormal blood vessels that grow beneath the retinas of patients with macular degeneration. Finally, indocyanine green fluoresces only 4% as efficiently as fluorescein which has presented a major technical problem until highly amplified video systems have become available to ophthalmologists. We have used a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to perform video indocyanine green angiography at the Doheny Eye Institute since November, 1991. In this paper, I will present several clinical cases that demonstrate the clinical usefulness of indocyanine green angiography.

  16. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC). This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC).

  17. Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  18. Eikonal Green function of the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yanbei

    2014-03-01

    The Green function of a black hole spacetime determines its response to small perturbations. The Green function can be used to calculate the self-force correction to the motion of a small mass about the black hole. We have constructed the part of the Green function arising from perturbations which are partially trapped at the light ring, in the eikonal (high-frequency) limit. This ``quasinormal mode'' part of the Green function is important at early and intermediate response times. In the eikonal limit, it diverges where null geodesics connect a response point to the source point, and it exhibits a four-fold singularity structure. I will discuss our results, future applications of our work, and open questions.

  19. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  20. WBGT Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Charles H.

    2000-05-22

    This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.

  1. Impedance Calculation and Verification in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.

    2005-01-31

    For both the SLC damping rings and the DAPHNE collider a systematic approach to understanding single bunch, longitudinal, current dependent behavior was taken: First, using a bunch significantly shorter than nominal, a careful calculation of the wakefield of the entire vacuum chamber was obtained. This ''pseudo-Green'' function was then used in bunch lengthening and instability calculations. We review, for both projects, the history of these calculations and comparisons with measurement.

  2. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  3. Greening America's Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  4. Monitoring vegetation greenness with satellite data

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Roberta A. Hartford

    1993-01-01

    Vegetation greenness can be monitored at 1-km resolution for the conterminous United States through data obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-11 weather satellites. The data are used to calculate biweekly composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The resulting composite images are updated weekly and made available to...

  5. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  6. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In…

  7. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  8. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  9. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  13. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  14. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  15. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  16. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  17. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  18. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  19. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  20. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  1. Saving green ash

    Treesearch

    J. Romero-Severson; Jennifer L. Koch

    2017-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) continues to kill ash trees in North America at an alarmingly fast pace. Although EAB is a threat to all species of ash (Fraxinus) in the United States, green ash (F. pennsylvanica) is among the most susceptible. Among the most commonly planted landscape trees in the United States, green ash is also an important species...

  2. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  3. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  4. Green Power Community Usage Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn about GPC Usage Requirements.

  5. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  6. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  7. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  8. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  9. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  10. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  11. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  12. Schwinger model Green functions with topological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radożycki, Tomasz

    1999-11-01

    The fermion propagator and the four-fermion Green function in massless QED2 are explicitly found with topological effects taken into account. The corrections due to instanton sectors k=+/-1, contributing to the propagator, are shown to be just the homogenous terms admitted by the Dyson-Schwinger equation for S. In the case of the four-fermion function also sectors k=+/-2 are included in the consideration. The quark condensates are then calculated and are shown to satisfy the cluster property. The θ dependence exhibited by the Green functions corresponds to and may be removed by performing certain chiral gauge transformation.

  13. Shanghai urban green landscape model system based on MapServer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Jianxun; Shi, Beiqi; Shen, Di; Yao, Weiqin

    2008-10-01

    Based on RS and GIS, the 2003a's aerial image data of Shanghai is taken as data source. According to the urban green landscape theory, the green landscapes are well classified to park, street green landscape, affiliation green landscape, inhabited green landscape, production green landscape and defending green landscape, et al. Several spatio-temporal models including the space expansion models and ecological analyzing models for urban green landscape have been constructed and calculated. Then, based on the ORDBMS platform PostgreSQL and OGIS MapServer, the urban green landscape database including the above six types green landscapes spatial data and model system of Shanghai have been developed. At last, using the powerful statistics analysis function of the model system, this paper discusses and reveals the impacts of urban space development on green landscape pattern, structure and function. At the same time, the general distribution characteristics of green landscape pattern have been researched at three levels such as green patch level, type level and mosaics structure of different green landscapes. The urban green landscapes model system of Shanghai based on MapServer provides a powerful interactive and perfect platform for governments to make urban planning decisions and landscape study.

  14. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  15. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  16. National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. EPA has developed the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention using green i...

  17. Science in Action: National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. EPA has developed the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention using green infrastructure practices as low impact development (LID) controls. To inform the public on what the Stormwater Calculator is used for.

  18. Green Power Partnership Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. To join, organizations must meet EPA's program requirements.

  19. Superfund Green Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  20. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  1. Superfund Green Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  2. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  3. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions, cancer, fatty liver disease, hepatitis C, and arsenic poisoning. Blue-green algae are applied inside the mouth ... people with insulin resistance due to HIV medication. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking 250 mg of ...

  4. Green Power Partnership Scope

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Organizations can elect to join organization-wide or at the facility level.

  5. Green Building Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  6. Green Ampt approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  7. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  8. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, Pete

    2009-01-01

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  9. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    Roger Myers, Executive Director, Aerojet Rocketdyne speaks at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    Dr. Michael Gazarik, Associate Administrator, NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate, answers a reporter's question at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Green Propellant Infusion Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-09

    U.S. Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) speaks at a Green Propellant Infusion Mission press conference at the Reserve Officers Association, Tuesday, July 9, 2013 in Washington. The NASA GPIM program, led by Ball Aerospace in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne, is demonstrating a high-performance "green" fuel in space. The propellant used on this mission offers nearly 50 percent better performance when compared to traditional hydrazine. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. METHYL GREEN-PYRONIN

    PubMed Central

    Kurnick, N. B.

    1950-01-01

    1. Methyl green stains selectively highly polymerized desoxyribonucleic acid, and fails to stain, to any significant extent, depolymerized desoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. 2. Pyronin stains preferentially low polymers of nucleic acid. 3. Triphenylmethane dyes with two amino groups appear to share the selectivity of methyl green. Those with three amino groups are not selective. 4. A stereochemical hypothesis is offered to account for these observations. PMID:15402708

  13. Green Valley Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.

    2014-12-01

    The "green valley" is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech), in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u-r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, "main" sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominanlty disk) morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the "green valley" using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all) of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012), Salim et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2007), as well as other results.

  14. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  15. Green-Kubo Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Asegun

    A new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) will be presented. The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes crystalline line compounds, non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode's contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. Several example materials will be discussed and the specific attention will be devoted to new fundamental questions that arise from the changes in mode character that occur in disordered systems. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  16. Notes on the geology of Green River Valley between Green River, Wyoming, and Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, J.B.

    1925-01-01

    During July, August, and part of September, 1922, I had the privilege of accompanying a party sent out jointly by the Utah Power & Light Co. and the United States Geological Survey to gather such data as were still needed to complete a study of the power resources of Green River between Green River, Wyo., and Green River, Utah. The chief deficiency to be supplied was a continuous topographic map of the valley in sufficient detail to permit calculation of the storage capacity of any reservoir site that might be used, the stream gradient, and similar features. Maps on a satisfactory scale of a number of isolated stretches of the river had already been made by public or private agencies, and it was necessary to verify them and connect them on a uniform datum. Inasmuch as it was deemed unlikely that a dam higher than 300 feet would be constructed anywhere on the part of the river to be examined, a plane 300 feet above the water surface was made the upper limit of mapping. Over such parts of the valley as had been mapped already the progress of the party was naturally very rapid, and even where no mapping had previously been done, the 300-foot limit set upon the work and the usual narrowness of the valley combined to reduce the extent of the area to be mapped, so that the speed maintained was relatively high. Under this condition of rapid movement it was seldom possible to make more than the most cursory examination of the rocks, though occasionally circumstances permitted more or less detailed observation. The notes here recorded are therefore mostly of a rather generalized character, but as they pertain in part to localities that are difficult of access and not often visited by geologists, and that are at the same time classic in the history of American geology, I venture to to record them for whatever value they may have to other geologists.

  17. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  18. Aurora Australis, Spiked, Sinuous Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This distant view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked and sinuous band of green airglow above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  19. Aurora Australis, Spiked, Sinuous Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This distant view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked and sinuous band of green airglow above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  20. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  1. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  2. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  3. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  4. Seamless elastic boundaries for atomistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastewka, Lars; Sharp, Tristan A.; Robbins, Mark O.

    2012-08-01

    Modeling interfacial phenomena often requires both a detailed atomistic description of surface interactions and accurate calculations of long-range deformations in the substrate. The latter can be efficiently obtained using an elastic Green's function if substrate deformations are small. We present a general formulation for rapidly computing the Green's function for a planar surface given the interatomic interactions, and then coupling the Green's function to explicit atoms. The approach is fast, avoids ghost forces, and is not limited to nearest-neighbor interactions. The full system comprising explicit interfacial atoms and an elastic substrate is described by a single Hamiltonian and interactions in the substrate are treated exactly up to harmonic order. This concurrent multiscale coupling provides simple, seamless elastic boundary conditions for atomistic simulations where near-surface deformations occur, such as nanoindentation, contact, friction, or fracture. Applications to surface relaxation and contact are used to test and illustrate the approach.

  5. Virtually going green: The role of quantum computational chemistry in reducing pollution and toxicity in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Continuing advances in computational chemistry has permitted quantum mechanical calculation to assist in research in green chemistry and to contribute to the greening of chemical practice. Presented here are recent examples illustrating the contribution of computational quantum chemistry to green chemistry, including the possibility of using computation as a green alternative to experiments, but also illustrating contributions to greener catalysis and the search for greener solvents. Examples of applications of computation to ambitious projects for green synthetic chemistry using carbon dioxide are also presented.

  6. Reliability Analysis of a Green Roof Under Different Storm Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, R. K.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments continue to face the challenges of localized flooding and decreased water quality brought on by the increasing amount of impervious area in the built environment. Green infrastructure provides an alternative to conventional storm sewer design by using natural processes to filter and store stormwater at its source. However, there are currently few consistent standards available in North America to ensure that installed green infrastructure is performing as expected. This analysis offers a method for characterizing green roof failure using a visual aid commonly used in earthquake engineering: fragility curves. We adapted the concept of the fragility curve based on the efficiency in runoff reduction provided by a green roof compared to a conventional roof under different storm scenarios. We then used the 2D distributed surface water-groundwater coupled model MIKE SHE to model the impact that a real green roof might have on runoff in different storm events. We then employed a multiple regression analysis to generate an algebraic demand model that was input into the Matlab-based reliability analysis model FERUM, which was then used to calculate the probability of failure. The use of reliability analysis as a part of green infrastructure design code can provide insights into green roof weaknesses and areas for improvement. It also supports the design of code that is more resilient than current standards and is easily testable for failure. Finally, the understanding of reliability of a single green roof module under different scenarios can support holistic testing of system reliability.

  7. Green Power Partnership Resource Eligibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details the resources EPA considers eligible green power.

  8. Partnership Green Power Use Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This pages details green power use requirements for Partnership.

  9. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  10. Become a Green Power Partner

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Partner, including recognition opportunities.

  11. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  12. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  13. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  14. Green Power Partnership Eligible Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details the resources EPA considers eligible green power.

  15. Green Power Partnership Program Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership has a number of initiatives that focus on the collective green power efforts within specific sectors and renewable energy procurement strategies, which provide recognition opportunities for Partners and increase awareness.

  16. Green Infrastructure Checklists and Renderings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Materials and checklists for Denver, CO to review development project plans for green infrastructure components, best practices for inspecting and maintaining installed green infrastructure. Also includes renderings of streetscape projects.

  17. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  18. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  19. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  20. The green flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Pete

    2015-07-01

    Sunrise and sunset can be spectacular - the result of a beautiful interaction between the light from our nearest star and the Earth's atmosphere. But for Pete Lawrence, a phenomenon connected with these events holds even more appeal - the elusive “green flash”.

  1. Green light for curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    feodor, octavian.; garyjahns

    2015-09-01

    In reply to Pete Lawrence's article “The green flash” (Features, July pp30-31, http://ow.ly/Ph0Ws), which described the science behind this rare atmospheric phenomenon and the author's efforts to experience it in person.

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  4. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote…

  5. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  6. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  7. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  8. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  9. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  10. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  11. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  12. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  13. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  14. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  15. Decon Green (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    commonly found in cosmetics , detergents, laundry boosters and vitamins, Decon GreenTM is extremely environmentally friendly and leaves no toxic...developed9,10 using solvents commonly found in cosmetics and surfactants routinely employed in agricultural spraying; again in keeping with the

  16. Greening China Naturally

    Treesearch

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  17. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  18. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  19. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  20. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  1. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  2. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  3. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  4. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  5. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  6. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  7. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  8. Green Power Partnership Events and Webinars

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership hosts variety of events, such as webinars and presentations at conferences, on a regular basis. Topics include the Green Power Partnership, green power technologies and products, and information on procuring green power.

  9. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  10. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  11. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  12. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007…

  13. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  14. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  15. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  16. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007…

  17. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  18. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  19. Tartarus: A relativistic Green's function quantum average atom code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, N. M.; Starrett, C. E.

    2017-09-01

    A relativistic Green's Function quantum average atom model is implemented in the Tartarus code for the calculation of equation of state data in dense plasmas. We first present the relativistic extension of the quantum Green's Function average atom model described by Starrett [1]. The Green's Function approach addresses the numerical challenges arising from resonances in the continuum density of states without the need for resonance tracking algorithms or adaptive meshes, though there are still numerical challenges inherent to this algorithm. We discuss how these challenges are addressed in the Tartarus algorithm. The outputs of the calculation are shown in comparison to PIMC/DFT-MD simulations of the Principal Shock Hugoniot in Silicon. We also present the calculation of the Hugoniot for Silver coming from both the relativistic and nonrelativistic modes of the Tartarus code.

  20. Hydrological Modelling and Parameter Identification for Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, W.; Tung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Green roofs, a multilayered system covered by plants, can be used to replace traditional concrete roofs as one of various measures to mitigate the increasing stormwater runoff in the urban environment. Moreover, facing the high uncertainty of the climate change, the present engineering method as adaptation may be regarded as improper measurements; reversely, green roofs are unregretful and flexible, and thus are rather important and suitable. The related technology has been developed for several years and the researches evaluating the stormwater reduction performance of green roofs are ongoing prosperously. Many European counties, cities in the U.S., and other local governments incorporate green roof into the stormwater control policy. Therefore, in terms of stormwater management, it is necessary to develop a robust hydrologic model to quantify the efficacy of green roofs over different types of designs and environmental conditions. In this research, a physical based hydrologic model is proposed to simulate water flowing process in the green roof system. In particular, the model adopts the concept of water balance, bringing a relatively simple and intuitive idea. Also, the research compares the two methods in the surface water balance calculation. One is based on Green-Ampt equation, and the other is under the SCS curve number calculation. A green roof experiment is designed to collect weather data and water discharge. Then, the proposed model is verified with these observed data; furthermore, the parameters using in the model are calibrated to find appropriate values in the green roof hydrologic simulation. This research proposes a simple physical based hydrologic model and the measures to determine parameters for the model.

  1. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  2. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  4. Green Luminescent Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Y.; Annapurna, S.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using Gum Kondagogu extract as stabilizer. The as-prepared powder samples are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles are found to be FCC crystalline and nearly monodispersed with particles size 19 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed strong green visible emission and PL intensity was found enhanced with the presence of natural extract on copper nanoparticle surface. The increase in the PL intensity was mainly due to copper nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectra of copper nanoparticles show an emission peak at 430 nm when illuminated at 325 nm.

  5. Dye dependent differences in arteriovenous passage times: a comparison of indocyanine green and fluorescein sodium dye analysis.

    PubMed

    Sines, Daniel T; Kagemann, Larry; Siesky, Brent; Rechtman, Ehud; Garzozi, Hanna J; Harris, Alon

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in arteriovenous passage time calculated from retinal angiograms using indocyanine green and fluorescein sodium dye in healthy individuals. Examinations of eight healthy individuals (mean age +/- standard deviation: 27.3 +/- 4.2 years) who had four consecutive ophthalmic visits that were 2 weeks apart were analyzed. Indocyanine green and fluorescein angiography were performed sequentially (with the indocyanine green angiography occurring first) using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Arteriovenous passage times were calculated offline using digital angiogram video analysis. Mean arteriovenous passage times calculated from indocyanine green angiography (1.417 +/- 0.136 seconds) recordings were significantly shorter than fluorescein sodium times (2.539 +/- 0.421 seconds) (P < .0001) and intra-group variability was similar. There were no significant correlations between indocyanine green and fluorescein sodium arteriovenous passage times. Arteriovenous passage times calculated using indocyanine green and fluorescein angiography are not interchangeable.

  6. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    A hot air balloon passes over the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    A hot air balloons pass over the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Sid Siddiqi, seated, and other support personnel prepare noise level measuring equipment for the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Support personnel prepare noise level measuring equipment along the runway for the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The PhoEnix aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The e-Genius aircraft crew wait as their aircraft is inspected during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    e-Genius Aircraft Pilot Eric Raymond poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the EcoEagle aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    e-Genius Aircraft Pilot Klaus Ohlmann poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Various team members applaud as aircraft return from the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition start flag for the EcoEagle aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The PhoEnix aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    PhoEnix Aircraft Co-Pilot Jeff Shingleton poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The e-Genius aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel-USA Taurus G4 Aircraft Pilot David Morss poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the e-Genius aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft is pulled out to the runway for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    The PhoEnix aircraft takes off for the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    Media and ground crew look at aircraft as they participate in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, is seen in this aerial view at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Team members of the e-Genius aircraft prepare their plane prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the Taurus G4 aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft takes off during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the EcoEagle aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft prepares to takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition checkered flag for the PhoEnix aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the e-Genius aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel-USA Taurus G4 Aircraft Pilot Robin Reid poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The EcoEagle, left, and the PhoEnix aircraft are seen on the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    A Pipistrel-USA team member wipes down the Taurus G4 aircraft prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    PhoEnix Aircraft Pilot Jim Lee poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    EcoEagle Aircraft Pilot Mikhael Ponso poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    The e-Genius aircraft takes off for the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA team look up at aircraft as they participate in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-03

    Pipistrel-USA Team Lead Jack Langelaan talks after his team won the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, on Monday, Oct. 3, 2011 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. The all electric Taurus G4 aircraft achieved the equivalency of more than 400 miles per gallon. NASA and CAFE Foundation held the challenge to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle is seen as it passes a Grumman Albatross during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius aircraft is pulled pulled out to the runway for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. The greening of synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kintisch, E.

    2008-04-15

    Synfuels emit less carbon dioxide than oil and even reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. For making synfuels green is by using large amounts of plant biomass along with coal and storing in the ground the CO{sub 2} emitted during the production of synfuels. The process of making synfuel is by turning coal into gas, which creates carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The resulting syngas is converted into diesel fuel, jet fuel, or chemical feedstock.

  7. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  8. Green Adsorbents for Wastewaters: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kyzas, George Z.; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2014-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems is the existence of hazardous and toxic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. The major hindrance is the simultaneous existence of many/different types of pollutants as (i) dyes; (ii) heavy metals; (iii) phenols; (iv) pesticides and (v) pharmaceuticals. Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for wastewater treatment over the last decades. The economic crisis of the 2000s led researchers to turn their interest in adsorbent materials with lower cost. In this review article, a new term will be introduced, which is called “green adsorption”. Under this term, it is meant the low-cost materials originated from: (i) agricultural sources and by-products (fruits, vegetables, foods); (ii) agricultural residues and wastes; (iii) low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced (i.e., activated carbons after pyrolysis of agricultural sources). These “green adsorbents” are expected to be inferior (regarding their adsorption capacity) to the super-adsorbents of previous literature (complex materials as modified chitosans, activated carbons, structurally-complex inorganic composite materials etc.), but their cost-potential makes them competitive. This review is a critical approach to green adsorption, discussing many different (maybe in some occasions doubtful) topics such as: (i) adsorption capacity; (ii) kinetic modeling (given the ultimate target to scale up the batch experimental data to fixed-bed column calculations for designing/optimizing commercial processes) and (iii) critical techno-economical data of green adsorption processes in order to scale-up experiments (from lab to industry) with economic analysis and perspectives of the use of green adsorbents. PMID:28788460

  9. Scattering and bound state Green's functions on a plane via so(2,1) Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, P. F.; Boschi-Filho, H.; Vaidya, A. N.

    2006-11-15

    We calculate the Green's functions for the particle-vortex system, for two anyons on a plane with and without a harmonic regulator and in a uniform magnetic field. These Green's functions which describe scattering or bound states (depending on the specific potential in each case) are obtained exactly using an algebraic method related to the SO(2,1) Lie group. From these Green's functions we obtain the corresponding wave functions and for the bound states we also find the energy spectra.

  10. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Roberta A. Hartford; Jeffery C. Eidenshink

    1996-01-01

    A new satellite-derived vegetation greenness map, departure from average, is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness with average greenness for the same time of year. Live-fuel condition as portrayed on this map, and the calculated 1,000-hour fuel moistures, are compared to fire occurrence and area burned in Montana and Idaho during the 1993 and 1994 fire...

  11. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J. F.; De Saint Jean, C.; Leal, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-03-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic overestimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240.

  12. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  13. Molecular interactions between caffeine and catechins in green tea.

    PubMed

    Colon, Marta; Nerin, Cristina

    2014-07-16

    Migration of green tea components from an active packaging material containing green tea extract was performed in water and 3% acetic acid in water. The migration values for acid simulant were much higher than the values obtained in water. The influence of the acidic media in solutions of catechin standards and green tea extract was evaluated by liquid chromatography. Catechin, epicatechin, and caffeine from the green tea extract exhibited major variation in their concentrations values, with increases of 29.90, 20.75, and 15.95%, respectively, in acidic medium. The results suggested that catechins and caffeine form complexes through intermolecular interactions in neutral media and that these interactions are broken in acidic media. The continuous variation method was also performed to confirm the stoichiometry of the complexes between catechins and caffeine. Finally, a computer simulation was applied by Chem Pro 12.0, and the energies involved were calculated to confirm the experimental results obtained.

  14. The Green`s function method for nuclear engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.; Ganapol, B.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Green`s function method (GFM) is employed to obtain scalar and angular flux distributions in heterogeneous slab geometry with isotropic scattering. All solutions utilize the infinite-medium Green`s function to obtain results in finite media. Past Green`s function analyses that do not resort to expansions of the angular flux in basis functions have been performed for nonmultiplying media only; in this paper, results are provided, for the first time, for both multiplying and nonmultiplying media using the GFM. Several source configurations are considered, including a beam source on the leftmost face, isotropic incidence on any face, and constant inhomogeneous volume sources in internal materials. Scalar and angular flux distributions compare favorably with those obtained using the F{sub N} method as well as the ONEDANT discrete ordinates code. In addition, the single and heterogeneous critical slab problems are investigated and solved using the GFM.

  15. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  16. GreenSCOR: Developing a Green Supply Chain Analytical Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    An emerging area in supply chain practice is green supply chain management, which integrates environmental management with traditional supply chain management...GreenSCOR is the solution to closing this gap. GreenSCOR is a modification of version 5.0 of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR...model developed by the Supply - Chain Council (SCC). LMI used SCOR as a foundation because it has been proven over several years of continual development

  17. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  18. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  19. Estimating tree bole and log weights from green densities measured with the Bergstrom Xylodensimeter.

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Waddell; Michael B. Lambert; W.Y. Pong

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the Bergstrom xylodensimeter, designed to measure the green density of wood, was investigated and compared with a technique that derived green densities from wood disk samples. In addition, log and bole weights of old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock were calculated by various formulas and compared with lifted weights measured with a load cell...

  20. Multipole Matrix of Green Function of Laplace Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, K.; Górka, P.

    Multipole matrix elements of Green function of Laplace equation are calculated. The multipole matrix elements of Green function in electrostatics describe potential on a sphere which is produced by a charge distributed on the surface of a different (possibly overlapping) sphere of the same radius. The matrix elements are defined by double convolution of two spherical harmonics with the Green function of Laplace equation. The method we use relies on the fact that in the Fourier space the double convolution has simple form. Therefore we calculate the multipole matrix from its Fourier transform. An important part of our considerations is simplification of the three dimensional Fourier transformation of general multipole matrix by its rotational symmetry to the one-dimensional Hankel transformation.

  1. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation safety volunteers Meg Hurt, left, and Gail Vann wait on the runway for the arrival of the next aircraft to take part in the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Greening critical care.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin; Chapman, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority.

  3. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    Pipistrel Taurus G4 Pilot David Morss, center, is is weighed-in as CAFE Foundation Weights Chief Wayne Cook, right, and Weight crew member Ron Stout look on during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Pipistrel-USA Pilot David Morss, left, CAFE Foundation Weights Chief Wayne Cook, 2nd from left, and Weight crew member Ron Stout look on as Pipistrel-USA Pilot Robin Reid is weighed-in during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    Pipistrel-USA Pilots Robin Reid, left, and David Morss, talk on their cell phones shortly after participating in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight in their Taurus G4 aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Brien A. Seeley M.D., President of Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation briefs pilots and ground crew prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Brien A. Seeley M.D., President of Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation, right, briefs pilots and ground crew prior to competition as part of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Phoenix Air team members reattach the wings to their PhoEnix aircraft after pulling it out the weigh-in hanger as they start the day's 2011 Green Flight Challenge competition, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    CAFE Foundation Weights Chief Wayne Cook, left, talks with the e-Genius aircraft crew about their weigh-in during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    CAFE Foundation Weights crew member Ron Stout, left, and Weights Chief Wayne Cook, weigh-in the e-Genius aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the speed competition start flag for the Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The checkered flag is waved as the PhoEnix aircraft crosses the finish line of the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The PhoEnix, lower left, EcoEagle, 2nd from left, Taurus G4, and e-Genius aircraft, top right, are seen on the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn waves the checkered flag as aircraft pass the finish line of the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft is prepared to be rolled out of the weigh-in hanger during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Pipistrel-USA Taurus G4 aircraft is pushed back to the weigh-in hanger as they start the day's 2011 Green Flight Challenge competition, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Team members of Pipistrel-USA prepare to have their Taurus G4 aircraft wings weighed using a scale built into the floor of the hanger during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, EcoEagle prepares to takeoff as an demonstration aircraft for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius pilots talk with a fellow team member prior to their takeoff for the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft is seen as it participates in the miles per gallon (MPG) flight during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-03

    Team Lead Jack Langelaan poses for a photograph next to the Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4, aircraft prior to winning the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, on Monday, Oct. 3, 2011 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. The all electric Taurus G4 aircraft achieved the equivalency of more than 400 miles per gallon. NASA and CAFE held the challenge to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    Wayne Cook, Weights Chief, inspects the Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 as it rest on a scale built into the floor of the hanger during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-27

    The e-Genius, left, Taurus G4, 2nd from left, EcoEagle, and PhoEnix aircraft, top right, are seen on the campus of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Wednesday, Sept. 28, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation volunteer Oliver Dyer-Bennet, left, CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn, center, and CAFE Foundation volunteer, Justin Dyer-Bennett scan the sky for aircraft during the speed competition portion of the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, being held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-25

    The Pipistrel-USA, Taurus G4 aircraft approaches for landing as a Grumman Albatross plane is seen in the forground during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Monday, Sept. 26, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  7. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  8. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  9. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  10. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  11. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR USER'S GUIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Stormwater Calculator is a simple to use tool for computing small site hydrology for any location within the US. It estimates the amount of stormwater runoff generated from a site under different development and control scenarios over a long term period of historical rainfall. The analysis takes into account local soil conditions, slope, land cover and meteorology. Different types of low impact development (LID) practices (also known as green infrastructure) can be employed to help capture and retain rainfall on-site. Future climate change scenarios taken from internationally recognized climate change projections can also be considered. The calculator provides planning level estimates of capital and maintenance costs which will allow planners and managers to evaluate and compare effectiveness and costs of LID controls.The calculator’s primary focus is informing site developers and property owners on how well they can meet a desired stormwater retention target. It can be used to answer such questions as:• What is the largest daily rainfall amount that can be captured by a site in either its pre-development, current, or post-development condition?• To what degree will storms of different magnitudes be captured on site?• What mix of LID controls can be deployed to meet a given stormwater retention target?• How well will LID controls perform under future meteorological projections made by global climate change models?• What are the relativ

  12. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care.

  14. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  15. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  16. The single site Green s function and Krein s theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Stocks, George Malcolm; Faulkner, John Sam

    2014-01-01

    An important step in electronic structure calculations using multiple-scattering theory is obtaining the density of states for the central site from the Green s function for that site. We have found that the Krein s spectral displacement function for the central site contributes significantly to the understanding of these calculations. We argue that these insights can lead to improvements in the robustness of MST electronic structure codes without negatively impacting their performance.

  17. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  18. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  19. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  20. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  1. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  2. Spectral reflectance inversion with high accuracy on green target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Le; Yuan, Jinping; Li, Yong; Bai, Tingzhu; Liu, Shuoqiong; Jin, Jianzhou; Shen, Jiyun

    2016-09-01

    Using Landsat-7 ETM remote sensing data, the inversion of spectral reflectance of green wheat in visible and near infrared waveband in Yingke, China is studied. In order to solve the problem of lower inversion accuracy, custom atmospheric conditions method based on moderate resolution transmission model (MODTRAN) is put forward. Real atmospheric parameters are considered when adopting this method. The atmospheric radiative transfer theory to calculate atmospheric parameters is introduced first and then the inversion process of spectral reflectance is illustrated in detail. At last the inversion result is compared with simulated atmospheric conditions method which was a widely used method by previous researchers. The comparison shows that the inversion accuracy of this paper's method is higher in all inversion bands; the inversed spectral reflectance curve by this paper's method is more similar to the measured reflectance curve of wheat and better reflects the spectral reflectance characteristics of green plant which is very different from green artificial target. Thus, whether a green target is a plant or artificial target can be judged by reflectance inversion based on remote sensing image. This paper's research is helpful for the judgment of green artificial target hidden in the greenery, which has a great significance on the precise strike of green camouflaged weapons in military field.

  3. Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Abdelmegid, F; Al-Agamy, M; Alwohaibi, A; Ka'abi, H; Salama, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated. The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 10(8)(2.622*10(8)), 5.64 *10(7)(1.03*10(8)), 1.17*10(9)(2.012*10(9)) and 2.59*10(8) (3.668*10(8)) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

  4. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  5. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  6. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  7. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  8. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  9. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  10. Green tea and bone health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  11. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  12. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  13. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  14. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  15. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  16. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  17. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  18. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. W.; Wyant, J. C.; Breckinridge, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Off-axis Fresnel zone plate used to obtain fringe visibility close to unity. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer (HTG) employs off-axis Fresnel zone plate (OFZP) as beam splitter and beam diverger in place of two separate elements that perform those functions in conventional TwymanGreen interferometer.

  19. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  20. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  1. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  2. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  3. Steps to Become a Green Power Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn the steps to become a GPC.

  4. Green Power Partnership National Top 100

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. The National Top 100 lists the largest green power users within the Green Power Partnership.

  5. Green Power Partnership Top Partner Rankings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Top Partner Rankings highlight the annual green power use of leading Green Power Partners.

  6. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.) [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29...

  7. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  8. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  9. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  10. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  11. Trends in green hospital engineering.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Walter N

    2009-01-01

    When health-care facilities do pursue green initiatives, it's often because there is some incentive available to them that buys down the cost. When hospitals make claims that green does not cost more, generally, these claims are based on strategies that simply cost less, and would therefore be pursued regardless of green goals, and/or strategies implemented because of a one-time opportunity to buy-down the cost through some kind of incentive programme. Engineers who design health-care facilities are often cast as being "nay-sayers"; we can't find ways to do better systems because we are too constrained. Behind the voluminous green smoke that surrounds healthcare building, there is some real green fire.

  12. Sound absorption with green materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  13. A 20-state empirical amino-acid substitution model for green plant chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cymon J; Foster, Peter G

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new empirical amino-acid substitution model intended for use with for green plant (Viridiplantae) chloroplast protein data, which we call gcpREV (green chloroplast reversible model). Relative exchange rates and base composition frequencies among amino-acids were calculated using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis on a combined data set of 34 proteins sampled among 27 taxa of green plants. The gcpREV model is a better fit than the commonly-used cpREV model to five previously published chloroplast protein test data sets of green plants, but is not a better fit to test data consisting mostly of non-green plant chloroplasts. Consequently, our analyses suggest a degree of specificity of the new model to green plant chloroplast data. The new model is implemented in the software P4, and model description files are available for other popular phylogenetic analysis software. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  15. Habitat goes green

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.; Smith, M.

    1999-12-01

    A Denver family enjoys the financial and personal benefits of owning an affordable, energy-efficient home. On Earth Day, April 22, 1997, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver witnessed the realization of a dream. As Luis and Estella Valadez and their four children cut the ribbon on their 1,100 square foot (102 m{sup 2}) northwest Denver home, it signified the completion of the Denver Habitat affiliate's first ``Green'' home. Building this dream involved developing a plan to build affordable Habitat homes that also embodied a sense of stewardship of the Earth's environment. The affiliate also wanted to use this effort to achieve the additional goal of reducing the homeowner's utility and maintenance bills.

  16. Green tea polyphenol sensing

    PubMed Central

    TACHIBANA, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols have emerged over the past two decades as an important dietary factor for health promotion. There is considerable evidence that tea polyphenols, in particular (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibit carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms for the cancer-preventive activity of EGCG are not completely characterized and many features remain to be elucidated. Recently we have identified a cell-surface EGCG receptor and the relating molecules that confer EGCG responsiveness to many cancer cells at physiological concentrations. Here, we review some of the reported mechanisms for the cancer chemopreventive action of EGCG and provide an overview of several molecules that sense and manage the physiological functions of EGCG. PMID:21422740

  17. Personal Finance Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  18. Green chemistry at work

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  19. The design of a multisource americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron irradiation facility using MCNP for the neutronic performance calculation.

    PubMed

    Sogbadji, R B M; Abrefah, R G; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Odoi, H C; Attakorah-Birinkorang, S

    2014-08-01

    The americium-beryllium neutron irradiation facility at the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), Ghana, was re-designed with four 20 Ci sources using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code to investigate the maximum amount of flux that is produced by the combined sources. The results were compared with a single source Am-Be irradiation facility. The main objective was to enable us to harness the maximum amount of flux for the optimization of neutron activation analysis and to enable smaller sample sized samples to be irradiated. Using MCNP for the design construction and neutronic performance calculation, it was realized that the single-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (1.8±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s and the four-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (5.4±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s which is a factor of 3.5 fold increase compared to the single-source Am-Be design. The criticality effective, k(eff), of the single-source and the four-source Am-Be designs were found to be 0.00115±0.0008 and 0.00143±0.0008, respectively.

  20. Effects of Distant Green Space on Physical Activity in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shanley; Byun, Roy; Mazumdar, Soumya; Bauman, Adrian; Jalaludin, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between distant green space and physical activity modified by local green space. Information about physical activity, demographic and socioeconomic background at the individual level was extracted from the New South Wales Population Health Survey. The proportion of a postcode that was parkland was used as a proxy measure for access to parklands and was calculated for each individual. There was a significant relationship between distant green space and engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at least once a week. No significant relationship was found between adequate physical activity and distant green space. No significant relationships were found between adequate physical activity, engaging in MVPA, and local green space. However, if respondents lived in greater local green space (≥25%), there was a significant relationship between engaging in MVPA at least once a week and distance green space of ≥20%. This study highlights the important effect of distant green space on physical activity. Our findings also suggest that moderate size of local green space together with moderate size of distant green space are important levers for participation of physical activity.

  1. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  2. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  3. Calculator-Active Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy, Ed.; Harris, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal contains brief descriptions of calculator-active materials that were found using Resource Finder, the searchable online catalog of curriculum resources from the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC). It features both the calculators themselves and the activity books that are used with them. Among the calculators included are those…

  4. Calculators, Computers, and Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jon L.; Kirschner, Vicky

    Suggestions for using four-function calculators, programmable calculators, and microcomputers are considered in this collection of 36 articles. The first section contains articles considering general implications for mathematics curricula implied by the freedom calculators offer students from routine computation, enabling them to focus on results…

  5. Dirac Green function for angular projection potentials.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it is shown that the angular dependence of the Dirac Green function can be described analytically for potentials with non-local dependence on the angular variables if they are chosen as projection potentials in angular momentum space. Because the local dependence on the radial variable can be treated to any precision with present computing capabilities, this means that the Green function can be calculated practically exactly. Second, it is shown that a result of this kind not only holds for a single angular projection potential but also more generally, for instance if space is divided into non-overlapping cells and a separate angular projection potential is used in each cell. This opens the way for relativistic density-functional calculations within a different perspective than the conventional one. Instead of trying to obtain the density for a given potential approximately as well as possible, the density is determined exactly for non-local potentials which can approximate arbitrary local potentials as well as desired.

  6. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  7. Biogas - the calculable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  8. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  9. Green materials for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable development is an integrity of multidiscipline concept combining ecological, social and economic aspects to construct a liveable human living system. The sustainable development can be support through the development of green materials. Green materials offers a unique characteristic and properties including abundant in nature, less toxic, economically affordable and versatility in term of physical and chemical properties. Green materials can be applied for a numerous field in science and technology applications including for energy, building, construction and infrastructures, materials science and engineering applications and pollution management and technology. For instance, green materials can be developed as a source for energy production. Green materials including biomass-based source can be developed as a source for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Biomass-based materials also can be transformed into advanced functionalized materials for advanced bio-applications such as the transformation of chitin into chitosan which further used for biomedicine, biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Recently, cellulose-based material and lignocellulose-based materials as a source for the developing functional materials attracted the potential prospect for biomaterials, reinforcing materials and nanotechnology. Furthermore, the development of pigment materials has gaining interest by using the green materials as a source due to their unique properties. Eventually, Indonesia as a large country with a large biodiversity can enhance the development of green material to strengthen our nation competitiveness and develop the materials technology for the future.

  10. Application of perturbation theory to lattice calculations based on method of cyclic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assawaroongruengchot, Monchai

    computing time when both direct and adjoint solutions are required. A problem that arises for the generalized adjoint problem is that the direct use of the negative external generalized adjoint sources in the adjoint solution algorithm results in negative generalized adjoint functions. A coupled flux biasing/decontamination scheme is applied to make the generalized adjoint functions positive using the adjoint functions in such a way that it can be used for the multigroup rebalance technique. Next we consider the application of the perturbation theory to the reactor problems. Since the coolant void reactivity (CVR) is a important factor in reactor safety analysis, we have decided to select this parameter for optimization studies. We consider the optimization and adjoint sensitivity techniques for the adjustments of CVR at beginning of burnup cycle (BOC) and k eff at end of burnup cycle (EOC) for a 2D Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) lattice. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using the perturbation theory based on the integral transport equations. Three sets of parameters for CVR-BOC and keff-EOC adjustments are studied: (1) Dysprosium density in the central pin with Uranium enrichment in the outer fuel rings, (2) Dysprosium density and Uranium enrichment both in the central pin, and (3) the same parameters as in the first case but the objective is to obtain a negative checkerboard CVR at beginning of cycle (CBCVR-BOC). To approximate the sensitivity coefficient at EOC, we perform constant-power burnup/depletion calculations for 600 full power days (FPD) using a slightly perturbed nuclear library and the unperturbed neutron fluxes to estimate the variation of nuclide densities at EOC. Sensitivity analyses of CVR and eigenvalue are included in the study. In addition the optimization and adjoint sensitivity techniques are applied to the CBCVR-BOC and keff-EOC adjustment of the ACR lattices with Gadolinium in the central pin. Finally we apply these techniques to the CVR

  11. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research.

  12. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Green Power Partnership Eligible Scope of Green Power Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA requires that Partners meet GPP's vintage requirement.

  14. Green Energy - Fiction and Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranberg, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Green Energy'' has been popularized to refer to energy sources that do not depend on fossil fuels. The oldest truly ``green'' energy source is wood fuel derived by photosynthesis for thermal comfort in the cold season. Thermal energy from the combustion of wood for personal heating in our 41 million fireplaces has greatly declined, due to an ``Anti-fireplace Hoax'' (1) that fireplaces are ``energy counterproductive.'' Physicists have a special obligation to address the problem that our major true source of ``Green Energy'' is widely misrepresented and neglected. 1. L. Cranberg, The Physics Teacher, Letter, January,l989

  15. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  16. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  17. Green Care Farms

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Simone R.; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C. M.; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J. W. M.; Baan, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable. PMID:28138469

  18. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  19. Many-body Green functions in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, J.; Lyutorovich, N.

    Many-body Green functions are a very efficient formulation of the many-body problem. We review the application of this method to nuclear physics problems. The formulas which can be derived are of general applicability, e.g., in self-consistent as well as in nonself-consistent calculations. With the help of the Landau renormalization, one obtains relations without any approximations. This allows to apply conservation laws which lead to important general relations. We investigate the one-body and two-body Green functions as well as the three-body Green function and discuss their connection to nuclear observables. The generalization to systems with pair correlations are also presented. Numerical examples are compared with experimental data.

  20. Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camand, Corentin

    usually non significant. The second method is to use of the adjoint neutron flux calculated by DRAGON as an importance function for Monte Carlo biaising in TRIPOLI. The objective is to improve the figure of merit of the detector response located far away of the neutron source. The neutron source initialisation of a TRIPOLI calculation required to develop the development of a module in DRAGON that generates a list of sources in the TRIPOLI syntaxe, including for each source, its intensity, its position and the energy domain it covers. We tested our method on a complete 17×17 PWR-UOX assembly and on a reduced 3×3 model. We first verified that the DRAGON and TRIPOLI models were consistent in order to ensure that TRIPOLI receives a coherent source distribution. Then we tested the use of DRAGON sources in TRIPOLI with neutron flux and the effective multiplying coefficient (keff). We observe slightly better standard deviations, of an order of 10 pcm, on keff for simulations using DRAGON sources distributions as compared to simulations with less precise initial sources. Flux convergence is also improved. However some incoherence were also observed in the results, some flux converging slower with DRAGON sources when fewer neutrons per batch are considered. In addition, a very large number of sources is too heavy to insert in TRIPOLI. It seems that our method is perfectible in order to improve implementation and convergence. Study of more complex geometries, with less regular sources distributions (for instance using MOX or irradiated fuel) may provide better performances using our method. For biaising TRIPOLI calculations using the DRAGON adjoint flux we created a module that produces importance maps readable by TRIPOLI. We tested our method on a source-detector shielding problem in one dimension. After checking the coherence of DRAGON and TRIPOLI models, we biaised TRIPOLI simulations using the DRAGON adjoint flux, and using INIPOND, the internal biaising option of TRIPOLI. We

  1. Calculators: managing with technology.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, L

    1980-07-25

    When the calculators do the calculating, the managers can do the managing. Len Goldstone of the UMIST Department of Management Sciences examines how close we are to that ideal. There are, he says, calculators of three levels of complexity and price, but warns that tomorrow's manager may find even the most sophisticated of today's instruments clumsy compared to the mini-computers now being developed.

  2. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  3. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  4. Calculating Toxic Corridors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    nomograms, and a programmable calculator . Appendices present worksheets, example problems, procedures for determining meteorological inputs, a procedure for determining evaporative source strength, and other items.

  5. Meet Our Green Power Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners support the development of new renewable generation capacity nationwide.

  6. Greening America's Capitals - Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Greening America's Capitals project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.

  7. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  8. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  9. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  10. Greening America's Capitals - Phoenix, AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report shows design concepts to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer while maintaining on-street parking and providing space for a future streetcar or trolley in Phoenix, AZ. It also shows green infrastructure strategies for arid places.

  11. Greening America's Capitals - Hartford, CT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.

  12. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  13. Village Green Project Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed an innovative, solar-powered air-monitoring system designed and incorporated into a park bench. The Village Green Project is being conducted in partnership with Durham County to advance air quality measurement capabilities.

  14. Greening America's Capitals - Frankfort, KY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the Greening America's Capitals project to help Frankfort, KY, improve the Second Street corridor to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer, improve water quality, and make the street more attractive.

  15. Green Power Partnership Eligible Organizations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Many different types of organizations are eligible to become Partners.

  16. Greening America's Capitals - Austin, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the technical assistance project to help Austin, TX, develop a vision for the South Central Waterfront that incorporates green infrastructure to manage stormwater runoff, makes streets safer, and spurs investment.

  17. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fact sheet provides examples of how some states describe green infrastructure and low impact development activities in their TMDL implementation sections to address stormwater-source impaired waters.

  18. Green Power Partnership Program Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page provides a brief program overview, including vision and accomplishments.

  19. Advances in Green Organic Sonochemistry.

    PubMed

    Draye, Micheline; Kardos, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 15 years, sustainable chemistry has emerged as a new paradigm in the development of chemistry. In the field of organic synthesis, green chemistry rhymes with relevant choice of starting materials, atom economy, methodologies that minimize the number of chemical steps, appropriate use of benign solvents and reagents, efficient strategies for product isolation and purification and energy minimization. In that context, unconventional methods, and especially ultrasound, can be a fine addition towards achieving these green requirements. Undoubtedly, sonochemistry is considered as being one of the most promising green chemical methods (Cravotto et al. Catal Commun 63: 2-9, 2015). This review is devoted to the most striking results obtained in green organic sonochemistry between 2006 and 2016. Furthermore, among catalytic transformations, oxidation reactions are the most polluting reactions in the chemical industry; thus, we have focused a part of our review on the very promising catalytic activity of ultrasound for oxidative purposes.

  20. Remote sensing: A green illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudani, Kamel; François, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    An analysis reveals that satellite-observed increases in canopy greenness during dry seasons, which were previously interpreted as positive responses of Amazon forests to more sunlight, are in fact an optical artefact. See Letter p.221

  1. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  2. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  3. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  4. Green Infrastructure for Arid Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    how green infrastructure practices and the many associated benefits can be effective not only in wetter climates, but also for those communities in arid and semi-arid regions around the nation that have different precipitation patterns

  5. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  6. Recyclable and Green Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Han, Linhong; Yi, Fang; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A recyclable and green triboelectronic nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on triboelectrification and designed cascade reactions. Once triggered by water, the TENG can fully dissolve and degrade into environmentally benign end products. With features of rapid dissolution, reproductivity, and green electronic, the TENG has potential of serving as clearable energy harvester and nanosensor for health monitoring and motion sensing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Graham Greene: The Films of His Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gene D.

    This book makes a comparative study of the prose fiction of Graham Greene and the films made from that fiction. Special attention is focused upon the "cinematic" style of Greene's prose, the effect of Greene's screenwriting on his novels, and the characteristics of Greene's filmscripts. The book is divided into considerations of Greene…

  8. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  9. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  10. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  11. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  12. How to define green adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  13. Five ways to stay green.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H; Howarth, C J

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between carbon income and expenditure over the life of a leaf is described and related to the productivity benefits of altering the timing of senescence initiation. In genetic variants with delayed leaf senescence ('stay-greens') deconstruction of the photosynthetic apparatus during leaf senescence is partially or completely prevented. Although the staygreen phenotype is superficially similar in all species and genotypes, the genetic and physiological routes to the trait are diverse. In one type of stay-green, chlorophyll catabolism is disabled. Legumes and monocots with pigment breakdown lesions are discussed. Sorghum is presented as an example of another kind of stay-green in which perennial tendencies have been bred into a monocarpic annual crop species. Transgenic approaches are briefly discussed (enhanced endogenous cytokinins, reduced ethylene production or perception). An alternative route towards making a stay-green phenotype is through quantitative trait mapping and marker-assisted selection. Loci for greenness in pearl millet have been identified, some of which are associated with drought responses or flowering time. Finally the question of the limits on stay-green as a productivity-enhancing character is addressed.

  14. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  15. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  16. The relationship between access and quality of urban green space with population physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hillsdon, M; Panter, J; Foster, C; Jones, A

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the association between access to quality urban green space and levels of physical activity. A cross-sectional examination of the relationship between access to quality urban green space and level of recreational physical activity in 4950 middle-aged (40-70 years) respondents from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who resided in Norwich, UK. Using geographic information systems (GIS), three measures of access to open green space were calculated based on distance only, distance and size of green space and distance, size and quality of green space. Multiple regression models were used to determine the relationship between the three indicators of access to open green space and level of recreational physical activity. There was no evidence of clear relationships between recreational activity and access to green spaces. Non-significant associations were apparent for all variables, and there was no evidence of a clear trend in regression coefficients across quartiles of access for either the distance, size adjusted, and quality and size-adjusted models. Furthermore, the neighbourhood measures of access to green spaces showed non-significant associations with recreational physical activity. Access to urban green spaces does not appear to be associated with population levels of recreational physical activity in our sample of middle-aged adults.

  17. The catalytic oxidation of malachite green by the microwave-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Huiqin; Sun, Xiaonan; Zhang, Peng; Tshukudu, Tiroyaone; Zhu, Guocheng

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of malachite green using the microwave-Fenton process was investigated. 0% of malachite green de-colorization using the microwave process and 23.5% of malachite green de-colorization using the Fenton process were observed within 5 minutes. In contrast 95.4% of malachite green de-colorization using the microwave-Fenton was observed in 5 minutes. During the microwave-Fenton process, the optimum operating conditions for malachite green de-colorization were found to be 3.40 of initial pH, 0.08 mmol/L of Fe2+ concentration and 12.5 mmol/L of H2O2 concentration. Confirmatory tests were carried out under the optimum conditions and the COD removal rate of 82.0% and the de-colorization rate of 99.0% were observed in 5 minutes. The apparent kinetics equation of -dC/dt=0.0337 [malachite green]0.9860[Fe2+)]0.8234[H2O2]0.1663 for malachite green de-colorization was calculated, which implied that malachite green was the dominant factor in determining the removal efficiency of malachite green based on microwave-Fenton process.

  18. [Understanding dosage calculations].

    PubMed

    Benlahouès, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone.

  19. Electron beam dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, K R; Mills, M D; Almond, P R

    1981-05-01

    Electron beam dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneous tissue are calculated by an algorithm that sums the dose distribution of individual pencil beams. The off-axis dependence of the pencil beam dose distribution is described by the Fermi-Eyges theory of thick-target multiple Coulomb scattering. Measured square-field depth-dose data serve as input for the calculations. Air gap corrections are incorporated and use data from'in-air' measurements in the penumbra of the beam. The effective depth, used to evaluate depth-dose, and the sigma of the off-axis Gaussian spread against depth are calculated by recursion relations from a CT data matrix for the material underlying individual pencil beams. The correlation of CT number with relative linear stopping power and relative linear scattering power for various tissues is shown. The results of calculations are verified by comparison with measurements in a 17 MeV electron beam from the Therac 20 linear accelerator. Calculated isodose lines agree nominally to within 2 mm of measurements in a water phantom. Similar agreement is observed in cork slabs simulating lung. Calculations beneath a bone substitute illustrate a weakness in the calculation. Finally a case of carcinoma in the maxillary antrum is studied. The theory suggests an alternative method for the calculation of depth-dose of rectangular fields.

  20. TI-73 Calculator Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Bey, Carol K.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)

  1. 75 FR 32743 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert Green; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Green Supply, Inc., 3059 Audrian Road 581,) Vandalia, Missouri 63382, Respondent; Robert Leland Green, 3059 Audrian Road...

  2. Green Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Patrick Barry

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  3. Sample size calculations.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J

    2011-01-01

    The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for investigators to decide which method to use. Moreover, these calculations are prone to errors, because small changes in the selected parameters can lead to large differences in the sample size. This paper explains the basic principles of sample size calculations and demonstrates how to perform such a calculation for a simple study design.

  4. Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) Guides and Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guides and resources for: policy, regulations, and incentives; planning and design; construction, operation, and maintenance; financing and economic benefits; and, green jobs and training.

  5. Numerical solver for first-principles transport calculation based on real-space finite-difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Shigeru; Hoshi, Takeo; Ono, Tomoya

    2015-06-01

    We propose an efficient procedure to obtain Green's functions by combining the shifted conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient (shifted COCG) method with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method based on a real-space finite-difference (RSFD) approach. The bottleneck of the computation in the NEGF scheme is matrix inversion of the Hamiltonian including the self-energy terms of electrodes to obtain the perturbed Green's function in the transition region. This procedure first computes unperturbed Green's functions and calculates perturbed Green's functions from the unperturbed ones using a mathematically strict relation. Since the matrices to be inverted to obtain the unperturbed Green's functions are sparse, complex-symmetric, and shifted for a given set of sampling energy points, we can use the shifted COCG method, in which once the Green's function for a reference energy point has been calculated the Green's functions for the other energy points can be obtained with a moderate computational cost. We calculate the transport properties of a C60@(10,10) carbon nanotube (CNT) peapod suspended by (10,10)CNTs as an example of a large-scale transport calculation. The proposed scheme opens the possibility of performing large-scale RSFD-NEGF transport calculations using massively parallel computers without the loss of accuracy originating from the incompleteness of the localized basis set.

  6. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  7. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  8. Updated Coronal Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, Paul; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Savin, D. W.

    2006-06-01

    Reliably interpreting solar spectra requires accurate ionization balance calculations. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and are often highly suspect. This translates directly into the reliability of the collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) calculations. We make use of state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He through to Zn. We also make use of state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bar e through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Here we present improved CIE calculations for temperatures from 1e4 to 1e9 K using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) for elements up through Ni and Mazzotta (private communication) for Cu and Zn. DR and RR data for ionization stages that have not been updated are also taken from these two additional sources. We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. for all elements from H to Ni. The differences in peak fractional abundance are up to 60%. We also compare with the fractional ionic abundances for Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni derived from the modern DR calculations of Gu (2003a, ApJ, 590, 1131; 2004, ApJ, 153, 389) for the H-like through Na-like ions, and the RR calculations of Gu (2003b, ApJ, 589, 1085) for the bare through F-like ions. These results are in better agreement with our work, with differences in peak fractional abundance of less than 10%. This work was supported in part by the NASA Solar SR&T and LWS programs, theOffice of Naval Research, and PPARC.

  9. Dose Calculation Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Ali

    1997-06-10

    VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses at various downwind distances as specified by the user.

  10. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on the development of modeling software, testing software against caclulated data from program VPAP and measured patterns, and calculating roll plane patterns for general aviation aircraft is reported. Major objectives are the continued development of computer software for aircraft modeling and use of this software and program OSUVOL to calculate principal plane and volumetric radiation patterns. The determination of proper placement of antennas on aircraft to meet the requirements of the Microwave Landing System is discussed. An overview of the performed work, and an example of a roll plane model for the Piper PA-31T Cheyenne aircraft and the resulting calculated roll plane radiation pattern are included.

  11. Self-Consistent Green’s Function Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Carbone, Arianna

    We present the fundamental techniques and working equations of many-body Green's function theory for calculating ground state properties and the spectral strength. Green's function methods closely relate to other polynomial scaling approaches discussed in Chaps. 8 and 10. However, here we aim directly at a global view of the many-fermion structure. We derive the working equations for calculating many-body propagators, using both the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction technique and the self-consistent formalism at finite temperature. Their implementation is discussed, as well as the inclusion of three-nucleon interactions. The self-consistency feature is essential to guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The pairing and neutron matter models introduced in previous chapters are solved and compared with the other methods in this book.

  12. Optical Remote Sensing Method to Estimate Green Tide Biomass Based on Floating Algae Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lianbo; Hu, Chuanmin; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    Floating Algae Index (FAI) has been developed to detect various floating algae in open ocean environments using the medium-resolution (250- and 500-m) data from operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments. FAI method has been routinely used to identify and calculate the covering area of green tide in the Yellow Sea (YS) since 2009. In addition to green tide covering area, knowledge of the biomass is also important in studying green tide recycling, nutrient load, carbon cycling and for government management. In this study, in situ experiments were conducted to simultaneously measure the biomass and reflectance spectra of green tide on the sea surface in coastal waters off Qingdao on 9 and 11 June 2013. The in situ measurements showed high correlation between green tide biomass and FAI, from which an empirical method to estimate biomass using FAI could be developed.

  13. Availability of calcium from kilkeerai (Amaranthus tricolor) and drumstick (Moringa oleifera) greens in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Pankaja, N; Prakash, J

    1994-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the extent of calcium absorption in weanling rats from two types of greens rich in oxalates. The edible portions of greens namely kilkeerai (Amaranthus tricolor) and drumstick (Moringa oleifera) were analysed for moisture, calcium and total and soluble oxalates. Three groups of 6 male weanling albino rats were fed ad libitum on milk diet and two experimental diets containing greens. Urine and faecal samples were collected for a period of 7 days after 5 days of acclimatization period and were analysed for calcium. From the values obtained percent absorption and retention of calcium were calculated. Results revealed that calcium absorption and retention from milk diet (92 and 78%, respectively) were significantly higher than greens. Average calcium absorption and retention from greens diet were 75.5 and 60%, respectively. Presence of oxalates inhibited intestinal absorption of calcium.

  14. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. Methods The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of “greenness” i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. Results The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. Conclusions The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market. PMID:26206363

  15. National Stormwater Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  17. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  18. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  19. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  20. Activities for Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)